WorldWideScience

Sample records for gro radi ed50

  1. Adaptation of Lorke's method to determine and compare ED50 values: the cases of two anticonvulsants drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Acosta, Osvaldo; Meza-Toledo, Sergio Enrique; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Valencia-Hernández, Ignacio; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2014-01-01

    We determined the median effective dose (ED50) values for the anticonvulsants phenobarbital and sodium valproate using a modification of Lorke's method. This modification allowed appropriate statistical analysis and the use of a smaller number of mice per compound tested. The anticonvulsant activities of phenobarbital and sodium valproate were evaluated in male CD1 mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The anticonvulsant ED50 values were obtained through modifications of Lorke's method that involved changes in the selection of the three first doses in the initial test and the fourth dose in the second test. Furthermore, a test was added to evaluate the ED50 calculated by the modified Lorke's method, allowing statistical analysis of the data and determination of the confidence limits for ED50. The ED50 for phenobarbital against MES- and PTZ-induced seizures was 16.3mg/kg and 12.7mg/kg, respectively. The sodium valproate values were 261.2mg/kg and 159.7mg/kg, respectively. These results are similar to those found using the traditional methods of finding ED50, suggesting that the modifications made to Lorke's method generate equal results using fewer mice while increasing confidence in the statistical analysis. This adaptation of Lorke's method can be used to determine median letal dose (LD50) or ED50 for compounds with other pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ED50 of desflurane for laryngeal mask airway removal in anaesthetised adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, J K; Arora, S; Jain, K; Wig, J

    2011-09-01

    Previous estimates for the end-tidal concentration of desflurane that allows removal of the laryngeal mask airway in 50% of anaesthetised adults (ED50) have ranged from 2.1% to 5.3%. To assess which value is correct, we studied 32 female patients (aged 30-50 years) undergoing intracavity caesium implants for cervical carcinoma under general anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 2-3 mg.kg(-1) and maintained with desflurane in a 50% nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture. At the end of surgery, a predetermined target end-tidal desflurane concentration (starting at 4%) was maintained for 10 min using Dixon's up-down method and the laryngeal mask airway was removed. The target end-tidal concentration in the next patient was increased or decreased by 0.5% depending upon the response of the previous patient. Removal of the laryngeal mask airway without coughing, clenching, biting, movement or any adverse airway event during or within 1 min after removal was considered to be successful. We found that the laryngeal mask airway can be successfully removed in 50% (ED50) and 95% (ED95) of the anaesthetised adults at end-tidal desflurane concentrations of 2.4% (95% CI 1.3-2.9) and 3.8% (3.1-9.6), respectively.

  3. Effects of sodium oxybate on the LD50 and hypnotic ED50 of ketamine%羟丁酸钠对氯胺酮LD50和催眠ED50的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康辉; 高鹏飞; 刘菲; 陈琳; 金路; 王辰; 陶伟荣; 邢凡; 王丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sodium oxybate on the median lethal dose (LD50) and hypnotic median effective dose (ED50) of ketamine. Methods Intraperitoneal injection of normal saline ( 10 ml · kg-1 ) was administrated in normal saline (NS) group and sodium oxybate (200 mg· kg-1) was intraperitoneally injected in sodium oxybate (SO) group, followed by peritoneal injection of katamine in geometric proportion 20 min later. LD50 and hypnotic ED50 were measured by sequential method. Results Sodium oxybate promoted LD50 of ketamine ( P < 0.01 ) and depressed hypnotic ED50 ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Sodium oxybate can reduce the toxicity and reinforce the hypnotic effect of ketamine.%目的 探讨羟丁酸钠(sodium oxybate,SO)对氯胺酮(ketamine,Ket)半数致死量(median lethal dose,LD50)和催眠半数有效量(median effective dose,ED50)的影响.方法 生理盐水组(NS组)腹腔注射生理盐水10 ml·kg-1,羟丁酸钠组(SO组)腹腔注射羟丁酸钠200 mg·kg-1,20 min后再分别腹腔注射等比剂量的氯胺酮溶液,用序贯法测定氯胺酮的LD50和催眠ED50.结果 羟丁酸钠使氯胺酮LD50增高(P<0.01),催眠ED50降低(P<0.01).结论 羟丁酸钠能够降低氯胺酮的毒性,并可增强其催眠作用.

  4. Ouabain inhibition of the sodium-potassium pump: estimation of ED50 in different types of human leucocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B; Vaag, Allan; Johansen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    uptake of K+ (86Rb+) that is sensitive to ouabain, 10(-5) mol l-1. 2. Dose-response curves for inhibition of the Na(+)-K+ pump were obtained after exposure of the cells to various concentrations of ouabain for 2.5 h when the level of pump inhibition was considered to be at steady state. 3. The ED50...

  5. Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 Coordinates Expressions of the Duplicate groEL and Single groES Genes for Synergistic Functions of GroELs and GroES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-zhong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaperonin GroEL (Cpn60 requires cofactor GroES (Cpn10 for protein refolding in bacteria that possess single groEL and groES genes in a bicistronic groESL operon. Among 4,861 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes, 884 possess duplicate groEL genes and 770 possess groEL genes with no neighboring groES. It is unclear whether stand-alone groEL requires groES in order to function and, if required, how duplicate groEL genes and unequal groES genes balance their expressions. In Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, we determined that, while duplicate groELs were alternatively deletable, the single groES that clusters with groEL1 was essential for cell survival. Either GroEL1 or GroEL2 required interactions with GroES for in vitro and in vivo functions. Deletion of groEL1 or groEL2 resulted in decreased expressions of both groEL and groES; and ectopic complementation of groEL recovered not only the groEL but also groES expressions. The addition of an extra groES gene upstream groEL2 to form a bicistronic operon had almost no influence on groES expression and the cell survival rate, whereas over-expression of groES using a self-replicating plasmid simultaneously increased the groEL expressions. The results indicated that M. xanthus DK1622 cells coordinate expressions of the duplicate groEL and single groES genes for synergistic functions of GroELs and GroES. We proposed a potential regulation mechanism for the expression coordination.

  6. The new algorithm for calculation of median lethal dose (LD50 and effective dose fifty (ED50 of Micrarus fulvius venom and anti-venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One million people throughout the world are bitten yearly by poisonous snakes. Of this, one-tenth died and three-tenth suffer some forms of disabilities. In view of this, anti-snake venoms are currently being developed against viper and colubrid snake venoms using mice. Therefore, a new algorithm for calculation of median lethal dose (LD50 and effective dose fifty (ED50 was developed for Micrarus fulvius venom and antivenom respectively. This paper compared the formula of effective dose fifty (ED50 developed by Spearman and Karber with ideal median lethal dose (IMLD50 formula developed by Saganuwan with a view to bringing out their difference and similarity in calculation of ED50 that could be used to develop a new median lethal dose formula for calculation of Micrarus fulvius venom in mice. The findings revealed that ED50 value (477 mg/kg from Spearman and Karber’s formula (ED50=logED50=logX100-logFDn(Σt-n/2 is comparatively similar with ideal median lethal dose value (428.75 mg/kg from Saganuwan’s formula (MLD50 + MSD50/2. The new LD50 formula (LD50=ED503×Wm×10-4 yielded value (0.29 mg/kg of comparative significance with reported value (0.32 mg/kg. When ED50 is equal to 2LD50, the denominator of ED503 becomes 2. In conclusion, the new formula would yield low doses of snake anti-venoms with reduced possibility of hypersensitivity reaction.

  7. Review: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Castryck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven, Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2012, ISBN 9783896458292, 572 pages

  8. Fourteen Years of Glory——An Interview With NPC Vice-Chairman Radi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Editor's Note: Radi, a Tibetan, was born in August 1938 in Biru County, Tibet. He is a vice-chairman of the NPC Standing Committee.A serf in old Tibet, he was a Tibetan leader from 1975 to 2003. We interviewed him at the end of 2003,and he talked about changes that have taken place in Tibet in the past 14 years.

  9. 联合应用顺阿曲库铵与维库溴铵后ED50和ED95的改变%The change of ED50 and ED95 for combination of cisatracurium and ve-curonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛培青; 叶照君; 陶伟平; 梁伟民

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察顺式阿曲库铵联合维库溴铵用药后ED50和ED95的变化。方法将75例择期手术患者(ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级)随机分为3组:顺式阿曲库铵组、维库溴铵组和顺式阿曲库铵+维库溴铵组,每组各25例。麻醉诱导后,以单次给药法观察起效时间和T1达到最大抑制的时间,描绘3组患者的量-效曲线,求得各自的ED50和ED95值,并运用等效图法和代数法对两药相互作用进行分析。结果单用顺式阿曲库铵组、维库溴铵组ED50值分别为32.35、28.78μg/kg,ED95值分别为52.67、51.20μg/kg。联合用药时ED50值为16.81、12.17μg/kg,ED95值为23.49、22.16μg/kg,与单独用药相比,差异均有统计学意义。联合用药时ED50和ED95的合用代数值分别为0.942、0.879。结论联合使用顺式阿曲库铵和维库溴铵具有协同作用,且量-效曲线产生左移。%Objective To observe the change of ED50 and ED95 for the treatment with cisatracurium and vecuronium. Methods 75 cases of patients undergoing elective surgery (ASA Ⅰ to II level) were ramdomly divided into three groups:cisatracurium group,vecuronium group and cisatracurium+vecuronium group,each group of 25 cases.The onset time and T1 maximum inhibition time were determined by the single-injection doseresponse technique after anesthesia induction.Their respective ED50 of ED95 values were caculated by the depicted dose-response curve among the three groups of patients.The two medicine interaction analysis was caculated by the equivalent diagram method and algebraic method. Results ED50 was 32.35,28.78 μg/kg and ED95 was 52.67,51.20 μg/kg when patients were given single dose of atracurium or vecuronium.ED50 was 16.81,12.17 μg/kg and ED95 was 23.49,22.16 μg/kg when it combined the both two groups.Compared with other group,the differences in cisatracurium+vecuronium group were statistically significant.The combinational value of ED50 and ED95 was 0.942 and 0.879,respectively

  10. ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine Coadministered with Sufentanil for Cesarean Delivery Under Combined Spinal-epidural in Severely Preeclamptic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xiao; Wen-Ping Xu; Xiao-Min Zhang; Yin-Fa Zhang; Li-Zhong Wang; Xin-Zhong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background:Spinal anesthesia was considered as a reasonable anesthetic option in severe preeclampsia when cesarean delivery is indicated,and there is no indwelling epidural catheter or contraindication to spinal anesthesia.However,the ideal dose of intrathecal bupivacaine has not been quantified for cesarean delivery for severe preeclamptic patients.This study aimed to determine the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal bupivacaine for severely preeclamptic patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.Methods:Two hundred severely preeclamptic patients are undergoing elective cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia enrolled in this randomized,double-blinded,dose-ranging study.Patients received 4 mg,6 mg,8 mg,or 10 mg intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine with 2.5 μg sufentanil.Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as a T6 sensory level achieved within 10 minutes after intrathecal drug administration and/or no epidural supplement was required during the cesarean section.The ED50 and ED95 were calculated with a logistic regression model.Results:ED50 and ED95 ofintrathecal bupivacaine for successful spinal anesthesia were 5.67 mg (95% confidence interval [CI]:5.20-6.10 mg) and 8.82 mg (95% CI:8.14-9.87 mg) respectively.The incidence of hypotension in Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was higher than that in Group 4 mg and Group 6 mg (P < 0.05).The sensory block was significantly different among groups 10 minutes after intrathecal injection (P < 0.05).The use of lidocaine in Group 4 mg was higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05).The use of phenylephrine in Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was higher than that in the other two groups (P < 0.05).The lowest systolic blood pressure before the infant delivery of Group 8 mg and Group 10 mg was lower than the other two groups (P < 0.05).The satisfaction of muscle relaxation in Group 4 mg was lower than other groups (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in patients' satisfaction and the newborns

  11. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  12. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  13. A Study of Postmodern Narrative in Akbar Radi's Khanomche and Mahtabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Abbasi Narinabad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to explore representation of narratology based on some recent postmodern theories backed up by the ideas of some postmodern discourses including Roland Barthes, Jean-François Lyotard, Julia Kristeva and William James with an especial focus on Akbar Radi-the Persian Playwright- drama Khanomche and Mahtabi .The article begins by providing a terminological view of narrative in general and postmodern narrative in specific. As postmodern narrative elements are too general and the researcher could not cover them all, she has gone through the most eminent elements: intertextuality, stream of consciousness style, fragmentation and representation respectively which are delicately utilized in Khanomche and Mahtabi. The review then critically applies the theories on the mentioned drama. The article concludes by recommending a few directions for the further research.

  14. Progress in molecular chaperon GroEL%GroEL分子伴侣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经余; 赵志虎; 蔡民华

    2001-01-01

    大肠杆菌的GroEL是同型寡聚复合体,由14个相对分子质量58×103亚基组成背靠背的双环结构。它在新生蛋白质的正确折叠和组装以及在热或化学逆境下变性蛋白质的恢复过程中起重要作用。同时,在大肠杆菌的跨膜转运及插入细胞质膜方面都起重要作用。这些活动依赖于GroEL与底物蛋白的疏水片断的相互作用。综述了Hsp60分子伴侣系统中研究得比较清楚的GroEL的晶体结构、功能及作用机理等方面的研究进展。%Molecular chaperon GroEL of E.coli is a homo-oligomeric complex composed of 14 58kDa subunits arranged in two rings stacked back to back, which is required for correct folding and assambly of newly synthesized proteins and for recovery of the cell after exposure to either thermal or chemical stress .Apart from these functions, GroEL chaperon is able to play a role in protein translocation across or insertion into the cytoplasmic membrane of E.coli. These actions depend on the interaction between GroE chaperionin system and the hydrophobic side chains .

  15. Intracellular delivery of recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) by heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesion peptide restores sensitivity in rADI-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Yeh, Tzyy-Harn; Chen, Ying-Luen; Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cheng, Ju-Chen; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2014-08-04

    Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) has been used in clinical trials for arginine-auxotrophic cancers. However, the emergence of rADI resistance, due to the overexpression of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS), has introduced an obstacle in its clinical application. Here, we have proposed a strategy for the intracellular delivery of rADI, which depletes both extracellular and intracellular arginine, to restore the sensitivity of rADI-resistant cancer cells. In this study, the C terminus of heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesion protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (HBHAc), which contains 23 amino acids, was used to deliver rADI into rADI-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Chemical conjugates (l- and d-HBHAc-SPDP-rADI) and a recombinant fusion protein (rHBHAc-ADI) were produced. l- and d-HBHAc-SPDP-rADI showed a significantly higher cellular uptake of rADI by MCF-7 cells compared to that of rADI alone. Cell viability was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to l- and d-HBHAc-SPDP-rADI treatments. In addition, the ratio of intracellular concentration of citrulline to arginine in cells treated with l- and d-HBHAc-SPDP-rADI was significantly increased by 1.4- and 1.7-fold, respectively, compared with that obtained in cells treated with rADI alone (p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained with the recombinant fusion protein rHBHAc-ADI. Our study demonstrates that the increased cellular uptake of rADI by HBHAc modification can restore the sensitivity of rADI treatment in MCF-7 cells. rHBHAc-ADI may represent a novel class of antitumor enzyme with an intracellular mechanism that is independent of AS expression.

  16. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A

    2006-01-01

    GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed....... Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage...

  17. RNA interference of argininosuccinate synthetase restores sensitivity to recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI in resistant cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Hao-Hsin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of cancer cells to recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI depends on expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS, a rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of arginine from citrulline. To understand the efficiency of RNA interfering of AS in sensitizing the resistant cancer cells to rADI, the down regulation of AS transiently and permanently were performed in vitro, respectively. Methods We studied the use of down-regulation of this enzyme by RNA interference in three human cancer cell lines (A375, HeLa, and MCF-7 as a way to restore sensitivity to rADI in resistant cells. The expression of AS at levels of mRNA and protein was determined to understand the effect of RNA interference. Cell viability, cell cycle, and possible mechanism of the restore sensitivity of AS RNA interference in rADI treated cancer cells were evaluated. Results AS DNA was present in all cancer cell lines studied, however, the expression of this enzyme at the mRNA and protein level was different. In two rADI-resistant cell lines, one with endogenous AS expression (MCF-7 cells and one with induced AS expression (HeLa cells, AS small interference RNA (siRNA inhibited 37-46% of the expression of AS in MCF-7 cells. ASsiRNA did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 which may be due to the certain amount of residual AS protein. In contrast, ASsiRNA down-regulated almost all AS expression in HeLa cells and caused cell death after rADI treatment. Permanently down-regulated AS expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA made MCF-7 cells become sensitive to rADI via the inhibition of 4E-BP1-regulated mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rADI-resistance can be altered via AS RNA interference. Although transient enzyme down-regulation (siRNA did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 cells, permanent down-regulation (shRNA overcame the problem of rADI-resistance due to the more efficiency in AS silencing.

  18. Sequence analysis of the Legionella micdadei groELS operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindersson, P; Høiby, N; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1991-01-01

    shock expression signals were identified upstream of the L. micdadei groEL gene. Further upstream, a poly-T region, also a feature of the sigma 32-regulated Escherichia coli groELS heat shock operon, was found. Despite the high degree of homology of the expression signals in E. coli and L. micdadei...

  19. RADI's Airborne X-SAR with High Resolution: Performance, Characterization and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T.; Li, J.; Wang, Z. R.; Huang, L.

    2016-11-01

    X-SAR is an airborne multi-mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system with high- resolution, interferometer and full-polarization, developed by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (RADI), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), funded by the CAS Large Research Infrastructures. Since 2009, the first developed stage of X-SAR system was successfully implemented to an operational SAR with high resolution (up to 0.5 meter). In May 2013, the imaging verification on flights test was carried out. The data calibration on the laboratory measurements were completed at the end of 2015. Many valuable results of imaging verification and data calibration have emphasized the quantitative microwave measurement capabilities. This paper presents the results of X-SAR system performance, characterization, optimization, and verification as carried out during the flight trials and laboratory measurement. The system performance and calibration parameters are presented such as transmitter amplitude accuracy, phase noise, system gain change with temperature variation, long-term radiometric stability. The imaging verification of the key performance parameters is discussed, including target-response function, target pairs discrimination, image noise and radiometric resolution. The example imagery of radiometric enhanced products for intensity change detection is also described.

  20. On the reducible character of Haldane-Radić enzyme kinetics to conventional and logistic Michaelis-Menten models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V

    2011-04-13

    The conceptual and practical issues regarding the reduction of the Haldane-Radić enzymic mechanism, specific for cholinesterase kinetics, to the consecrated or logistically modified Michaelis-Menten kinetics, specific for some mutant enzymes, are here clarified as due to the limited initial substrate concentration, through detailed initial rate and progress curve analysis, even when other classical conditions for such equivalence are not entirely fulfilled.

  1. On the Reducible Character of Haldane-Radić Enzyme Kinetics to Conventional and Logistic Michaelis-Menten Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual and practical issues regarding the reduction of the Haldane-Radić enzymic mechanism, specific for cholinesterase kinetics, to the consecrated or logistically modified Michaelis-Menten kinetics, specific for some mutant enzymes, are here clarified as due to the limited initial substrate concentration, through detailed initial rate and progress curve analysis, even when other classical conditions for such equivalence are not entirely fulfilled.

  2. Public health lives: Gro Harlem Brundtland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; von Schirnding, Y

    2014-02-01

    Health has been a deeply personal, professional and political dimension of Gro Harlem Brundtland's life. Her decision to study breast feeding while an MPH student at Harvard in 1964, or her desire to tackle tobacco being influenced by her father sending her as a 10-year old girl to buy his cigarettes at the local store, or her deeply personal family experience of mental ill health all led her to take actions on the global stage to address these and other issues that evidence showed would have global impact. Her impact on global health started with a commitment to make a difference in the lives of people, particularly those in greatest need. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GroEL of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 exhibits GroES and ATP-independent refolding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Akhilesh A; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree K

    2016-03-01

    The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena L-31 has two Hsp60 proteins, 59 kDa GroEL coded by the second gene of groESL operon and 61 kDa Cpn60 coded by cpn60 gene. Anabaena GroEL formed stable higher oligomer (>12-mer) in the presence of K(+) and prevented thermal aggregation of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Using three protein substrates (MDH, All1541 and green fluorescent protein), it was found that the refolding activity of Anabaena GroEL was lower than that of Escherichia coli GroEL, but independent of both GroES and ATP. This correlated with in vivo data. GroEL exhibited ATPase activity which was enhanced in the presence of GroES and absence of a denatured protein, contrary to that observed for bacterial GroEL. However, a significant role for ATP could not be ascertained during in vitro folding assays. The monomeric Cpn60 exhibited much lower refolding activity than GroEL, unaffected by GroES and ATP. In vitro studies revealed inhibition of the refolding activity of Anabaena GroEL by Cpn60, which could be due to their different oligomeric status. The role of GroES and ATP may have been added during the course of evolution from the ancient cyanobacteria to modern day bacteria enhancing the refolding ability and ensuring wider scope of substrates for GroEL.

  4. Dataset concerning GroEL chaperonin interaction with proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Marchenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available GroEL chaperonin is well-known to interact with a wide variety of polypeptide chains. Here we show the data related to our previous work (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2015.11.020 [1], and concerning the interaction of GroEL with native (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin and denatured (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin and pepsin proteins in solution. The use of affinity chromatography on the base of denatured pepsin for GroEL purification from fluorescent impurities is represented as well.

  5. Strategisches Informationsmanagement in Großprojekten der Industrie

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmel, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Unternehmen gründen Projekte, um einmalige, zeitlich begrenzte Vorhaben effizient zu realisieren. Gerade in der Industrie zeigt sich diese Vorgehensweise häufig in Form von Großprojekten. Das IT-Management zur Unterstützung dieser Industrieprojekte steht dabei vor besonderen, charakteristischen Herausforderungen. Diese Arbeit beantwortet die Forschungsfrage, wie die bestehenden Konzepte des strategi- schen Informationsmanagements im speziellen Kontext von Großprojekten der Industrie angewe...

  6. Paramecium ED50 of Ketamine Determined with Glass Capillary Method%毛细玻璃管法测定草履虫氯胺酮半数麻醉有效浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳慧; 庞雪花; 刘进; 廖大清

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立测定草履虫静脉麻醉药半数麻醉有效浓度(ED50)的方法.方法:139只运动状态良好的草履虫纳入本研究.以加药后4 min内虫体出现沿自身长轴的高速自转运动,维持时间长于1 min且在毛细玻璃管长轴的位移小于1 cm为终点指标.采用序贯法,通过把虫体置入含不同浓度氯胺酮的缓冲液中,用Dixon-Mood法计算出ED50.重复实验六次.观察48 h后虫体的存活情况.结果:六次实验测量草履虫的运动速度比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).六次实验测定的ED50值分别为1.517±0.207、1.600±0.226、1.800±0.055、1.650±0.245、1.700±0.105、1.417±0.175 g/L,无统计学差异(P>0.05).48 h后虫体均存活.结论:结果提示毛细玻璃管法稳定性较好,是一种可行的测定草履虫静脉麻醉药ED50的方法.

  7. 右美托咪啶滴鼻诱导CT检查患儿睡眠的半数有效剂量%ED50 of dexmedetomidine nasal drip in induction of hypnosis in children during computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颖怡; 宋兴荣; 张国强

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨右美托咪啶滴鼻诱导孤独症患儿行CT检查时睡眠的半数有效剂量(ED50).方法 选择2013年9至12月广州市妇女儿童医疗中心拟行脑部CT检查的34例孤独症患儿为观察对象,美国麻醉师协会(ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,采用右美托咪啶滴鼻的方法诱导患儿睡眠后行CT检查.根据上1例患儿的入睡情况,按上下序贯法确定下1例患儿右美托咪啶滴鼻的剂量,以右美托咪啶滴鼻60 min内睫毛反射消失和Ramsay评分达4分或4分以上为入睡标准.出现8个阳性阴性拐点时终止研究.结果 所有患儿在右美托咪啶滴鼻诱导入睡期间均未出现打喷嚏、恶心呕吐、心律失常、低血压、低氧血症等情况.研究进行至第34例患儿时出现8个阳性阴性拐点.右美托咪啶滴鼻诱导患儿睡眠的ED50为1.76 μg/kg,95%可信区间(CI)为1.64~ 1.88 μg/kg.结论 右美托咪啶滴鼻用于孤独症患儿CT检查镇静安全有效,滴鼻60 min后患儿睡眠的ED50为1.76 μg/kg,95% CI为1.64~ 1.88 μg/kg.%Objective To explore the 50% effective dose (ED50) of dexmedetomidine nasal drip in the induction of hypnosis in children during computed tomography (CT).Methods A total of 34 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Ⅰ-Ⅱ autistic children scheduled for brain CT examination were studied.The induction was made by dexmedetomidine nasal drip and the ED50 of dexmedetomidine determined by up-and down sequential experiment.When eyelash reflex became lost or Ramsay score was ≥ 4 in 1 hour after dosing,hypnosis was achieved.The study ended after 8 crossovers (successive "accept" and "refuse").Results Among them,the ED50 of dexmedetomidine was 1.76 μg/kg (95% confident interval:1.64-1.88 μg/kg).Conclusion The ED50 of dexmedetomidine nasal drip is 1.76 μg/kg in the induction of hypnosis in children

  8. 唑吡坦对小鼠镇静催眠与抗惊厥半数有效量的研究%The ED50 of zolpidem in the actions of hypnosis and anticonvulsion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 梁煜霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the median effective dose ( ED50 ) of zolpidem in the actions of hypnosis and anticonvulsion in rats.Methods The sequential method was used to detect the ED50 of zolpidem,and then the MDA assay kit was applied to further confirm the ED50 in the action of anticonvulsion.Results The ED50 of zolpidem in the action of hypnosis was 0.084 80 mg/g and its 95%confidence interval( CI )was 0.067 61-0.103 77 mg/g,and in the action of anticonvtlsion was 0.142 57 mg/g and its 95% CI was0.127 76 - 0.156 58 mg/g.Conclusions The ED50 of zolpidem in the actions of hypnosis and anticonvulsion and their 95% confidence interval are 0.08480 mg/g and 0.067 61 - 0.103 77 mg/g,and 0.142 57 mg/g and 0.127 76 - 0.156 58 mg/g,respectively.%目的 测定唑吡坦对小鼠镇静催眠与抗回苏灵所致惊厥的半数有效量(ED50).方法 利用序贯法测定唑吡坦的半数有效量,然后利用丙二醛( MDA)试剂盒进一步确定唑吡坦抗惊厥的半数有效量.结果 唑吡坦对小鼠镇静催眠半数有效量及其相对应的95%可信区间分别为0.084 80 mg/g及0.067 61~0.103 77 mg/g;唑吡坦对小鼠抗同苏灵所致惊厥半数有效量及其相对应的95%可信区间分别为0.142 57 mg/g及0.127 76~ 0.156 58 mg/g.结论 唑吡坦对小鼠镇静催眠半数有效量和抗回苏灵所致惊厥半数有效量及其相对应的95%可信区间分别为0.08480 mg/g及0.067 61 ~ 0.103 77 mg/g和0.142 57 mg/g及0.127 76~ 0.156 58 mg/g.

  9. GroEL mediates protein folding with a two successive timer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taro; Taguchi, Hideki; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Yoshida, Masasuke; Funatsu, Takashi

    2004-05-21

    GroEL encapsulates nonnative substrate proteins in a central cavity capped by GroES, providing a safe folding cage. Conventional models assume that a single timer lasting approximately 8 s governs the ATP hydrolysis-driven GroEL chaperonin cycle. We examine single molecule imaging of GFP folding within the cavity, binding release dynamics of GroEL-GroES, ensemble measurements of GroEL/substrate FRET, and the initial kinetics of GroEL ATPase activity. We conclude that the cycle consists of two successive timers of approximately 3 s and approximately 5 s duration. During the first timer, GroEL is bound to ATP, substrate protein, and GroES. When the first timer ends, the substrate protein is released into the central cavity and folding begins. ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release immediately follow this transition. ADP, GroES, and substrate depart GroEL after the second timer is complete. This mechanism explains how GroES binding to a GroEL-substrate complex encapsulates the substrate rather than allowing it to escape into solution.

  10. Different shapes of modernism/neoclassicism: Case study of Dušan Radić’s creative output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with musical neoclassicism in the context of modernism, and shows that some neoclassical features, usually considered to be reactionary and retrograde, could and should be understood as modernist. This kind of contextualization is especially important when Serbian postwar music is in question. Neoclassicism in Serbian music began in a specific ideological milieu. Paradoxically, and despite its "call for order" characteristics, it turned out to be a kind of modernistic phenomenon. On one hand it received all typical shapes of European modernism, while on the other it remains as a typical idiom of postwar Serbian musical production, blending in perfectly with the postmodern. These issues are argued and proved through analysis of some pieces written by Dušan Radić during the 1950’s. We see a kind of "disguised" modernism in the composer's subversion of the norms of national romanticism and socialist realism in the neoclassical choir piece Gungulice (1953, a modernism that is based on Freud's "reaction-formation" notion. Then, a more radical kind of modernism is followed in the piece The List for chamber ensemble (1952– 1954, arguing the notion of radical in the context of Serbian music, and coming to the conclusion that different interpretations of this piece as avant-garde, radical, or neoclassical/modernist can occur as a consequence of the listener's position. In the case of The Tower of Sculls we observe the same kind of "disguised" modernism, but now directly interwoven with proto-postmodern elements, coming from popular music practices, which is also the case in other pieces by Dušan Radić. The composer’s nonconformity, lack of pretentiousness, and inclination toward the simplicity of everyday things form his modernistic identity.

  11. Manuelle Montage von Großgeräten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Bruno

    Die manuelle Montage von Großgeräten — wie. z. B. Maschinen, Traktoren, Haushaltsgeräte, PKW-Motoren, LKW-Achsen, Schaltschränke usw. — wird in ihrer Montagestruktur vorrangig durch das Produktgewicht, die Produktabmessung und die Produktionsrate bestimmt.

  12. Probing the dynamic process of encapsulation in Escherichia coli GroEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Mizuta

    Full Text Available Kinetic analyses of GroE-assisted folding provide a dynamic sequence of molecular events that underlie chaperonin function. We used stopped-flow analysis of various fluorescent GroEL mutants to obtain details regarding the sequence of events that transpire immediately after ATP binding to GroEL and GroEL with prebound unfolded proteins. Characterization of GroEL CP86, a circularly permuted GroEL with the polypeptide ends relocated to the vicinity of the ATP binding site, showed that GroES binding and protection of unfolded protein from solution is achieved surprisingly early in the functional cycle, and in spite of greatly reduced apical domain movement. Analysis of fluorescent GroEL SR-1 and GroEL D398A variants suggested that among other factors, the presence of two GroEL rings and a specific conformational rearrangement of Helix M in GroEL contribute significantly to the rapid release of unfolded protein from the GroEL apical domain.

  13. Differential T-cell recognition of native and recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Weldingh, K; Ravn, P

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES was purified from culture filtrate, and its identity was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Comparing the immunological recognition of native and recombinant GroES, we found that whereas native GroES elicited a strong proliferative response...

  14. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short-ter...... mechanism for emergence of antibiotic resistance.......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short......-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here, we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of streptomycin resistance and reduces susceptibility to several other antibiotics following sub-lethal streptomycin antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel...

  15. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression promotes multi-drug resistance in E. coli following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eGoltermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antiobiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and overexpression sensitize and promote short-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of aminoglycoside resistance and multi-drug resistance following sub-lethal aminoglycoside antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel mechanism for antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance development.

  16. Cloning and characterization of groESL operon in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Kainuma, Akiko; Yan, Wang; Kadono, Sachiko; Tayama, Kenji; Koizumi, Yukimichi; Yanagida, Fujiharu

    2002-01-01

    The groESL operon of Acetobacter aceti was cloned and sequenced. We observed that GroES and GroEL of A. aceti had high amino acid sequence homologies to GroES and GroEL of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The upstream region of the groESL operon contained the heat-shock promoter, which was previously reported in alpha-purple proteobacteria, and the highly conserved inverted repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. aceti GroES and GroEL are very closely related to those of other alpha-purple proteobacteria. Transcription of this operon in A. aceti was induced by heat shock as well as by exposure to ethanol and acetic acid, which are present during fermentation of acetic acid. A. aceti that overexpressed the groESL was more resistant than the control strain to Stressors such as heat, ethanol, or acetic acid, indicating that GroES and GroEL are closely associated with the characteristic nature of Acetobacter and play an important role in acetic acid fermentation.

  17. Mimicking the action of GroEL in molecular dynamics simulations : Application to the refinement of protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H; Mark, AE

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial chaperonin, GroEL, together with its co-chaperonin, GroES, facilitates the folding of a variety of polypeptides. Experiments suggest that GroEL stimulates protein folding by multiple cycles of binding and release. Misfolded proteins first bind to an exposed hydrophobic surface on GroEL. Gr

  18. The runaway black hole GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F; Rodrigues, I; Combi, J A; Rodríguez, L F; Guglielmetti, F

    2002-01-01

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the motion in the sky and compute the galactocentric orbit of the black hole X-ray binary GRO J1655-40. The system moves with a runaway space velocity of $112\\pm 18$ km s$^{-1}$ in a highly eccentric ($e = 0.34\\pm 0.05$) orbit. The black hole was formed in the disk at a distance greater than 3 kpc from the Galactic centre and must have been shot to such an eccentric orbit by the explosion of the progenitor star. The runaway linear momentum and kinetic energy of this black hole binary are comparable to those of solitary neutron stars and millisecond pulsars. GRO J1655-40 is the first black hole for which there is evidence for a runaway motion imparted by a natal kick in a supernova explosion.

  19. Radioactive contamination mapping of northeastern and eastern Japan by a car-borne survey system, Radi-Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kodaira, Satoshi; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new car-borne survey system called Radi-Probe with a portable germanium gamma-ray spectrometer onboard a cargo truck, to identify radionuclides and quantify surface contamination from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The system can quickly survey a large area and obtain ambient dose equivalent rates and gamma-ray energy spectra with good energy resolution. We also developed a new calibration method for the system to deal with an actual nuclear disaster, and quantitative surface deposition densities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and kerma rates of each radionuclide can be calculated. We carried out car-borne survey over northeastern and eastern Japan (Tohoku and Kanto regions of Honshu) from 25 September through 7 October 2012. We discuss results of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rate H(∗)(10), (134)Cs and (137)Cs surface deposition densities, spatial variation of (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio, and the relationship between surface deposition densities of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and H(∗)(10). The ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was nearly constant within our measurement precision, with average 1.06 ± 0.04 in northeastern and eastern Japan (decay-corrected to 11 March, 2011), although small variations from the average were observed.

  20. Asp-52 in combination with Asp-398 plays a critical role in ATP hydrolysis of chaperonin GroEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike-Takeshita, Ayumi; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Taguchi, Hideki

    2014-10-24

    The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL is a double-ring chaperone that assists protein folding with the aid of GroES and ATP. Asp-398 in GroEL is known as one of the critical residues on ATP hydrolysis because GroEL(D398A) mutant is deficient in ATP hydrolysis (Asp-52 in the corresponding E. coli GroEL, in addition to Asp-398 is also important for ATP hydrolysis. We investigated the role of Asp-52 in GroEL and found that ATPase activity of GroEL(D52A) and GroEL(D52A/D398A) mutants was ∼ 20% and Asp-52 in E. coli GroEL is also involved in the ATP hydrolysis. GroEL(D52A/D398A) formed a symmetric football-shaped GroEL-GroES complex in the presence of ATP, again confirming the importance of the symmetric complex during the GroEL ATPase cycle. Notably, the symmetric complex of GroEL(D52A/D398A) was extremely stable, with a half-time of ∼ 150 h (∼ 6 days), providing a good model to characterize the football-shaped complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. [Role of GroEL/GroES chaperonin system and Lon protease in regulation of expression Vibrio fischeri lux genes in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhov, I V; Kotova, V Iu; Zavil'genskiĭ, G B

    2006-01-01

    It was shown that the chaperonin GroEL/GroES and protease Lon influence the expression of the Vibrio fischeri lux regulon in Escherichia coli cells: E. coli groE mutants bearing hybrid plasmid with the lux regulon were weakly luminescent; cells of the E. coli lon- comprising the entire lux regulon display very intense bioluminescence, with no lag period in the induction curve characteristic of lon+ strains. The luxR gene was cloned from the Vibrio fischeri genome in the pGEX-KG vector. It was shown that the active fusion protein GST-LuxR by affinity chromatography on glutathione-sucrose colony is purified only with proteins GroEL and Lon. The present results showed that the LuxR, transcriptional activator of the V. fischeri lux operon, really complexes with GroEL chaperonin and Lon protease. We suppose, that the GroEL/GroES chaperonin systems is required for the folding of LuxR into an active protein, and the LuxR is the target for the ATP-dependent serine Lon protease of E. coli.

  2. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induces inflammatory bone resorption and synergizes with interleukin-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y-J; Choi, Y-J; An, S-J; Lee, H-R; Jun, H-K; Choi, B-K

    2016-08-03

    Tannerella forsythia is a major periodontal pathogen, and T. forsythia GroEL is a molecular chaperone homologous to human heat-shock protein 60. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and several systemic diseases. This study investigated the potential of T. forsythia GroEL to induce inflammatory bone resorption and examined the cooperative effect of IL-17 and T. forsythia GroEL on inflammatory responses. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were stimulated with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. After stimulation of MG63 cells with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17, gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was examined. After subcutaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17 above the calvaria of BALB/c mice, calvarial bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histological examination. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in HGFs and PDL cells, and IL-17 further promoted IL-6 and IL-8 production. Both T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 synergistically increased PGE2 production and inhibited OPG gene expression. Calvarial bone resorption was induced by T. forsythia GroEL injection, and simultaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 further increased bone resorption. These results suggest that T. forsythia GroEL is a novel virulence factor that can contribute to inflammatory bone resorption caused by T. forsythia and synergizes with IL-17 to exacerbate inflammation and bone resorption.

  3. Radi On Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Radi On TibetRadiOnTibetWhatisthecurrentsituationinTibet?WillTibetenjoypeaceandstabilityforthelongterm?Ourstaffreportmoreduri...

  4. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin

    1997-01-01

    laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase......, and phosphoglycerate kinase were identified by a combination of Western blotting and direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing of proteins from the gels, Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, 17 were induced more than twofold during heat stress, Two classes of heat stress proteins were identified from their temporal induction...... proteins exhibited a gradual increase in the rate of synthesis after the onset of stress, Unlike other organisms, all salt stress-induced proteins in L. lactis were also subjected to heat stress induction. DnaK, GroEL, and GroES showed similar temporal patterns of induction during salt stress, resembling...

  5. Localization of GroEL determined by in vivo incorporation of a fluorescent amino acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Wang, Jiangyun; Brustad, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells, indicated colocalization with the cell division protein FtsZ at the cleavage furrow, while a second E. coli study of fixed cells indicated more even distribution throughout the cytoplasm. Here, for the first time, we have examined the spatial distribution of GroEL in living cells using......The molecular chaperone GroEL is required for bacterial growth under all conditions, mediating folding assistance, via its central cavity, to a diverse set of cytosolic proteins; yet the subcellular localization of GroEL remains unresolved. An earlier study, using antibody probing of fixed...... incorporation of a fluorescent unnatural amino acid into the chaperone. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that GroEL is diffusely distributed, both under normal and stress conditions. Importantly, the present procedure uses a small, fluorescent unnatural amino acid to visualize GroEL in vivo, avoiding...

  6. COMPTEL observations of GRO J1655-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDijk, R.; Bennett, K.; Winkler, C.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; McConnell, M.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The transient black hole candidate GRO J1655-40 was shown elsewhere to eject matter at apparently superluminal velocities. The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment (OSSE) spectra, measured during the X-ray outbursts, are consistent with a single power law up to 600 keV, with no evidence of a high energy cutoff. The detection of the flaring behavior of this source up to 10 MeV was claimed elsewhere. The Compton telescope (COMPTEL) observations in the 0.75 to 30 MeV band of this source are analyzed. The upper limits on the time averaged emission are presented and gamma ray flares are searched for. It is concluded that the COMPTEL data can neither confirm nor refute the claimed detection of a large gamma ray flare from this source. The gamma ray flare search in five years' worth of data did not reveal evidence for the occurrence of strong flares on timescales of two days.

  7. Probing the functional mechanism of Escherichia coli GroEL using circular permutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Mizobata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL subunit consists of three domains linked via two hinge regions, and each domain is responsible for a specific role in the functional mechanism. Here, we have used circular permutation to study the structural and functional characteristics of the GroEL subunit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three soluble, partially active mutants with polypeptide ends relocated into various positions of the apical domain of GroEL were isolated and studied. The basic functional hallmarks of GroEL (ATPase and chaperoning activities were retained in all three mutants. Certain functional characteristics, such as basal ATPase activity and ATPase inhibition by the cochaperonin GroES, differed in the mutants while at the same time, the ability to facilitate the refolding of rhodanese was roughly equal. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments using a fluorescent variant of the circularly permuted GroEL CP376 revealed that a specific kinetic transition that reflects movements of the apical domain was missing in this mutant. This mutant also displayed several characteristics that suggested that the apical domains were behaving in an uncoordinated fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of apical domain coordination and a concomitant decrease in functional ability highlights the importance of certain conformational signals that are relayed through domain interlinks in GroEL. We propose that circular permutation is a very versatile tool to probe chaperonin structure and function.

  8. Single-step Purification of Molecular Chaperone GroEL by Expanded Bed Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓冬; 杨征; 董晓燕; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an integrative downstream processing technique for the purification of biological substances directly from unclarified feedstock. In this study, molecular chaperone GroEL, an important protein folding helper both in vivo and in vitro, was purified by the single-step EBA technique from the unclarified homogenate of recombinant E. coli cells. Compared with packed bed adsorption, the EBA technique provided a single-step approach to yield an electrophoretic purity of GroEL. After the homogenate loading and column washing in the expanded bed mode, the GroEL protein was recovered by stepwise salt-gradient elution in packed-bed or expanded-bed modes, respectively. The expanded-bed elution mode was found as efficient as the packed-bed mode in the purification of GroEL from cell disruptate.

  9. Gro/TLE enables embryonic stem cell differentiation by repressing pluripotent gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laing, Adam F; Lowell, Sally; Brickman, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Gro/TLE proteins (TLE1-4) are a family of transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of multiple signalling pathways. Several TLEs are expressed in a dynamic manner throughout embryonic development and at high levels in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we find that Gro/TLE is not required...... in ESC for sustaining pluripotency and suppressing differentiation genes, but rather is important for the shutting down of the pluripotency network in differentiation. Consistent with this view, we found that one of the Gro/TLE family, TLE4 is expressed heterogeneously in ESCs in a population...... that corresponds to a Nanog low subset of ESC culture. TLE4 expression is also increased in response to LIF withdrawal and Fgf/Mek/Erk stimulation. To explore the role of Gro/TLE in more detail we generated an allelic series of knockout ESCs of two TLE genes expressed most dynamically in early differentiation, TLE...

  10. The alr-groEL1 operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an interplay of multiple regulatory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Aadil H.; Pathak, Deepika; Rao, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine is a universally conserved essential modification of tRNA that ensures translational fidelity in cellular milieu. TsaD, TsaB and TsaE are identified as tRNA-A37-threonylcarbamoyl (t6A)-transferase enzymes that have been reconstituted in vitro, in few bacteria recently. However, transcriptional organization and regulation of these genes are not known in any of these organisms. This study describes the intricate architecture of a complex multicistronic alr-groEL1 operon, harboring essential genes, namely tsaD, tsaB, tsaE, groES, groEL1, and alr (required for cell wall synthesis), and rimI encoding an N-α- acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using northern blotting, RT-PCR and in vivo fluorescence assays, genes alr to groEL1 were found to constitute an ~6.3 kb heptacistronic operon with multiple internal promoters and an I-shaped intrinsic hairpin-like cis-regulatory element. A strong promoter PtsaD within the coding sequence of rimI gene is identified in M. tuberculosis, in addition. The study further proposes an amendment in the known bicistronic groESL1 operon annotation by providing evidence that groESL1 is co-transcribed as sub-operon of alr-groEL1 operon. The architecture of alr-groEL1 operon, conservation of the genetic context and a mosaic transcriptional profile displayed under various stress conditions convincingly suggest the involvement of this operon in stress adaptation in M. tuberculosis. PMID:28256563

  11. Clon of GroEL gene and construction of eukaryotic expression vector in myobacterium tuberclosis%结核分枝杆菌GroEL基因的克隆及真核表达质粒的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付风云; 张卫英

    2009-01-01

    目的 克隆结核分枝杆菌基因组携带的两组GroEL基因,即GroEL1和GroEL2,它们分别编码热休克蛋白HSP60(cpn60.1)和HSP65(cpn60.2),并构建真核表达质粒.方法 用带有EcoR I和Xba I酶切位点的特异性引物,从结核杆菌H37Rv株中PCR扩增两组GroEL基因,构建重组真核表达质粒pCDNA3.1-GroEL1和pCDNA3.1-GroEL2,并进行酶切和测序鉴定.结果 成功克隆了结核分枝杆菌两组GroEL基因,酶切鉴定pCDNA3.1-GroEL1和pCDNA3.1-GroEL2构建成功,经DNA测序证实,载体上插入的序列与GenBank公布的序列一致.结论 获得了结核分枝杆菌GroEL1和GroEL2基因,成功地构建了含GroEL1和GroEL2基因的真核表达质粒,为研究其作为核酸疫苗在免疫学方面作用提供材料.

  12. BeppoSAX observations of GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshenko, R; Doroshenko, V; Suleimanov, V; Piraino, S

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of BeppoSAX observations of the unique transient bursting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The observations took place in March 1997 during the decay phase of the outburst. We find that the persistent broadband X-ray continuum of the source is consistent with a cutoff power law typical for the accreting pulsars. We also detect the fluorescence iron line at 6.7 keV and an absorption feature at ~4.5 keV, which we interpret as a cyclotron line. The corresponding magnetic field strength in the line forming region is ~3.7 x 10^11 G. Neither line is detected in the spectra of the bursts. However, additional soft thermal component with kT ~2 keV was required to describe the burst spectrum. We briefly discuss the nature of this component and argue that among other possibilities it might be connected with thermonuclear flashes at the neutron star surface which accompany the accretion-powered bursts in the source.

  13. Gro2mat: a package to efficiently read gromacs output in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Hung; Deane, Charlotte M; Knapp, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are a state-of-the-art computational method used to investigate molecular interactions at atomic scale. Interaction processes out of experimental reach can be monitored using MD software, such as Gromacs. Here, we present the gro2mat package that allows fast and easy access to Gromacs output files from Matlab. Gro2mat enables direct parsing of the most common Gromacs output formats including the binary xtc-format. No openly available Matlab parser currently exists for this format. The xtc reader is orders of magnitudes faster than other available pdb/ascii workarounds. Gro2mat is especially useful for scientists with an interest in quick prototyping of new mathematical and statistical approaches for Gromacs trajectory analyses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Análise funcional das proteínas HrcA, GroES/GroEL e DnaK/DnaJ em Caulobacter crescentus

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Fernanda Susin

    2005-01-01

    O operon groESL de C. crescentus apresenta dupla regulação. A indução deste operon por choque térmico é dependente do fator sigma de choque térmico σ32. A temperaturas fisiológicas, a expressão de groESL apresenta regulação temporal durante o ciclo celular da bactéria e o controle envolve a proteína repressora HrcA e o elemento CIRCE (controlling inverted repeat of chaperonin expression). Para estudar a atividade da proteína repressora in vitro, produzimos e purificamos de E. coli a Hrc...

  15. Stereoscopic observations of hard x ray sources in solar flares made with GRO and other spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S. R.; Hurley, K.; Mctiernan, J. M.; Laros, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in Apr. 1991, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on GRO has recorded a large number of solar flares. Some of these flares have also been observed by the Gamma-Ray Burst Detector on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and/or by the Solar X-Ray/Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft. A preliminary list of common flares observed during the period May-Jun. 1991 is presented and the possible joint studies are indicated.

  16. Bibliothekarische Berufsethik in der Praxis – Ergebnisse eines Studienprojekts aus Deutschland und Großbritannien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Boye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sowohl in Deutschland als auch in Großbritannien existieren seit einigen Jahren Grundsatzpapiere zur Berufsethik im Informations- und Bibliotheksbereich. Neben der bloßen Existenz derartiger Kodizes stellt sich die Frage, welche Relevanz diese Dokumente in der beruflichen Praxis haben. Dieser Frage wurde im Rahmen einer Team-Projektarbeit an der FH Köln nachgegangen. Mithilfe eines standardisierten Fragebogens wurden deutsche Bibliotheksleitungen zu der Thematik befragt. In Großbritannien wurde ein Interview mit Paul Sturges geführt, darüber hinaus erfolgte eine Analyse der Online-Angebote von CILIP, insbesondere des Information Ethics Blog.

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  18. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  19. Further observations of GRO J1750-27 (AXJ1749.1-2639) with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Shaw, S.; Hill, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The transient accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), which became active end of January 2008 (ATel #1376), has been repeatedly observed by the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program since mid February (ATel #1385) on 11, 20 and 23 Feb. 2008. During the three observations...

  20. Rapidly evolving circularly polarized emission during the 1994 outburst of GRO J1655-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Sault, RJ; Hannikainen, DC

    2002-01-01

    We report the detection of circular polarization during the 1994 outburst of the Galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. The circular polarization is clearly detected at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz, but not at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, where its magnitude never exceeds 5 mJy. Both the sign and magnitude of the circular

  1. Positive selection in the leucine-rich repeat domain of Gro1 genes in Solanum species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valentino Ruggieri; Angelina Nunziata; Amalia Barone

    2014-12-01

    In pathogen resistant plants, solvent-exposed residues in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are thought to mediate resistance by recognizing plant pathogen elicitors. In potato, the gene Gro1-4 confers resistance to Globodera rostochiensis. The investigation of variablity in different copies of this gene represents a good model for the verification of positive selection mechanisms. Two datasets of Gro1 LRR sequences were constructed, one derived from the Gro1-4 gene, belonging to different cultivated and wild Solanum species, and the other belonging to paralogues of a resistant genotype. Analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates $(K_{a}/K_{s})$ highlighted 14 and six amino acids with $K_{a}/K_{s} \\gt 1$ in orthologue and paralogue datasets, respectively. Selection analysis revealed that the leucine-rich regions accumulate variability in a very specific way, and we found that some combinations of amino acids in these sites might be involved in pathogen recognition. The results confirm previous studies on positive selection in the LRR domain of R protein in Arabidopsis and other model plants and extend these to wild Solanum species. Moreover, positively selected sites in the Gro1 LRR domain show that coevolution mainly occurred in two regions on the internal surface of the three-dimensional horseshoe structure of the domain, albeit with different evolutionary forces between paralogues and orthologues.

  2. The Accretion Powered Spin-up of GRO 1750–27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmar, P.; Shaw, S.; Hill, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    The transient Be X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 was originally detected in 1995 by CGRO/BATSE during a giant outburst. After a long period of quiescence the source was detected in another outburst early 2008. Following this outburst with hard X-ray data from INTEGRAL and Swift, the orbital parameters ...

  3. The accretion powered spin-up of GRO J1750-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, S.E.; Hill, A.B.; Kuulkers, E.

    2009-01-01

    ), respectively. The model is then used to compare the time-resolved variation of the X-ray flux and intrinsic spin-up against the accretion torque model of Ghosh & Lamb; this finds that GRO J1750-27 is likely located 12-22 kpc distant and that the surface magnetic field of the neutron star is similar to 2 x 10...

  4. Computational Approaches for Mining GRO-Seq Data to Identify and Characterize Active Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Anusha; Murakami, Shino; Malladi, Venkat S; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that are bound by transcription factors and act to positively regulate the expression of nearby or distally located target genes. Enhancers have many features that have been discovered using genomic analyses. Recent studies have shown that active enhancers recruit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and are transcribed, producing enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). GRO-seq, a method for identifying the location and orientation of all actively transcribing RNA polymerases across the genome, is a powerful approach for monitoring nascent enhancer transcription. Furthermore, the unique pattern of enhancer transcription can be used to identify enhancers in the absence of any information about the underlying transcription factors. Here, we describe the computational approaches required to identify and analyze active enhancers using GRO-seq data, including data pre-processing, alignment, and transcript calling. In addition, we describe protocols and computational pipelines for mining GRO-seq data to identify active enhancers, as well as known transcription factor binding sites that are transcribed. Furthermore, we discuss approaches for integrating GRO-seq-based enhancer data with other genomic data, including target gene expression and function. Finally, we describe molecular biology assays that can be used to confirm and explore further the function of enhancers that have been identified using genomic assays. Together, these approaches should allow the user to identify and explore the features and biological functions of new cell type-specific enhancers.

  5. Over expression of GroESL in Cupriavidus necator for heterotrophic and autotrophic isopropanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Jillian; Grousseau, Estelle; Lombard, Eric; Sinskey, Anthony J; Gorret, Nathalie; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported a metabolic engineering strategy to develop an isopropanol producing strain of Cupriavidus necator leading to production of 3.4gL(-1) isopropanol. In order to reach higher titers, isopropanol toxicity to the cells has to be considered. A toxic effect of isopropanol on the growth of C. necator has been indeed observed above a critical value of 15gL(-1). GroESL chaperones were first searched and identified in the genome of C. necator. Native groEL and groES genes from C. necator were over-expressed in a strain deleted for PHA synthesis. We demonstrated that over-expressing groESL genes led to a better tolerance of the strain towards exogenous isopropanol. GroESL genes were then over-expressed within the best engineered isopropanol producing strain. A final isopropanol concentration of 9.8gL(-1) was achieved in fed-batch culture on fructose as the sole carbon source (equivalent to 16gL(-1) after taking into account evaporation). Cell viability was slightly improved by the chaperone over-expression, particularly at the end of the fermentation when the isopropanol concentration was the highest. Moreover, the strain over-expressing the chaperones showed higher enzyme activity levels of the 2 heterologous enzymes (acetoacetate carboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase) of the isopropanol synthetic operon, translating to a higher specific production rate of isopropanol at the expense of the specific production rate of acetone. Over-expressing the native chaperones led to a 9-18% increase in the isopropanol yield on fructose. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 in infected parental mouse L fibroblasts and mutant gro29 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2003-01-01

    Mutants of cell lines and viruses are important biological tools. The pathway of herpesvirus particle maturation and egress are contentious issues. The mutant gro29 line of mouse L cells is defective for egress of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions, and a candidate for studies of virus......-cell interactions. The properties of uninfected and HSV-1-infected L fibroblasts and gro29 cells investigated by protein assay, immunoblot, titration assay, immunofluorescence light microscopy and immunogold cryosection electron microscopy are reported. The ultrastructure of both HSV-1-infected L and gro29 cells...

  7. Effective enhancement of Pseudomonas stutzeri D-phenylglycine aminotransferase functional expression in Pichia pastoris by co-expressing Escherichia coli GroEL-GroES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyachawalid Kanidtha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT of Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201 catalyzes the reversible stereo-inverting transamination potentially useful in the application for synthesis of D-phenylglycine and D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine using L-glutamate as a low cost amino donor substrate in one single step. The enzyme is a relatively hydrophobic homodimeric intracellular protein difficult to express in the soluble functionally active form. Over-expression of the dpgA gene in E. coli resulted in the majority of the D-PhgAT aggregated into insoluble inclusion bodies that failed to be re-natured. Expression in Pichia pastoris was explored as an alternative route for high level production of the D-PhgAT. Results Intracellular expression of the codon-optimized synthetic dpgA gene under the PAOX1 promoter in P. pastoris resulted in inactive D-PhgAT associated with insoluble cellular fraction and very low level of D-PhgAT activity in the soluble fraction. Manipulation of culture conditions such as addition of sorbitol to induce intracellular accumulation of osmolytes, addition of benzyl alcohol to induce chaperone expression, or lowering incubation temperature to slow down protein expression and folding rates all failed to increase the active D-PhgAT yield. Co-expression of E. coli chaperonins GroEL-GroES with the D-PhgAT dramatically improved the soluble active enzyme production. Increasing gene dosage of both the dpgA and those of the chaperones further increased functional D-PhgAT yield up to 14400-fold higher than when the dpgA was expressed alone. Optimization of cultivation condition further increased D-PhgAT activity yield from the best co-expressing strain by 1.2-fold. Conclusions This is the first report on the use of bacterial chaperones co-expressions to enhance functional intracellular expression of bacterial enzyme in P. pastoris. Only two bacterial chaperone genes groEL and groES were sufficient for dramatic enhancement of

  8. 利用膨胀床吸附技术单步纯化分子伴侣—GroEL%Single-step Purification of Molecular Chaperone GroEL by Expanded Bed Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓冬; 杨征; 董晓燕; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an integrative downstream processing technique for the purificationof biological substances directly from unclarified feedstock. In this study, molecular chaperone GroEL, an importantprotein folding helper both in vivo and in vitro, was purified by the single-step EBA technique from the unclarifiedhomogenate of recombinant E. coli cells. Compared with packed bed adsorption, the EBA technique provideda single-step approach to yield an electrophoretic purity of GroEL. After the homogenate loading and columnwashing in the expanded bed mode, the GroEL protein was recovered by stepwise salt-gradient elution in packed-bed or expanded-bed modes, respectively. The expanded-bed elution mode was found as efficient as the packed-bedmode in the purification of GroEL from cell disruptate.

  9. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin;

    1997-01-01

    The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during lie in excess nutrients, by compari......The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during lie in excess nutrients......, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic domesticated (daily) strains. In a study of the capacity of domesticated strains to perform directed responses toward various stress conditions, we have analyzed the heat and salt stress response in the established L,. lactis subsp. cremoris...... laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  10. Perturbation-based Markovian transmission model for probing allosteric dynamics of large macromolecular assembling: a study of GroEL-GroES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Lu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Large macromolecular assemblies are often important for biological processes in cells. Allosteric communications between different parts of these molecular machines play critical roles in cellular signaling. Although studies of the topology and fluctuation dynamics of coarse-grained residue networks can yield important insights, they do not provide characterization of the time-dependent dynamic behavior of these macromolecular assemblies. Here we develop a novel approach called Perturbation-based Markovian Transmission (PMT model to study globally the dynamic responses of the macromolecular assemblies. By monitoring simultaneous responses of all residues (>8,000 across many (>6 decades of time spanning from the initial perturbation until reaching equilibrium using a Krylov subspace projection method, we show that this approach can yield rich information. With criteria based on quantitative measurements of relaxation half-time, flow amplitude change, and oscillation dynamics, this approach can identify pivot residues that are important for macromolecular movement, messenger residues that are key to signal mediating, and anchor residues important for binding interactions. Based on a detailed analysis of the GroEL-GroES chaperone system, we found that our predictions have an accuracy of 71-84% judged by independent experimental studies reported in the literature. This approach is general and can be applied to other large macromolecular machineries such as the virus capsid and ribosomal complex.

  11. Luminosity dependent accretion state change in GRO J1008–57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a former publication, we have analyzed the transient neutron star X-ray binary GRO J1008–57 using all available RXTE-, Swift-, and Suzaku-data. As we have found, the source’s spectral components, i.e., a power-law with high exponential cutoff and a black-body, are strongly correlated with the hard X-ray flux (15–50 keV. We update the analytical description of these dependence, including a change in the photon index behaviour from a flat to a logarithmic function. The flux, where the change occurs, is consistent with the onset of the black-body emission. Thus, a change of the accretion state always occurs in GRO J1008–57 at a particular flux level.

  12. Adsorption of a model protein, the GroEL chaperonin, on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Carl; Palmer, Richard E [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: carl.leung@kcl.ac.uk

    2008-09-03

    Understanding and controlling protein adsorption on surfaces is fundamental to many biological processes ranging from cell adhesion to the fabrication of protein biochips. In general, proteins need to retain their 3D conformation to perform their intended functions. However, when they are presented with a solid surface, complex interactions ranging from weak non-covalent binding to strong covalent bonding may occur, which can potentially induce conformational changes within the adsorbed protein. To investigate the surface adsorption process and its effects on a model protein, the chaperonin GroEL, we have applied contact mode atomic force microscopy, in buffer solution to probe the interactions between single proteins and surfaces in real space. We will discuss the adsorption of GroEL molecules on planar surfaces (mica, graphite and gold) and specifically tailored nanostructured surfaces, which present structural features on the size scale of individual biological molecules. (topical review)

  13. Voina radi jevro / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Alanud aastal kavatseb Eesti valitsus tõsiselt tegelda jooksevkonto defitsiidiga, kuna majandusliku arengu pidurdamise kõrval takistab see ka meie ühinemist ühtse Euroopa valuutaga. Diagrammid: Majandusnäitajad 2003. a. - majanduskasv, inflatsioon, jooksevkonto defitsiit

  14. Thermonuclear Burning on the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of nuclear burning on the accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The neutron star's dipolar magnetic field is 50 years. We also discuss the nature of the binary and point out that a velocity measurement of the stellar companion (most likely a Roche-lobe filling giant with m_K>17) will constrain the neutron star mass.

  15. INTEGRAL/XMM views on the MeV source GRO J1411-64

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Barcons, X; Corral, A; Bosch-Ramon, V; Paredes, J M; Romero, G E; Qu, J L; Collmar, W; Schönfelder, V; Butt, Y; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Reimer, Olaf; Barcons, Xavier; Corral, Amalia; Bosch-Ramon, Valent\\'{\\i}; Paredes, Josep M.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Qu, Jin Lu; Collmar, Werner; Sch\\"onfelder, Volker; Butt, Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J 1411-64 was observed by INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton in 2005. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4$\\sigma$ location error of GRO J1411-64, but in here excluded as the possible counterpart. At soft X-rays, 22 reliable and statistically significant sources (likelihood $> 10$) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6 -635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an association hard to quantify and thus risky. At the best location of the source, detections at hard X-rays show only upper limits, which, together with MeV results obtained by COMPTEL suggest the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300-700 keV for the so-called low state. Such a spectrum resembles those in blazars or microquasars, and might suggest at work by a similar scenario. However, an an...

  16. Temporal Variations And Spectral Properties of Be/X-ray Pulsar GRO J1008-57 Studied by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Spin period variations and hard X-ray spectral properties of Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008-57 are studied with INTEGRAL observations. The pulsation periods at 93.66 s in 2004 and at 93.73 s in 2009 are determined. Pulse profiles of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts are energy dependent: double-peak profile in soft bands of 3-7 keV and single-peak profile in hard X-rays above 7 keV. GRO J1008-57 has undergone a spin-down trend from 1993-2009 with a rate of 4.1x10^-5 s day^-1, and might transfer into a spin-up trend after 2009. The spectra from 3-100 keV of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts are fitted with photon index of 1.4 and cutoff energies of 23-29 keV. We find a relatively soft spectrum in early phase of the 2009 outburst with cutoff energy 13 keV. Above a hard X-ray flux of 10^-9 erg cm^-2 s^-1, the spectra of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts need an enhanced hydrogen absorption of column density 6x10^22 cm^-2. The observed dip-like pulse profile of GRO J1008-57 in soft X-ray bands should be caused by this intrinsic a...

  17. Intrinsic unfoldase/foldase activity of the chaperonin GroEL directly demonstrated using multinuclear relaxation-based NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libich, David S.; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G. Marius

    2015-01-01

    The prototypical chaperonin GroEL assists protein folding through an ATP-dependent encapsulation mechanism. The details of how GroEL folds proteins remain elusive, particularly because encapsulation is not an absolute requirement for successful re/folding. Here we make use of a metastable model protein substrate, comprising a triple mutant of Fyn SH3, to directly demonstrate, by simultaneous analysis of three complementary NMR-based relaxation experiments (lifetime line broadening, dark state exchange saturation transfer, and Carr–Purcell–Meinboom–Gill relaxation dispersion), that apo GroEL accelerates the overall interconversion rate between the native state and a well-defined folding intermediate by about 20-fold, under conditions where the “invisible” GroEL-bound states have occupancies below 1%. This is largely achieved through a 500-fold acceleration in the folded-to-intermediate transition of the protein substrate. Catalysis is modulated by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that reduces the overall interconversion rate between the GroEL-bound species by about 3-fold, indicative of a significant hydrophobic contribution. The location of the GroEL binding site on the folding intermediate, mapped from 15N, 1HN, and 13Cmethyl relaxation dispersion experiments, is composed of a prominent, surface-exposed hydrophobic patch. PMID:26124125

  18. Emesis ED50 of Neutron Irradiation and Prophylactic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Gamma rays were aximized by thermalizing neutrons in 30.5 cm (12 in.) of water, then absorbing the thermal eutrons in a gadolinium-cadmium shield. The...12 in.) from the tank protrusion in exposure room 1. The neu- tron component was minimized by thermalization of the neutrons by the 30.5 cm (12 in...of water between the core and the exposure room. The thermalized neutrons were subsequently captured in the gadolinium-cadmium on the tank wall. The

  19. Increased expression and purification of soluble iron-regulatory protein 1 from Escherichia coli co-expressing chaperonins GroES and GroEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential metal for all living organisms. However, iron homeostasis needs to be tightly controlled since iron can mediate the production of reactive oxygen species, which can damage cell components and compromise the integrity and/or cause DNA mutations, ultimately leading to cancer. In eukaryotes, iron-regulatory protein 1 (IRP1 plays a central role in the control of intracellular iron homeostasis. This occurs by interaction of IRP1 with iron-responsive element regions at 5' of ferritin mRNA and 3' of transferrin mRNA which, respectively, represses translation and increases mRNA stability. We have expressed IRP1 using the plasmid pT7-His-hIRP1, which codifies for human IRP1 attached to an NH2-terminal 6-His tag. IRP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli using the strategy of co-expressing chaperonins GroES and GroEL, in order to circumvent inclusion body formation and increase the yield of soluble protein. The protein co-expressed with these chaperonins was obtained mostly in the soluble form, which greatly increased the efficiency of protein purification. Metal affinity and FPLC ion exchange chromatography were used in order to obtain highly purified IRP1. Purified protein was biologically active, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and could be converted to the cytoplasmic aconitase form. These results corroborate previous studies, which suggest the use of folding catalysts as a powerful strategy to increase protein solubility when expressing heterologous proteins in E. coli.

  20. GroEL to DnaK chaperone network behind the stability modulation of σ(32) at physiological temperature in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Monobesh; Roy, Sourav Singha; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Basu, Tarakdas

    2015-12-21

    The stability of heat-shock transcription factor σ(32) in Escherichia coli has long been known to be modulated only by its own transcribed chaperone DnaK. Very few reports suggest a role for another heat-shock chaperone, GroEL, for maintenance of cellular σ(32) level. The present study demonstrates in vivo physical association between GroEL and σ(32) in E. coli at physiological temperature. This study further reveals that neither DnaK nor GroEL singly can modulate σ(32) stability in vivo; there is an ordered network between them, where GroEL acts upstream of DnaK.

  1. Effects of the chaperonin GroE on the refolding of tryptophanase from Escherichia coli. Refolding is enhanced in the presence of ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobata, T; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K; Yumoto, N; Kawata, Y

    1992-09-01

    The refolding of the tetrameric enzyme tryptophanase was facilitated by the chaperonin GroE. Maximum refolding yield of tryptophanase molecules (about 80%) was attained in the presence of a 15-fold excess of GroE 21-mer over tryptophanase monomer. The GroEL subunit was required for this improvement in refolding yield, whereas the GroES subunit was not. Light scattering experiments of the refolding reaction revealed that GroE bound to tryptophanase folding intermediates and suppressed their aggregation. The presence of ATP was required for the efficient dissociation of tryptophanase from GroEL. However, our experiments indicated that tryptophanase dissociated readily from GroEL in the presence of not only ATP, but also in the presence of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues such as ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) and AMP-PNP (adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) as well. Surprisingly, the release of tryptophanase from GroEL was facilitated in the presence of ADP as well. We concluded that the binding of nucleotides such as ATP and ADP changed the conformation of GroEL and facilitated the dissociation of tryptophanase molecules. The conformation formed in the presence of ADP was distinct from the conformation formed in the presence of ATP, as shown by the selective dissociation of various folding proteins from the two conformations.

  2. An insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity from Xenorhabdus nematophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohan Chandra; Sharma, Animesh; Kant, Sashi; Birah, Ajanta; Gupta, Gorakh Prasad; Khan, Sharik R; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Banerjee, Nirupama

    2008-10-17

    Xenorhabdus nematophila secretes insecticidal proteins to kill its larval prey. We have isolated an approximately 58-kDa GroEL homolog, secreted in the culture medium through outer membrane vesicles. The protein was orally insecticidal to the major crop pest Helicoverpa armigera with an LC50 of approximately 3.6 microg/g diet. For optimal insecticidal activity all three domains of the protein, apical, intermediate, and equatorial, were necessary. The apical domain alone was able to bind to the larval gut membranes and manifest low level insecticidal activity. At equimolar concentrations, the apical domain contained approximately one-third and the apical-intermediate domain approximately one-half bioactivity of that of the full-length protein. Interaction of the protein with the larval gut membrane was specifically inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine and chito-oligosaccharides. Treatment of the larval gut membranes with chitinase abolished protein binding. Based on the three-dimensional structural model, mutational analysis demonstrated that surface-exposed residues Thr-347 and Ser-356 in the apical domain were crucial for both binding to the gut epithelium and insecticidal activity. Double mutant T347A,S356A was 80% less toxic (p activity with Kd approximately 0.64 microm and Bmax approximately 4.68 micromol/g chitin. The variation in chitin binding activity of the mutant proteins was in good agreement with membrane binding characteristics and insecticidal activity. The less toxic double mutant XnGroEL showed an approximately 8-fold increase of Kd in chitin binding assay. Our results demonstrate that X. nematophila secretes an insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity.

  3. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations towards the unidentified MeV source GRO J1411-64

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Barcons, X; Corral, A; Bosch-Ramon, V; Paredes, J M; Romero, G E; Qu, J L; Collmar, W; Schönfelder, V; Butt, Y; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Reimer, Olaf; Barcons, Xavier; Corral, Amalia; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti; Paredes, Josep M.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Qu, Jin Lu; Collmar, Werner; Butt, Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J1411-64 was observed by INTEGRAL, and its central part, also by XMM-Newton. The data analysis shows no hint for new detections at hard X-rays. The upper limits in flux herein presented constrain the energy spectrum of whatever was producing GRO J1411-64, imposing, in the framework of earlier COMPTEL observations, the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300-700 keV for the so-called low state. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4$\\sigma$ location error of GRO J1411-64, but can be safely excluded as the possible counterpart: the extrapolation of the energy spectrum is well below the one for GRO J1411-64 at MeV energies. 22 significant sources (likelihood $> 10$) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6-635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an...

  4. Eine CarSharing-Zielgruppenanalyse der großen SrV-Vergleichsstädte

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Due to enormous growth rates during the last couple of years CarSharing has become an interesting field of research. This Master Thesis focuses on the analysis of CarSharing users. For this purpose more than 37.000 participants of the "Große SrV-Vergleichsstädte"-Survey were taken into account. After a short literature review and some general information about the statistical methods, the thesis tries to work out some major characteristics of the typical CarSharing user. It will be shown, tha...

  5. NuSTAR Observations of the Be/X-ray Binary GRO J1008-57 in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric; Fuerst, F.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tomsick, J.; Zhang, W.; NuSTAR Science Team

    2013-04-01

    GRO J1008-57 is an HMXB that exhibits regular outbursts due to orbitally-driven accretion onto the neutron star from the Be companion. Spectral analysis of previous bursts have suggested the existence of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 88 keV, which, if confirmed as the fundamental line, would indicate the presence of one of the most highly-magnetized accreting neutron stars. In November 2012, GRO J1008 produced a Type II ("giant") burst with peak flux near 1 Crab. NuSTAR observed the outburst for 12 ksec near the peak of emission. We present spectral and timing analysis of GRO J1008 over NuSTAR's 3-79 keV energy band. Considering that the putative 88 keV line could be a harmonic rather than the fundamental, we search for cyclotron lines in the NuSTAR band and discuss implications for models of the system's magnetic field.

  6. Confirmation of a high magnetic field in GRO J1008–57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ebellm@caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    GRO J1008–57 is a high-mass X-ray binary for which several claims of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature near 80 keV have been reported. We use NuSTAR, Suzaku, and Swift data from its giant outburst of 2012 November to confirm the existence of the 80 keV feature and perform the most sensitive search to date for cyclotron scattering features at lower energies. We find evidence for a 78{sub −2}{sup +3} keV line in the NuSTAR and Suzaku data at >4σ significance, confirming the detection using Suzaku alone by Yamamoto et al. A search of both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved data rules out a fundamental at lower energies with optical depth larger than 5% of the 78 keV line. These results indicate that GRO J1008–57 has a magnetic field of 6.7 × 10{sup 12}(1 + z) G, the highest among known accreting pulsars.

  7. Induction of DnaK and GroEL heat shock proteins by fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizushima, T.; Matsuo, M.; Sekimizu, K

    1997-01-01

    Various fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) induce DnaK and GroEL heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli. The induction is transient, consistent with the kinetics of cellular DNA relaxation. The concentrations of fluoroquinolones required for induction are similar to those required for DNA relaxation and much higher than those required for cell death.

  8. Predominant recognition of species-specific determinants of the GroES homologues from Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chua-Intra, B.; Ivanyi, J.; Hills, A.; Thole, J.; Moreno, C.; Vordermeier, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis 10000 MW heat-shock protein homologues of GroES have previously been identified as major immunogens for human T cells. We used synthetic peptides to characterize the determinants recognized by murine T cells. The findings suggest that, despite 90% sequenc

  9. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to ...

  10. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  11. Discovery of a non-blazar $\\gamma$-ray transient near the Galactic plane GRO J1838-04

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M; Mattox, J R; Halpern, J; Thompson, D J; Kanbach, G; Hermsen, W; Zhang, S N; Foster, R S

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable gamma-ray transient source near the Galactic plane, GRO J1838-04. This source was serendipitously discovered by EGRET in June 1995 with a peak intensity of 4 E(-6) ph/cm/cm/s (for photon energies larger than 100 MeV) and a 5.9 sigma significance. At that time, GRO J1838-04 was the second brightest gamma-ray source in the sky. A subsequent EGRET pointing in late September 1995 detected the source at a flux smaller than its peak value by a factor of 7. We determined that no radio-loud spectrally-flat blazar is within the error box of GRO J1838-04. We discuss the origin of the \\ggg-ray transient source and show that interpretations in terms of AGNs or isolated pulsars are highly problematic. GRO J1838-04 provides strong evidence for the existence of a new class of variable gamma-ray sources.

  12. Effects of the prebiotics GroBiotic-A and inulin on the intestinal microbiota of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate feeding trials examined the effects of dietary supplementation of the prebiotics GroBiotic®-A and inulin on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. In the first feeding trial, fishmeal-based diets without prebiotics or supplemented ...

  13. SIMULTANEOUS FITS IN ISIS ON THE EXAMPLE OF GRO J1008–57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kühnel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parallel computing and steadily increasing computation speed have led to a new tool for analyzing multiple datasets and datatypes: fitting several datasets simultaneously.  With this technique, physically connected parameters of individual data can be treated as a single parameter by implementing this connection directly into the fit. We discuss the terminology, implementation, and possible issues of simultaneous fits based on the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS X-ray data analysis tool. While all data modeling tools in X-ray astronomy in principle allow data to be fitted individually from multiple data sets, the syntax used in these tools is not often well suited for this task. Applying simultaneous fits to the transient X-ray binary GRO J1008–57, we find that the spectral shape is only dependent on X-ray flux. We determine time independent parameters e.g., the folding energy Efold, with unprecedented precision.

  14. Simultaneous fits in ISIS on the example of GRO J1008-57

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Matthias; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Grossberger, Christoph; Dauser, Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Parallel computing and steadily increasing computation speed have led to a new tool for analyzing multiple datasets and datatypes: fitting several datasets simultaneously. With this technique, physically connected parameters of individual data can be treated as a single parameter by implementing this connection into the fit directly. We discuss the terminology, implementation, and possible issues of simultaneous fits based on the X-ray data analysis tool Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS). While all data modeling tools in X-ray astronomy allow in principle fitting data from multiple data sets individually, the syntax used in these tools is not often well suited for this task. Applying simultaneous fits to the transient X-ray binary GRO J1008-57, we find that the spectral shape is only dependent on X-ray flux. We determine time independent parameters such as, e.g., the folding energy E_fold, with unprecedented precision.

  15. Abstracts of the 28. annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011); Abstracts der 28. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, Radiobiologie und Medizinische Radiophysik (OeGRO 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-06-15

    The second part of the volume includes the abstracts of the 28th annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011), covering the following topics: extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy; brachytherapy, hyperthermia; radiotherapy side effects; psycho-oncology in radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; radiation source implants for carcinoma irradiation; MRI-supported adaptive radiotherapy; CT-guided radiotherapy; mammary carcinomas; prostate carcinomas; magnetic nanoparticles for future medical applications.

  16. The lesional skin of linear IgA bullous dermatosis expresses growth-regulated peptide (GRO)-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Ihn, Hironobu; Saeki, Hidehisa; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2004-07-01

    The patient was a 62-year-old man with erythema with tense vesiculobullae and erosions on the bilateral elbows, right knee, and one buttock. A skin biopsy specimen revealed subepidermal blister formation with a predominant infiltration of neutrophils and papillary neutrophilic microabscesses. Direct immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA and weak deposition of IgG at the basement membrane zone of the lesional skin, and indirect immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA at the epidermal side of the 1M NaCl-separated normal skin. He was diagnosed with linear IgA bullous dermatosis. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the lesional and perilesional keratinocytes expressed growth-regulated peptide (GRO) -alpha, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. This suggests that GRO-alpha plays a role in the infiltration of neutrophils into the lesional skin and in bulla formation in linear IgA bullous dermatosis.

  17. GRO J1655-40: Early Stages of the 2005 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikov, N; Shrader, C R; Rupen, M; Beckmann, V; Markwardt, C B; Smith, D A

    2006-01-01

    The black-hole X-ray binary transient GRO J1655-40 underwent an outburst beginning in early 2005. We present the results of our multi-wavelength observational campaign to study the early outburst spectral and temporal evolution, which combines data from X-ray (RXTE, INTEGRAL), radio (VLA) and optical (ROTSE, SMARTS) instruments. During the reported period the source left quiescence and went through four major accreting black hole states: low-hard, hard intermediate, soft intermediate and high-soft. We investigated dipping behavior in the RXTE band and compare our results to the 1996-1997 case, when the source was predominantly in the high-soft state, finding significant differences. We consider the evolution of the low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and find that the frequency strongly correlates with the spectral characteristics, before shutting off prior to the transition to the high-soft state. We model the broad-band high-energy spectrum in the context of empirical models, as well as more physicall...

  18. Allosteric transitions of supramolecular systems explored by network models: application to chaperonin GroEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of pathways involved in the structural transitions of biomolecular systems is often complicated by the transient nature of the conformations visited across energy barriers and the multiplicity of paths accessible in the multidimensional energy landscape. This task becomes even more challenging in exploring molecular systems on the order of megadaltons. Coarse-grained models that lend themselves to analytical solutions appear to be the only possible means of approaching such cases. Motivated by the utility of elastic network models for describing the collective dynamics of biomolecular systems and by the growing theoretical and experimental evidence in support of the intrinsic accessibility of functional substates, we introduce a new method, adaptive anisotropic network model (aANM, for exploring functional transitions. Application to bacterial chaperonin GroEL and comparisons with experimental data, results from action minimization algorithm, and previous simulations support the utility of aANM as a computationally efficient, yet physically plausible, tool for unraveling potential transition pathways sampled by large complexes/assemblies. An important outcome is the assessment of the critical inter-residue interactions formed/broken near the transition state(s, most of which involve conserved residues.

  19. The quiescent light curve and orbital period of GRO$\\sim$J0422+32

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, C; Chevalier, Claude; Ilovaisky, Sergio A

    1996-01-01

    CCD photometry of the black hole candidate GRO~J0422+32 in quiescence, obtained at Haute-Provence from 1994 November to 1995 February, reveals a double-wave modulation at a period close to the value we found during outbursts and also close to one of the possible periods derived by Filippenko, Matheson and Ho (1995) from spectroscopic observations with the W. M. Keck 10-m telescope. A period of 0.212140 \\pm 0.000003 d (5.09136 \\pm 0.00007 h) fits all our photometric data from 1993 January to 1995 February and yields a minimum in our light curves at the inferior conjunction of the M star, as determined from the radial velocity data of Filippenko et al. (1995). The quiescent R_{c} band light curve exhibits a changing asymmetry of shape and a variable amplitude. On two consecutive nights the source was found constant to within \\pm 0.05 mag, suggesting an upper limit on the ellipsoidal effect in this band.

  20. Vanadyl ions binding to GroEL (HSP60) and inducing its depolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several vanadium compounds have been known for the hypoglycemic and anticancer effects. However, the mechanisms of the pharmacological and toxicological effects were not clear. In this work, we investigated the potential targets of vanadium in mitochondria. Vanadyl ions were found to bind to mitochondria from rat liver with a stoichiometry of 244±58 nmol/mg protein and an apparent dissocia- tion constant (Kd) of (2.0±0.8)×10-16 mol/L. Using size exclusion chromatography, a vanadium-binding protein was isolated and identified to be the 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) by mass spectrometry analysis and immunoassays. Additionally, binding of vanadyl ions was found to result in depolymerization of homo-oligomeric HSP60 (GroEL). HSP60 is an indispensable molecular chaperone and involved in many kinds of pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes. Our results suggested that HSP60 could be a novel important target involved in the biological and/or toxicological effects of vanadium compounds.

  1. Spectral and Timing evolution of GRO J1655-40 during its outburst of 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, D; Nandi, A; Mandal, S

    2009-01-01

    In a recent outburst which lasted for 260 days, the black hole candidate GRO J1655-40 exhibited a behaviour similar to its last outburst observed almost eight years ago. We analyze a total of 150 observational spells in 122 days of data spreaded over the entire outburst phase of Feb. 2005 to Oct. 2005. From our study, a comprehensive understanding of the detailed behaviour of this black hole candidate has emerged. Based on the degree of importance of the black body and the power-law components we divide the entire episode in four spectral states, namely, hard, soft, very soft and intermediate. Quasi-Periodic oscillations (QPOs) were found in two out of these four states, namely, in the hard and the intermediate states. In the hard state, at the rising phase of the outburst, QPO frequency ranged from 0.034 - 17.78Hz and the spectra was fitted by a disk black body, power-law and iron emission line at 6.2 - 6.5 keV. In the intermediate state, QPOs vary from 13.17Hz to 19.04Hz and the QPO frequency modulation in ...

  2. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Harrison, F A; Kennea, J A; Kouveliotou, C; Younes, G

    2014-01-01

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/HETG observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E_l ~ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ~ 52 degrees and an inner disk radius of R_in ~ 85 GM/c^2, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ~ (2-6)E10 G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature nea...

  3. A Super-Eddington Compton-Thick Wind in GRO J1655-40?

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Homan, J; Buxton, M

    2016-01-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed at high spectral resolution with the Chandra HETGS, revealing a spectrum rich with blueshifted absorption lines indicative of an accretion disk wind -- apparently too hot, too dense, and too close to the black hole to be driven by radiation pressure or thermal pressure (Miller et al.). But this exotic wind represents just one piece of the puzzle in this outburst, as its presence coincides with an extremely soft and curved X-ray continuum spectrum, remarkable X-ray variability (Uttley & Klein-Wolt), and a bright, unexpected optical/infrared blackbody component that varies on the orbital period. Focusing on the X-ray continuum and the optical/infrared/UV spectral energy distribution, we argue that the unusual features of this "hypersoft state" are natural consequences of a super-Eddington Compton-thick wind from the disk: the optical/infrared blackbody represents the cool photosphere of a dense, extended outflow, while the X-ray emission is explained as Co...

  4. 表达大肠杆菌分子伴侣GroEL、 GroES和GrpE载体的构建及其应用%Construction of the Vector Expressing GroEL 、 GroES and GrpE from Escherchia coli and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 王蕾蕾; 程备久; 范军

    2012-01-01

    Coexpression system in Escherichia coli often requires the different plasmids with different antibiotic resistance genes and replicons. Using sticky-end PCR cloning technology, two independent,PCR reactions were performed for amplifying the artificial operon from pR-GESP plasmid, which contains the artificial polycistron of GroEL, GroES and GrpE genes from E. coli encoding three molecular chaperones. The cohesive end of the PCR products allowed to be inserted into pACYCDuet-1 plasmid treated with Ncol and Xhol. The constructed plasmid named pA-GESP contained the artificial operon, pl5A replicon and chloramphenicol resistance gene, compatible with pET-28b plasmid including ColEl replicon and kanamycin resistance gene. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that three chaperones were expressed in soluble form from the induced E. coli cells carrying pA-GESP plasmid, similar to the cells harboring pR-GESP plasmid. Co-expression of three molecular chaperones partly improved the soluble expression of recombinant maize serine racemase, but did not have an affect on the expression of maize ferrodioxin reductase. Co-expression of three molecular chaperones, yeast 5-aminolevulinate synthase and Bacillus subtilis uroporphyrinogen methyltransferase from three plasmids containing the different antibiotics resistance gene increased the accumulation of intracellular red fluorescent products catalyzed by two enzymes successively. The production was estimated about 562. 13 ±3. 17/OD600 , compared with the production of 457. 66 ±4. 98/OD600 without function of the recombinant chaperones. The results suggested three chaperones partly improved the soluble expression of some proteins and catalytic activity in E. coli.%大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)共表达系统常要求质粒具有不同抗生素抗性以及不同的复制子.利用粘性末端PCR技术,以含有大肠杆菌分子伴侣基因GroEL、GroES和GrpE的pR-GESP质粒为模板,设计两对引物,通

  5. Multiplex PCR for the detection and differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains using the groEL, tdh and trh genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad Tofazzal; Kim, Young-Ok; Kong, In-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant cause of human gastrointestinal disorders worldwide, transmitted primarily by ingestion of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus strains was developed using primer sets for a species-specific marker, groEL, and two virulence markers, tdh and trh. Multiplex PCR conditions were standardised, and extracted genomic DNA of 70 V. parahaemolyticus strains was used for identification. The sensitivity and efficacy of this method were validated using artificially inoculated shellfish and seawater. The expected sizes of amplicons were 510 bp, 382 bp, and 171 bp for groEL, tdh and trh, respectively. PCR products were sufficiently different in size, and the detection limits of the multiplex PCR for groEL, tdh and trh were each 200 pg DNA. Specific detection and differentiation of virulent from non-virulent strains in shellfish homogenates and seawater was also possible after artificial inoculation with various V. parahaemolyticus strains. This newly developed multiplex PCR is a rapid assay for detection and differentiation of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, and could be used to prevent disease outbreaks and protect public health by helping the seafood industry maintain a safe shellfish supply.

  6. Making a friend from a foe: expressing a GroEL gene from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants confers resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akad, F; Eybishtz, A; Edelbaum, D; Gorovits, R; Dar-Issa, O; Iraki, N; Czosnek, H

    2007-01-01

    Some (perhaps all) plant viruses transmitted in a circulative manner by their insect vectors avoid destruction in the haemolymph by interacting with GroEL homologues, ensuring transmission. We have previously shown that the phloem-limited begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) interacts in vivo and in vitro with GroEL produced by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study, we have exploited this phenomenon to generate transgenic tomato plants expressing the whitefly GroEL in their phloem. We postulated that following inoculation, TYLCV particles will be trapped by GroEL in the plant phloem, thereby inhibiting virus replication and movement, thereby rendering the plants resistant. A whitefly GroEL gene was cloned in an Agrobacterium vector under the control of an Arabidopsis phloem-specific promoter, which was used to transform two tomato genotypes. During three consecutive generations, plants expressing GroEL exhibited mild or no disease symptoms upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of TYLCV. In vitro assays indicated that the sap of resistant plants contained GroEL-TYLCV complexes. Infected resistant plants served as virus source for whitefly-mediated transmission as effectively as infected non-transgenic tomato. Non-transgenic susceptible tomato plants grafted on resistant GroEL-transgenic scions remained susceptible, although GroEL translocated into the grafted plant and GroEL-TYLCV complexes were detected in the grafted tissues.

  7. CcpA affects expression of the groESL and dnaK operons in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasco Rosangela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in food industry and their growth performance is important for the quality of the fermented product. During industrial processes changes in temperature may represent an environmental stress to be overcome by starters and non-starters LAB. Studies on adaptation to heat shock have shown the involvement of the chaperon system-proteins in various Gram-positive bacteria. The corresponding operons, namely the dnaK and groESL operons, are controlled by a negative mechanism involving the HrcA repressor protein binding to the cis acting element CIRCE. Results We studied adaptation to heat shock in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. The LM3-2 strain, carrying a null mutation in the ccpA gene, encoding the catabolite control protein A (CcpA, showed a lower percent of survival to high temperature with respect to the LM3 wild type strain. Among proteins differentially expressed in the two strains, the GroES chaperon was more abundant in the wild type strain compared to the mutant strain under standard growth conditions. Transcriptional studies showed that class I heat shock operons were differentially expressed upon heat shock in both strains. Indeed, the dnaK and groESL operons were induced about two times more in the LM3 strain compared to the LM3-2 strain. Analysis of the regulatory region of the two operons showed the presence of cre sequences, putative binding sites for the CcpA protein. Conclusion The L. plantarum dnaK and groESL operons are characterized by the presence of the cis acting sequence CIRCE in the promoter region, suggesting a negative regulation by the HrcA/CIRCE system, which is a common type of control among the class I heat shock operons of Gram-positive bacteria. We found an additional system of regulation, based on a positive control exerted by the CcpA protein, which would interact with cre sequences present in the regulatory region of the dnaK and gro

  8. Gene cloning and expression analysis of Gro/KC by primary hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Hassanshahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: It is now well established that several environmental stresses lead to activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK in various cell systems which is followed by chemokine producion. We investigated the expression of both CXC chemokines SDF-1a (ELR- and Gro/KC (ELR+ in rat H4 hepatoma cells in response to heat shock, hyper-osmolarity and oxidative stresses. The pattern of expression of these chemokines by hepatoma cells in response to stress conditions was also studied.Materials and Methods: Hepatoma cells were maintained in MEM medium. Cells were subjected to different stresses [(H2O2 0.15% (w/v, manitol and NaCl (160 mM and heat shock [(42 °C for 20 minutes]. At the indicated time points, cells were harvested and RNA was extracted, purified and expression of the chemokines were analysed by RT-PCR. cDNA was separated by gel electrophoresis on a 1% (w/v agarose gel and visualised on a UV transilluminator.Results: Results obtained in this report showed that there was detectable but low expression of chemokines in H4 hepatoma cells. Heat shock failed to induce expression of chemokines in H4 rat hepatoma cells. Hyper-osmolarity also has not stimulated Chemokines expression. In this study we have also shown that oxidative stress did not induce expression of chemokines. Overall, although detection is possible but regulatory responses were not observed in H4 hepatoma cells.Conclusion: Several known injurious conditions cause recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils and other immune cells to the liver. Immune cells are recruited to the hepatic vasculature following local liver injury and consequent chemokine production. Our results demonstrated that failure in production of these chemokines by Hepatoma cells may be a way to escape from immune surveillance.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE BURSTING PULSAR GRO J1744-28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Younes, G., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E {sub l} ≅ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ≅ 52° and an inner disk radius of R {sub in} ≅ 85 GM/c {sup 2}, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ≅ (2-6) × 10{sup 10} G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature near ≅ 6.85 keV that could correspond to blue-shifted Fe XXV and point to a fast disk wind with an outflow velocity of v {sub out} ≅ (7.5-8.2) × 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1} (≅ 0.025c-0.027c). If the covering fraction and filling factor are large, this wind could be energetically important and perhaps account for the fact that the companion star lost significant mass while the magnetic field of the neutron star remained strong.

  10. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils.

  11. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.;

    2015-01-01

    keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains......We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60...

  12. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Dong; Yi-Ru Du; Wenrui Xie; Judith A.Strong; Xi-Jing He; Jun-Ming Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inflammation at the level of the sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) leads to robust mechanical pain behavior and the local inflammation has direct excitatory effects on sensory neurons including small,primarily nociceptive,neurons.These neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV 1) channel,which integrates multiple signals of pain and inflammation.The aim of this study was to characterize the regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC,systemic name:CXCL1),a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs.Methods Activation of the TRPV1 receptor with capsaicin was studied with patch clamp methods in acutely isolated small-diameter rat sensory neurons in primary culture.In vivo,behavioral effects of TRPV1 and GRO/KC were examined by paw injections.Results Neurons isolated from lumbar DRGs 3 days after local inflammation showed enhanced TRPV1 function:tachyphylaxis (the decline in response to repeated applications of capsaicin) was significantly reduced.A similar effect on tachyphylaxis was observed in neurons pre-treated for 4 h in vitro with GRO/KC.This effect was blocked by H-89,a protein kinase A inhibitor.Consistent with the in vitro results,in vivo behavioral responses to paw injection of capsaicin were enhanced and prolonged by pre-injecting the paw with GRO/KC 4 h before the capsaicin injection.GRO/KC paw injections alone did not elicit pain behaviors.Conclusion Function of the TRPV 1 channel is enhanced by DRG inflammation and these effects are preserved in vitro during short-term culture.The effects (decreased tachyphylaxis) are mimicked by incubation with GRO/KC,which has previously been found to be strongly upregulated in this and other pain models.

  13. INTEGRAL detection of the multi-peaked emission from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GRO J1008-57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations from the on-going INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning programme (PI: A. Bazzano) have detected increasing X-ray flux from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GRO J1008-57, confirming the re-brightening detected by MAXI/GSC (ATel #6819). The source was in the field of view of the IBIS...

  14. Electron microscopy and image analysis of the GroEL-like protein and its complexes with glutamine synthetase from pea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuprun, Vladimir L.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Pushkin, Alexander V.; Tagunova, Irina V.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular structure of groEL-like protein from pea leaves has been studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained particles. Over 1500 molecular projections were selected and classified by multivariate statistical analysis. It was shown that the molecule consists of 14 s

  15. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  16. Detection of the Host Immune Response to Burkholderia mallei Heat-Shock Proteins GroEL and DnaK in a Glanders Patient and Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    infected animal are the most common methods of acquiring glanders because the organism can be trans- mitted through droplets or saliva . In horses...host cell. A GroEL-like protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a patho- gen associated with periodontal disease, was found in extracellular

  17. Detection of the host immune response to Burkholderia mallei heat-shock proteins GroEL and DnaK in a glanders patient and infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kei; Meyers, Jennifer L; Deshazer, David; Riggins, Renaldo N; Halasohoris, Stephanie; England, Marilyn; Ribot, Wilson; Norris, Sarah L; Waag, David M

    2007-10-01

    We examined, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, the host immune response to 2 heat-shock proteins (hsps) in a patient and mice previously infected with Burkholderia mallei. The patient was the first reported human glanders case in 50 years in the United States. The expression of the groEL and dnaK operons appeared to be dependent upon a sigma(32) RNA polymerase as suggested by conserved heat-shock promoter sequences, and the groESL operon may be negatively regulated by a controlling invert repeat of chaperone expression (CIRCE) site. In the antisera, the GroEL protein was found to be more immunoreactive than the DnaK protein in both a human patient and mice previously infected with B. mallei. Examination of the supernatant of a growing culture of B. mallei showed that more GroEL protein than DnaK protein was released from the cell. This may occur similarly within an infected host causing an elevated host immune response to the B. mallei hsps.

  18. Nucleolin inhibitor GroA triggers reduction in epidermal growth factor receptor activation: Pharmacological implication for glial scarring after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshmit, Yona; Schokoroy Trangle, Sari; Afergan, Fabian; Iram, Tal; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2016-09-01

    Glial scarring, formed by reactive astrocytes, is one of the major impediments for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reactive astrocytes become hypertrophic, proliferate and secrete chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans into the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) can mediate astrocyte reactivity after neurotrauma. Previously we showed that there is crosstalk between nucleolin and EGFR that leads to increased EGFR activation followed by increased cell proliferation. Treatment with the nucleolin inhibitor GroA (AS1411) prevented these effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized that similar interactions may mediate astrogliosis after SCI. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin and EGFR interaction may play a pivotal role in mediating astrocyte proliferation and reactivity after SCI. Moreover, we demonstrate that treatment with GroA reduces EGFR activation, astrocyte proliferation and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans secretion, therefore promoting axonal regeneration and sprouting into the lesion site. Our results identify, for the first time, a role for the interaction between nucleolin and EGFR in astrocytes after SCI, indicating that nucleolin inhibitor GroA may be used as a novel treatment after neurotrauma. A major barrier for axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury is glial scar created by reactive and proliferating astrocytes. EGFR mediate astrocyte reactivity. We showed that inhibition of nucleolin by GroA, reduces EGFR activation, which results in attenuation of astrocyte reactivity and proliferation in vivo and in vitro. EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor.

  19. Bone marrow mast cell density correlates with serum levels of VEGF and CXC chemokines ENA-78 and GRO-α in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, C A; Tsirakis, G; Devetzoglou, M; Zafeiri, M; Vyzoukaki, R; Androvitsanea, A; Xekalou, A; Sfiridaki, K; Alexandrakis, M G

    2014-06-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial process in growth and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in MM angiogenesis. Various angiogenic mediators secreted by MCs regulate endothelial cell proliferation and function. Among them, ELR(+) CXC chemokines, such as growth-related oncogen-alpha (GRO-α) and epithelial neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), have been described as potential mediators in regulation of angiogenesis. The purpose of the study was to quantify MCs in bone marrow (BM) biopsies of MM patients, expressed as MC density (MCD), and correlate it with serum concentrations of vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), GRO-α, ENA-78. Fifty-four newly diagnosed MM patients and 22 healthy controls were studied. Tryptase was used for the immunohistochemical stain of MCs. VEGF, GRO-α, and ENA-78 were measured in sera by ELISA. MCD and serum levels of GRO-α, ENA-78, and VEGF were significantly higher in MM patients compared to controls (pENA-78. These findings support that MCs participate in the pathophysiology of MM and is implicated in the angiogenic process and disease progression.

  20. The htpAB operon of Legionella pneumophila cannot be deleted in the presence of the groE chaperonin operon of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Gagnon, Elizabeth; Orton, Dennis J; Garduño, Rafael A

    2011-11-01

    HtpB, the chaperonin of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila , displays several virulence-related functions in vitro. To confirm HtpB's role in vivo, host infections with an htpB deletion mutant would be required. However, we previously reported that the htpAB operon (encoding co-chaperonin and chaperonin) is essential. We attempted here to delete htpAB in a L. pneumophila strain carrying the groE operon (encoding the Escherichia coli co-chaperonin and chaperonin). The groE operon was inserted into the chromosome of L. pneumophila Lp02, and then allelic replacement of htpAB with a gentamicin resistance cassette was attempted. Although numerous potential postallelic replacement transformants showed a correct selection phenotype, we still detected htpAB by PCR and full-size HtpB by immunoblot. Southern blot and PCR analysis indicated that the gentamicin resistance cassette had apparently integrated in a duplicated htpAB region. However, we showed by Southern blot that strain Lp02, and the Lp02 derivative carrying the groE operon, have only one copy of htpAB. These results confirmed that the htpAB operon cannot be deleted, not even in the presence of the groE operon, and suggested that attempts to delete htpAB under strong phenotypic selection result in aberrant genetic recombinations that could involve duplication of the htpAB locus.

  1. Von Nobel bis Viagra: Die Geschichte eines kleinen Moleküls mit großer Wirkung: Stickstoffmonoxyd (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wird kurzgefasst die Geschichte des Nitroglyzerins und von Alfred Nobel dargestellt. Nitroglyzerin war als explosiver Bestandteil von Dynamit der gewaltigste Sprengstoff seiner Zeit und wurde von Alfred Nobel weiterentwickelt und kommerzialisiert, der später den Nobelpreis stiftete. Gleichermaßen ist Nitroglyzerin in öliger Dispersion und in geringsten Mengen seit 100 Jahren als „Koronardilatator“ eingeführt und weiterhin nahezu unersetzlich. Der Mechanismus, mit dem Nitroglyzerin Gefäße erweitert, wurde erst vor 25 Jahren von Furchgott, Ignarro und Murad vollständig aufgeklärt, indem sie die große Bedeutung des Endothels und des gefäßerweiternden Stickstoffmonoxyds beschrieben. Die 3 Forscher erhielten 1998 den Nobelpreis für Medizin zu gleichen Teilen "für die Entdeckung des NOs als Signalmolekül für das kardiovaskuläre System".

  2. Chaperonin GroEL a Brucella immunodominant antigen identified using Nanobody and MALDI-TOF-MS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbady, A Q; Al-Daoude, A; Al-Mariri, A; Zarkawi, M; Muyldermans, S

    2012-05-15

    The deployment of today's antibodies that are able to distinguish Brucella from the closely similar pathogens, such as Yersinia, is still considered a great challenge since both pathogens share identical LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-ring epitopes. In addition, because of the great impact of Brucella on health and economy in many countries including Syria, much effort is going to the development of next generation vaccines, mainly on the identification of new immunogenic proteins of this pathogen. In this context, Brucella-specific nanobodies (Nbs), camel genetic engineered heavy-chain antibody fragments, could be of great value. Previously, a large Nb library was constructed from a camel immunized with heat-killed Brucella. Phage display panning of this 'immune' library with Brucella total lysate resulted in a remarkable fast enrichment for a Nb referred to as NbBruc02. In the present work, we investigated the main characteristics of this Nb that can efficiently distinguish under well-defined conditions the Brucella from other bacteria including Yersinia. NbBruc02 showed a strong and specific interaction with its antigen within the crude lysate as tested by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and it was also able to pull down its cognate antigen from such lysate by immuno-capturing. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), NbBruc02 specific antigen was identified as chaperonin GroEL, also known as heat shock protein of 60 kDa (HSP-60), which represents a Brucella immunodominant antigen responsible of maintaining proteins folding during stress conditions. Interestingly, the antigen recognition by NbBruc02 was found to be affected by the state of GroEL folding. Thus, the Nb technology applied in the field of infectious diseases, e.g. brucellosis, yields two outcomes: (1) it generates specific binders that can be used for diagnosis, and perhaps treatment, and (2) it identifies the immunogenic candidate

  3. Enhanced translocation and growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 in the alkane phase of aqueous-alkane two phase cultures were mediated by GroEL2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takihara, Hayato; Ogihara, Jun; Yoshida, Takao; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Sunairi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that R. erythropolis PR4 translocated from the aqueous to the alkane phase, and then grew in two phase cultures to which long-chain alkanes had been added. This was considered to be beneficial for bioremediation. In the present study, we investigated the proteins involved in the translocation of R. erythropolis PR4. The results of our proteogenomic analysis suggested that GroEL2 was upregulated more in cells that translocated inside of the pristane (C19) phase than in those located at the aqueous-alkane interface attached to the n-dodecane (C12) surface. PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) and PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) strains were constructed to confirm the effects of the upregulation of GroEL2 in translocated cells. The expression of GroEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) was 15.5-fold higher than that in PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) in two phase cultures containing C12. The growth and cell surface lipophilicity of PR4 were enhanced by the introduction of pK4-EL2-1. These results suggested that the plasmid overexpression of groEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) led to changes in cell localization, enhanced growth, and increased cell surface lipophilicity. Thus, we concluded that the overexpression of GroEL2 may play an important role in increasing the organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis PR4 in aqueous-alkane two phase cultures.

  4. Using a field radiometer to estimate instantaneous sky clearness Radiômetro de campo para cálculo da clareza instantânea do céu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Souza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance measurements of crop plants and canopies show promise for guiding within-season, variable-rate nitrogen (N application. Most research results have been obtained around solar noon with clear skies. However, for practical application, the system must work under cloudy skies or away from solar noon. The objective of this work was to assess the effect of cloud conditions on reflectance measurements of a corn canopy. The approach was to estimate an instantaneous sky clearness index (ICI which could be used to correct field radiometer data for variations in cloud cover, such that the same reflectance reading would be obtained (and the same N recommendation made for the same plants regardless of cloud conditions. Readings were taken from morning until night over 11 days with a range of sky conditions (sunny, overcast, partly cloudy. Data from clear days were used to estimate the theoretical expected spectral global radiation incident on a horizontal surface. The ICI was calculated as the ratio between the actual spectral global radiation and the corresponding theoretical global radiation. Analysis of the ICI for each band showed that the influence of cloudiness was different for each band. Thus, the cloud effect could not be compensated by the use of a band ratio or vegetation index.Medidas da reflectância das folhas das plantas mostram-se promissoras para a aplicação de nitrogênio a taxa variável; entretanto, a maioria dos resultados de pesquisa foi obtida ao redor do meio-dia solar e com céu aberto, porém para aplicações práticas um sistema tem que trabalhar debaixo de céu nublado e fora do meio-dia solar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de condições de nuvem em medidas de reflectância de milho. A abordagem foi calcular um índice instantâneo de clareza do céu (ICI que pode ser usado para corrigir dados de radiômetros de campo para variações em cobertura de nuvem, tal que essas reflectâncias seriam

  5. Binding of Haemophilus ducreyi to carbohydrate receptors is mediated by the 58.5-kDa GroEL heat shock protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantzar, Martina; Teneberg, Susann; Lagergård, Teresa

    2006-08-01

    The bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which is characterized by the appearance of mucocutaneous, persistent ulcers on the external genitals. To identify carbohydrate receptors that mediate the attachment of this pathogen to host cells, we investigated the binding of 35S-methionine-labeled H. ducreyi strains to a panel of defined glycosphingolipids that were separated on thin layer chromatography plates. H. ducreyi bound to lactosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, the GM3 ganglioside, and sulfatide. To elucidate the role of the surface-located 58.5-kDa GroEL heat shock protein (HSP) of H. ducreyi in attachment, we investigated the binding of purified HSP to the same panel of glycosphingolipids. Our results suggest that the 58.5-kDa GroEL HSP of H. ducreyi is responsible for the attachment of this bacterium to the majority of the tested glycosphingolipids, and thus represents a potential bacterial adhesin.

  6. Arsenophonus GroEL interacts with CLCuV and is localized in midgut and salivary gland of whitefly B. tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Singh Rana

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV (Gemininiviridae: Begomovirus is the causative agent of leaf curl disease in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. CLCuV is exclusively transmitted by the whitefly species B. tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Alerodidae. B. tabaci contains several biotypes which harbor dissimilar bacterial endo-symbiotic community. It is reported that these bacterial endosymbionts produce a 63 kDa chaperon GroEL protein which binds to geminivirus particles and protects them from rapid degradation in gut and haemolymph. In biotype B, GroEL protein of Hamiltonella has been shown to interact with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. The present study was initiated to find out whether endosymbionts of B. tabaci are similarly involved in CLCuV transmission in Sriganganagar (Rajasthan, an area endemic with cotton leaf curl disease. Biotype and endosymbiont diversity of B. tabaci were identified using MtCO1 and 16S rDNA genes respectively. Analysis of our results indicated that the collected B. tabaci population belong to AsiaII genetic group and harbor the primary endosymbiont Portiera and the secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus. The GroEL proteins of Portiera and Arsenophonus were purified and in-vitro interaction studies were carried out using pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In-vivo interaction was confirmed using yeast two hybrid system. In both in-vitro and in-vivo studies, the GroEL protein of Arsenophonus was found to be interacting with the CLCuV coat protein. Further, we also localized the presence of Arsenophonus in the salivary glands and the midgut of B. tabaci besides the already reported bacteriocytes. These results suggest the involvement of Arsenophonus in the transmission of CLCuV in AsiaII genetic group of B. tabaci.

  7. Arsenophonus GroEL interacts with CLCuV and is localized in midgut and salivary gland of whitefly B. tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vipin Singh; Singh, Shalini Thakur; Priya, Natarajan Gayatri; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajagopal, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) (Gemininiviridae: Begomovirus) is the causative agent of leaf curl disease in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum). CLCuV is exclusively transmitted by the whitefly species B. tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alerodidae). B. tabaci contains several biotypes which harbor dissimilar bacterial endo-symbiotic community. It is reported that these bacterial endosymbionts produce a 63 kDa chaperon GroEL protein which binds to geminivirus particles and protects them from rapid degradation in gut and haemolymph. In biotype B, GroEL protein of Hamiltonella has been shown to interact with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The present study was initiated to find out whether endosymbionts of B. tabaci are similarly involved in CLCuV transmission in Sriganganagar (Rajasthan), an area endemic with cotton leaf curl disease. Biotype and endosymbiont diversity of B. tabaci were identified using MtCO1 and 16S rDNA genes respectively. Analysis of our results indicated that the collected B. tabaci population belong to AsiaII genetic group and harbor the primary endosymbiont Portiera and the secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus. The GroEL proteins of Portiera and Arsenophonus were purified and in-vitro interaction studies were carried out using pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In-vivo interaction was confirmed using yeast two hybrid system. In both in-vitro and in-vivo studies, the GroEL protein of Arsenophonus was found to be interacting with the CLCuV coat protein. Further, we also localized the presence of Arsenophonus in the salivary glands and the midgut of B. tabaci besides the already reported bacteriocytes. These results suggest the involvement of Arsenophonus in the transmission of CLCuV in AsiaII genetic group of B. tabaci.

  8. "Kein Zeugnis abzulegen, wäre Verrat": Holocaustausstellungen an Stätten des Gedenkens im internationalen Vergleich – Deutschland, Frankreich, Großbritannien und Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer-Englmaier, Iris Pamela Anna

    2015-01-01

    Die Studie zielt auf eine vergleichende Analyse der ausstellerischen Diskurse von Stätten des Gedenkens an den Holocaust in den Ländern Großbritannien, Frankreich, Israel und Deutschland. Hierbei wird der Begriff des Holocaust so weit gefasst, wie es im englischsprachigen Diskurs üblich ist. Er beinhaltet neben den Juden auch andere Bevölkerungsgruppen, die von den Nationalsozialisten verfolgt wurden. Untersucht werden konkret das Imperial War Museum, London's Museum of Jewish Life und d...

  9. Controversy of the GRO J1655-40 black hole mass and spin estimates and its possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the black hole mass $M$ and dimensionless spin $a$ in the microquasar GRO J1655-40 implied by strong gravity effects related to the timing and spectral measurements are controversial, if the mass restriction determined by the dynamics related to independent optical measurements, $M_{\\rm opt}=(5.4\\pm0.3) M_{\\odot}$, are applied. The timing measurements of twin high-frequency (HF) quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequency ratio $3:2$ and the simultaneously observed low-frequency (LF) QPO imply the spin in the range $a\\in(0.27-0.29)$ if models based on the frequencies of the geodesic epicyclic motion are used to fit the timing measurements, and correlated creation of the twin HF QPOs and the LF QPO at a common radius is assumed. On the other hand, the spectral continuum method implies $a\\in(0.65-0.75)$, and the Fe-line-profile method implies $a\\in(0.94-0.98)$. This controversy can be cured, if we abandon the assumption of the occurrence of the twin HF QPOs and the simultaneously observed LF Q...

  10. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra observations of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 during its third reactivation

    CERN Document Server

    Younes, G; Grefenstette, B W; Tomsick, J A; Tennant, A; Finger, M H; Furst, F; Pottschmidt, K; Bhalerao, V; Boggs, S E; Boirin, L; Chakrabarty, D; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Degenaar, N; Fabian, A C; Gandhi, P; Gogus, E; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kennea, J A; Miller, J M; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/HETG-NuSTAR observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 years of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5-70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors, and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disc, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4x10^7 cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B~9x10^10 G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV ...

  11. Primjena nove tehnike prosušivanja bobica grožđa za proizvodnju prošeka

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Peršurić Bernobić, Katarina; Bilandžija, Nikolina; Kraljević, Ante; Sinković, Ana; Sinković, Petra

    2013-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati pokusnog prosušivanja grožđa sorti Muškat žuti i Muškat ruža crni dopremljenih iz vinograda blizu Poreča s OPG-a Peršurić Đordano. Uzorci prije sušenja sorte Muškat žuti imali su sadržaj šećera 87ºOe (186 g/L), a Muškat ruža crni 91ºOe (200 g/L). Nakon sušenja sadržaj šećera u soku bobica bio je oko 173ºOe (378 g/L). Proces prosušivanja uzoraka sorte Muškat žuti trajao je 120 sati, a kod sorte Muškat ruža crni 108 sati pri temperaturi zraka za sušenje od 35-38°C ...

  12. Die Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien oder die "Modernisierung der ärztlichen Karrieren" [Modernising Medical Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Moulin, Marcel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper analyses the reform of postgraduate medical education introduced in the United Kingdom in 2003 under the heading "Modernising Medical Careers“. This nationally standardised and structured postgraduate medical training was started in 2005. The analysis includes the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate education, the new responsibilities in postgraduate education, the application process and the mode of distribution of the positions and the relationship of posts with and without postgraduate training opportunities. Possible consequences for postgraduate training and for the trainees are discussed. [german] Die Arbeit beschreibt und analysiert die Reform der Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien, die 2003 unter dem Titel "Modernising Medical Careers“ eingeführt wurde und seit 2005 umgesetzt wird. Vorgestellt werden der Übergang von der Ausbildung zur Weiterbildung, die neuen Zuständigkeiten für die Weiterbildung, das Auswahlverfahren und der Verteilungsmodus der Weiterbildungsstellen sowie das Verhältnis von Stellen mit und ohne Facharztperspektive. Die potenziellen Folgen für die Facharztweiterbildung und für die Weitergebildeten werden diskutiert.

  13. A preliminary in vitro assessment of GroBiotic-A, brewer's yeast and fructooligosaccharide as prebiotics for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Gary; Hume, Michael; Ricke, Steven; Nisbet, David; Gatlin, Delbert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brewers yeast, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products, on the intestinal microbial community of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were aseptically removed from three sub-adult red drum previously maintained on a commercial diet and placed in an anaerobic chamber. Intestinal contents were removed, diluted and incubated in vitro in one of four liquid media: normal diet alone, diet + 2% (w/w) GroBiotic-A, diet + 2% brewers yeast, and diet + 2% FOS. After 24 and 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C, supernatants were removed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and DNA was extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on a highly conserved region of M 16S rDNA and the amplicons were subjected to DGGE. The microbial community (MC) fingerprint was used to distinguish microbial populations. The intestinal contents incubated with GroBiotic-A had significantly (Pyeast.

  14. The Effects of Heterologous Expression of groEL from Arthrobacter simplex on the Resistance Performance of Escherichia coli%简单节杆菌groEL基因表达对大肠杆菌抗逆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 王红玲; 王敏; 骆健美

    2016-01-01

    Arthrobacter simplex,a strain with steroid C1,2 dehydrogenation ability,has been widely used in the steroid industry, usually adding ethanol in the transforming system may catalyze the dissolution of hydrophobic substrates. Our prior work by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis found that heat shock protein(HSP)GroEL was closely correlated to the cell adaptive behavior under ethanol stress condition. Based on this concept,groEL gene was cloned by PCR while usingA. simplexTCCC 11037 genome as a template. The results showed that the homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequence of GroEL in the strain were the highest with that fromNocardioides sp. JS614 by the ratio of 89% and 95%,respectively. Then its heterologous expression was conducted in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)with the vector pET-22b (+),and the results showed that the recombinant strain presented the significant increase on the survival performance under the shock condition with high-concentration of methanol,hypertonicity and superacid,as well as the growth performance under the proper stresses of them. The study was the first report on the cloning and expression of genegroEL fromA. simplex,and also provided fundamental data for exploring the biological function of HSP protein GroEL from A. simplex.%以简单节杆菌(Arthrobacter simplex)TCCC 11037基因组为模板,通过PCR方法进行groEL基因克隆,结果表明,该菌株中GroEL的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与Nocardioidessp. JS614来源的GroEL同源性最高,分别为89%和95%。通过pET-22b(+)将其在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行异源表达,结果表明,重组菌株在甲醇、高渗和强酸这3种压力高浓度冲击条件下的存活能力和适当压力条件下的生长性能均明显提高。

  15. ThegroE operon ofStreptococcus mutans with its expression and regulation%变异链球菌groE操纵子及其表达与调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一舟; 张雅琪; 牛雪微; 张志民

    2016-01-01

    变异链球菌耐受口腔内多种环境的变化,主要依赖于多种热休克蛋白基因的表达。其中,groE操纵子表达的GroES-GroEL蛋白可辅助新合成的以及变性的蛋白质折叠、组装、转运和降解,从而影响细胞的代谢。变异链球菌groE操纵子位于1 834 692~1 832 649位点,包括σA型启动子、分子伴侣表达反向重复序列(CIRCE)、groES和groEL及终止子,在进化上高度保守,其表达受热、酸、乙醇和过氧化氢等多种应激环境的诱导,受CtsR和HrcA蛋白的双重负性调节。groE操纵子的调控有HrcA-CIRCE系统负调控假说和CtsR的负调控两种方式,但其具体调控机制尚未在变异链球菌中得到充分证实。从分子水平上研究变异链球菌groE操纵子的结构和调控机制,有助于进一步阐明细胞的生理过程,为了解细胞在应激和病变状态下的分子调节机制打下基础。%Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans), as one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, can respond to several environmental stresses. This ability mainly depends on the translation and expression of variety of heat shock protein genes. groE operon, one of the best-studied heat shock genes, affects the metabolism of cells by translating the heat shock proteins, groES-groEL, which can mediate the folding, assembly, transport, and degradation of new or misfolding proteins. The groE operon locates in 1 834 692-1 832 649 sites, including a σA promoter, inverted repeat sequence(CIRCE), groES, groEL and a terminator. It is highly conserved, and can be induced to express by stress environment including heat, acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide. Both HrcA-CIRCE system and CtsR play a negative regulation role, without a clear mechanism. Studies, about the structure and regulation mechanism of S.mutans groE operon in a molecular level, help to further clarify the physiological process of cells, and lay the foundation for understanding the molecular

  16. Controversy of the GRO J1655-40 Black Hole Mass and Spin Estimates and Its Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Z.; Kološ, M.

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of the black hole mass M and the dimensionless spin a in the microquasar GRO J1655-40 implied by strong gravity effects related to the timing and spectral measurements are controversial, if the mass restriction determined by the dynamics related to independent optical measurements, M opt = (5.4 ± 0.3) M ⊙, is applied. The timing measurements of twin high-frequency (HF) quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) with the frequency ratio 3:2 and the simultaneously observed low-frequency (LF) QPO imply spin in the range a\\in (0.27{--}0.29) if models based on the frequencies of geodesic epicyclic motion are used to fit the timing measurements, and the correlated creation of the twin HF QPOs and the LF QPO at a common radius is assumed. On the other hand, the spectral continuum method implies a\\in (0.65{--}0.75), and the Fe-line-profile method implies a\\in (0.94{--}0.98). This controversy can be cured if we abandon the assumption of the occurrence of the twin HF QPOs and the simultaneously observed LF QPO at a common radius. We demonstrate that the epicyclic resonance model of the twin HF QPOs is able to predict the spin in agreement with the Fe-profile method, but no model based on the geodesic epicyclic frequencies can be in agreement with the spectral continuum method. We also show that the non-geodesic string loop oscillation model of twin HF QPOs predicts spin a > 0.3 under the optical measurement limit on the black hole mass, which is in agreement with both the spectral continuum and Fe-profile methods.

  17. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 during Its Third Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Tomsick, J. A.; Tennant, A.; Finger, M. H.; Fürst, F.; Pottschmidt, K.; Bhalerao, V.; Boggs, S. E.; Boirin, L.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Degenaar, N.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.; Göğüş, E.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5-70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law (PL) with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disk, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4 × 107 cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B ≈ 9 × 1010 G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV feature into (quasi-)neutral and highly ionized Fe xxv and Fe xxvi emission lines. XSTAR modeling shows these lines to also emanate from a truncated accretion disk. The burst spectra, with a peak flux more than an order of magnitude higher than Eddington, are well fit with a PL with an exponential rolloff and a 10 keV feature, with similar fit values compared to the persistent and dip spectra. The burst spectra lack a thermal component and any Fe features. Anisotropic (beamed) burst emission would explain both the lack of the BB and any Fe components.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS NuSTAR/CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE BURSTING PULSAR GRO J1744-28 DURING ITS THIRD REACTIVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, G.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grefenstette, B. W.; Fürst, F. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Pottschmidt, K. [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Bhalerao, V. [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Boirin, L. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 Rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Chakrabarty, D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Degenaar, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); and others

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)–Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5–70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law (PL) with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disk, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4 × 10{sup 7} cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B ≈ 9 × 10{sup 10} G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV feature into (quasi-)neutral and highly ionized Fe xxv and Fe xxvi emission lines. XSTAR modeling shows these lines to also emanate from a truncated accretion disk. The burst spectra, with a peak flux more than an order of magnitude higher than Eddington, are well fit with a PL with an exponential rolloff and a 10 keV feature, with similar fit values compared to the persistent and dip spectra. The burst spectra lack a thermal component and any Fe features. Anisotropic (beamed) burst emission would explain both the lack of the BB and any Fe components.

  19. INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations of GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), H1743-322 and SLX 1746-331

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Shaw, S.;

    2008-01-01

    A new season of the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program (see ATels #438, #874, #1005; Kuulkers et al. 2007, A&A 466, 595) started, with observations on UT 11 Feb 2008, 16:33-18:07. We here report on results from three currently active transient sources. The IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X1 images sho...... a bright source near GX 3+1, coincident with the position of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639)....

  20. Strontium-Substituted Bioceramics Particles: A New Way to Modulate MCP-1 and Gro-α Production by Human Primary Osteoblastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Braux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid morbidity and limited availability associated with autografts, synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP ceramics were extensively developed and used as bone filling materials. Controlling their induced-inflammatory response nevertheless remained a major concern. Strontium-containing CaP ceramics were recently demonstrated for impacting cytokines’ secretion pattern of human primary monocytes. The present study focuses on the ability of strontium-containing CaP to control the human primary bone cell production of two major inflammatory and pro-osteoclastogenic mediators, namely MCP-1 and Gro-α, in response to ceramics particles. Methods: This in vitro study was performed using human primary osteoblasts in which their response to ceramics was evaluated by PCR arrays, antibody arrays were used for screening and real-time PCR and ELISA for more focused analyses. Results: Study of mRNA and protein expression highlights that human primary bone cells are able to produce these inflammatory mediators and reveal that the adjunction of CaP in the culture medium leads to their enhanced production. Importantly, the current work determines the down-regulating effect of strontium-substituted CaP on MCP-1 and Gro-α production. Conclusion: Our findings point out a new capability of strontium to modulate human primary bone cells’ communication with the immune system.

  1. INTEGRAL detection of the on-going outbursts from 1RXS J180408.9-342058 and GRO J1750-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissay, R.; Chenevez, J.; Wilms, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the observations of the Galactic Center (from 2015 February 16 12:46 to February 17 at 4:25 UTC), INTEGRAL detected the two sources 1RXS J180408.9-342058 (Atel #6997, #7008, #7039) and GRO J1750-27 (Atel #1385, #1400, #6839) which were recently reported to undergo new outbursts. 1RXS J180408.......9-342058 was observed in both the IBIS/ISGRI and the JEM-X FoV. A preliminary analysis of the ISGRI and JEM-X data revealed that the source broad-band spectrum (effective exposure time 34.2 ks for ISGRI and 9.3 ks for the two JEM-X) could be described by using a cut-off power-law model. We measured a power-law photon...... of the source. GRO J1750-27 was observed by IBIS/ISGRI for an effective exposure time 34.2 ks and by the two JEM-X for a total effective exposure time 9 ks. The ISGRI spectrum of the source could be roughly described with a soft power-law of photon index ~4. The estimated source flux from the spectral fit is 7...

  2. Application of a relativistic accretion disc model to X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Gierlinski, M; Ebisawa, K; Gierlinski, Marek; Maciolek-Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Ebisawa, Ken

    2001-01-01

    We present a general relativistic accretion disc model and its application to the soft-state X-ray spectra of black hole binaries. The model assumes a flat, optically thick disc around a rotating Kerr black hole. The disc locally radiates away the dissipated energy as a blackbody. Special and general relativistic effects influencing photons emitted by the disc are taken into account. The emerging spectrum, as seen by a distant observer, is parametrized by the black hole mass and spin, the accretion rate, the disc inclination angle and the inner disc radius. We fit the ASCA soft state X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40 by this model. We find that having additional limits on the black hole mass and inclination angle from optical/UV observations, we can constrain the black hole spin from X-ray data. In LMC X-1 the constrain is weak, we can only rule out the maximally rotating black hole. In GRO J1655-40 we can limit the spin much better, and we find 0.68 < a < 0.88. Accretion discs in both sources a...

  3. Development of PCR primers and a DNA macroarray for the simultaneous detection of major Staphylococcus species using groESL gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsi-Chi; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus spp., including S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus, are major bacterial species associated with food poisoning, and human and veterinary clinics. Traditional methods for the identification of these staphylococci are time-consuming, laborious, or inaccurate. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are needed. In this study, we designed the DNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the detection of the aforementioned Staphylococcus species. These primers were proved to be specific for the detection of their corresponding target strains. Furthermore, by using a consensus primer pair, we were able to co-amplify the intergenic region of groES-groEL for these staphylococci. Followed by a chromogenic macroarray system with the specific probes on the plastic chips, these staphylococci in milk products or clinical samples could be simultaneously detected. When the system was used for the inspection of milk or urine samples containing N × 10⁰ target cells per milliliter of the sample, all these staphylococcal species could be identified after an 8-h pre-enrichment step. This system also allowed the adequate diagnosis of bacteremia, since N × 10⁰ target cells per milliliter of the blood samples could be detected after a 12-h pre-enrichment. Compared to the multiplex PCR method, this approach has the additional advantage that it allowed the discrimination of more bacterial strains-even some bacterial strains that may generate PCR products with the same molecular sizes.

  4. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Khachigian, Levon M; Esau, Luke; Birrer, Michael J; Zhao, Xiaohang; Parker, M Iqbal; Hendricks, Denver T

    2009-05-01

    Although early growth response-1 (EGR-1) has been shown as a key transcription factor in controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis, its role in the development of esophageal cancer is poorly understood despite the high frequency of this disease in many parts of the world. Here, immunohistochemistry showed that EGR-1 is overexpressed in 80% of esophageal tumor tissues examined. Furthermore, EGR-1 is constitutively expressed in all esophageal cancer cell lines analyzed. Esophageal squamous carcinoma WHCO1 cells stably transfected with EGR-1 short hairpin RNA displayed a 55% reduction in EGR-1 protein levels, 50% reduction in cell proliferation, a 50% reduction in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels, and a 2-fold induction in p27(Kip1) levels associated with a G(2)-M cell cycle arrest. EGR-1 knockdown also caused a marked induction in IkappaBalpha expression, an effect also observed in GRObeta RNA interference-expressing WHCO1 cells, because EGR-1 lies downstream of GRO/CXCR2 signaling. Furthermore, p65 mRNA levels were also reduced in cells treated with either short hairpin RNA EGR-1 or small interfering RNA EGR-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that p65 is elevated in 78% (n = 61) of esophageal tumor sections analyzed. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition with either sodium salicylate or p65 RNA interference led to a significant reduction in GROalpha and GRObeta expression. These results indicate that EGR-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB mediate GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer and may represent potential target molecules for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Dopustimo li ubistvo radi iskusstva? / Jüri Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Jüri, 1936-

    2005-01-01

    Artiklite "Kas kunsti nimel võib tappa?", "Sõnavõtt Eesti kultuurikonverentsil" ning "Muust ja sitast" tõlked Jüri Arraku esseekogumikust "Võsa, aas ja mägi" (Tallinn, 2003). Mõtteid kunsti nimel tapmise lubatavusest seoses taani shokikunstniku B. Norgaardi näitusega "Uus Euroopa" Tallinnas. Usu osast ja vaimsusest kunstis. Kriitikat seoses ekskrementide demonstreerimisega kunstina

  6. Podaite, Hrista radi, 150 mln. kron / Artur Tooman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooman, Artur, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Keskkonnaministeerium valmistab ette seaduseprojekti nn "nafta fondi" loomiseks võimaliku naftareostuse likvideerimise finantseerimiseks. Sadamaoperaatorid on nördinud riigi kavatsusest lahendada oma probleemid ettevõtjate arvel, keskkonnaministeeriumi esindaja sõnul ei ole veel otsustatud, kes ja kui palju peaks maksma hakkama

  7. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Urban Transport Emission Control Research Centre, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Hongjun [Urban Transport Emission Control Research Centre, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-mutated species, Bacillus subtilis 38, is a good sorbent for multi-metals (Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb). • B38 mixed with NovoGro exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. • DTPA, M3 and BCR were suitable for predicting metal bioavailability for specific classes of plant. • The NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. • It's a practical strategy for the remediation of actual farmland polluted by multi-heavy metals. - Abstract: Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4–97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals.

  8. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    CERN Document Server

    Kalemci, E; Maccarone, T J; Dincer, T; Russell, T D; Bailyn, C; Tomsick, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also in...

  9. Using GRO J1655-40 to test Swift/BAT as a monitor for bright hard X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Senziani, F; De Luca, A; Caraveo, P A; Belloni, T; Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    While waiting for new gamma-ray burst detections, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift covers each day ~50% of the sky in the hard X-ray band (``Survey data''). The large field of view (FOV), high sensitivity and good angular resolution make BAT a potentially powerful all-sky hard X-ray monitor, provided that mask--related systematics can be properly accounted for. We have developed and tested a complete procedure entirely based on public Swift/BAT software tools to analyse BAT Survey data, aimed at assessing the flux and spectral variability of bright sources in the 15-150 keV energy range. Detailed tests of the capabilities of our procedure were performed focusing, in particular, on the reliability of spectral measurements over the entire BAT FOV. First, we analyzed a large set of Crab observations, spread over ~7 months. Next, we studied the case of GRO J1655-40, a strongly variable source, which experienced a 9-month long outburst, beginning on February 2005. Such an outburst was systematically ...

  10. A target-oriented magnetotelluric inversion approach for characterizing the low enthalpy Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, G.; Ritter, O.; Moeck, I.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter for the exploration and characterization of geothermal reservoirs as hot mineralized formation water of active geothermal areas usually exhibits significantly higher conductivity than the surrounding host rock. Here we present results of a magnetotelluric (MT) exploration experiment carried out in the vicinity of the Groß Schönebeck geothermal test site in Northern Germany, where a doublet system of two 4.3-km deep boreholes was drilled to establish an in situ laboratory to investigate the potential for geothermal energy production. Classical 2-D smooth inversion of the MT data, recorded along two profiles, reveals a shallow conductive structure in good agreement with information from regional geology and seismic images. However, at the northernmost part of the profiles, the conductivity models reveal deep-reaching conductive structures, which appear uncorrelated with existing (geophysical or geological) data. Incorporating information from seismics as independent constraints for MT inversions allows us to examine the model space rigorously but target oriented. Employing so-called tear-zone inversions we can effectively derive an alternative class of models, which are consistent with the MT observations but also with the other data sets. We speculate that the zones of high conductivity imaged at reservoir depth are related areas of reduced thickness of the overlaying evapourite layer. The enhanced conductivity can be explained by a higher fracture density in anhydritic layers and/or generally lower resistivity of the pore fluid.

  11. Evidence for a change in the radiation mechanism in the hard state of GRO J1655-40. Hysteresis in the broad-band noise components

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Sobolewska, M A; Malzac, J

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed RXTE archival data to study the aperiodic variability of the black-hole binary GRO J1655-40 during the hard state of the 2005 outburst. We computed the 0.008-64 Hz power spectral density during the rise and decay of the 2005 outburst, and we found that they were reasonably well modelled by the sum of two, broad Lorenztian functions in most cases (plus a narrow QPO) which correspond to three different variability components. Our aim is to study the evolution of the timing properties of the source during the outburst, by studying the correlation between the characteristics of the broad-band noise components in the power spectra and the source luminosity. Our results suggest that the whole power spectrum shifts to high (low) frequencies as the source luminosity increases (decreases), in agreement with previous studies of other black hole binaries. However, we also detect a strong "hysteresis" pattern in the "frequency-luminosity" plots, and show that the "critical" luminosity limit, above which ...

  12. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, E.; Begelman, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Dinçer, T.; Russell, T. D.; Bailyn, C.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also investigated the radio to optical spectral energy distribution, tracking the radio spectral evolution through the quenching of the compact jet and rise of the optically thin flare, and interpreted all data using state transition models.

  13. Extended abstracts from the eight international meeting on progress in radio-oncology (ICRO/OeGRO 8), Salzburg, May 16-19, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This part of the journal includes 25 extended abstracts from the Eight International Meeting on Progress in Radio-Oncology ICRO/OeGRO8 in Salzburg, Austria (May 16-19, 2007): adaptive radiotherapy of prostate cancer; homoradiation of prostate cancer; radiation therapy, chemotherapy and combined chemoradiation in the management of malignant glioma; return of high-dose per fraction radiotherapy: paradigm change, lesson from the past; from bench to bedside: enhancing the effects of radiotherapy through biological escalation; gastric cancer: MAGIC or Macdonald; analysis of set-up errors in 70 consecutive patients treated for rectal carcinoma; molecular targeted therapy; teleradiooncology: telematics applications in therapeutic radiology and oncology; in-room guidance technologies for adaptive radiotherapy; dose escalation with photons - emerging technologies; late side-effects after pelvic irradiation; a frameless robotic stereotactic system for highly focused extracranial radiotherapy; altered fractionation in head and neck tumors: an alternative to chemotherapy; integration of molecular targeting with radiotherapy; OGRT pf prostate cancer patients based on CBCT and kV images; hyperfractionation in medulloblastoma; re-irradiation of recurrent prostate cancer; dose reduction of radiotherapy in early-stage testicular semimoma; photons versus protons; randomized clinical trials on postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk head and neck cancer; cardiac risk in multimodal breast cancer treatment; the use of hyperthermia treatment planning in clinical practice; presentation of the ICRU-IAEA Joint Report 'prescribing, recording, and reporting proton-beam therapy'.

  14. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  15. Thermo-poroelastic numerical modelling for enhanced geothermal system performance: Case study of the Groß Schönebeck reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquey, Antoine B.; Cacace, Mauro; Blöcher, Guido; Watanabe, Norihiro; Huenges, Ernst; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Significant pressure and temperature changes can occur within geothermal reservoirs caused by injection and production of fluid which can affect transport properties of the rocks and therefore alter reservoir performance and sustainability. To understand the coupling between transport properties evolution and state variable changes, a complete description of the mechanical behavior of the reservoir is required which should consider thermo- and poroelastic effects. This study aims to integrate transport properties evolution for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) process modelling of fluid-bearing reservoirs. This approach is here applied to the geothermal research site of Groß Schönebeck (40 km north of Berlin, Germany) which consists of a doublet system at a target depth of about - 4100 m in which both injection and production wells have been hydraulically stimulated. A 3D reservoir model including the main geological units, major natural fault zones and hydraulic fractures is integrated in the finite-element method-based simulator OpenGeoSys for modelling coupled THM processes during geothermal activity. One challenge of this study is to integrate both hydro-geological and physical complexity to better describe the dynamic behavior of the geothermal reservoir. From the results of the simulation, thermal breakthrough is observed after 18 years of injection and life time of the system has been evaluated as 50 years. Furthermore, a 5.5% increase of porosity around the injection well is observed as well as an increase of the anisotropy ratio for permeability (kz/kxy) of about 2%. These transport properties enhancements lead to a decrease of the thermal breakthrough time (around - 8%) and life time of the system (- 14%) compared to classic thermo-hydro simulations with constant transport properties. The results presented here provide therefore valuable insights for understanding porosity and permeability distributions and evolutions during injection and production

  16. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank, and groESL heat shock operon genes in naturally occurring Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates from Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, J S; Foley, J E; Dumler, J S; Madigan, J E

    2000-04-01

    We examined 11 naturally occurring isolates of Ehrlichia equi in horses and two human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates in California for sequence diversity in three genes. Ehrlichia equi isolates were from Sierra (n = 6), Mendocino (n = 3), Sonoma (n = 1), and Marin (n = 1) counties, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent isolates were obtained from Humboldt county. PCR with specific primers for 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank and groESL heat shock operon genes successfully produced amplicons for all 13 clinical samples. The 444 Ep-ank gene of the HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California is different from the eastern U.S. isolates BDS and USG3. The translated amino acid sequence of the groESL heat shock operon gene fragment is identical among E. equi, the HGE agent, and E. phagocytophila, with the exception of the northern Californian equine CASOLJ isolate. Microheterogeneity was observed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California. These results suggest that E. equi and the HGE agent found in California are similar or identical but may differ from the isolates of equine and human origin found in the eastern United States.

  17. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sun, Hongwen; Mao, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei

    2014-08-15

    Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4-97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Solar Powered Feeding Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks in low Solar Density Conditions / Bezvadu Sensoru Tīklu Elektroapgādes Sistēmas Izstrāde, Kas Izmanto Saules Paneļus Un Darbojas Pazeminātas Saules Radiācijas Apstākļos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratjevs, K.; Zabasta, A.; Selmanovs-Pless, V.

    2015-08-01

    kontekstā ar reģionālajiem apstākļiem un aprēķināt darba režīmus bezvadu tīkla komponentēm vai pieņemt lēmumus par to funkcionalitātes pielāgošanu. Izstrādātais vadības modulis sastāv no saules paneļa fotoelementu moduļa, uzglabāšanas risinājuma (litija vai līdzvērtīgas baterijas) un elektroapgādes pārvaldības moduļa. Pētījuma novitāte ir elektroapgādes pārvaldības modulis, kas nodrošina stabilu un nepārtrauktu elektronisko iekārto darbību dažādos barošanas režīmos, dažādās situācijās, vienlaikus nodrošinot enerģijas saglabāšanu un moduļa sastāvdaļu ilgtspēju. Izstrādātais risinājums nodrošina nepārtrauktu 5V barošanu elektronikas shēmām bez strāvas pārtraukuma, kad notiek komutācija starp barošanas avotiem un enerģijas plūsmām dažādos virzienos. Elektroapgādes pārvaldības modulis nodrošina stabilu spriegumu mainīgos saules radiācijas apstākļos.

  19. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  20. Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov., isolated from cider and kefir, and identification of species of the genus Acetobacter by dnaK, groEL and rpoB sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Wieme, Anneleen; Spitaels, Freek; Balzarini, Tom; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Five acetic acid bacteria isolates, awK9_3, awK9_4 ( = LMG 27543), awK9_5 ( = LMG 28092), awK9_6 and awK9_9, obtained during a study of micro-organisms present in traditionally produced kefir, were grouped on the basis of their MALDI-TOF MS profile with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T), two strains currently classified as members of the genus Acetobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as on concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB indicated that these isolates were representatives of a single novel species together with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T) in the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, Acetobacter oeni and Acetobacter estunensis as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Pairwise similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences between LMG 1531(T) and the type strains of the above-mentioned species were 99.7%, 99.1%, 98.4% and 98.2%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed that status, while amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data indicated that LMG 1531(T), LMG 1530, LMG 27543 and LMG 28092 represent at least two different strains of the novel species. The major fatty acid of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 was C18 : 1ω7c. The major ubiquinone present was Q-9 and the DNA G+C contents of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 were 58.3 and 56.7 mol%, respectively. The strains were able to grow on D-fructose and D-sorbitol as a single carbon source. They were also able to grow on yeast extract with 30% D-glucose and on standard medium with pH 3.6 or containing 1% NaCl. They had a weak ability to produce acid from d-arabinose. These features enabled their differentiation from their nearest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov. is proposed with LMG 1531(T) ( = NCIMB 8941(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  1. Eesti Post sokrashtshajet ljudei radi povõshenija effektivnosti / Jüri Ehasalu ; interv. Dmitri Zvjagintsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehasalu, Jüri, 1953-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Posti nõukogu esimees vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad töötajate koondamist Eesti Postis, ettevõtte erastamise mõttekust, hinnangut olukorrale postiteenuste turul, uute postioperaatorite tuleku võimalust Eesti liitumisel EL-iga

  2. Simulation of Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Soil Water-Salt Movement by ENVIRO-GRO Model%模型模拟再生水灌溉对土壤水盐运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand,wastewater reuse has become an important measure,which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing.In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing,a city of water shortage,under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research.The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation.Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity(ECe) increased 29.5%,97.2%,197.8% respectively,with the higher irrigation,normal irrigation,and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions.Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement,and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation.Under equilibrium conditions,annual averages of ECe increased 23.7%,97.2%,208.5% respectively,with irrigation water salinity(ECw) 0.6,1.2,2.4 dS·m-1.Soil salinity increased slightly with ECw=0.6 dS·m-1,while soil salinization did not appear.Totally,the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing,but mild soil salinization appeared.%随着水资源供需矛盾日益尖锐,污水再生利用成为了缓解北京水资源紧缺的重要举措.为推动北京再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟缺水城市北京再生水灌溉土壤水盐运动规律,并对土壤盐分累积进行预测,探讨了不同灌溉措施对土壤水盐运动规律和盐分累积的影响.结果表明,高水量、常规、低水量灌溉,平衡时土壤含盐量(ECe)年均值分别增加了29.5%、97.2%、197.8%;灌溉频率对土壤水盐运动规律影响不大,但低频灌溉下土壤中盐分的累积有减少的趋势;灌溉水含盐量(ECw)为0.6、1.2、2.4 d

  3. Perspectiva de género para el análisis de la participación femenina en organizaciones ambientalistas. El caso de la organización de mujeres ecologistas de la Sierra de Petatlán, Gro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu00E9 Maru00EDa Aranda Su00E1nchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el análisis empírico de la Organización de Mujeres Ecologistas de la Sierra de Petatlán, Gro., este artículo propone un esquema de análisis de la participación de mujeres en organizaciones no gubernamentales ambientalistas, desde una perspectiva de género, haciendo énfasis en el estudio de las relaciones más significativas, no siempre visibles, que las mujeres establecen como activistas realizando determinadas acciones colectivas a favor del ambiente y la ecología. Esas relaciones se expresan como: a Trabajo extradoméstico; b Situación social de las mujeres; c Relaciones de las mujeres con la naturaleza, y d Relaciones de las mujeres con las instituciones.

  4. Co-overexpression of bacterial GroESL chaperonins partly overcomes non-productive folding and tetramer assembly of E. coli-expressed human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) carrying the prevalent disease-causing K304E mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Andresen, B S; Winter, V;

    1993-01-01

    underlying MCAD deficiency caused by the prevalent K304E mutation. Depending on which of the three amino acids--lysine (wild-type), glutamic acid (K304E) or glutamine (K304Q) are present at position 304 of the mature polypeptide, three different patterns were observed in our assay system: (i) solubility...... and the enzyme activity measured as observed for the wild-type protein. (iii) Solubility of the K304E mutant is in a similar fashion GroESL responsive as the K304Q mutant, but the amount of tetramer observed and the enzyme activity measured do not correlate with the amount of soluble K304E MCAD protein detected...... in Western blotting. In a first attempt to estimate the specific activity, we show that tetrameric K304E and K304Q mutant MCAD display a specific activity in the range of the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, our results strongly suggest, that the K304E mutation primarily impairs the rate of folding...

  5. Malformaciones vasculares: claves diagnósticas para el radiólogo Vascular malformations: diagnostic clues for the radiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García Mónaco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las malformaciones vasculares son enfermedades raras ocasionadas por errores en el desarrollo embriológico de los vasos sanguíneos. Estas lesiones, junto con los tumores vasculares, constituyen las anomalías vasculares. En el caso de las malformaciones vasculares, éstas se denominan de acuerdo al vaso que conforma la lesión y se clasifican según las características del flujo en malformaciones de bajo o alto flujo. Si bien la mayor parte son diagnosticadas según criterios clínicos, algunas lesiones requieren de estudios complementarios tanto para el establecimiento de un correcto diagnóstico como para la evaluación de su extensión. La ecografía Doppler suele ser el estudio inicial para conocer las características hemodinámicas y contribuir al diagnóstico diferencial entre un tumor y una malformación vascular. La resonancia magnética (RM es el mejor método para evaluar la extensión de las lesiones y su relación con estructuras adyacentes. El diagnóstico preciso del tipo de malformación vascular es importante por su pronóstico y tratamiento diferentes. La Radiología Intervencionista constituye uno de los pilares fundamentales en el manejo terapéutico. Es altamente recomendable un abordaje multidisciplinario dada la complejidad de estas lesiones, particularmente en la elección de las opciones terapéuticas y en el seguimiento clínico de los pacientes.Vascular malformations are rare conditions resulting from the abnormal development of blood vessels. These lesions, together with vascular tumors, represent the vascular anomalies. Vascular malformations are named according to which type of vessel is affected and are classified into high- or low-flow malformations on the basis of flow characteristics. Most vascular malformations are diagnosed according to clinical criteria. However, some require imaging studies to confirm the diagnosis or assess its extension. Doppler ultrasound is the usual initial study for hemodynamic assessment and for its contribution to differential diagnosis between vascular tumors and malformations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the best technique for evaluating the extent of the lesions and their relationship with adjacent structures. An accurate diagnosis of the type of vascular malformation is of importance because of the different prognosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is one of the cornerstones in the therapeutic management. A multidisciplinary approach is highly recommended given the complexity of these lesions, particularly for selecting therapeutic options and for the patient clinical follow-up.

  6. THE CHAPTERS ON GRAMMAR IN THE “ALFAVITAR RADI UČENIJA MALYCH DETEJ”: STRUCTURE, CONTENTS, SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Podtergera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a 17th century primer whose author is currently considered to be Evfimij Čudovskij. It provides a detailed analysis of the structure and content of the first sections of that part of the book which is dedicated to grammar, commenting on the way in which the author revised the grammar textbooks that he used as source material. The analysis demonstrates that he was an experienced educator who had a professional knowledge of didactics and knew the principles that the school curriculum was based on. It also becomes clear that the author was acquainted with the contemporary West European theories of grammar. All this casts doubt on the presumed authorship of Evfimij Čudovskij, who received no systematic school education.Further linguistic and textual analysis shows that Aldus Manutius’ Latin commentary on the Greek alphabet De literis Graecis, ac diphthongis, et quemadmodum ad nos ueniant, which accompanied the editions of Constantine Laskaris’ Greek grammar, was used as a source. In 1687 the Lichudes brothers compiled an abridged version of Laskaris’ grammar offering their own explanations of certain linguistic phenomena and whole sentences of these are reproduced nearly verbatim in the primer. The paper concludes by arguing that the conception of this primer belonged to the Lichudes, that it was conceived as they were studying Old Church Slavonic using Smotryckyj’s grammar, possibly with the help of Evfimij Čudovskij. I suggest that Evfimij was a source of the Slavic data for the book, but not its author.

  7. Određivanje buke radi sertifikacije mlaznih aviona / Procedures in the noise certification of jet aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Jurin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane osnovne teorijske postavke i matematički modeli koji su značajni za obradu akustičkih i neakustičkih podataka u procesu određivanja buke mlaznih aviona prema međunarodnom standardu ICAO, Annex 16, za potrebe sertiflkacije. Proces obuhvata i postupak eliminacije efekata ambijentalnog šuma iz signala avionske buke. Kao primer, data je praktična primena navedenog postupka na rezultate merenja za avion G-2A. / This paper presents a basic theoretical scheme and a mathematical model that is used to calculate jet aircraft noise level for certification purposes in accordance with the international standard ICAO Annex 16. In this process acoustic and nonacoustic data are used. The process also includes the procedure for eliminating ambient noise effects out of the aircraft noise signal. This procedure was applied in the case of noise measurement results for the G-2Ajet aircraft.

  8. GroFi: Large-scale fiber placement research facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krombholz

    2016-03-01

    and processes for large-scale composite components. Due to the use of coordinated and simultaneously working layup units a high exibility of the research platform is achieved. This allows the investigation of new materials, technologies and processes on both, small coupons, but also large components such as wing covers or fuselage skins.

  9. GRO J0422+32 = GRS 0417+335

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1992-01-01

    , and three times brighter than, the black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1 as observed by OSSE in 1991 June. Significant emission is observed up to about 600 keV, with an average source flux of 1.8 photons cmE-2 sE-1 MeVE-1 at 100 keV. The continuum spectrum between 60 and 600 keV is not compatible with a single...

  10. Identifying Protein Stabilizing Ligands Using GroEL

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Haque, Inamul; Degner, Nick; Kornilayev, Boris; Bomhoff, Gregory; Hodges,Jacob; Khorassani, Ara-Azad; Katayama, Hiroo; Morris, Jill; Kelly, Jeffery; Seed, John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five years, it has become increasingly apparent to researchers that the initial promise and excitement of using gene replacement therapies to ameliorate folding diseases are still far from being broadly or easily applicable. Because a large number of human diseases are protein folding diseases (~30 to 50%), many researchers now realize that more directed approaches to target and reverse the fundamental misfolding reactions preceding disease are highly feasible and offer the pote...

  11. Identifying Protein Stabilizing Ligands Using GroEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Haque, Inamul; Degner, Nick; Kornilayev, Boris; Bomhoff, Gregory; Hodges, Jacob; Khorassani, Ara-Azad; Katayama, Hiroo; Morris, Jill; Kelly, Jeffery; Seed, John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five years, it has become increasingly apparent to researchers that the initial promise and excitement of using gene replacement therapies to ameliorate folding diseases are still far from being broadly or easily applicable. Because a large number of human diseases are protein folding diseases (~30 to 50%), many researchers now realize that more directed approaches to target and reverse the fundamental misfolding reactions preceding disease are highly feasible and offer the potential of developing more targeted drug therapies. This is also true with a large number of so called “orphan protein folding diseases”. The development of a broad-based general screening array method using the chaperonin as a detection platform will enable us to screen large chemical combinatorial libraries for specific ligands against the elusive transient, primary reactions that often lead to protein misfolding. This development will provide a highly desirable tool for the pharmaceutical, academic and medical professions. PMID:19802819

  12. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eBertelshofer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and in particular also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may guide also the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (PBE. Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss-Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and thus need to be carefully considered e.g. in design studies on membrane proteins.

  13. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  14. Visualisierung großer Datenmengen im Raum

    OpenAIRE

    Polowinski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Large, strongly connected amounts of data, as collected in knowledge bases or those occurring when describing software, are often read slowly and with difficulty by humans when they are represented as spreadsheets or text. Graphical representations can help people to understand facts more intuitively and offer a quick overview. The electronic representation offers means that are beyond the possibilities of print such as unlimited zoom and hyperlinks. This paper addresses a framework for vi...

  15. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelshofer, Franziska; Sun, Liping; Greiner, Günther; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and, in particular, also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may also guide the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE). Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss-Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and, thus, needs to be carefully considered, e.g., in design studies on membrane proteins.

  16. GRO J0422+32 = GRS 0417+335

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels;

    1992-01-01

    A. J. Castro-Tirado, S. Brandt, and N. Lund, Granat WATCH team (Danish Space Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "The hard x-ray transient reported by Paciesas et al. on IAUC 5580 has been observed by the WATCH all-sky monitor on Granat. The source intensity...

  17. 模型模拟土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响%Simulation of Effects of Soil Properties and Plants on Soil Water-salt Movement with Reclaimed Water Irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    为推动再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟了不同土壤性质、植被条件下土壤盐分的分布规律及累积趋势,探讨了土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响.研究发现,不同土壤初始含盐量下,经多年重复模拟后最终达到统一的平衡状态;而不同土壤质地下,随着灌溉年份的增加,壤土、黏壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐增加直到平衡,砂壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐减少直到平衡,平衡时土层中的ECe值砂壤土〈壤土〈黏壤土.3种植被下,大叶黄杨、油松的土壤ECe值增加量小于早熟禾;土壤盐分在土层中的空间、时间分布也均有所不同.此外,不同模拟情景下,土壤盐分累积都不会影响植被的生长(黏壤土除外),但均出现轻度盐渍化(砂壤土除外).%In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study.The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated.Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation,with different initial soil salinity.Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil,salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions,while under the condition of sandy loam soil,salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions.The saturated soil salinity(ECe) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loamloamclay loam.Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass.The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three

  18. Correlación clínica y neuro-radiólogica en la eclampsia Clinical and neuroradiographic correlates in eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Malvino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron cinco pacientes con eclampsia mediante tomografía computarizada, resonancia magnética nuclear y angio-resonancia. Tres de ellas cursaron con síndrome HELLP. Se apreciaron lesiones bilaterales que involucraron áreas córtico-subcorticales dependientes de ambos territorios vasculares, centro oval, talámicas y mesencéfalo-protuberanciales. La angio-resonancia descartó la presencia de imágenes compatibles con vasoespasmo en arterias de mediano calibre. Con excepción de alteraciones visuales coincidentes con el compromiso del lóbulo occipital, otras lesiones descriptas carecieron de expresión clínica.Brain computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography were performed in five eclamptic patients. Three of them had HELLP syndrome. The findings on the imaging studies showed bilateral lesions affecting regions of the brain, such as cortico-subcortical either posterior and anterior circulation territories, white matter, talamic or mesencephalic-protuberancial areas. No vasoespasm in middle size arteries were observed with magnetic resonance angiography. Although visual disturbance and occipital lobe involvement were correlated, no others mentioned lesions had clinical manifestations.

  19. Correlación clínica y neuro-radiólogica en la eclampsia Clinical and neuroradiographic correlates in eclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Malvino; Jorge Ríos; Diego Mc Loughlin; Antonio Moreno

    2004-01-01

    Se estudiaron cinco pacientes con eclampsia mediante tomografía computarizada, resonancia magnética nuclear y angio-resonancia. Tres de ellas cursaron con síndrome HELLP. Se apreciaron lesiones bilaterales que involucraron áreas córtico-subcorticales dependientes de ambos territorios vasculares, centro oval, talámicas y mesencéfalo-protuberanciales. La angio-resonancia descartó la presencia de imágenes compatibles con vasoespasmo en arterias de mediano calibre. Con excepción de alteraciones v...

  20. Mechanochemical endovenous Ablation versus RADiOfrequeNcy Ablation in the treatment of primary great saphenous vein incompetence (MARADONA) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; Holewijn, Suzanne; Vahl, Anco; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with an excellent outcome in the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. The use of thermal energy as a treatment source requires the instillation of tumescence anesthesia. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) combines

  1. Mechanochemical endovenous Ablation versus RADiOfrequeNcy Ablation in the treatment of primary great saphenous vein incompetence (MARADONA) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; Holewijn, Suzanne; Vahl, Anco; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is associated with an excellent outcome in the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. The use of thermal energy as a treatment source requires the instillation of tumescence anesthesia. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation (MOCA) combines mecha

  2. Outcomes of an inpatient refeeding protocol in youth with anorexia nervosa: Rady Children's Hospital San Diego/University of California, San Diego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maginot, Tamara R; Kumar, Maya M; Shiels, Jacqueline; Kaye, Walter; Rhee, Kyung E

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines for nutritional rehabilitation in hospitalized restrictive eating disorder patients recommend a cautious approach to refeeding. Several studies suggest that higher calorie diets may be safe and effective, but have traditionally excluded severely malnourished patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety of a higher calorie nutritional rehabilitation protocol (NRP) in a broad sample of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders, including those who were severely malnourished. A retrospective chart review was conducted among eating disorder inpatients between January 2015 and March 2016. Patients were started on a lower calorie diet (≤1500 kcals/day) or higher calorie diet (≥1500 kcals/day). Calorie prescription on admission was based on physician clinical judgement. The sample included patients aged 8-20 years with any DSM-5 restrictive eating disorder. Those who were severely malnourished (<75% expected body weight [EBW]) or required tube feeding during admission were included. Multivariable regression models were used to determine whether level of nutritional rehabilitation was associated with hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, or hypokalemia. The sample included 87 patients; mean age was 14.4 years (S.D. 32.7); 29% were <75% EBW. The majority (75.8%) was started on higher calorie diets (mean 1781 kcal/day). Controlling for rate of calorie change, initial %EBW, age, race/ethnicity, insurance, diagnosis, and NG/NJ tube placement, higher calorie diets were not associated with hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, or hypokalemia on admission or within the first 72 h. Increased risk of hypophosphatemia on admission was associated with lower baseline %EBW. A higher calorie NRP was tolerated in this broad population of inpatients with restrictive eating disorders. Lower %EBW on admission was a more important predictor of hypophosphatemia than initial calorie level. Larger studies are required to demonstrate the safety of higher calorie diets in severely malnourished patients.

  3. Große statistische Unsicherheit beim Anteil der Top-Vermögenden in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Westermeier, Christian; Grabka, Markus M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysen zur Vermögensungleichheit auf Basis von Bevölkerungserhebungen untererfassen tendenziell die Top-Vermögenden. Gerade dieser Personenkreis ist aber von besonderer Bedeutung, weil er einen beträchtlichen Teil des Gesamtvermögens besitzt. Offizielle Registerdaten zur Vermögenssituation liegen für Deutschland nicht vor, die Top-Vermögen lassen sich lediglich an Hand von "Reichen-Listen" simulieren. Kombiniert man etwa die Forbes-Liste, die rund 50 Dollar-Milliardäre mit deutscher Staatsb...

  4. La arquitectura de la Groβstadt : Berlín, 1900-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez Astorga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recoge las conclusiones más importantes obtenidas durante mi estancia de investigación realizada en Berlín en el verano de 2009, que tuvo por objeto el estudio y análisis de la actividad arquitectónica desarrollada en Berlín antes y después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y, en concreto, entre 1900 y 1945. Se valora también el contexto existente en esta ciudad tras las destrucciones ocasionadas por el segundo conflicto mundial, aludiendo a las diversas propuestas ideadas para su reconstrucción. Asimismo, se ha buscado establecer paralelismos con el panorama arquitectónico europeo.The following article includes the most important conclusions drawn from my research stay in Berlin during the summer of 2009. The main aim of my research was to study and analyse the architectural development carried out in Berlin between 1900 and 1945, before and after the II World War, taking also into account the prevailing context of the city due to the damages caused by this War, the numerous reconstruction projects put forward in that moment, together with an attempt to establish parallelisms with the European architectural prospect of that historical moment.

  5. Wissenschaftler wollen mit dem Großen Hadronenbeschleuniger bei Genf Welträtsel knacken

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The way to the Big Bang is 27 kilometers long. The ring of the new particle accelerator of CERN has this extent; from May protons - which is positively charged parts of the atomic nucleus - will start collide almost with speed of light hit one on the other.

  6. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/news.shtml . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Andrea Huberty, Branch Chief, Regulatory and Environmental Analysis Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory... restriction is necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest or noxious weed into the United States or...

  7. Relativität, Quanten theorie und Große Vereinigung

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's general relativity theory is so successful - It remains a classic description, that considers no quantum effects. In t his interview, Hermann Nicolai, Director of the Max Planck Institute for gravitationnal physics in Postdam, describe possible ways to come to a standardized theory

  8. The large Nuremberg clock (German Title: Die große Nürnbergische Uhr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    The great Nuremberg Clock denotes a specialty in the way of counting hours in the city of Nuremberg, which was in use for a long time. Hours of equal length, as they are also indicated by wheel clocks, were used, the partition into daily and nightly hours was kept, however, the number of these (daily and nightly) hours must be an integer value. Accordingly, the length of the day had to be increased or shortened by an hour in regular intervals. Tables were calculated for this purpose, which also listed the ringing times of church bells.

  9. Eval dome Makur uation estic an rdi met n of gro nd irrig tropoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    dwater abstracted through hand-dug wells and boreholes as their source of ... and environs and evaluate its suitability for drinking, domestic and ... reous and non-calcareous shale, sandy or shally lime- stone and .... 2) showing the relationship between the measured parameters. ..... HCO3 in order of increasing dominance.

  10. Gutshof Dagö-Großenhof/Hiiu-Suuremõisa mõis / Arne von Maydell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maydell, Arne von

    2014-01-01

    Ühest parimast säilinud hilisbaroki näitest Eestis - Hiiu-Suuremõisast. Mõisapark on suurim Hiiumaal, 17. sajandi algusest kuni 19. sajandini oli mõis üks Hiiumaa majanduskeskustest. Mõisa omanikest. Härrastemajaga seotud müstikast

  11. Die Suche nach dem verschollenen Großsteingrab G4 'Onner es' (Onnen, Prov. Groningen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Hendrik; Lanting, JN; Woldring, H

    2014-01-01

    On the eastern hillside of the Hondsrug near the hamlet Onnen (Gr.), a scatter of surface finds led to the belief that a megalithic grave (hunebed) must have been present on the Onner es. Through soil radar, test excavation, pollen analysis and coring, the former location of the presumed hunebed was

  12. A Research of 140-GHz Folded Rectangular Gro ove Waveguide Traveling-Wave Tub e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Minghao; WEI Yanyu; YUE Lingna; GUO Guo; WANG Yuanyuan; SHI Xianbao; WANG Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    A two-section Folded rectangular groove waveguide (FRGWG) Slow wave structure (SWS) Travel-ing wave tube (TWT) with large dimension of beam tunnel is studied. Compared with the Folded waveguide (FWG) under the same size parameters conditions, the interac-tion impedance and center frequency of the FRGWG are higher. The advantage is that a beam tunnel with large dimension can be applied to the FRGWG without the influence caused by signal decrease, reflection and oscil-lation. The microwave amplification capability based on beam-wave interaction is obtained through the particle-in-cell method. This circuit structure can produce an output power of over 100W ranging from 136 to 142GHz when the operation voltage and beam current are set as 18.4kV and 150mA, respectively, for a 95mm long circuit.

  13. Bodensee-Oberschwaben. Eine erfolgreiche Region fernab der Großstädte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielzyk, Rainer; Köhler, Stefan; Friedsmann, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Bodensee-Oberschwaben is representative of a type of region that does not receive much attention in regional research. The region is located peripherally, away from the metropolises and urban agglomeration areas. Despite seemingly poor initial conditions, the region is economically very successful. A polycentric structure of many small and medium-sized towns characterize Bodensee-Oberschwaben as well as other attributes, which do not allow for classification into traditional categories such as rural or urban. Friedrichshafen, the largest city and the industrial core of the region, contributes significantly to its prosperity. The international high technology companies, which are located here, have their origins in the activities of Graf Zeppelin in the early 20th century. Regional universities and the strong network between actors both within the region as well as between Bodensee-Oberschwaben and the neighboring regions have also had a positive impact on region's development.

  14. OMC camera experiment for INTEGRAL and search for Compton GRO BATSE LOCBURST optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Tomáš; Hudec, René; Hroch, Filip; Soldán, Jan; Mas-Hesse, Miguel; Giménez, Alvaro

    1998-05-01

    The test camera of the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) experiment for INTEGRAL spacecraft achieving an angular pixel size of 18 arcsec and a field of view 7.5°×5.1° has been successfully developed and tested at the Astronomical Institute Ondřejov. The test camera is able to provide imaging down to 15 mag over the whole field of view within one exposure of 300 seconds. Although developed primarily to test the OMC performance and help with software development, this device is ideally suited for use as a ground-based camera for sites where Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE Locburst triggers are followed-up in the optical waveband and also for wide-field sky monitoring in general. The low cost of this camera makes it possible to duplicate the system at a number of observing sites. A chart and a corresponding CCD-image for the BACODINE Locburst Position 6368 taken with the OMC test camera at Ondřejov observatory are also presented. The image taken 18 hours after the trigger was computer-blinked with the frame taken 30 days later. No optical activity has been found down to 13.5 mag.

  15. Das Augustusnomen Karls des Großen und das karolingische Imperium

    OpenAIRE

    Strothmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Nomen Augusti of Charlemagne and the Carolingian imperium. –The Nomen Augusti of Charlemagne is on a first view taken from the byzantine custom and in this respect is a pure title for an emperor. But for the Carolingians and Frankish elites it does mean more than this. The regular title for an emperor there is caesar or imperator, but augustus evokes remembering Octavian-Augustus himself too. That is shown by the Carolingian poets. The key for this conviction lies in the selfconsciousness...

  16. Authormagic: Ein Konzept zur Autorenidentifikation in Großen Digitalen Bibliotheken

    CERN Document Server

    Weiler, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Author name ambiguities distort the quality of information discovery in digital libraries. These ambiguities also contribute to the inaccurate attribution of authorship to individual researchers. The latter is especially delicate in research evaluation. To solve this issue, many algorithmic bulk disambiguation approaches have been proposed in the literature. However, no algorithmic approach can solve author ambiguities with an accuracy of 100%. Some online projects allow users to manually create publication lists, which are then regarded as profiles of the researchers. The tedious work to manually assemble such publication lists and the unavailability of scientific material in these projects limit the success of these projects. The “Authormagic” concept is developed in this thesis to address the author ambiguity issue with a hybrid approach of combining algorithmic and human intelligence. A customized agglomerative clustering approach first determines publication clusters by comparing available metadata. ...

  17. Confirmation of a high magnetic field in GRO J1008-57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-01-01

    search to date for cyclotron scattering features at lower energies. We find evidence for a 78(-2)(+3) keV line in the NuSTAR and Suzaku data at >4 sigma significance, confirming the detection using Suzaku alone by Yamamoto et al. A search of both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved data rules out...

  18. A influência da temperatura na eficiência de painéis fotovoltaicos em diferentes níveis de incidência da radiância solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Nabeyama Michels

    2010-12-01

    . O sistema fotovoltaico, composto por painéis fotovoltaicos e uma bomba de deslocamento positivo, foi instalado na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná na cidade de Medianeira. Os dados foram coletados durante o período de um ano, porém somente dados de dias limpos foram utilizados, para que não ocorresse a influência do sombreamento, de nuvens, sobre os valores obtidos. Observou-se, neste trabalho, que o aumento da temperatura, nos painéis fotovoltaicos, faz com que a eficiência diminua, devido ao decréscimo da tensão e da potência.

  19. WDROŻENIE ZAPISÓW DYREKTYWY PARLAMENTU EUROPEJSKIEGO I RADY 2002/92/WE Z 9 GRUDNIA 2002 R. W SPRAWIE POŚREDNICTWA UBEZPIECZENIOWEGO W KRAJOWY PORZĄDEK PRAWNY

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Nadrzędnym celem pracy jest analiza sposobu wdrożenia dyrektywy w sprawie pośrednictwa ubezpieczeniowego w krajowy porządek prawny. W celu wdrożenia postanowień dyrektywy w sprawie pośrednictwa ubezpieczeniowego uchwalono ustawę z dnia 22 maja 2003 r. o pośrednictwie ubezpieczeniowym . Jest to pierwsza, kompleksowa, wyczerpująca regulacją pośrednictwa ubezpieczeniowego w randze ustawy w Polsce. Praca koncentruje się na poddaniu analizie i omówieniu obowiązujących przepisów oraz porównani rozw...

  20. Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Luo, Lijuan; Song, Xiuping; Sun, Jimin; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05). Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment. PMID:27916953

  1. Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukui Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05. Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment.

  2. "Groβes zärtliches Brasilien": Das Brasilienbild in den Werken von Heinrich Eduard Jacob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Eckl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora tendo viajado pelo Brasil em 1932 e depois escrito vários artigos sobre essa viagem assim como três livros de temática brasileira, Heinrich Eduard Jacob é quase desconhecido em Brasil. Por isso neste artigo são apresentados a trajetória do jornalista e escritor e as suas obras brasileiras Treibhaus Südamerika (1934, Saga e marcha triunfal do café (1934 e Estrangeiro. Einwandererschicksal in Brasilien (1951. Ademais Jacob será contextualizado atraves da conecção com os outros autores que, nos anos 30 e 40, escreveram sobre o país. Estes, na maioria, foram refugiados do nazismo como entre outros Stefan Zweig, Richard Katz, Wolfgang Hoffmann-Harnisch, Frank Arnau e Marte Brill. Quanto ao imaginário acerca do Brasil descrito por Jacob percebe-se que ele como tantos outros autores também viu no Brasil um "país de um futuro" (como o chamou e uma "democracia racial" pretensa existente no país. Apesar disso, não desistiu de desmascarar a cordialidade brasileira proverbial como sendo apenas disfarce e de indicar problemas existentes como a questão da política quanto ao café e as consequencias negativas do nacionalismo, fomentado pelo regime Vargas. Assim ele defendeu um ponto de vista que foi contrário àquele do seu amigo Stefan Zweig.

  3. The rule-based language XL and the modelling environment GroIMP illustrated with simulated tree competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerling, R.; Kniemeyer, O.; Lanwert, D.; Kurth, W.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The programming language XL ('eXtended L-system language') is an extension of Java, which supports the specification and execution of relational growth grammars, a variant of parallel graph grammars. XL is a powerful generalisation of the well-known L-system approach to functional-structural plant m

  4. Basisindikatoren der ökonomischen Entwicklung in Deutschland, Großbritannien, Schweden, USA - 1950 bis 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Thome, Helmut; Birkel, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Die Vergleichsstudie präsentiert Daten zur ökonomischen Entwicklung in Deutschland, England, Schweden und den USA im Zeitraum 1950-2000. Dabei gliedern sich die Ausführungen in folgende ökonomische Kenngrößen: (1) Wachstum und Niveau des Volkseinkommens, (2) Produktivitätsentwicklung, (3) Arbeitslosigkeit, (4) Beschäftigungsstrukturen (Arbeitszeitvolumen und Beschäftigungsquoten, sektorale Entwicklung, öffentlicher und privater Sektor, Frauenerwerbsquote, Selbständigenquote) (5) Entwicklung d...

  5. GRO/EGRET data analysis software: An integrated system of custom and commercial software using standard interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, N. A.; Bertsch, D.; Lal, N.; Etienne, A.; Mcdonald, L.; Mattox, J.; Sreekumar, P.; Nolan, P.; Fierro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has been in orbit for more than a year and is being used to map the full sky for gamma rays in a wide energy range from 30 to 20,000 MeV. Already these measurements have resulted in a wide range of exciting new information on quasars, pulsars, galactic sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission. The central part of the analysis is done with sky maps that typically cover an 80 x 80 degree section of the sky for an exposure time of several days. Specific software developed for this program generates the counts, exposure, and intensity maps. The analysis is done on a network of UNIX based workstations and takes full advantage of a custom-built user interface called X-dialog. The maps that are generated are stored in the FITS format for a collection of energies. These, along with similar diffuse emission background maps generated from a model calculation, serve as input to a maximum likelihood program that produces maps of likelihood with optional contours that are used to evaluate regions for sources. Likelihood also evaluates the background corrected intensity at each location for each energy interval from which spectra can be generated. Being in a standard FITS format permits all of the maps to be easily accessed by the full complement of tools available in several commercial astronomical analysis systems. In the EGRET case, IDL is used to produce graphics plots in two and three dimensions and to quickly implement any special evaluation that might be desired. Other custom-built software, such as the spectral and pulsar analyses, take advantage of the XView toolkit for display and Postscript output for the color hard copy. This poster paper outlines the data flow and provides examples of the user interfaces and output products. It stresses the advantages that are derived from the integration of the specific instrument-unique software and powerful commercial tools for graphics and statistical evaluation. This approach has several proven advantages including flexibility, a minimum of development effort, ease of use, and portability.

  6. Época de recolecta en Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana M., en Acapulco Gro., México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Juárez-Agis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available En seis arboles de Peltogyne mexicana M. se evaluó el efecto de las fechas sobre variables de germinación, Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con parcelas divididas con cinco bloques (repeticiones, en las parcelas grandes se colocaron los árboles (cinco y en las parcelas chicas las fechas de recolecta (seis. Cada parcela pequeña tuvo cinco bolsas, estas a su vez tuvieron cinco semillas, usándose 25 semillas de cada fecha de su respectivo árbol (parcela pequeña en cada parcela grande (fecha de recolecta. Los mejores resultados para germinación fueron para la fecha uno con un valor de 72.48% y la fecha dos con valor de 61.12%, el valor mínimo fue de 24.48 para la fecha seis. Así las semillas que se recolectan de manera temprana tienen porcentajes de germinación mayor

  7. Constraints of age, distance and progenitor of the supernova remnant RX J0852-4622/GRO J0852-4642

    OpenAIRE

    Aschenbach, Bernd; Iyudin, Anatoli F.; Schoenfelder, Volker

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of the nearest young supernova remnant RXJ0852-4622/GROJ0852-4642 in the Galaxy by ROSAT and COMPTEL has been reported recently. Age and distance are determined to ~680 years and ~200 pc by the X-ray diameter and the gamma-ray line flux of radioactive 44Ti. Here we discuss the implications of the X-ray spectra and of the fact that 1.8 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the decay of 26Al has been measured from the Vela region with a certain fraction possibly associated with the new...

  8. Klinische Ergebnisse nach stereotaktischer Präzisionsbestrahlung großer uvealer Melanome mit dem Gamma-Knife

    OpenAIRE

    Schonenbach, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    Von Juni 1997 bis April 2001 wurden 97 Patienten, die an einem unilateralen uvealen Melanom litten, mit dem Gamma-Knife radiochirurgisch behandelt. Die Melanome aller 97 Patienten waren aufgrund der Lokalisation oder der Größe für eine Therapie mit Ruthenium-Applikatoren nicht geeignet. Alle 97 Patienten, die sich der Therapie mit dem Gamma-Knife unterzogen, wurden in eine engmaschige Nachsorge aufgenommen. Bei der Nachsorge wurden in regelmäßigen Abständen klinische, echographische und n...

  9. Le CERN et l'embargo des Nations Unies envers la Serbie et le Monténégro

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory of Particle Physics, in reply to questions raised by the media would like to clarify its position with regard to the resolution No 757 of the U.N. Security Council of 30 May 1992 imposing an embargo on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). This position was adopted immediately after the embargo was announced.

  10. Die Messung der Gluonpolarisation durch die Produktion von Hadronpaaren mit großen Transversalimpulsen in tiefinelastischer Myonstreuung am Nukleon

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleon is investigated at the COMPASS experiment at the CERN-SPS using polarized muons scattering off polarized nucleons. The contribution of the quarks to nucleon spin, as measured in the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, is not sufficient to explain the spin of the nucleon. Thus it has to be clarified how the gluon polarization and the angular momenta of quarks and gluons contribute to the spin of the nucleon. Since the gluon polarization can only be estimated from the $Q^{2}$-dependence of inclusive deep inelastic asymmetries, a direct measurement of the gluon polarization is mandatory. The COMPASS collaboration determines the gluon polarization from cross section asymmetries in photon-gluon fusion processes using open charm production or the production of hadron pairs with large transverse momenta. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarization using the COMPASS data of the years 2003 and 2004. The events with large virtuality, $Q^{2}>1$ $GeV^{2}/c^{2}$ and hadr...

  11. Untersuchungen zur Populationsdynamik von Flöhen auf Hunden und Katzen im Großraum Regensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Biebel, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Investigations on the Population Dynamics of Fleas in Dogs and Cats in the Region of Regensburg, Germany The objective of this study was to compile epidemiological data about the occurrence and distribution of flea infestation by parasitological screening of dogs and cats in the area of Regensburg. Simultaneously, pet owners have been interviewed by use of a questionnaire regarding their experience with flea infestation of their animals and in the environment. The mean infestation rate...

  12. „Vater einer großen Nachkommenschaft von Forschungsreisenden ...“ Ehrungen Alexander von Humboldts im Jahre 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Jahn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and GermanIn 1869 the “Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein” was founded in Magdeburg (Saxony Anhalt. That was the time when the scientific world celebrated Alexander von Humboldt’s 100th birthday. In this context, Humboldt’s achievements were remembered during the founding ceremony of that society. The paper which was read in September 2003 on a meeting of this organisation, focuses on three famous naturalists who celebrated Humboldt because they owed him much help in their own professional careers. The botanist Matthias Jacob Schleiden gave a memorial speech in 1869 in Dresden. The physiologist and pioneer of electro-biology Emil du Bois-Reymond honoured his mentor A. v. Humboldt on the occasion of the dedication of the statues of Wilhelm and Alexander in 1883 in Berlin. Charles Darwin expressed his gratitude to Humboldt by sending him in 1839 the report of his travels and received an interesting reply. These three scholars represented a new epoch in the development of the natural sciences. The paper includes a recently re-discovered letter from Humboldt to Schleiden, dated April 13, 1842.

  13. 成纤维细胞生长因子受体的结构与功能%Structure and Function of Fibroblast Gro wth Factor Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶展; 赵涵芳; 钱关祥

    2003-01-01

    @@ 目前已发现的成纤维细胞生长因子(fibroblast growth factor, FGF)家族至少有19个成员(FGF1-19)[1],它们在发育、血管生成、创伤愈合中有重要作用.而它们的功能是通过与成纤维细胞生长因子受体(fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFR)结合后,经过信号传递系统,激活相应的基因而实现的.本文主要介绍FGFR结构和功能的基础知识与研究近况.

  14. Fritz Hochwälders Großstadtroman «Donnerstag» oder Wie sich Schnitzler-Szenarien mit Horváth-Figuren erden lassen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Polt-Heinzl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The 155 scenes of Fritz Hochwälder’s posthumous novel group around one central idea: each of the characters expects a final decision from the coming Thursday. What was read as a loosely connected series of expressionistic short scenes reveals itself as a carefully constructed whole. The narrative cement is provided by erotic relationships, by the visualization of metropolitan patterns of motion, and by a tightly woven texture of motives. Through emotional and economic treason, Hochwälder puts Schnitzler’s language of love in the mouths of characters from Horváth’s narrative worlds, and he exploits an up to now overlooked criminal plot.

  15. Fritz Hochwälders Großstadtroman «Donnerstag» oder Wie sich Schnitzler-Szenarien mit Horváth-Figuren erden lassen

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Polt-Heinzl

    2012-01-01

    The 155 scenes of Fritz Hochwälder’s posthumous novel group around one central idea: each of the characters expects a final decision from the coming Thursday. What was read as a loosely connected series of expressionistic short scenes reveals itself as a carefully constructed whole. The narrative cement is provided by erotic relationships, by the visualization of metropolitan patterns of motion, and by a tightly woven texture of motives. Through emotional and economic treason, Hochwälder puts...

  16. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    different levels (i.e. 0.0% as control, 0.5%, 1% and 2%, in three replicates, 20 fish per replicate) and fed to the fish for an 8-week period wherein 240 fish were cultured in 1,800-L fiberglass tanks that formed part of a flow-through system. Water temperature was maintained at 20.4 ± 1.5°C. Significant...

  17. Die Regenwurmfauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae der Aue der Großen Kokel als Abhängige der Böden im Flusseinzugsgebiet und der Auengradienten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höser, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In five floodplain transects along the course of the river Târnava Mare in Rumania, 17 earthworm species werecounted. The species spectrum of the earthworm fauna of the studied floodplains is dependent on the provenance of thefloodplain sediments. On the basis of this provenance, the fauna of three groups of soil localities on the floodplain aredifferentiated: in the upper reaches of the river, the fauna of the floodplain soils derived from brown forest soils and podzolicsoils (near Sub Cetate; on the eastern side of the middle reaches, the fauna of the soils mainly derived from gray-brown podzolicsoils (near Porumbenii Mari, Hoghilag; and on the western side of the middle reaches and the lower reaches, the fauna of thesoils principally derived from planosols (near Alma, Valea Lungă. Proctodrilus tuberculatus occurs in the floodplain sedimentspredominantly derived from the gray-brown podzolic soils, and in those parts of the floodplain derived from planosols P.opisthoductus and Aporrectodea georgii are found. Ap. georgii and Allolobophora leoni are mostly mutually exclusive in thefloodplain transect, were they are apparently indicator species of sediment deposition close to the river and/or the effect of highwater on the soil chemistry. P. tuberculatus and P. opisthoductus occur as vicarious species in the soil profile of the area wheretheir distribution overlaps. Three soil factors that are significant in determining earthworm distribution are emphasized:lessivage, or translocation of clay; the pervection of colloidal organic matter (humus into the soil, and the texture of the soillayers resulting from sedimentation. An additional record of the new species P. thaleri is given.

  18. "Da wurden diese zwei großen Länder zu einem Land". Die Beziehungen zwischen Hattusa und Ägypten im Lichte ihrer diplomatischen Korrespondenz

    OpenAIRE

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Der ägyptisch-hethitische Friedensvertrag wurde nach der Schlacht bei Kadesch und jahrelangen Grenzstreitigkeiten im Jahr 21 der Regierungszeit Ramses II. zwischen Ramses II. und dem Hethiterkönig Hattusili III. geschlossen. Er gilt als ältester bekannter schriftlicher Friedensschluss.

  19. Evaluation of the dairy/yeast prebiotic, GroBiotic-A, in the diet of the juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia production ranks among the highest worldwide due to their fast growth and ability to thrive under various culture conditions. However, tilapias are still susceptible to outbreaks of systemic disease caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Streptococcus inaie. These epizootic ev...

  20. Propiedades mecánicas de la mampostería de tabique rojo recocido utilizada en Chilpancingo, Gro (México)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Flores; Sánchez-Tizapa, S.; Arroyo, R.; Barragán, R.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results of developed tests in solid clay brick masonry specimens are reported. This masonry type is largely used to build the confined masonry walls in Chilpancingo City (Guerrero State, Mexico). Sixty eight tests of masonry specimens, prisms and walls, were developed. Mean values of compressive and shear strength design, elasticity and shear modulus and joint mortar adherence were measured. Additionally, stress-strain relationship of compressive prisms and walls were recorded. C...

  1. Propiedades mecánicas de la mampostería de tabique rojo recocido utilizada en Chilpancingo, Gro (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of developed tests in solid clay brick masonry specimens are reported. This masonry type is largely used to build the confined masonry walls in Chilpancingo City (Guerrero State, Mexico. Sixty eight tests of masonry specimens, prisms and walls, were developed. Mean values of compressive and shear strength design, elasticity and shear modulus and joint mortar adherence were measured. Additionally, stress-strain relationship of compressive prisms and walls were recorded. Comparison among experimental results and standardized values of Mexico City Code, normally used to the design process, shows a large difference for some of them.Este documento presenta los resultados de ensayes en especímenes de mampostería de tabique rojo recocido comúnmente utilizado para la construcción de muros de mampostería confinada en Chilpancingo (Estado de Guerrero, México. Un total de 68 ensayes, entre pilas y muretes, fueron realizados. Los valores medidos fueron la resistencia de diseño a compresión y cortante, los módulos de elasticidad y corte y la cohesión de la junta. También se obtuvieron expresiones para definir la curva esfuerzo-deformación en las pruebas de pilas y muretes. La comparación de los valores respecto a la norma de la ciudad de México, utilizada como referencia en el diseño y análisis, concluye que hay diferencias significativas para algunos de ellos.

  2. Application of a relativistic accretion disc model to X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40.

    OpenAIRE

    Gierliński, M.; Maciołek-Niedźwiecki, A.; Ebisawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    We present a general relativistic accretion disc model and its application to the soft-state X-ray spectra of black hole binaries. The model assumes a flat, optically thick disc around a rotating Kerr black hole. The disc locally radiates away the dissipated energy as a blackbody. Special and general relativistic effects influencing photons emitted by the disc are taken into account. The emerging spectrum, as seen by a distant observer, is parametrized by the black hole mass and spin, the acc...

  3. Einstein erlangt Weltruhm – Eine vergleichende Rezeptionsgeschichte der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie in Großbritannien und Deutschland 1919-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hollinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Albert Einstein is the archetype of a scientist. His world fame has its roots in the revolutionary corroboration of his general theory of relativity during the sun eclipse in May 1919 and the eventual presentation of the obtained results. Having a strong resonance in the scientific community as well as in public, the coverage in the press can be traced back to be the main factor that shaped Einstein’s picture in the past – reverberating even today. The political situation immediately after the First World War puts this episode in the history of science in a setting where many insights into the interactions between science, politics, the press and international relations at the shift from 1919–1920 can be found.

  4. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  5. "Ein großer Vorsprung gegenüber Deutschland". Die niederländischen Architekten auf der Bauhausausstellung von 1923 in Weimar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bergeijk, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Dutch contribution to the International Architecture Exhibition that was part of the Bauhaus Manifestation in 1923. The Dutch architect J.J.P. Oud, together with the director of the school in Weimar, Walter Gropius, decided which architects would be asked to participate and send in works. Oud selected the works of these architects according to his own criteria. He had a specific agenda that was dictated by the position he had in the Netherlands and abroad as an advocate of modernist architecture. His interest was not to show what was really going on in general in the Netherlands but to illustrate that there was a strong movement in the country towards the development of a new architecture based on the use of new materials. The article positions this radical attitude of Oud and confronts it with how German architects, who were particularly informed, looked at the situation in the neighbouring country.

  6. Comparing the Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam on Sedation in Children with Head Trauma to Perform CT in Emergency Department / Upoređivanje efekata deksmedetomidina i midazolama na sedaciju dece sa povredom glave radi snimanja CT-om na Odeljenju urgentne medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hojjat Derakhshanfar; Farzad Bozorgi; Adel Hosseini; Shamila Noori; Abolfazl Mostafavi; Ali Sharami; Seyyed Abbas Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Many of the children referred to the emergency complain of head trauma. Children usually require sedition to reduce their failure and fear because of high activity and fear of performing computed tomography (CT...

  7. 进展期胃癌腹腔镜辅助与开放 D2根治术围手术期临床效果比较%Comparison of the perioperative clinical results of laparoscopy -assisted and open radi-cal D2 gastrectomy in advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 郭绍春; 樊林; 王海江; 周力波; 贾宗良; 车向明

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较腹腔镜辅助与开放 D2胃癌根治术手术、病理与术后恢复情况。方法:回顾性分析我科收治的202例胃癌患者。查阅电子病历系统,收集腹腔镜与开放胃癌根治术患者的病历资料,比较腹腔镜组和开放组手术时间、术中出血量、淋巴结清扫数目、术后并发症与术后恢复等相关指标。结果:与开放组相比,腹腔镜组术中出血量少[(90.63±78.66)vs (154.15±151.65)ml,P <0.001],淋巴结清扫数目相当[(21.4±10.5)vs (21.7±11.4)个,P =0.810],术后伤口脂肪液化发生少,术后通气时间早[(3.0±0.8)vs (3.5±1.0)天,P <0.001],术后进半流食时间早[(6.2±1.5)vs (6.8±2.3)天,P =0.028],术后住院时间短[(9.4±2.3)vs (11.3±3.0)天,P =0.022],仅手术时间稍长[(222±36)vs(205±62)min,P =0.021]。结论:在进展期胃癌 D2根治术中,虽然腹腔镜手术时间略长于开放组,总体而言,腹腔镜组能达到与开放手术相同的淋巴结清扫数目,且具有术中出血量少,术后恢复快的优势。%Objective:To compare the character of pathology,and postoperative between laparoscopic assisted D2 gastric cancer radical surgery and open D2 gastric cancer radical surgery for advanced gastric cancer.Methods:To choose 202 patients in our department from April 2014 to April 2015.Clinical dara of all 202 patients were studied retrospectively.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,number of retrieved lymph node,time to first flatus,time to liquid diet,postoperative hospital stay,postoperative complications were compared between the two groups.Results:As compared with the open group,the bleeding amount of LAG group was significantly less[(90.63 ±78.66)vs (154.15 ±151.65)ml,P <0.001 ],no significantly diffrence was found in the number of rerieved lymph node [(21.4 ±10.5)vs (21.7 ±11.4),P =0.810],wound fat liquefaction was significantly less,the first flatus time was significantly shorter[(3.0 ±0.8)vs (3.5 ±1.0)days,P <0.001],the first time to liquid diets was significantly shorter[(6.2 ±1.5)vs (6.8 ±2.3)days,P =0.028],the postoperative hospitalization time was significantly shorter [(9.4 ±2.3)vs (11.3 ±3.0)days,P =0.022],only longer surgical time was found[(222 ±36)vs(205 ±62)min, P =0.021].Conclusion:In D2 radical prostatectomy of advanced gastric cancer,although the time of laparoscopic surgery is slightly longer than open group,laparoscopic group can achieve the same effect of retrieving the number of lymph node,and has obviously advantages of less intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications,of course, faster recovery.

  8. Factors Analysis of Fatigue Syndrome of Patients with Primary Gastric Cancer Underwent Radi-cal Surgiery%原发性胃癌外科根治术患者术后疲劳综合征的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周良弼; 吴定泉; 朱长康; 赵永亮

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]To study the risk and protective factors of POFS of patients with primary gastric cancer underwent radical surgiery.[Methods]60 cases of primary gastric cancer patients underwent radical treatment were selected in our hospital from August 2012 to August 2014.The visual analogue scale (VAS) fatigue and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI)on the patients were used for postoperative observation to study the effect of patients POFS influenced by the factors like sex,tumor stage,operation method and nutri-tion conditions.[Results]Those related to male,later tumor staging and older age get higher scores in VAS、PSQI,while their postoperative recovery index tended to be lower,the difference had statistical significance (P <0.05).The POFS symptoms of patients with laparoscopic gastric cancer radical therapy are lighter than those underwnt open operation.The POFS symptoms of patients in the SE group is lighter than patients in the EN group,the difference had statistical significance (P <0.05).[Conclusion]Female,early cancer stage,lap-aroscopic surgery,nutrition intervention and younger age compose the protective factors,while male,later tumor stage,open operation and senior age make the risk factors .%【目的】探讨原发性胃癌外科根治手术患者术后疲劳综合征(POFS)的影响因素。【方法】选取2012年8月至2014年8月在本院接受外科手术根治手术治疗的原发性胃癌患者60例。应用视觉模拟疲劳尺(VAS)和匹兹堡睡眠质量指数(PSQI)等指标对患者进行术后评估,并分析性别、年龄、肿瘤分期、手术方式、营养方式等对患者 POFS 的影响。【结果】男性患者、肿瘤分期越晚、年龄越大的患者其 VAS、PSQI 得分越高,术后康复指标越差,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。腹腔镜胃癌根治术患者的 POFS 症状比开腹手术患者的症状轻,SE 组患者比 EN 组患者的 POFS 症状轻,差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。【结论】女性、肿瘤分期早、腹腔镜手术、营养干预、年龄小是 POFS 的保护因素,男性、肿瘤分期晚、开腹手术、年龄大是POFS 的危险因素。

  9. RAŠČLAMBA TEHNIČKIH ZNAČAJKI I SUSTAVA ODVODNJE POSTOJEĆIH ŠUMSKIH CESTA RADI UTVRĐIVANJA POTREBE NJIHOVE REKONSTRUKCIJE – STUDIJA SLUČAJA ZA G.J. „BELEVINE“ NPŠO ZALESINA

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, Ivica; Pentek, Tibor; Nevečerel, Hrvoje; Lepoglavec, Kruno; Đuka, Andreja; ŠAFRAN, Branimir; Risović, Stjepan

    2015-01-01

    U Republici Hrvatskoj su važeće tehničke značajke za šumske ceste propisane u Tehničkim uvjetima za gospodarske ceste (Šikić i dr. 1989), a za potrebe ovoga rada su osuvremenjene Novim tehničkim značajkama za šumske prometnice (Anon., 2015). Za svaku su kategoriju šumske ceste definirane određene tehničke značajke koje u fazi planiranja treba dobro proučiti i uzeti u obzir, u fazi projektiranja ih treba strogo primjenjivati, a u fazi izgradnje, uz provedbu stručnog nadzora, precizno prenijeti...

  10. DEGRO 2006: 12. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society, 10. annual meeting of SASRO and 22. annual meeting of OeGRO. Abstracts; DEGRO 2006 - 12. Jahreskongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, 10. Jahrestagung der SASRO und 22. Jahrestagung der OeGRO. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The volume displays the abstracts of the meetings of the German, Swiss, and Austrian societies for radiooncology. Issues of the lectures, posters, and symposia were: new technological developments, head-neck tumors, radiobiology, prostate carcinomas, radiotherapy in palliative treatment, hematological malignomas, tumors of gastrointestinal tract, bladder, brain, breast, or bronchi, carrier planning, women in the field of radiooncology, image-guided radiotherapy, sexuality, fertility and pregnancy with gynecological tumors, psychooncology, pediatric oncology and radiotherapy, sex-dependent radiosensitivity, dosimetry, irradiation planning, quality of life in radiooncology, radiooncological information systems. (uke)

  11. The effects of pharmacotherapy to reconvert non-dipper essential hypertensive patients circadian rhythm of blood pressure on plasma concentration of endothelin Zhou Wanxing1, Zhang Wei1,Wen Wei2, et al. 1. Department of Cardiology, 2. Department of Radi%药物干预恢复非杓型高血压患者血压昼夜节律对血浆内皮素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周万兴; 张卫; 文薇; 靳晨亭; 马虹

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨通过药物干预使非杓型高血压患者恢复杓型血压昼夜节律后对血浆内皮素(ET)的影响.方法 30例(年龄64.8岁±11.38岁,男22例,女8例)符合 WHO 1999年原发性高血压标准,并经动态血压检查定义为非杓型的高血压患者(非杓型组)随机分成两组,采用自身对照交叉试验法,在总剂量及药物种类(硝苯吡啶缓释片及依那普利)不变的前提下,通过调整用药时间加强夜间降压恢复杓型节律(a处理)或按常规的日间降压不恢复(或保持)杓型节律(b处理).第一阶段两组分别接受其中一种处理,第二阶段分别接受另一种处理.用放免法同步测定每一处理前后的夜间(2:00)、日间(8:00)血浆ET并复查动态血压.同期的健康体检者45例(健康对照组)以及21例同期住院的杓型高血压患者(杓型组)作为对照组.比较非杓型组血压昼夜节律恢复后前后ET的水平.结果与健康对照组比,非杓型高血压患者白天及夜间平均血压、ET均显著增高[分别为(97.93±11.67)mmHg vs (92.00±7.34)mmHg;P=0.017;(96.96±12.31)mmHg vs (77.82±6.35)mmHg;(85.25±26.97) pg/mL vs (59.32±27.61) pg/mL;(78.62±31.17) pg/mL vs (49.89±23.64)pg/mL;P均<0.01].血压恢复杓型后,夜间平均压及夜间ET显著下降(P<0.01),日间平均压及ET下降不显著.与杓型相比,非杓型组白天及夜间ET有增高趋势[分别为(85.25±26.97)pg/mL vs (73.22±35.97)pg/mL,(78.62±31.17)pg/mL vs (67.19±35.99)pg/mL],但统计学差异不明显(P分别为0.17、0.23),非杓型组治疗前后夜间ET/日间ET比值(Ue值)下降值与夜间平均压的下降值有正相关关系(两个阶段分别为:r=0.36,P<0.05;r=0.31,P<0.05).结论非杓型高血压患者夜间平均血压及ET明显增高,药物干预使其恢复杓型血压昼夜节律后能显著降低夜间平均血压及ET,从而降低全天的ET水平.

  12. Depletion of arginine by recombinant arginine deiminase induces nNOS-activated neurotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Erh; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Wei, Ming-Feng; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline) buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of rADI cytotoxicity in the presence of NMDA is caused by the inhibition of NO production via nNOS mediated by the NMDA receptor, which was abolished when extracellular arginine was absent, even in the presence of citrulline. rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity.

  13. Recombinant arginine deiminase reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase iNOS-mediated neurotoxicity in a coculture of neurons and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao-Hsin; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Lin, Shan-Erh; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2008-10-01

    Modulation of nitric oxide (NO) production is considered a promising approach to therapy of diseases involving excessive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, such as certain neuronal diseases. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI, EC3.5.3.6) catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine (L-arg), the sole substrate of NOS for NO production, to L-citrulline (L-cit) and ammonia. To understand the effect of the depletion of L-arg by rADI on NO concentration and neuroprotection, a direct coculture of neuron SHSY5Y cells and microglia BV2 cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was used as a model of iNOS induction. The results showed that rADI preserved cell viability (4-fold higher compared with the cells treated with LPS/IFN-gamma only) by the MTT assay, corresponding with the results of neuronal viability by neuron-specific immunostaining assay. NO production (mean +/- SD) decreased from 67.0 +/- 1.3 to 19.5 +/- 5.5 microM after a 2-day treatment of rADI by the Griess assay; meanwhile, induction of iNOS protein expression by rADI was observed. In addition, rADI substantially preserved the neuronal function of dopamine uptake in the coculture. The replenishment of L-arg in the coculture eliminated the neuroprotective and NO-suppressive effects of rADI in the coculture, indicating that L-arg played a crucial role in the effects of rADI. These results highlight the important role of L-arg in the neuron-microglia coculture in excessive induction of iNOS. Regulation of L-arg by ADI demonstrated that rADI has a potentially therapeutic role in iNOS-related neuronal diseases.

  14. Depletion of Arginine by Recombinant Arginine Deiminase Induces nNOS-Activated Neurotoxicity in Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Erh Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The abnormal regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI is a selective NO modulator of iNOS and eNOS in endothelial cells, and it also exhibits neuroprotective activity in an iNOS-induced neuron-microglia coculture system. However, the effect of rADI on nNOS remains unknown. Addressing this issue is important for evaluating the potential application of rADI in neurodegenerative diseases. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA to activate nNOS. NMDA increased NO production by 39.7 ± 3.9% via nNOS under arginine-containing conditions, but there was no significant increase in both arginine-free and rADI pretreated arginine-containing (citrulline buffer. Subsequently, neither NMDA nor rADI alone caused cytotoxicity, whereas cotreatment with NMDA and rADI resulted in dissipation of the cell mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased cell viability. The mechanism of rADI cytotoxicity in the presence of NMDA is caused by the inhibition of NO production via nNOS mediated by the NMDA receptor, which was abolished when extracellular arginine was absent, even in the presence of citrulline. rADI not only reduced NO production but also caused cellular toxicity in nNOS-activated SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a dual role for rADI in NOS-mediated neurotoxicity.

  15. Leitsymptomvorlesungen im klinischen Studienabschnitt - Effekte evaluationsbasierter Interventionen auf eine Großgruppen-Lehrveranstaltung [Lectures based on cardinal symptoms in undergraduate medicine - effects of evaluation-based interventions on teaching large groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Despite critical voices lectures are still an important teaching format in current medical curricula. With the curricular reform at Hamburg Medical Faculty in the year 2004, all subject specific lectures were replaced by cardinal symptom oriented lectures (LSV in the new clinical curriculum. LSVs are taught throughout all six thematic blocks in years three to five. Since regular student evaluations after each thematic block seemed to demand improvement of the LSVs, this study was carried out using evaluations of individual LSVs by the participating students and by trained auditors (final year students and academic staff. Based on these evaluations feedback containing the individual evaluation data was given in written form to the lecturers combined with information material on planning an LSV using modern didactic techniques. In a second evaluation period, the effects of this intervention were studied. Only small improvements in the LSVs’ quality were noted regarding the level of marks achieved. When individual items were evaluated, especially the didactic quality, significant improvements were noticeable. Overall, on the basis of individual items students ranked the quality of the LSVs significantly higher than trained auditors during the first evaluation period. This effect was no longer seen after the second evaluation period. The inter rater reliability among the auditors was very good. This study shows that regular quality assurance is needed on the structural levels and for staff to accompany the process of embedding teaching formats into curricular concepts. Further investigation is needed to determine the adequate frequency of evaluation and the format of feedback to guarantee sustainable effects of the didactic quality of lectures. [german] In der medizinischen Hochschulausbildung ist das Veranstaltungsformat „Vorlesung“ trotz vielfacher Kritik weiterhin ein wesentliches Element bestehender Curricula. Im Rahmen der Studienreform an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Hamburg im Jahr 2004 wurden im reformierten klinischen Curriculum die fachspezifischen Vorlesungen durch Leitsymptomvorlesungen (LSV ersetzt, die sich durch alle sechs Themenblöcke der Studienjahre drei bis fünf ziehen. Da die regelmäßigen Trimesterabschlussevaluationen der Studierenden auf einen Verbesserungsbedarf der LSV hindeuteten, wurde in dieser Studie die LSV mit Terminevaluationen durch anwesende Studierende und durch geschulte Auditoren (PJ-Studierende und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter untersucht. Auf der Basis dieser Ergebnisse erfolgte ein schriftliches Feedback der Evaluationsdaten an die Lehrenden in Kombination mit Informationsmaterial über eine optimale Gestaltung der LSV nach modernen didaktischen Gesichtspunkten. In einer zweiten Erhebung wurden die Effekte der Intervention untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass auf der Ebene von Schulnoten nach der Intervention nur geringe Verbesserungen der Qualität der LSV bemerkbar waren. In der Bewertung der Einzelmerkmale, insbesondere zur didaktischen Qualität, ließen sich hingegen signifikante Verbesserungen aufzeigen. Insgesamt bewerteten Studierende die LSV in der ersten Erhebungsphase bezogen auf die Einzelmerkmale signifikant positiver als die geschulten Auditoren. Dieser Effekt war in der zweiten Erhebungsphase nicht mehr nachweisbar. Unter den Auditoren bestand eine gute Inter-Rater-Reliabilität. Durch diese Untersuchung wurde insbesondere deutlich, dass die Einbettung von Lehrveranstaltungen auf struktureller und personeller Ebene in curriculare Gesamtkonzepte regelmäßig durch Qualitätssicherungsmaßnahmen zu begleiten ist. Wie häufig und in welcher Form strukturierte Rückmeldungen nach Evaluationen erfolgen müssen, um nachhaltige Effekte auf die didaktische Qualität der Lehrveranstaltungen zu haben, müssen zukünftige Studien zeigen.

  16. Wprowadzenie tzw. specustawy dotyczącej kierowania groźnych przestępców do ośrodków terapii osobowości – kontekst społeczno-prawny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Kmieciak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ustawa o postępowaniu wobec osób z zaburzeniami psychicznymi stwarzających zagrożenie życia, zdrowia lub wolności seksualnej innych osób to jeden z najbardziej krytykowanych w ostatnich miesiącach aktów prawnych. Liczne grono prawników oraz psychiatrów wskazuje, iż proponowane rozwiązania są sprzeczne ze standardami ochrony praw człowieka, które wiele lat temu zostały przyjęte przez Polskę. Podkreśla się ponadto, że przyjęcie ustawy otworzy drogę do wykorzystywania psychiatrii do celów politycznych. Z drugiej strony osoby broniące przywołaną ustawę twierdzą, że część osadzonych osób, z powodu doświadczania zaburzeń osobowości bądź zaburzeń preferencji seksualnych, zamierza powrócić do działań przestępczych, skierowanych często przeciwko życiu i zdrowiu dzieci. Należy wspomnieć, iż pod koniec lat 80. XX wieku podobne działania doprowadziły do orzeczenia kary śmierci wobec ww. osób. Co istotne, przez ponad 20 lat nie podejmowano tematu sytuacji więźniów, którym karę śmierci następnie zamieniono na karę 25 lat pozbawienia wolności. Czy prawdą jest zatem, iż omawiana ustawa łamie fundamentalne prawa i wolności człowieka? Czy istnieje realna obawa wykorzystywania przywołanego aktu prawnego do celów politycznych? Czy psychiatrzy mogą zostać zobowiązani do wykonywania zadań wyłącznie o politycznym charakterze? Czy obecnie nie ma innego rozwiązania zapewniającego poszanowanie bezpieczeństwa publicznego? W prezentowanym artykule odpowiedzi na powyższe pytania będą udzielane na podstawie analizy oficjalnych materiałów prawnych oraz medialnych informacji i komentarzy odnoszących się do omawianej ustawy.

  17. Groin sentinel node biopsy and (18)F-FDG PET/CT-supported preoperative lymph node assessment in cN0 patients with vulvar cancer currently unfit for minimally invasive inguinal surgery: The GroSNaPET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, G; Collarino, A; Fragomeni, S M; Rufini, V; Perotti, G; Gentileschi, S; Evangelista, M T; Ieria, F P; Zagaria, L; Bove, S; Giordano, A; Scambia, G

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were: 1) to verify the role of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in a subset of patients with clinical N0 (cN0) invasive vulvar cancer (VC) who were still candidates for radical inguinal surgery according to the current guidelines; 2) to investigate whether a preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) evaluation could improve the selection of node negative patients. From July 2013 to July 2016, all patients with VC admitted to our Division were evaluated by standard imaging and clinical exam. Among the patients assessed as cN0 we enrolled those unsuitable for SNB, due to: T > 4 cm, multifocal tumors, complete tumor diagnostic excision, contralateral nodal involvement and local recurrence. A preoperative PET/CT was performed. For each patient surgery included SNB, performed using a combined technique (radiotracer plus blue dye), followed by standard inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy. The reference standard was histopathology. Forty-seven patients entered the study for a total of 73 groins. Histopathology revealed 12 metastatic SNs in 9 groins. No false negative SNs were found (NPV 100%). PET/CT showed a negative predictive value of 93%. Our data suggest that SNB is accurate and safe even in cN0 patients currently excluded from this procedure, providing that a careful preoperative selection is performed. PET/CT allows a reliable assessment of LN status and may be an effective support for the selection of patients who are safe candidates for SNB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND STUDY OF HALOGENATED BENZYLAMIDES OF SOME ISOCYCLIC AND HETEROCYCLIC ACIDS AS POTENTIAL ANTICONVULSANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupińska, Marzanna; Rostafińska-Suchar, Grażyna; Pirianowicz-Chaber, Elżbieta; Grabczuk, Mateusz; Józwenko, Magdalena; Kowalczyk, Hubert; Szuba, Joanna; Wójcicka, Monika; Chen, Tracy; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2015-01-01

    A series of potential anticonvulsants have been synthesized. There are eight fluorobenzylamides and three chlorobenzylamides of isocyclic or heterocyclic acids. Two not halogenated benzylamides were also synthesized to compare the effect of halogenation. The aim of the research performed was to evaluate whether halogenation of the mother structure is able to improve its anticonvulsant activity. The compounds were tested in Anticonvulsant Screening Project (ASP) of Antiepileptic Drug Development Program (ADDP) of NIH. Compound 1 showed MES ED50 = 80.32 mg/kg, PI = 3.16. Compound 7 showed CKM ED50 = 56.72 mg/kg. Compound 8 showed MES ED50 = 34.23 mg/kg and scPTZ ED50 > 300 mg/kg, PI = 8.53.Compound 13 showed 6Hz ED50 = 78.96, PI = 3.37. The results indicate that fluorination does not improve activity, whereas chlorination in our experiment even reduces it.

  19. Excitatory amino acid receptor ligands: resolution, absolute stereochemistry, and enantiopharmacology of 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Ebert, B; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1998-01-01

    in mice, 7 (ED50 = 44 mumol/kg) was slightly more potent than AMPA (1) (ED50 = 55 mumol/kg) and twice as potent as Bu-HIBO (6) (ED50 = 94 mumol/kg) as a convulsant, whereas 8 was inactive. After subcutaneous administration in mice, Bu-HIBO (ED50 = 110 mumol/kg) was twice as potent as AMPA (ED50 = 220...... mumol/kg) as a convulsant. Since 7 and Bu-HIBO (EC50 = 37 microM) are much weaker than AMPA (EC50 = 3.5 microM) as AMPA receptor agonists in vitro, the presence of a butyl group in the molecules of Bu-HIBO and 7 seems to facilitate the penetration of these compounds through the blood-brain barrier....

  20. 2 October 2012 - Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology President M. Al Sherbiny signing a protocol agreement with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador to the UN W. Bassim. This signature is followed by the signature of an MoU with ALICE and CMS Collaborations.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Where present: ALICE Collaboration: CP. Giubellino, F. Carminati, C. Decosse, and A. N. Tawfik CMS Collaboration: T. Camporesi A. Charkiewicz, A. De Roeck, A. Petrilli, A. Sharma with S. Aly, Y. Assran, M. Attia, R. Masod and A. Radi

  1. De S initiali ex St orta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Budimir

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Poredeći homonime nameće se zaključak da se radi o koradikalnim derivatima od minimuma *stau-jstu-. Prema tome, radi se o diferencijaciji usled horror aequi isto onako kao u latinskim koradikalnim homonimima sudis i tudis (bez s-mobile. Stoga je i ime vezi sa homerskim je Satir prvobitno prikazan kao konj, a nikako kao jarac. Istovetni proces nalazim i u novolatinskom stagione i saison od starijeg statione.

  2. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 497242008 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2:1589 ... Co-chaperonin GroES Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium JSC-12 MNFQSHALLFHFCRILSSPHPPKERRGAKPFQSPSNKLGEGLRARAKVKCTRTDNGIFLPASVQEKPQVGEITAISSGKFSKNGSGQQADVKVGDNILYSMYRGTEIYLGNERM

  3. FORMATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PROTEIN COMPLEXES BETWEEN PEROXISOMAL ALCOHOL OXIDASE AND GROEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EVERS, ME; LANGER, T; HARDER, W; HARTL, FU; VEENHUIS, M; Hartl, Franz-Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the use of yeast peroxisomal alcohol oxidase (AO) as a model protein for in vitro binding by GroEL. Dilution of denatured AO in neutral buffer leads to aggregation of the protein, which is prevented by the addition of GroEL. Formation of complexes between GroEL and denatured AO was d

  4. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae shows antidiarrheal activity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dayse Soares da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect

  5. ATM sequence variants and risk of radiation-induced subcutaneous fibrosis after postmastectomy radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan

    2006-01-01

    in 22 patients. The ED50 (95% confidence interval) of 60.2 (55.7-65.1) Gy calculated for patients without a sequence variation did not differ significantly from the ED50 of 58.4 (54.0-63.1) Gy for the group of patients with any ATM sequence abnormality. The ED50 of 53.7 (50.2-57.5) Gy for those patients...... alteration. This resulted in an enhancement ratio (ratio of the ED50 values) of 1.13 (1.05-1.22), which was significantly greater than unity. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest an association between the ATM codon 1853 Asn/Asp and Asn/Asn genotypes with the development of Grade 3 fibrosis...

  6. Polyvalent horse F(Ab`)2 snake antivenom: Development of process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... mice as animal test and the their potency expressed in terms of ED50 ... the antivenoms. All animals used in this study were maintained and ..... True Vipers: Natural History and ... Experiments on the preventive inoculation of.

  7. [The anti-arrhythmia action of an extract of Rhodiola rosea and of n-tyrosol in models of experimental arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭmeskulova, L A; Maslov, L N

    1998-01-01

    A daily 8-day course of Rhodiolae fluidum extract (1 ml/kg; ED50 = 0.43 ml/kg)--a preparation from the group of adaptogens caused a marked preventive antiarrhythmic effect on models of adrenaline and CaCl2-induced, but not acontine, arrhythmias. Aglycone--n-tyrosol demonstrated a lower antiarrhythmic activity (ED50 = 16 mg/kg) than that of Rhodiola extract.

  8. Pinitol, a larval growth inhibitor for Heliothis zea in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, D L; Binder, R G; Chan, B G; Waiss, A C; Hartwig, E E; Beland, G L

    1979-09-15

    A search for insect growth inhibitors in methanol extracts of soybean leaves resulted in isolation of pinitol. Pinitol caused a 50% reduction in weight gain (ED50) of Heliothis zea larvae at about 0.7% when added to a synthetic diet. Although myo-inositol is a normal component of the insect diet, it also caused growth inhibition at higher concentrations; ED50 4%.

  9. In-situ X-ray CT results of damage evolution in L6 ordinary chondrite meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadra, Jefferson A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hazeli, Kavan [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Ramesh, K. T. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Hopkins Extreme Materials Inst.; Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nondestructive Characterization Inst.

    2016-06-17

    These are slides about in-situ X-ray CT results of damage evolution in L6 ordinary chondrite meteorites. The following topics are covered: mechanical and thermal damage characterization, list of Grosvenor Mountain (GRO) meteorite samples, in-situ x-ray compression test setup, GRO-chipped reference at 0 N - existing cracks, GRO-chipped loaded at 1580 N, in-situ x-ray thermal fatigue test setup, GRO-B14 room temperature reference, GRO-B14 Cycle 47 at 200°C, GRO-B14 Cycle 47 at room temperature, conclusions from qualitative analysis, future work and next steps. Conclusions are the following: Both GRO-Chipped and GRO-B14 had existing voids and cracks within the volume. These sites with existing damage were selected for CT images from mechanically and thermally loaded scans since they are prone to damage initiation. The GRO-Chipped sample was loaded to 1580 N which resulted in a 14% compressive engineering strain, calculated using LVDT. Based on the CT cross sectional images, the GRO-B14 sample at 200°C has a thermal expansion of approximately 96 μm in height (i.e. ~1.6% engineering strain).

  10. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  11. Characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the tariJKL locus involved in ribitol-containing wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomita, S.; Lee, I.C.; Swam, van I.I.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, Jacques; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains produce either glycerol (Gro)- or ribitol (Rbo)-backbone wall teichoic acid (WTA) (Gro-WTA and Rbo-WTA, respectively). The strain WCFS1 has been shown to be able to activate the tarIJKL locus involved in Rbo-WTA synthesis when the tagD1F1F2 locus for Gro-WTA synthe

  12. Interfacial air/water proton conduction from long distances by sulfolobus solfataricus archaeal bolaform lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, I; Gliozzi, A; Prats, M

    1996-08-15

    The stability, structural organization, and the ability to transfer protons long distances have been investigated in monolayers formed from archael bolaform lipids at the air/water interface. The lipids employed were the fractions GroR2Gro (R represents an acyl group with variable chain length typically consisting of 0-4 cyclopentane rings and 40 isoprenoid residues) and GroR2GroNon-Ol (Non-ol represents nonitol) extracted from Sulfolobus solfataricus by hydrolysis of the cytoplasmic membrane. GroR2-GroNon-ol films exhibit a very peculiar behaviour: the monolayer surface pressure increases with time, regardless of its low or high initial value. This finding is related to the possibility of GroR2GroNon-ol molecules to assume an upright (a metastable) or a U-shaped (stable) configuration. In the gaseous state and in the collapsed state of the film, no lateral proton conduction was observed. However, in the pressure range 0 < pi < 25 mN/m for GroR2Gro and 0 < pi < 30 mN/m for GroR2GroNon-ol monolayers, a lateral proton conduction at the air/water interface was observed. The structural organization of these bipolar lipids at the air/water interface can be related to the lateral proton conduction; it is possible to conclude that whatever configuration these lipids may adopt, they are able to structure the air/water interface in a hydrogen bond network that supports lateral proton conduction. This process may be ascribed to a percolation phenomenon occurring when the polar lipid head groups form a structured lattice of hydrogen bonds.

  13. Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918

    OpenAIRE

    Radić, Stjepan

    2013-01-01

    Title: Govor na noćnoj sjednici Narodnog vijeća dana 24. studenoga 1918 (Speech at the night assembly of the national council on 24 November, 1918). Originally published: Dom, on 25 and 31 March, 1920 Language: CroatianThe excerpts used are from Stjepan Radić, Politički spisi; autobiografije, članci, govori, rasprave, ed. by Zvonimir Kolundžić, (Zagreb: Znanje, 1971), pp. 323–327, 332–335. About the author Stjepan Radić [1871, Trebarjevo Desno (central Croatia) – 1928, Zagreb]: politician and...

  14. Competencias profesionales para la formación del médico especialista en radiología

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gómez, Luz Angela

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue caracterizar las competencias profesionales (CP) necesarias para la formación de un médico radiólogo en Colombia. Se trató de un estudio transversal, descriptivo, alternativo con elementos de investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 18 radiólogos con diferentes funciones en el ejercicio de la especialidad: administrativo, directivo, asistencial, docente y residente. La metodología consistió en realizar un estado del...

  15. Productos derivados de satélites geoestacionarios con impacto positivo en entornos preconvectivos

    OpenAIRE

    Velázquez Pérez, Mercedes; Martínez Rubio, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: V Simposio Nacional de Predicción, celebrado en 2001 en Madrid. Los nuevos satélites geoestacionarios (GOES ya operativos y METEOSAT de Segunda Generación (MSG) que se lanzará en el 2002) llevan a bordo radiómetros con mayor resolución espectral en el Infrarrojo, lo que permite derivar estimaciones de estabilidad y agua precipitable. Los productos derivados de GOES tienen una resolución temporal horaria y una resolución espacial de 50x50 km (la resolución del radióm...

  16. The clonal antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa heat shock protein is highly diverse in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulanova, M; Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O;

    1997-01-01

    The GroEL protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the bacterial 60-65 kDa heat shock protein family. A strong antibody response to GroEL has been found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Clonotypes of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against Gro...... antibody clones against GroEL. The appearance of new clones with time reflected the long duration of the chronic infection. A striking addition of new clonotypes during the observation period occurred when a new unrelated bacterium (Burkholderia cepacia) had become established as a cause of the pulmonary...

  17. Ultrasound irradiation: a robust approach for direct functionalization of graphene oxide with thermal and antimicrobial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktedar, Shrikant S; Mehetre, Shantilal S; Singh, Man; Kale, R K

    2014-07-01

    Sonochemical waves as mechanochemical energy was employed to exfoliate graphite oxide and functionalized graphene oxide (GrO), through a reaction of solvent and accountable for top-down and bottom-up approach respectively. The in situ formation of ester intermediate was inferred and a polymeric surface of GrO was further functionalized with 6-Aminoindazole (6-AIND) through sonochemical nucleophilic substitution reaction. As compared to conventional method the effect of ultrasound was verified for the direct functionalization of GrO. The conventional hazardous acylation step for functionalization of GrO was deleted in ultrasound assisted formation of f-(6-AIND) GrO nanocomposite, prepared by stereoselective exploitation of carboxyl groups at edges of GrO. The characterization has ascertained a covalent attachment of 6-AIND onto GrO surface with ATR-FTIR, XPS, SSNMR, TGA, DSC, XRD, AFM, RAMAN, EDX, SEM, BET and elemental analyzer. A weight loss in TGA depicts enhanced thermal stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO and a thermally sensitive behavior. The f-(6-AIND) GrO was studied for in vitro antimicrobial activity to ensure health and environmental safety. Antibacterial activity was identified against human pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus; ATCC 25923) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli; ATCC 25922). The antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231).

  18. Insecticidal Activity and Insect Repellency of Four Species of Sea Lily (Comatulida: Comatulidae) From Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tse-Min; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Chio, Eddie Hang

    2016-01-01

    The methanol and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of four species of sea lily (Himerometra magnipinna, Comaster multifidus, Comanthina sp., and Comatella maculata) were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Yellow-fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and their repellency against adult Asian Tiger mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus). The 24-hr minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) data revealed that the extracts from H. magnipinna and the C. maculata were the most active, killing mosquito larvae at 12.5 ppm. The toxicity of the extracts from these four sea lilies in descending order was H. magnipinna (12.5 ppm), C. maculata (12.5 ppm), C. multifidus (100 ppm), and Comanthina sp. (200 ppm). Furthermore, no significant difference in toxicity was found using either EA or methanol as the extraction solvent. The MIC at 12.5 ppm is promising as an insecticide lead. The repellency study results show that EA is a better solvent for one species (H. magnipinna), but the methanol is a better solvent overall. The repellency of these sea lily extracts in descending order was Comanthina sp. MeOH (ED50 at 0.32%), followed by H. magnipinna EA (ED50 at 0.38%), C. multifidus MeOH (ED50 at 0.57%), C. maculata MeOH (ED50 at 0.76%), C. multifidus EA (ED50 at 1.25%), and H. magnipinna MeOH (ED50 at 1.67%). A compound with ED50 repellant. Among the studied sea lilies, both Comanthina sp. and H. magnipinna have potential to be further developed as mosquito control agents due to their favorable toxicity and repellency.

  19. [Compared efficacies of somes antispasmodic drugs on the digestive tract and the bladder of the anesthetized dog (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureng, G; Boero, C; Meunier, A; Labrid, C

    1981-01-01

    The antispasmodic activity of tiemonium, mebeverine, pitofenone + fenpiverinium association and N-butyl scopolammonium was compared in the anesthetized dog. Strain gauges were fixed on the gastric antro-fundic border, on the pylorus, on the descending duodenum and on the terminal colon. Pressure transducers were connected with water filled small balloons inserted into the gall bladder and the bladder. Five minutes after the intra-venous injection of the drugs, contraction of the smooth musculature was induced by 3 intra-venous injections of BaCl2 (1 mg.kg(-1)) at 3 minutes intervals. The results were expressed as ED50 values (mg.kg(-1)). 2. Tiemonium was the most potent of the 4 antispasmodic drugs. Its ED50 values were very similar for the different organs, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.022 for the duodenum to 0.31 +/- 0.03 for the bladder. Mebeverine and pitofenone + fenpiverinium association were equipotent but for colon contraction, where mebeverine was more active (ED50 = 0.68 +/- 0.06). Other ED50 relatives to these 2 compounds were ranging from 0.40 +/- 0.02 (duodenum) to 1.32 +/- 0.14 (gall bladder). N-butyl scopolammonium was found to be the weakest antispasmodic drug on this model. Its activity was very weak on colon (ED50 = 5.21 +/- 0.037), gall bladder (ED50 = 5.40 +/- 0.074) and bladder (ED50 = 5.02 +/- 0.059). 3. The strong antispasmodic activity demonstrated on this model with tiemonium seems to be due to its potent inhibition of membrane Ca++ ions, added to its moderate anticholinergic activity.

  20. Efecto del hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla en tres cultivares de Brachiaria spp en el valle de Iguala, gro., México (Efect of hidrogel on yield of seed of three cultivars of Brachiaria ssp in the valley of Iguala guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Hernández Santana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenBajo un diseño de bloques completamente al azar en un arreglo de parcelas divididas, se evaluó el efecto de tres niveles de hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla de tres cultivares de Brachiaria ssp . Los niveles fueron 0,10 y 20 Kg ha-¹ de hidrogel, y los cultivares; Insurgente, Mulato y Toledo. Las variables consideradas fueron: altura de planta al 100% de floración (APF,densidad de tallos (DT, densidad de tallos reproductivos primarios (DTRP,densidad de tallos reproductivos secundarios (DTRS, porcentaje de acame (PA, rendimiento de semilla bruta (RSBR, rendimiento de semilla ventilada (RSVE y rendimiento de semilla pura (RSPU. En el análisis estadístico a todas las variables se les aplicó el análisis de varianza para evaluar el efecto del hidrogel y el comportamiento de los cultivares en el rendimiento de semilla. Se efectuaron las pruebas de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey para conocer si existió asociación de las variables de estudio. El análisis de varianza mostró que existió diferencias significativas (P <0.05 para el factor cultivar en las variables: (RSVE, (RSPU, (DT, (DTRP y (PA y altamente significativas (P<0.01 en (RSBR, (APF y (DTRS. En relación al factor hidrogel no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables estudiadas. En tanto que en la interacción cultivar por hidrogel sólo la variable (DT presentó diferencias significativas (P<0.05. La comparación múltiple de medias evidenció que existió diferencias estadísticas entre cultivares en todas las variables de estudio, destacando que en la variable (RSBR, el cv Mulato fue el que presentó la mejor media con 516.06 Kg de semilla ha-¹ mientras que para las variables (RSVE y (RSPU fue el cv Toledo, con 88.36 y 82.45 Kg ha-¹ respectivamente. En relación a los niveles de hidrogel no se encontró diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables de estudio.AbstractIt was evaluated the effect of three hidrogel levels on the yield of seed of three cultivars of Brachiaria ssp. This experiment was done in a random design in blocks. The hidrogel levels were 0, 10, and 20 kg ha-¹ and cultivars were Insurgente, Mulato and Toledo. The variables considered for yield were: plant height is when 100% blooming, stem density, primary reproductive stem density, secondary reproductive stem density, fallen plants porcentage, gross seed yield, ventilated seed yield and pure seed yield. An ANOVA was applied to the variables to evaluate the effect of the hidrogel in the cultivars measuring the yield and seed.Tukey multiple comparison test were done to know the variables relation in this study. The ANOVA showed significative differences (P < 0.05 for the cultivar in the variables: ventilated seed yield, pure seed yield, stem density, primary reproductive stem density, fallen plants porcentage, also highly significative (P<0.01 for gross seed yield, height plant in 100% blooming, secundary reproductive stem density. The variable stem density showed significative differences with the hidrogel – cultivar interaction. Tukey multiple comparison showed the differences in the cultivar variables indicating that the variable gross seed yield in the Mulato cultivar presented the best mean with 516.06 Kg ha-¹ of seed and the variables ventilated seed yield and pure seed yield for Toledo cultivar presented the best means with 88.36 and 82.45 Kg ha-¹ of seed respectively. The hidrogel levels not showed significative differences (P<0.05 on the variables considered.

  1. Wirklich wie im wirklichen Leben. Sarah Kember untersucht die (Re-Produktion des kleinen Unterschieds und seiner großen Folgen in Theorie und Praxis von Artificial Life Real as in real life. Sarah Kember examines the (reproduction of ‘the small difference and its big consequences’ in the theory and practice of artificial life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kuni

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wie greifen diese ‚virtuellen Realitäten‘ in unsere Körper- und Identitätskonzepte, unsere Subjekt- und Geschlechtervorstellungen ein? Sarah Kembers Buch verspricht, erhellende Schneisen durch das Dickicht der definitionsmächtigen Diskurse, Konzepte und Konstruktionen zu schlagen und neue Wege für feministische Interventionen in die Auseinandersetzungen um ‚Artificial Life‘ aufzuzeigen.ow a way through the labyrinth of discourse, concepts and constructions, and to open the door for feminist interpretations in debates about artificial life.

  2. Ernst Robert Curtius: Evropska literatura in latinski srednji vek. Prevedel Tomo Virk, latinske in grške citate prevedla Nada Grošelj. Ljubljana: Literarno-umetniško društvo Literatura, 2002. (Zbirka Labirinti 582 str. (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Grošelj

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Po več kot pol stoletja smo dočakali slovenski prevod enega temeljnih literarnovednih del 20. stoletja, Europaische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter (1948. Njegov avtor Ernst Robert Curtius (1886-1956 je bil v prvi vrsti romanist, vendar sta mu širina intelektualnih zanimanj in erudicija omogočali, daje v svoje interpretacije zajemal poleg romanskih tudi angloameriške in nemške sodobnike ter srednjeveške in antične pisce.

  3. 麻疯树(Jatrophacurcas)叶浸提液对万寿菊(TageteserectaL.)幼苗生长和抗氧化酶活性的影响%Allelopathic Effects of Jatropha curcas Leaf Leachates on Seedling Gro wth and Antioxidative Enzymes in Tagetes erecta L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王进闯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究麻疯树叶浸提液对万寿菊幼苗生长和抗氧化酶活性的化感影响,揭示麻疯树对林下植物的化感生理机制。[方法]对麻疯树叶浸提液对万寿菊幼苗的生长、丙二醛(MDA)、脯氨酸(Proline)和抗氧化酶系统的影响进行研究和分析。[结果]与对照相比,麻疯树叶浸提液加入土壤后,明显抑制了万寿菊根和茎的生长;同时,在叶浸提液中,万寿菊根中的O2-、H2O2、丙二醛和脯氨酸的含量升高,且浸提液浓度的增加而增加;另外,麻疯树叶浸提液在较低浓度时,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性无显著变化,而在较高浓度时,SOD酶活性明显增加;所有浓度的叶浸提液都显著增加了万寿菊根中过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性,且随着浓度的增加而增加。[结论]麻疯树能释放化感物质进入土壤,抑制植物的生长和生理,改变植物群落组成和结构。%[Objective] This study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of J.curcas leaf leachates on seedling growth and antioxidative enzymes,and thus to reveal physiologically allelopathic effects of J.curcas trees on undergrowth plants.[Method] The allelopathic effects of leaf leachates of Jatropha curcas amended into soil were determined on the growth,proline and malondialdehyde(MDA) contentas well as superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),ascorbate peroxidase(APX),guaiacol peroxidase(POD) in roots of marigold(Tagetes erecta) seedlings.[Results] The application of leaf leachates of J.curcas in the soil significantly inhibited the shoot and root length of marigold compared to un-amended soils.The leaf leachates increased the O-2,H2O2,MDA and proline content in the roots of marigold seedlings.The effects increased with the ascending of leaf leachates concentration.In addition,superoxide dismutase(SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase(POD) were not remarkably affected by the leachates at lower concentrations,but at higher concentration,SOD activity was ascended.Similarly,the activities of CAT and APX were also significantly increased with the increase of leachates concentrations.[Conclusion] These results show that J.curcas can release the phytotoxic compound(s) into soil,which are inhibitory to certain test species by interfering with physiological process.

  4. Effect of p erio dic gro oving top ography on dynamics of Insoluble surfactant-laden thin film flow%连续凹槽基底对含非溶性活性剂薄液膜流动特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春曦; 陈朋强; 叶学民

    2014-01-01

    针对连续凹槽基底上含非溶性活性剂液膜的流动过程,采用润滑理论建立了液膜厚度和活性剂浓度演化模型,利用PDECOL程序数值模拟得到了液膜流动的动力学特征及基底结构参数的影响。研究表明:活性剂液膜流经连续凹槽时,负向台阶处形成凹陷,正向台阶处形成隆起,且随时间逐渐增大;与平整基底相比,连续凹槽下的活性剂液膜铺展速度加快;基底凹槽的高度增加或斜度减小可加速液膜破断的可能性;增大凹槽宽度可促进液膜流动;减小斜度会使液膜进入第一凹槽前形成隆起特征;重力在液膜的爬坡和下坡过程中具有相反的作用,但均使得流动稳定性变差;分子间作用力形成的结合压可加速液膜流动,进而引发去湿润现象,分离压则与之相反。%Targeting the flowing of insoluble surfactant-laden film over topography substrate, the lubrication theory is adopted to derive the evolution equations of thin liquid film thickness and interfacial surfactant concentration. The flowing characteristics of the film on topography surfaces, and the influence of topography structure are examined based on the numerical simulation with PDECOL code. The results show that when the thin film of insoluble surfactant flows over periodic grooving topography, the depression appears at the negative step, while the ridge is shaped at the positive step, both of which increase gradually with time going by. Compared with the case of the flat base, the surfactant-laden film spreading speed is enhanced. Increasing the groove depth or reducing the groove steepness leads to the increase of the rupture possibility of the film. Improving the groove width promotes the film flowing. The decrease of the steepness can cause the film to form a ridge feature before entering into the first groove. Gravity has the opposite effects on the up-hilling and down-hilling processes of liquid film flow, which causes the flow stability to deteriorate. Conjoining pressure induced by intermolecular forces can accelerate the film, giving rise to a notable dewetting phenomenon, while disjoining pressure has an adverse effect.

  5. Effect of curve gro ove on the sp ectral resolution for soft X-ray holographic flat-field gratings%软X射线全息平焦场光栅的条纹弯曲现象及其对光谱分辨率的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈火耀; 刘正坤; 王庆博; 易涛; 杨国洪; 洪义麟; 付绍军

    2014-01-01

    软X射线平焦场光栅光谱仪是等离子体诊断的重要仪器,其核心光学元件全息平焦场光栅通常采用非球面波记录光路制作,因此光栅条纹存在弯曲的现象.光栅条纹的弯曲会影响光谱成像质量,从而影响系统的光谱分辨率.记录光路的优化,只保证光栅子午面的线密度分布,因此优化的记录光路并不是惟一的,所以在保证子午面的线密度分布的同时能制作具有不同弯曲程度条纹的光栅.针对应用于0.8—6 nm的全息平焦场光栅,利用光线追迹方法分析了不同弯曲程度条纹光栅的光谱成像,发现采用柱面反射镜制作的接近于直条纹的光栅具有较好的光谱成像质量.相对于弯曲条纹的光栅,接近于直条纹的光栅理论光谱分辨率有明显的提高,入射波长为3 nm时,光谱分辨率从626提升到953,入射波长为5 nm时,光谱分辨率从635提高到1222.%The soft X-ray spectrograph is an important instrument for plasma diagnostics. As the core optical element of spectrograph, holographic flat-field grating is fabricated by aspheric wave-front recording optics, so grooves on the surface are curve. The curve grooves of the grating would affect the spectral image properties, thus influencing spectral resolutions. In the design of recording optics, only the groove density distribution on the surface in meridian line should be guaranteed, so optimized recording optics is not unique. Thus gratings with different curvatures of grooves but with expected groove density distribution could be obtained. For holographic flat-field gratings used in a 0.8–6 nm region, we analyze the influences of different curve grooves on the spectral image by ray tracing, and find that the almost straight grooves which are obtained by means of cylinder mirror can obtain the better spectral images. The theoretical results show that the spectral resolutions of grating with almost straight grooves are obviously improved compared with curve grooves, the theoretical spectral resolutions increase from 626 to 953 at 3 nm and from 635 to 1222 at 5 nm, respectively.

  6. Isobolographic analysis of the antinociceptive interactions between ketoprofen and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hai-Xia; Liu, Jin; Kong, Hui; Liu, Yan; Mei, Xing-Guo

    2007-02-28

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between paracetamol and ketoprofen. The antinociceptive effect of oral administration of the drugs alone or in combination was evaluated using the mouse abdominal constriction test. The data were interpreted by isobolographic analysis to establish the nature of the interaction. The effective dose that produced 50% antinociception (ED(50,mix)) was calculated from the log dose-response curve of fixed-ratio combinations of paracetamol with ketoprofen. This ED(50,mix) was compared to the theoretical additive ED(50,add) by isobolographic analysis. The experimental ED(50,mix) was found to be significantly smaller than the theoretically calculated ED(50,add), indicating a synergistic antinociceptive interaction between ketoprofen and paracetamol. Pharmacokinetic studies were carried out with mice treated with combined ketoprofen (12 mg/kg) and paracetamol (36 mg/kg). Plasma levels of ketoprofen were not changed by concurrent paracetamol treatment, and similarly no statistically significant difference was observed between paracetamol alone and the combination with ketoprofen. The pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the combination of ketoprofen with paracetamol exerted a synergistic (supra-additive) interaction that was not associated with a pharmacokinetic interaction. The results of this study demonstrate significant synergism between ketoprofen and paracetamol.

  7. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation on DNA Duplex Stability and Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    R.W., J.B. Dodgson, I.F. Nes, and R.D. Wells. Duplex regions in single-stranded OX174 DNA are cleaved by a restriction endonuclease from Haemophilus ... aegyptius . J Biol Chem 252:7300-7306 (1977). *i Brown, R.F., S.V. Marshall, and C.W. Hughes. Effect of radiofrequency radi- ation (RFR) on excision

  8. Drug: D06339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06339 Drug Xenon Xe 133 (JAN/USP/INN); Xenon (133Xe); Xenon Xe 133 (TN) Xe 132.9059 131.293 D06339.gif Radi...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  9. Bubble-detector measurements of neutron radiation in the international space station: ISS-34 to ISS-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Koslowksy, M R; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V

    2016-02-01

    Bubble detectors have been used to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in several modules of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of an ongoing radiation survey. A series of experiments was performed during the ISS-34, ISS-35, ISS-36 and ISS-37 missions between December 2012 and October 2013. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, included measurements in four modules of the US orbital segment: Columbus, the Japanese experiment module, the US laboratory and Node 2. The Radi-N2 dose and spectral measurements are not significantly different from the Radi-N results collected in the same ISS locations, despite the large difference in solar activity between 2009 and 2013. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment of the ISS included the first characterisation of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom. These data suggest that the dose inside the phantom is ∼70% of the dose at its surface, while the spectrum inside the phantom contains a larger fraction of high-energy neutrons than the spectrum outside the phantom. The phantom results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that provide good agreement with the empirical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A free-electron laser in the pulsar magnetosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fung, P.K.; Kuijpers, J.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied systematically the free-electron laser in the context of high brightness pulsar radio emission. In this paper, we have numerically examined the case where a transverse electromagnetic wave is distorting the motion of a relativistic electron beam while travelling over one stellar radi

  11. Keeping Kids Still during Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... durante el proceso de formación de imágenes. Cualquier movimiento puede hacer que la película resulte borrosa, dificultando el análisis de la imagen por el radiólogo (un médico que se especializa ...

  12. The impact of Lyman α trapping on the formation of primordial objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Zaroubi, S.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous cosmological simulations have been performed to study the formation of the first objects. We present the results of high-resolution 3D cosmological simulations of the formation of primordial objects using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH by including in an approximate manner the radi

  13. A reflection on the role of an emergency care Consultant Radiographer in achieving appropriate imaging conditions for nasogastric tube positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.C. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: helen.jones@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Robinson, L. [University of Salford, Frederick Road, Salford M6 6UP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The College of Radiographers state that the role of a Consultant Radiographer comprises four core functions [College of Radiographers. Developing a business case for consultant radiographers. London: College of Radiographers; 2003; Hardy M, Snaith B. How to achieve consultant practitioner status: a discussion paper. Radiography, in press. doi:10.1016/j.radi.2006.04.003 [accessed 16.08.07

  14. Dear Colleagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Svend Borup

    2010-01-01

    Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials. The research interest in this field of chemistry has experienced a big growth during the last decades, driven by a demand of being able to visualize biological processes in the human body. This special issue of Molecules, dedicated to radi...

  15. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  16. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...

  17. Sposobnost opstanka informacionih sistema

    OpenAIRE

    Bosko Rodic; Dejan Vuletic

    2005-01-01

    U radu je opisan znacaj i trend razvoja informacionih sistema u savremenom drustvu, a definisani su i drugi znacajni pojmovi radi boljeg razumevanja problema. Prikazana su i cetiri aspekta resenja sposobnosti opstanka informacionih sistema koje predlaze Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT).

  18. Reliability investigations on LIFT-printed isotropic conductive adhesive joints for system-in-foil applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Perinchery, S.M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mandamparambil, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a commercially available isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA) deposited via laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) printing is reported. ICAs are particularly important for surfacemount device (SMD) integration onto low-cost, large-area system-in-foil (SiF) applications such as radi

  19. Reliability investigations on LIFT-printed isotropic conductive adhesive joints for system-in-foil applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Perinchery, S.M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Mandamparambil, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of a commercially available isotropic conductive adhesive (ICA) deposited via laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) printing is reported. ICAs are particularly important for surfacemount device (SMD) integration onto low-cost, large-area system-in-foil (SiF) applications such as radi

  20. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    British Airways British Airways today unveiled a radi-cal new environmental target of halvingnet CO2 emissions by 2050.The target,the most ambitious set by any airline,means that British Airways will reduce its net carbon output from 16

  1. Modeling of laser induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Mitko, V.S.; Obona, J.V.; Ocelik, V.; Hosson, J.T.M. de

    2010-01-01

    In surfaces irradiated by short laser pulses, Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) have been observed on all kind of materials for over forty years. These LIPSS, also referred to as ripples, consist of wavy surfaces with periodicity equal or smaller than the wavelength of the laser radi

  2. Paradoxical constructions in Danish elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Transformations take place in Danish elderly care due to neo-liberal modernization processes which imply a conception of human beings as rational and autonomous while simultaneously increasing the level of governance and control. Inspired by trends in gerontology these transformations form a radi...... collide when they talk about the elderly and in the daily interactions....

  3. Symptomatic Response to Divalproex in Subtypes of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ranjit; Saxena, Kirti; Remsing, Lisa; Huemer, Julia; Plattner, Belinda; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    To investigate response to Divalproex sodium (DVPX) with respect to Reactive/Affective/Defensive/Impulsive (RADI) and Proactive/Instrumental/Premeditated (PIP) aggression among adolescent males with conduct disorder (CD), using results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It was hypothesized that DVPX response among…

  4. Learning from the learning curve in total hip resurfacing: a radiographic analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, S.; Smolders, J.M.; Beaule, P.E.; Pasker, P.; Susante, J.L.C. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Operation of hip resurfacing prosthesis is a technically demanding procedure accompanied by a learning curve. To our knowledge no objective data on this learning curve are available in the literature. METHODS: For the first 40 resurfacing hip prostheses implanted by a single-surgeon radi

  5. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  6. Cystogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pueden indicar una se especializa en problemas del sistema el radiólogo, y su médico personal reci- posible reacción al agente de contraste que urinario) llenará su vejiga lentamente birá un informe de ...

  7. To Click or Not to Click: That's the Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rady, Johnny

    2006-01-01

    Classes of 100 students or more are not uncommon in higher education. With such large enrollments, it can be difficult for instructors to integrate active learning components to the traditional lecture format typically adopted in such large classes. To help address this problem, Johnny El-Rady discusses his use of an electronic classroom voting…

  8. Scattering of state-selected and oriented hydroxyl radicals by halogen hydrides and xenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moise, Angelica Valentina

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of the OH radical with atoms and other molecules is relevant for many physical and chemical processes involved in atmospheric, combustion and interstellar chemistry. Various experimental and theoretical studies have revealed information concerning the interaction of the hydroxyl radi

  9. Engineering a nanopore with co-chaperonin function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Ching-Wen; Meervelt, Veerle; Tsai, Keng-Chang; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Maglia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of an enzymatic function can reveal functional insights and allows the engineering of biological systems with enhanced properties. We engineered an alpha hemolysin nanopore to function as GroES, a protein that, in complex with GroEL, forms a two-stroke protein-folding nanomachine. The

  10. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a new thermostable bacterial laccase from Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyani, D. C.; Munk, L.; Mikkelsen, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    A new laccase gene (mrlac) from Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279 was successfully overexpressed to produce a laccase (Mrlac) in soluble form in Escherichia coli during simultaneous overexpression of a chaperone protein (GroEL/ES). Without the GroEL/ES protein, the Mrlac overexpressed in E. coli...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-10-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-10-0009 ref|YP_981446.1| Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES domain protein [Polar...omonas naphthalenivorans CJ2] gb|ABM36525.1| Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES domain protein [Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2] YP_981446.1 4.6 33% ...

  12. Die grossen Physiker und ihre Entdeckungen von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1998-01-01

    Von Galileo Galilei bis zu Richard Feynman und Murray Gell-Mann - von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks: Der Physiknobelpreisträger Emilio Segre hat seine ganz persönliche Geschichte der Physik geschrieben. Er erzählt von den großen Gestalten und deren wichtigen Entdeckungen mit großer Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15272-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .0 2 ( AB242233 ) Lettuce yellows phytoplasma groES, groEL, amp, na... 34 7.0 2 ( AB124810 ) Paulownia witch...Clover phyllody phytoplasma immunodominant membra... 34 7.4 2 ( DQ515794 ) Paulow

  14. Teilansicht der Universitätssternwarte Wien: Die Wiener Sternwarte

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschbaum, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Die Detailansicht zeigt den Eingangsbereich mit seinem großen Glasdach. Süden ist rechts. Unter dm Glasdach befindet sich die große Treppe, über die man in die eigentliche Sternwarte gelangt. Das Foto wurde vom weinhauser Kirchturm aufgenommen. Fotograf: Prof. Franz Kerschbaum

  15. Synthesis and folding of a mirror-image enzyme reveals ambidextrous chaperone activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew T. Weinstock; Michael T. Jacobsen; Michael S. Kay

    2014-01-01

    .... Impressively, GroEL/ES folds both L-and D-DapA. This work extends the limits of chemical protein synthesis, reveals ambidextrous GroEL/ES folding activity, and provides a valuable tool to fold D-proteins for drug development and mirror-image synthetic biology applications.

  16. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-shui LUO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of 900MHz electromagnetic radiation on the ultrastructure of rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs in vitro in order to provide basic materials for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic wave on the central nervous system. Methods Rat NSCs were divided into sham group, Radi1 group and Radi2 group, and they were respectively exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic wave at power density of 0, 1, and 3mW/cm2 in vitro. Cells in Radi1 group and Radi2 group were sub-grouped according to the way radiation was given: continuous irradiation, in which cells were exposed on the second day after culture for 2h per day for 6 consecutive days; single exposure to irradiation, in which cells were exposed for 12h on the sixth day after the culture. The ultrastructural changes on the surface of the cells were observed with atomic force microscope (AFM, whereas the ultrastructural changes in the cells were observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM. Results After 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation, when compared with the sham group (0mW/cm2, it was shown that the surface of neural stem cells in the exposure groups (1 and 3mW/cm2 became rough, and there were some changes such as "cavitation" and "fissure formation" in the membrane. The intracellular ultrastructure was found to have obviously disrupted in the exposure groups, such as homogenization of cytoplasm, obvious change organelle structure, morphological damage of structure of nucleus, nuclear membrane disappearance, and chromatin pyknosis, and the changes were more obvious in Radi2 group. Compared with the sham group, the surface roughness (Ra of cells in the exposure group was significantly intensified (P < 0.05, and it was higher in Radi2 group than that in Radi1 group (P < 0.05. Conclusion A 900MHz electromagnetic radiation may cause injury changes in NSCs membrane and ultrastructure in vitro, and the extent of injury may be related to the

  17. Bioassay-guided isolation of the antioxidant constituent from Cassia alata L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using DPPH radical scavenging assay to investigate the antioxidant activity of crude methanol extracts from the leaves, flowers and pods of Cassia alata L. found that the leaf extract exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than the extracts from the flowers and pods. On the basis of DPPH radical scavenging assay-guided isolation, the methanol extract of C. alata leaves was separated by silica gel vacuum chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration chromatography afford a light yellowish powder (CA1, which was identified as kaempferol. This compound exhibited antioxidant activity (ED50 9.99 μM that was six times stronger than that of BHT (ED50 57.41 μM and fifty eight times stronger than that of emodin (ED50 578.87 μM.

  18. Design, synthesis and evaluation of 5-substituted 1-H-tetrazoles as potent anticonvulsant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Mei; Wang, Tiantian; Cai, Bangrong; Jin, Yi; Cheon, Seunghoon; Chun, ChangJu; Wang, Zengtao

    2017-04-01

    A series of 5-substituted 1-H-tetrazoles were designed and synthesized as potent anticonvulsant agents. Their preliminary anticonvulsant activities were evaluated using maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure tests. Neurotoxicity was determined using rotarod test. The results indicated that the compound 2j in scPTZ model exhibited the ED50 values of 83.3 mg/kg, superior to the standard drug ethosuximide with the maximum activity. In addition, compound 2k showed the most potent activity in MES model with ED50 value of 9.6 mg/kg and TD50 value of 189.5 mg/kg after intraperitoneal injection in mice, and displayed a high protective index (TD50/ED50) of 19.7 compared to reference antiepileptic drugs.

  19. Loss of sensitivity to ACTH of adrenocortical cells isolated from maturing domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-07-01

    Maturation of domestic fowl corticosteroidogenesis was evaluated using purified adrenocortical cells. Basal corticosterone production decreased steadily from 2 days to 26 weeks after hatching. However, maximally stimulated corticosterone production was not changed. In contrast, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations (ED50 values or effective doses for 50% maximal effect) of ACTH analogs increased approximately 40 times by 26 weeks, but the ED50 values of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and pregnenolone were not changed. This suggests that adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH decreases with maturation of the domestic fowl.

  20. Unexpected and pronounced antinociceptive synergy between spinal acetaminophen (paracetamol) and phentolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, R B; Stone, D J; Tallarida, R J

    2001-01-26

    Acetaminophen was administered to mice by spinal (intrathecal, i.t.) injection alone or with phentolamine (11.3 microg = 0.03 micromol). Acetaminophen produced dose-related antinociception in the abdominal irritant test with an ED(50) value of 137.2 microg (0.9 micromol) Phentolamine had no effect. For combined administration, the potency of acetaminophen was significantly increased (ED50=24.4 vs. 137.2 microg), indicative of multiplicative interaction and strong synergism. These results reveal the significant and surprising interaction of spinal cord adrenoceptors or ion channel subtypes with acetaminophen-induced antinociception.

  1. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that

  2. In vitro delivery of curcumin with cholesterol-based cationic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiratikul, N; Penglong, T; Suksen, K; Svasti, S; Chairoungdua, A; Yingyongnarongkula, B

    2013-01-01

    A new cholesterol-based cationic lipid was synthesized; liposomes prepared on its basis were evaluated as drug delivery vehicles for curcumin. Free and liposome-encapsulated curcumin cytotoxicity against HeLa, A549, HepG2, K562 and 1301 cell lines was assessed. Liposomal curcumin with ED50 values ranging from 2.5-10 microM exhibited 2-8 times higher cytotoxicity than free curcumin. The synthetic cholesterol-based cationic lipid also enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin into tested cells. Cationic liposome alone showed low cytotoxicity at high doses with ED50 values of 90-210 microM.

  3. Understanding the mechanism of surface modification through enhanced thermal and electrochemical stabilities of N-doped graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehetre, Shantilal S., E-mail: shantilalmehetre@gmail.com; Maktedar, Shrikant S., E-mail: shrikantmaktedar@gmail.com; Singh, Man, E-mail: mansingh50@hotmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The N-doped graphene oxide was confirmed with FTIR, EDS, HR-TEM, SAED, HRXPS, UV, TGA, DSC and CV. • The N-doped graphene oxide was found suitable for thermal and electrochemical applications. • The proposed mechanisms of thermal and electrochemical stabilities were experimentally verified. • The cyclic voltammetry N-doped graphene oxide implies its potential for manifold electrochemical applications. - Abstract: The kinetically active two dimensional surface of graphene oxide (GrO) plays an important role in understanding the chemistry of graphene. The GrO is comprises of carbon and oxygen while the f-(6-AIND) GrO contains nitrogen along with carbon and oxygen. The prominent thermal instability of GrO is widely explored. However, due to the synergistic impact of their constituting elements, the thermal and electrochemical stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO enhances after N-doping with nitrogen containing heterocycles like 6-Aminoindazole. Hence it is essential to probe the mutual impact of various functionalities present over the surface of GrO, to understand the mechanism of direct functionalization of GrO with thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Therefore, the decomposition kinetics of discrete atomic domains and their effect on thermal stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO was revealed with spectroscopic analysis and thermal assessment. Additionally, the mechanism of thermal transformation is precisely developed to demonstrate the impact of heat on weight loss due to the mass transfer. Likewise, the electrochemical properties can be well understood with the help of mechanism of electrochemical activity and cyclic voltammetry experiments. Also, the f-(6-AIND) GrO is confirmed with the help of various surface analysis techniques like FTIR, EDS, HR-XPS, HR-TEM, CV, SAED, TGA, DSC and UV-vis.

  4. The phylogenetic position of Anaplasma bovis, and inferences on the phylogeny of the genus Anaplasma.

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi; 猪熊, 壽

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL (79.8%)....

  5. The Phylogenetic Position of Anaplasma bovis and Inferences on the Phylogeny of the Genus Anaplasma

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL...

  6. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in

  7. Characterization of Lactococcus lactis mutants with improved performance at high temperatures and potential dairy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun

    (TM29) capable of growing at 40ºC was successfully isolated. By determining the temperature dependent growth rate profile, a shift of the optimum temperature from 30ºC to 36ºC was observed for TM29. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis revealed that TM29 was able to hold higher glucose consumption...... microarray analysis revealed apparent differences in the transcriptional response to heat between the mutant and parent. It was found that SNPs preceding gene groESL and ribU resulted in over-expression of chaperone proteins GroES-GroEL, and membrane associated riboflavin transporter protein RibU in TM29...

  8. Safety of cornea and iris in ocular surgery with 355-nm lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Chung, Jae Lim; Schuele, Georg; Vankov, Alexander; Dalal, Roopa; Wiltberger, Michael; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    A recent study showed that 355-nm nanosecond lasers cut cornea with similar precision to infrared femtosecond lasers. However, use of ultraviolet wavelength requires precise assessment of ocular safety to determine the range of possible ophthalmic applications. In this study, the 355-nm nanosecond laser was evaluated for corneal and iris damage in rabbit, porcine, and human donor eyes as determined by minimum visible lesion (MVL) observation, live/dead staining of the endothelium, and apoptosis assay. Single-pulse damage to the iris was evaluated on porcine eyes using live/dead staining. In live rabbits, the cumulative median effective dose (ED50) for corneal damage was 231 J/cm2, as seen by lesion observation. Appearance of endothelial damage in live/dead staining or apoptosis occurred at higher radiant exposure of 287 J/cm2. On enucleated rabbit and porcine corneas, ED50 was 87 and 52 J/cm2, respectively, by MVL, and 241 and 160 J/cm2 for endothelial damage. In human eyes, ED50 for MVL was 110 J/cm2 and endothelial damage at 453 J/cm2. Single-pulse iris damage occurred at ED 50 of 208 mJ/cm2. These values determine the energy permitted for surgical patterns and can guide development of ophthalmic laser systems. Lower damage threshold in corneas of enucleated eyes versus live rabbits is noted for future safety evaluation.

  9. In vitro sensitivity testing of Cladobotryum mycophilum to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinesi Chakwiya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited information of fungicide efficacy on cultivated mushrooms and resistance development potential is available. Minor crop industries in general have a smaller arsenal of protectants to rely on and the likelihood of resistance build-up is of greater concern. This study focused on Cladobotryum mycophilum's sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese following recent reports on decreased efficacy of both fungicides. The median effective dose (ED50 values for carbendazim ranged between 0.02 mg/L and 4.31 mg/L with 60% of the South African isolates being moderately resistant. The highest resistance factor for carbendazim was 215. Prochloraz manganese ED50 values varied from 0.00001 mg/L to 0.55 mg/L. A significant difference in mean ED50 values for both fungicides tested was observed. Using cluster analysis, no discrimination of isolates previously exposed and unexposed to prochloraz manganese was observed. A wide range of differences in ED50 values indicated moderate resistance to carbendazim and high sensitivity to prochloraz manganese among isolates under investigation. Discriminant analysis indicated significant differences between clusters contributed by one or a few variables. This study provided evidence that prochloraz manganese remains highly fungitoxic to C. mycophilum. However, prochloraz manganese is to be used in a disease management strategy in combination with strict farm hygiene management strategies to retain product efficacy and ensure crop protection.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Antifungal N-Butylbenzenesulphonamide Produced by Pseudomonas sp. AB2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIM, KEUN KI; KANG, JAE GON; MOON, SUK SIK; KANG, KYU YOUNG

    2000-01-01

    .... An antifungal antibiotic was isolated from the culture filtrate and was identified as N-butylbenzenesulphonamide. ED50 values of the N-butylbenzenesulphonamide against P. ultimum, P. capsici, R. solani, and B. cinerea were 73, 41, 33 and 102 ppm, respectively.

  11. TIME-COURSE OF ACTION AND INTUBATING CONDITIONS FOLLOWING VECURONIUM, ROCURONIUM AND MIVACURIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, JMKH; HOMMES, FDM; NAP, HJA; VANDENBROEK, L

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the time course of action and tracheal intubating conditions of vecuronium, rocuronium, and mivacurium in anaesthetised patients. Anaesthesia consisted of thiopentone, fentanyl, N2O/O-2 and isoflurane. After a 2 x ED(50) dose the first attempt at tracheal int

  12. THE PHARMACOLOGY RESEARCH OF THENORPHINE,A NEW DRUG OF ANALGESIA AND DETOXIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GongZe-Hui; YueYong-Juan; CuiMeng-Xun; QinBo-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Thenorphine is a new parrtail agonist of opioid recepter synthesized by our institute of pharmacology and toxicology.There are double effects of agonist and antegonist on opioid recepter. The agonist effect was showed by analgesia. The analgesic properties are stronger efficacy (ED50 1 mg/kg po) ; longer duration (t1/2 9h) and lower dependence (no physiological

  13. In vivo antiplasmodial potentials of the combinations of four nigerian antimalarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Odediran, Samuel Akintunde; Aliyu, Fatimah Abosede; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Nwoko, Ndifreke Thomas; Umana, Usenobong Samuel

    2014-08-26

    Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity.

  14. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu g/c

  15. Neuroprotection Profile of the High Affinity NMDA Receptor Antagonist Conantokin-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    ED50 calculations were performed using the Pharmacological Calculations Computer Programs described by Tallarida and Murray (1987). Compound and...109–118. Tallarida RJ and Murray RB (1987) Manual of Pharmacologic Calculations with Computer Programs. Springer-Verlag, New York. Tatlisumak T

  16. Primary amino acid derivatives: substitution of the 4'-N'-benzylamide site in (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanamide, (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3,3-dimethylbutanamide, and (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3-methoxypropionamide provides potent anticonvulsants with pain-attenuating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Amber M; Salomé, Christophe; Salomé-Grosjean, Elise; De Ryck, Marc; Kaminski, Rafal; Valade, Anne; Stables, James P; Kohn, Harold

    2011-10-13

    Recently, we reported that select N'-benzyl 2-substituted 2-amino acetamides (primary amino acid derivatives (PAADs)) exhibited pronounced activities in established whole animal anticonvulsant (i.e., maximal electroshock seizure (MES)) and neuropathic pain (i.e., formalin) models. The anticonvulsant activities of C(2)-hydrocarbon N'-benzyl 2-amino acetamides (MES ED(50) = 13-21 mg/kg) exceeded those of phenobarbital (ED(50) = 22 mg/kg). Two additional studies defining the structure-activity relationship of PAADs are presented in this issue of the journal. In this study, we demonstrated that the anticonvulsant activities of (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanamide and (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3,3-dimethylbutanamide were sensitive to substituents at the 4'-N'-benzylamide site; electron-withdrawing groups retained activity, electron-donating groups led to a loss of activity, and incorporating either a 3-fluorobenzyloxy or 3-fluorophenoxymethyl group using a rationally designed multiple ligand approach improved activity. Additionally, we showed that substituents at the 4'-N'-benzylamide site of (R)-N'-benzyl 2-amino-3-methoxypropionamide also improved anticonvulsant activity, with the 3-fluorophenoxymethyl group providing the largest (∼4-fold) increase in activity (ED(50) = 8.9 mg/kg), a value that surpassed phenytoin (ED(50) = 9.5 mg/kg). Collectively, the pharmacological findings provided new information that C(2)-hydrocarbon PAADs represent a novel class of anticonvulsants.

  17. REPELLENCY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF PIPER ADUNCUM AGAINST AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN THE LABORATORY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

    2009-01-01

    The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED(50)) value was 1.5 mu g/cm(2) at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 see (2.1 mu g/cm(2)) and 120 see (1.8 mu

  18. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  19. The effect of fungicide dose on the composition of laboratory populations of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Nielsen, B.J.; Østergård, Hanne

    2000-01-01

    , with the decline being more rapid in the population treated with the high dose, where one pathotype dominated the population after 31 generations. This pathotype was apparently not the fittest in the population treated with the low dose. This implies that knowledge of ED50 is not sufficient to predict pathotype...

  20. Stimulation of insulin release by repaglinide and glibenclamide involves both common and distinct processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhlendorff, J; Rorsman, P; Kofod, Hans

    1998-01-01

    of repaglinide in vitro was paralleled by similar actions in vivo. The ED50 values for the hypoglycemic action were determined to be 10.4 and 15.6 microg/kg after intravenous and oral administration, respectively. The corresponding values for glibenclamide were 70.3 microg/kg (intravenous) and 203.2 microg...

  1. Naphthoquinone Derivatives Exert Their Antitrypanosomal Activity via a Multi-Target Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieretti, Simone; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Mazet, Muriel; Perozzo, Remo; Bergamini, Christian; Prati, Federica; Fato, Romana; Lenaz, Giorgio; Capranico, Giovanni; Brun, Reto; Bakker, Barbara M.; Michels, Paul A. M.; Scapozza, Leonardo; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Cavalli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background and Methodology: Recently, we reported on a new class of naphthoquinone derivatives showing a promising anti-trypanosomatid profile in cell-based experiments. The lead of this series (B6, 2-phenoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) showed an ED50 of 80 nM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, and a s

  2. Diapause hormone in the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea: Optimum temperature for activity, structure-activity relationships, and efficacy in accelerating flesh fly pupariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapause hormone (DH) effectively terminated pupal diapause in Helicoverpa zea. This effect was temperature-dependent, with an optimum of 21 degrees C. The dose-response curve indicated an ED50 of DH for diapause termination of approximately 100 pmol. The core sequence and essential amino acids w...

  3. Synthesis of gastrin antagonists, analogues of the C-terminal tetrapeptide of gastrin, by introduction of a beta-homo residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M; Fulcrand, P; Laur, J; Aumelas, A; Bali, J P; Martinez, J

    1989-03-01

    A series of analogues of Boc-Trp-Leu-Asp-Phe-NH2, a potent gastrin agonist, were synthesized by introducing a beta-homo residue in the sequence. These compounds were tested in vivo on acid secretion, in the anesthetized rat, and for their ability to inhibit binding of labeled gastrin to its receptors on gastric mucosal cells. These analogues behaved as gastrin antagonists. The most potent compounds in this series were Boc-Trp-Leu-beta-homo-Asp-NHCH2C6H5 (10) (IC50 = 1 microM, ED50 = 0.2 mg/kg), Boc-Trp-Leu-beta-homo-Asp-NHCH2CH2C6H5 (11) (IC50 = 0.75 microM, ED50 = 0.5 mg/kg), Boc-Trp-Leu-beta-homo-Asp-Phe-NH2 (12) (IC50 = 1.5 microM, ED50 = 0.1 mg/kg), and Boc-Trp-Leu-beta-homo-Asp-D-Phe-NH2 (13) (IC50 = 2 microM, ED50 = 0.1 mg/kg). We could demonstrate the importance of the region of the peptide bond between leucine and aspartic acid and of the structure of the C-terminal dipeptide Asp-Phe-NH2, for exhibiting biological activity on acid secretion.

  4. Threshold Damage of In vivo Porcine Skin at 2000 nm Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    middle point between the lowest value consistent damage (P^) and largest value of no damage ( Pno ). The standard deviation of ED50 value was equal to...32% of the border width (P&- Pno ). Even though the Yucatan mini-pig skin best represents human skin, the dark pigmentation of the skin hindered the

  5. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory activity and modeling studies of cycloartane-type terpenes derivatives isolated from Parthenium argentatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Vázquez, Adriana; Herrera, Maribel Pineda; Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Parra-Delgado, Hortensia; Pérez-Flores, Francisco J; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2014-12-15

    The 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced edema model in mice determined the anti-inflammatory activities in vivo of argentatins A, B and D, the main cycloartenol-type triterpenes present in Parthenium argentatum. Our results showed that argentatin B (ED50=1.5×10(-4)mmol/ear) and argentatin A (ED50=2.8×10(-4)mmol/ear) were more potent anti-inflammatory agents than indomethacin (ED50=4.5×10(-4)mmol/ear), the reference drug. Based on these findings, we decided to evaluate 13 derivatives of argentatins A and B. All the derivatives showed anti-inflammatory activity in the TPA-induced edema model in mice. The most active compound was 25-nor-cycloart-3, 16-dione-17-en-24-oic acid, obtained from argentatin A (ED50=1.4×10(-4)mmol/ear). Argentatin B was assayed as inhibitor of COX-2 activity one of the key enzymes involved in the TPA assay. The results showed that argentatin B at 15μM doses inhibited 77% COX-2 activity. Docking studies suggest that argentatin B interacts with Arg 120, a key residue for COX-2 activity.

  6. Evaluation of the antinociceptive potential of sodium valproate in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cristina Chitac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the field of algesiology demonstrated the existence of several types of pain, with complex mediation cascades. This fact prompted the use of compounds from other drug families than classical analgesics for the treatment of pain. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the antinociceptive action of sodium valproate in mice. This investigation relies on three nociception models that use chemical, thermal, mechanical (pressure stimuli, and a model of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan. The investigations were made using male white Swiss mice, weighing 20-30 grams. Valproate administration has been made orally, using geometric progression dose sequences. According to the statistical analysis, we obtained values of ED50 for sodium valproate for each nociception model as follows: ED50 = 21.773 ± 6.786 mg/kg for the nociception model with Zymosan A, ED50 = 11.807 ± 4.035 mg/kg, for the hot plate test, ED50 = 19.247 ± 2.207 mg/kg for the Randall-Sellitto test. The action of the valproate is explained by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-D IL1E, IL6 and prostaglandin mediators like PGE2. The experiments were made according to the European and Romanian legislation that concerns working with lab animals.

  7. Isobolographic analysis of interactions between losigamone and conventional antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Ratnaraj, Neville; Patsalos, Philip N; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was the isobolographic evaluation of interactions between losigamone (LSG), valproate (VPA), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT), and phenobarbital (PB) in the maximal electroshock (MES) test in mice. Electroconvulsions were produced by means of an alternating current (ear-clip electrodes, 0.2-s stimulus duration, and tonic hindlimb extension taken as the endpoint). Adverse effects were evaluated in the chimney test (motor coordination) and the passive avoidance task (long-term memory). Brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were measured by immunofluorescence or high-performance liquid chromatography. Isobolographic analysis indicated synergistic interactions between LSG and VPA. For example, in the proportion of 1:1 the theoretically calculated 50% effective dose for additivity (ED(50add)) was 138 mg/kg, while the experimentally derived ED(50) for the mixture (ED(50mix)) was 85.2 mg/kg. The difference was significant at p<0.001. LSG combined with CBZ or PHT showed additivity, whereas the combinations of LSG with PB were either additive, for the fixed ratios of 1:3 and 1:1, or antagonistic for the ratio of 3:1 (ED(50add)=18.4 mg/kg versus ED(50mix)=26.7 mg/kg, p<0.05). Impairment of long-term memory was noted only in the case of VPA given at its ED(50), however this AED did not affect motor performance. LSG, CBZ, PHT and PB (applied at their ED(50) values) and co-administration of LSG with conventional AEDs (including VPA) impaired neither motor performance nor long-term memory. LSG did not affect the brain concentration of VPA or PB, but significantly elevated the brain concentrations of CBZ and PHT. In contrast, VPA, CBZ and PHT significantly increased the brain concentration of LSG, indicating a pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed pharmacodynamic interactions. Although LSG exhibited some favorable pharmacodynamic interactions with various AEDs, these were complicated by pharmacokinetic interactions and emphasize the

  8. COMPARISION OF POTENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPES NEURO-MUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ BLOCKERS ON ISOLATED RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE OF RANA TIGRINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important use of neuromuscular blockers is as adjuvant to general anaesthesia whereadequate muscle relaxation can be achieved at lighter plane. They also reduce reflex muscle contraction in the regionundergoing surgery and assist maintenance of controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. They are particularly helpfulin abdominal and thoracic surgery, intubations and endoscopies, orthopedic manipulation, etc. Thus, the risk ofrespiratory and cardiovascular depression is minimized, and post anesthetic recovery is shortened. The potency ratioof two commonly used neuromuscular agents depolarizing succinylcholine and non depolarizing pancuronium.Double pith a frog and fasten it to a frog board with ventral side up. The sternum was cut through just above thexiphisternum at its base and a pair of muscle attached to it were dissected out and transferred to a dish containingfrog Ringer solution at room temperature. All the drug containing solutions were freshly prepared before theexperiments Succinyl choline, Pancuronium (1,10,100μg/ml and 1mg/dl respectively Acetyl choline (10,100μg/mland 1mg/dl. Acetylcholine solution in various strength were prepared starting from 0.1% to 0.0001%.NMJblockerPancuroniumwas added to the biophase in addition to selected dose (128μgor 256μgand the contraction ofmuscle till the 70-80% of inhibition is produced and the difference from sub maximal contractions. The medianED50was interpolated from the figure taking 50%of inhibition from Height of contractionin mm. The ‘t’ test wasperformed to compare the ED50value were interpolated from the regression line to find out the ED50of the drug. Themedian doses (ED50 of both of them were calculated graphically and compared. The mean ED50 value ofsuccinylcholine was found to be 1.59 ± 0.08μg (95% confidential limit was from 1.53 to 1.66μg. The ED50ofpancuronium was found to be 0.52 ± 0.10μg with 95% confidence limit being from 0.44 to 0.60μg. The ED50valueof the

  9. Combined effects of interferon and acyclovir on herpes simplex virus in vitro%干扰素联合无环鸟苷抑制单纯疱疹病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡楠; 龚启荣; 管怀进

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨干扰素( interferon, IFN )与无环鸟苷( acyclovir,ACV)联合使用抑制单纯疱疹病毒 (herpes simplex virus ,HSV) 时的药效及病毒耐药性产生情况.方法将HSV-Ⅰ分别接种于经IFN-α作用24h及未经IFN-α处理的非洲绿猴肾细胞中,加入不同浓度的ACV,培养72h后固定、染色、清点空斑数并计算ACV的半数有效剂量(ED50).将HSV-Ⅰ在含ACV及IFN-α与ACV的环境中连续培养10代, 分别在第3、5、7和10代测定ACV的ED50.结果 ACV对野生HSV-Ⅰ的ED50为142.0×10-9mol* L-1, IFN-α与ACV联合用药时ACV对野生HSV-Ⅰ的ED50为47.4×10-9mol* L-1 .HSV-Ⅰ在含ACV的环境中连续培养7代后即产生了耐药性,其ED50为第1代的82倍,而HSV-Ⅰ在含有ACV和IFN-α的环境中培养10代后未产生耐药性.结论 IFN和ACV联合应用具有协同作用,可以减少ACV的用量,提高疗效;联合用药可以有效延缓病毒对ACV耐药性的产生.

  10. The anticonvulsant profile of rufinamide (CGP 33101) in rodent seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H Steve; Franklin, Michael R; Kupferberg, Harvey J; Schmutz, Markus; Stables, James P; Wolf, Harold H

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the anticonvulsant profile and behavioral toxicity of rufinamide in animal seizure models compared to the established antiepileptic drugs (AEDs): phenytoin, phenobarbital, valproate, and ethosuximide, or vehicle. In acute studies of anticonvulsant efficacy, the AEDs were administered via oral (CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats) and intraperitoneal (CF1 mice) routes. The AEDs were assessed for their ability to inhibit seizures induced by maximal electroshock (MES) or subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol, and ability to block seizures induced by subcutaneous strychnine, bicuculline, or picrotoxin. Tolerance of oral rufinamide was assessed in rats following 5-day (versus single-dose) treatment with oral rufinamide using the dose equivalent necessary to achieve a 50% decrease in seizure frequency (ED(50)). Metabolic tolerance was also evaluated using an in vitro liver microsomal assay. Oral rufinamide suppressed pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice (ED(50) 45.8 mg/kg) but not rats, and was active against MES-induced tonic seizures in mice (ED(50) 23.9 mg/kg) and rats (ED(50) 6.1 mg/kg). Intraperitoneal rufinamide suppressed pentylenetetrazol-, bicuculline-, and picrotoxin-induced clonus in mice (ED(50) 54.0, 50.5, and 76.3 mg/kg, respectively). Rufinamide was partially effective in the mouse strychnine test. The behavioral toxicity of rufinamide was similar to or better than established AEDs tested in this study. In general, the protective index of rufinamide was greater than that of the other AEDs. The efficacy and behavioral toxicity profiles in these animal models suggest that rufinamide may be effective in the treatment of generalized and partial seizures.

  11. Anticonvulsant Profiles of Certain New 6-Aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro-[4.5]decane-8,10-diones and 1-Aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,5-diones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N.; El-Azzouny, Aida A.; Attia, Mohamed I.; Maklad, Yousreya A.; Aboutabl, Mona E.; Ragab, Fatma; El-Hamid, Walaa H. A. Abd

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis and anticonvulsant potential of certain new 6-aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-8,10-diones (6a–l) and 1-aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,5-diones (6m–x) are reported. The intermediates 1-[(aryl)(cyanomethyl)amino]cycloalkanecarboxamides (3a–f) were prepared via adopting Strecker synthesis on the proper cycloalkanone followed by partial hydrolysis of the obtained nitrile functionality and subsequent N-cyanomethylation. Compounds 3a–f were subjected to complete nitrile hydrolysis to give the respective carboxylic acid derivatives 4a–f which were cyclized under mild conditions to give the spiro compounds 5a–f. Ultimately, compounds 5a–f were alkylated or aralkylated to give the target compounds 6a–i and 6m–u. On the other hand, compounds 6j–l and 6v–x were synthesized from the intermediates 5a–f through alkylation, dehydration and finally tetrazole ring formation. Anticonvulsant screening of the target compounds 6a–x revealed that compound 6g showed an ED50 of 0.0043 mmol/kg in the scPTZ screen, being about 14 and 214 fold more potent than the reference drugs, Phenobarbital (ED50 = 0.06 mmol/kg) and Ethosuximide (ED50 = 0.92 mmol/kg), respectively. Compound 6e exhibited an ED50 of 0.019 mmol/kg, being about 1.8 fold more potent than that of the reference drug, Diphenylhydantoin (ED50 = 0.034 mmol/kg) in the MES screen. Interestingly, all the test compounds 6a–x did not show any minimal motor impairment at the maximum administered dose in the neurotoxicity screen. PMID:25250910

  12. Anticonvulsant Profiles of Certain New 6-Aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro-[4.5]decane-8,10-diones and 1-Aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3,5-diones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Aboul-Enein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and anticonvulsant potential of certain new 6-aryl-9-substituted-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-8,10-diones (6a–l and 1-aryl-4-substituted-1,4-diazaspiro[5.5] undecane-3,5-diones (6m–x are reported. The intermediates 1-[(aryl(cyanomethylamino] cycloalkanecarboxamides (3a–f were prepared via adopting Strecker synthesis on the proper cycloalkanone followed by partial hydrolysis of the obtained nitrile functionality and subsequent N-cyanomethylation. Compounds 3a–f were subjected to complete nitrile hydrolysis to give the respective carboxylic acid derivatives 4a–f which were cyclized under mild conditions to give the spiro compounds 5a–f. Ultimately, compounds 5a–f were alkylated or aralkylated to give the target compounds 6a–i and 6m–u. On the other hand, compounds 6j–l and 6v–x were synthesized from the intermediates 5a–f through alkylation, dehydration and finally tetrazole ring formation. Anticonvulsant screening of the target compounds 6a–x revealed that compound 6g showed an ED50 of 0.0043 mmol/kg in the scPTZ screen, being about 14 and 214 fold more potent than the reference drugs, Phenobarbital (ED50 = 0.06 mmol/kg and Ethosuximide (ED50 = 0.92 mmol/kg, respectively. Compound 6e exhibited an ED50 of 0.019 mmol/kg, being about 1.8 fold more potent than that of the reference drug, Diphenylhydantoin (ED50 = 0.034 mmol/kg in the MES screen. Interestingly, all the test compounds 6a–x did not show any minimal motor impairment at the maximum administered dose in the neurotoxicity screen.

  13. Development of three Drosophila melanogaster strains with different sensitivity to volatile anesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin; HU Zhao-yang; YE Qi-quan; DAI Shuo-hua

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of action for volatile anesthetics remain unknown for centuries partly owing to the insufficient or ineffective research models. We designed this study to develop three strains derived from a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster with different sensitivities to volatile anesthetics, which may ultimately facilitate molecular and genetic studies of the mechanism involved.Methods Median effective doses (ED50) of sevoflurane in seven-day-old virgin female and male wild-type Drosophila melanogaster were determined. The sensitive males and females of percentile 6-10 were cultured for breeding sensitive offspring (S1). So did median ones of percentile 48-52 for breeding median offspring (M1), resistant ones of percentile 91-95 for breeding resistant offspring (R1). Process was repeated through 31 generations, in the 37th generation, S37,M37 and R37 were used to determine ED50 for enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane,chloroform and trichloroethylene, then ED50 values were correlated with minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values in human.Results From a wild-type Drosophila melanogaster we were able to breed three strains with high, median and low sevoflurane requirements. The ratio of sevoflurane requirements of three strains were 1.20:1.00:0.53 for females and 1.22:1.00:0.72 for males. Strains sensitive, median and resistant to sevoflurane were also sensitive, median and resistant to other volatile anesthetics. For eight anesthetics, ED50 values in three strains correlated directly with MAC values in human.Conclusions Three Drosophila me/anogaster strains with high, median and low sensitivity to volatile anesthetics, but with same hereditary background were developed. The ED50 are directly correlated with MAC in human for eight volatile anesthetics.

  14. Structural Exploration of Quinazolin-4(3H)-ones as Anticonvulsants: Rational Design, Synthesis, Pharmacological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugale, Vinod G; Bari, Sanjay B

    2016-11-01

    Anticonvulsants effective against multiple seizures are of wide interest as antiepileptic drugs, especially if active against pharmaco-resistant seizures. Herein, we synthesized 16 different, rationally designed 2-((6,7-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)amino)-N-(substituted phenyl)acetamides and screened for anticonvulsant activities through in vivo experiments. Compound 4d emerged as prototype with excellent anti-seizure action in mice against electroshock, chemically induced and pharmaco-resistant 6-Hz seizure models with no symptoms of neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity (ED50  = 23.5 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 32.6 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 45.2 mg/kg, 6-Hz, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 325.9 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). In addition, investigation of compound 4l in mice for its pharmacological profile proved it as safer anticonvulsant, devoid of the side effects such as motor dysfunction and hepatotoxicity of classical antiepileptic drugs (ED50  = 26.1 mg/kg, MES, mice, i.p.; ED50  = 79.4 mg/kg, scPTZ, mice, i.p.; TD50  = 361.2 mg/kg, mice, i.p.). We also predicted physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of structurally optimized quinazolin-4(3H)-ones by a computational protocol. A combination of in vivo anticonvulsant profile, ex vivo toxicity, and in silico studies suggested that the synthesized compounds may be useful as broad-spectrum anti-seizure drug candidates with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Antimalarial compounds from Kniphofia foliosa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wube, Abraham Abebe; Bucar, Franz; Asres, Kaleab; Gibbons, Simon; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L

    2005-06-01

    During the course of screening Ethiopian medicinal plants for their antimalarial properties, it was found that the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Kniphofia foliosa Hochst. (Asphodelaceae), which have long been used in the traditional medicine of Ethiopia for the treatment of abdominal cramps and wound healing, displayed strong in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an ED50 value of 3.8 microg/mL and weak cytotoxic activity against KB cells with an ED50 value of 35.2 microg/mL. Five compounds were isolated from the roots and evaluated for their in vitro antimalarial activity. Among the compounds tested, 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-(xi)-hydroxychrysopanol-9-anthrone and chryslandicin, showed a high inhibition of the growth of the malaria parasite, P. falciparum with ED50 values of 0.260 and 0.537 microg/mL, respectively, while the naphthalene derivative, 2-acetyl-1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylnaphthalene, exhibited a less significant antimalarial activity with an ED50 value of 15.4 microg/mL. To compare the effect on the parasite with toxicity to mammalian cells, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against the KB cell line were evaluated and 10-(chrysophanol-7'-yl)-10-(xi)-hydroxychrysopanol-9-anthrone and chryslandicin displayed very low toxicity with ED50 values of 104 and 90 microg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of the inhibition of the growth of P. falciparum by anthraquinone-anthrone dimers and establishes them as a new class of potential antimalarial compounds with very little host cell toxicity.

  16. Antithrombotic properties of SSR182289A, a new, orally active thrombin inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, J; Millet, L; Lechaire, I; Lochot, S; Ferrari, P; Visconte, C; Sainte-Marie, M; Lunven, C; Berry, C N; Schaeffer, P; Herbert, J-M; O'Connor, S E

    2003-02-01

    N-[3-[[[(1S)-4-(5-Amino-2-pyridinyl)-1-[[4-difluoromethylene)-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl]butyl]amino]sulfonyl][1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl]acetamide hydrochloride (SSR182289A) is a novel, potent, and selective thrombin inhibitor. We have examined the antithrombotic properties of SSR182289A administered by i.v. and p.o. routes in several different animal thrombosis models in comparison with reference antithrombotic agents. Oral administration of SSR182289A produced dose-related antithrombotic effects in the following models; rat venous thrombosis (ED(50) 0.9 mg/kg p.o.), rat silk thread arterio-venous (AV) shunt (ED(50) 3.8 mg/kg p.o.), rat thromboplastin-induced AV shunt (ED(50) 3.1 mg/kg p.o.), rat carotid artery thrombosis (ED(200) 5.9 mg/kg p.o.), and rabbit venous thrombosis (ED(50) 7.5 mg/kg p.o.). Administered as an i.v. bolus, SSR182289A showed antithrombotic activity in the above models with ED(50)/ED(200) values in the range of 0.2 to 1.9 mg/kg i.v. SSR182289A increased rat tail transection bleeding time at doses > or =10 mg/kg p.o. In the rat thromboplastin-induced AV shunt model, SSR182289A 10 mg/kg p.o. produced marked antithrombotic effects at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after administration. Hence, SSR182289A demonstrates potent oral antithrombotic properties in animal venous, AV-shunt, and arterial thrombosis models.

  17. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  18. An Experimental Study of Waveguide Coupled Microwave Heating with Conventional Multicusp Negative Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Komppula, J; Koivisto, H; Laulainen, J; Tarvainen, O

    2015-01-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RFdriven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H^- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  19. An experimental study of waveguide coupled microwave heating with conventional multicusp negative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-04-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RF-driven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  20. USKRSNULl SVIJET PROLEGOMENA UVODNIM RAZMATRANJIMA O RANIJOJ SREDNJOVJEKOVNOJ UMJETNOSTI IZMEĐU SAVE l DRAVE

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Vladimir P.

    2005-01-01

    Iako bi se po naslovu možda moglo zaključiti da se radi o preliminarnom priopćenju, to uopće nije slučaj. Naprotiv radi se o zaključcima koji su ujedno i korak prema sustavnom istraživačkom radu na 'materijalu kojije odavna "potonuo" i koji treba uskrisiti kao važan segment hrvatske kulturne baštine. Autor se bavi tim materijalom od vremena svojih ranih studija o Bapskoj, Moroviću i Brodskom Drenovcu kasnih šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća. Razmatranja se temelje na prikupljenom poznavanju ...

  1. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-03-01

    Laboratory alteration experiments were performed on mineralogical assemblages having the unaltered CR composition. The mineralogy of reaction products was compared to that of Renazzo and GRO 95577 and to predictions of geochemical modeling.

  2. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  3. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YMR316W, YER125W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMR316W DIA1 Protein of unknown function, involved in invasive and pseudohyphal gro... of unknown function, involved in invasive and pseudohyphal growth; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion p

  4. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  5. 17α-Ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol, a biological marker for the abuse of norethandrolone and ethylestrenol in slaughter cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, L.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Hendriks, L.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Adriaensens, P.; Jacobs, M.-P.; Raus, J.

    1999-01-01

    The metabolism of the illegal growth promoter ethylestrenol (EES) was evaluated in bovine liver cells and subcellular fractions of bovine liver preparations. Incubations with bovine microsomal preparations revealed that EES is extensively biotransformed into norethandrolone (NE), another illegal gro

  6. The United South and Eastern Tribe (USET) Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) and Tribal Focused Environmental Risk and Sustainability Tool (Tribal-FERST) Train the Trainers Workshop.October 6-9, 2014, in Nashville, Tennessee: PFC Assessment for Management and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maintenance of wildlife and aquatic habitat is dependent on the development of a riparian area management strategy, which considers and adapts to certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, gro...

  7. THE ROLE OF BIOTECH:'\\OLOGY IN CROP IMPROVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    due to high population increase has lead to the grO\\\\ ing concern about loss in genetic diversity. under ... Biotechnology is indeed a frontier technology fast emerging from the laborator) to ...... projectile for delivering nucleic acid into living cell.

  8. Experiment list: SRX186644 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is a class I histone deacetylase that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group ...C1) is a class I histone deacetylase that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl gro

  9. Experiment list: ERX402106 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bios...phila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=trans

  10. Experiment list: ERX402124 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  11. Experiment list: ERX402125 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  12. Experiment list: ERX402107 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  13. Experiment list: ERX402139 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=transfe...ction || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.biosci

  14. Effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation%血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟伟; 彭鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats. Method Sixty male SD rats were used to set the animal model of cardiac arrest and were randomly (random number) divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group): sham operation group (sham-gro), negative control group (neg-gro), vasopressin group (vas-gro) and adrenaline group (adr-gro). Blood pressure was recorded, and brain tissue samples were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between vas-gro and adr-gro 30 min after resuscitation (P <0.05). The mean blood pressure in vasgro was higher than that in adr-gro within 30 min (1,2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min) after restoration of spontaneous circulation. The measured MDA, SOD and GSH were significantly different (P < 0.05) between each two groups among vas-gro, sham-gro and adr-gro. Conclusions The recovery rate was similar between vasopressin group and adrenaline group during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. However, vasopressin can to maintain the mean arterial pressure at a higher level after resuscitation, which can the increase the cerebral perfusion and reduce brain cell damage.%目的 比较血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的研究.方法 60只雄性SD大鼠建立心搏骤停模型,随机(随机数字法)分为4组(n=15/组):假手术组(sham operated group,shamgro)、阴性对照组(neg-gro)、血管加压素组(vas-gro)、肾上腺素组(adr-gro).分别记录血压变化,并取大鼠脑组织标本.结果 在复苏30 min后vas-gro与adr-gro复苏成功率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在自主循环恢复的30 min内(1,2,5,10,20,30 min)vas-gro的平均动脉压均高于adr-gro;测得MDA,SOD,GSH的量vas-gro,sham-gro,adr-gro互相之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血管加压素与肾上腺素在大鼠心肺复苏过程中成功率相近,但血管加压素能维持复苏后平均动脉压在较高水平,继而会更好的增加脑灌注,减轻脑细胞损伤.

  15. Feste - Opern - Prozessionen, hrg. von Katharina Hottmann und Christine Siegert, Hildesheim: Olms 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah Manthey

    2010-01-01

    ...)Theaterwissenschaft und der Performance-Forschung einiger Popularität erfreut, und so wird auch von den Herausgeberinnen Katharina Hottmann und Christine Siegert interdisziplinäre Öffnung groß geschrieben...

  16. Health for all or riches for some: WHO's responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motchane, Jean-Loup

    2003-01-01

    Can we still rely on the World Health Organization? It has not openly opposed the greed of the major global pharmaceutical companies, and its director-general, Gro Harlem Brundtland, has deferred to them.

  17. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  18. Price-predicting ability of farm managers : empirical findings with flower producers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Renkema, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in income among horticultural growers producing under similar conditions are known to be substantial. Production policy, including cultivar choice, plays an important role. Both price variation over time and price differences among cultivars provide valuable management information to gro

  19. Ethnic Group Identification and Group Evaluation Among Minority and Majority Groups : Testing the Multiculturalism Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Following social identity theory, the author hypothesized that members of minority groups are more likely than majority group members to endorse multiculturalism more strongly and assimilationist thinking less strongly. In addition, the multiculturalism hypothesis proposes that the more minority gro

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04916-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 034718 ) Gracilaria robusta plasmid Gro4970, complete sequ... 44 5.9 1 ( DL064443 ) Cancer Gene Determination... and Therapeutic Screeni... 44 5.9 1 ( DL064206 ) Cancer Gene Determination and Therapeutic Screeni... 44 5

  1. Chaperonins fight aminoglycoside-induced protein misfolding and promote short-term tolerance in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Good, Liam; Bentin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For almost half of a century, we have known that aminoglycoside antibiotics corrupt ribosomes, causing translational misreading, yet it remains unclear whether or not misreading triggers protein misfolding, and possible effects of chaperone action on drug susceptibilities are poorly understood....... Here, we show that aminoglycosides cause cytosolic protein misfolding and that chaperonin GroEL/GroES overexpression counters this defect. During aminoglycoside exposure to exponential cultures, chaperonin overexpression protected the bacterial membrane potential, rescued cell growth, and facilitated...... as measured by reduced minimum inhibitory concentrations, whereas GroEL/GroES overexpression did not increase minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our observations establish misfolding of cytosolic proteins as an effect of aminoglycoside action and reveal that chaperones, chaperonins in particular, help...

  2. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  3. The United South and Eastern Tribe (USET) Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) and Tribal Focused Environmental Risk and Sustainability Tool (Tribal-FERST) Train the Trainers Workshop.October 6-9, 2014, in Nashville, Tennessee: PFC Assessment for Management and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maintenance of wildlife and aquatic habitat is dependent on the development of a riparian area management strategy, which considers and adapts to certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, gro...

  4. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect gro

  5. Wutz Handbuch Vakuumtechnik

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Dieses Standardwerk gibt dem Leser umfassend Auskunft über Theorie und Praxis der Vakuumtechnik. Eine große Anzahl von numerischen Beispielen sowie aussagekräftigen Abbildungen erläutert und visualisiert die theoretischen Sachverhalte.

  6. 藏药螃蟹甲镇咳祛痰平喘有效部位研究%Studies on the effective parts to relieve cough, reduce phlegm and appease asthma from Radix Phlomii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬; 赵斌; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    目的:对藏药螃蟹甲的镇咳祛痰平喘作用的有效部位进行筛选.方法:运用小鼠氨水引咳法、小鼠呼吸道酚红排泌法、豚鼠组胺致喘法3个药理实验对螃蟹甲不同提取部位的主要药理学指标进行了考察.结果:螃蟹甲的乙酸乙酯部位和正丁醇部位均有较好的镇咳祛痰平喘作用,其中镇咳、祛痰作用以正丁醇部位为佳,平喘作用以乙酸乙酯部位作用明显.结论:乙酸乙酯部位和正丁醇部位为螃蟹甲镇咳、祛痰、平喘的主要有效部位.%Objective: To search on the effective parts to relieve cough, reduce phlegm and appease asthma from Radis Phlomii. Methods: The major indexes of Radis Phlomii different extraction sites were studied pharmacology through three phar macodynamic experiments. Results: The acetic acid ethyl ester part and the n-hutyl alcohol part of Radis Phlomii had promi nent biological activities of relieving cough, reducing phlegm and appeasing asthma. Conclusion: These results showed that the acetic acid ethyl ester part and the n-butyl alcohol part of Radis Phlomii are the effective parts.

  7. Disease: H00842 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00842 Epidermodysplasia verruciformis Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare ge... SS Clinical aspects of epidermodysplasia verruciformis and review of the literature. Int J Dermatol 46:1069...-72 (2007) PMID:18317036 (description, gene) Gewirtzman A, Bartlett B, Tyring S Epidermody... (description) Patel T, Morrison LK, Rady P, Tyring S Epidermodysplasia verruciformis and susceptibility to HPV. Dis Markers 29:199-206 (2010) ...

  8. Repeated loading of fine grained soils for pavement design

    OpenAIRE

    Loach, Simon C.

    1987-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to investigate the behaviour of a clay subjected to a loading regime similar to that experienced by a road subgrade under traffic loading in Great Britain. The material used was Keuper Marl. The samples were anisotropically consolidated in a triaxial apparatus from a slurry which allowed careful control over the stress history and produced uniform samples. The samples were fully instrumented and the apparatus was capable of applying repeated axial and radi...

  9. Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis versus Bacterial Rhinosinusitis with Orbital Complications: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis with orbital complications (IFSwOC) is a life-threatening condition. The incidence of mortality has been reported to be up to 80 percent. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors, presentations, clinical, and imaging findings that could help to manage this condition promptly. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 100 patients suffering from rhinosinusitis with orbital complications. The risk factors, clinical presentations, radi...

  10. Slikovni prikaz poremećaja temporomandibularnog zgloba

    OpenAIRE

    Marotti, Miljenko

    2010-01-01

    Složena anatomska konfiguracija temporomandibularnog zgloba razlog je razvitka standardiziranih tehnika koje omogućuju točan anatomski prikaz. Linearna tomografija omogućuje dobre koštane detalje, ali ne prikazuje mekotkivnu komponentu zgloba. Ta tehnika uspješno pokazuje hipoplaziju, hipertrofiju ili malformaciju kondila, a u slučajevima maksilofacijalne traume dobar prikaz frakture pukotine. Infekcije i tumori također su prikazivi ovom metodom. Artrografiju izvodimo radi prikaza statusa...

  11. Röntgenologische Untersuchung zu Entwicklung und Verlauf traumatisch bedingter Periostitis ossificans an den distalen Extremitätenknochen des Pferdes

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Periostitis ossificans can be developed only in those parts of a bone which are covered with periosteum. Therefore the periosteal situation of the distal equine limb is described and a survey of possible reasons for periostitis ossificans is given, for periostitis ossificans is the gross pathological answer of bone to a lot of reasons. Periostitis ossificans caused by different kinds of trauma is studied radiographically, to find out, when the first periosteal reactions appear in the radi...

  12. Hip fracture fixation in a patient with below-knee amputation presents a surgical dilemma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rethnam Ulfin; Yesupalan Rajam; Shoaib Amer; Ratnam Thanga K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hip fracture fixation surgery in patients with below-knee amputations poses a challenging problem to the surgeon in terms of obtaining traction for reduction of the fracture. The absence of the foot and part of the leg in these patients makes positioning on the fracture table difficult. We highlight this difficult problem and suggest techniques to overcome it. Case presentation A 73-year-old man with bilateral below-knee amputations presented with a history of fall. Radi...

  13. Analiza niskofrekventnog spektra vibracija na elementima strukture helikoptera „gazela“

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović M. Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    U radu je prikazan postupak i metodologija ispitivanja vibracija na helikopteru „gazela“ radi definisanja efikasnosti prigušenja vibracija na vezi struktura – sedište pilota. Posebna pažnja posvećena je teorijskim osnovama vibracija na helikopteru, određivanju radnih frekvencija, definisanju režima rada i profila leta helikoptera u toku ispitivanja. Na kraju rada prikazani su rezultati merenja vibracija u frekventnom domenu.

  14. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  15. A natural fit: home healthcare and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, Nestor; Abe, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of Biomed in management of home care equipment has become a natural fit for Rady Children's Hospital. Managing all aspects of home care equipment through an in-house biomedical engineering department is cost-effective, efficient, provides excellent customer service, and enhances the relationship with the clinical staff and patients. It develops a sense of security for patients and staff that home care equipment is tested and maintained in a stringent manner that promotes safety.

  16. Angelman syndrome: review of clinical and molecular aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Lynne M Bird1Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Division of Genetics, Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, California, USAAbstract: “Angelman syndrome” (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose main features are intellectual disability, lack of speech, seizures, and a characteristic behavioral profile. The behavioral features of AS include a happy demeanor, easily provoked laughter, short attention span, hypermotoric behavior, mouthing of objec...

  17. Comparison of Radiography, Laser Fluorescence and Visual Examination for Diagnosing Incipient Occlusal Caries of Permanent First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Ezoddini, Fateme; Halvani, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Early diagnosis of incipient and non-cavitated carious lesions is crucial for performing preventive treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three diagnostic methods of bitewing radiography, DIAGNOdent, and visual examination in diagnosing incipient occlusal caries of permanent first molars. Materials and Methods: In this diagnostic cross-sectional study, 109 permanent first molar teeth of 31 patients aged 7–13 years were examined visually, on bitewing radi...

  18. Heat Diffusion across a Strong Stochastic Magnetic Field in Tokamak Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; YU Qing-Quan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate heat diffusion across a local strong stochastic magnetic field by using eleven low-m perturbed magnetic islands.A maximum stochasticity of 38.82 between two neighboring rationed surfaces is attained.The correlation between the effective radied heat conductivity Xr and the ratio of the paredlel heat diffusion coefficient to the perpendicular coefficient,X||/X,is numericeally studied and compared with earlier work.

  19. "Uzhe katitsja pod goru leto..." : [luuletused] / Hando Runnel ; tlk. Svetlan Semenenko, lühibiograafia: T. L. [Toomas Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Runnel, Hando, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: "Uzhe katitsja pod goru leto..." ; Pokoi ; "Poidjot po zhilam trevozhnõi..." ; Nashlo ; Kristina ; "Kogda razbedutsja..." ; "Tri tsherepa branilis..." ; Tak mnogo kljatv ; Ottsõ i deti ; Radi petshalnõh ; Postizhenije ; Dobro i zlo ; Otkrõtije. Orig.: "Juba suvi kaob allamäge..." ; Rahu ; Kihk ; Kristiine on karjanaine ; "Kui pidud on peetud..." ; Võllalaul ; Nii palju tõotusi ; Isad ja pojad ; Kurbade kaitseks ; Mõistmine ; Heast ja halvast ; Avanemine

  20. The Trilinear Hamiltonian: A Zero Dimensional Model of Hawking Radiation from a Quantized Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P. D.; Blencowe, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a quantum parametric amplifier with dynamical pump mode, viewed as a zero-dimensional model of Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole. The conditions are derived under which the spectrum of particles generated from vacuum fluctuations deviates from the thermal spectrum predicted for the conventional parametric amplifier. We find that significant deviations arise when the pump mode (black hole) has emitted nearly half of its initial energy into the signal (Hawking radi...

  1. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    triphosphate; blast exposure; glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase; mini citric acid cycle ; mito- chondrial dysfunction; pyruvate dehydrogenase; traumatic...the transamination of glutamate to aspartate and a-ketoglutarate. Since a-ketoglutarate can directly enter the citric acid cycle to generate ATP, GOT2...energy metabolism involving the ‘‘mini citric acid cycle ,’’ which was proposed by Yudkoff and colleagues in 1994.16 Using radi- olabeled aspartate and

  2. Standardizacija materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu / Materiel standardization in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Glišić

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan proces standardizacije materijalnih sredstava u Severnoatlantskom savezu kroz sagledavanje njegovog mesta i uloge u okviru zajedničke standardizacije, koja se realizuje radi dostizanja interoperabilnosti između vojnih snaga zemalja uključenih u evroatlantske integracije. / This paper presents a process of materiel standardization in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization through analysis of its place and role in common standardization process that should achieve interoperability between allied forces.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration by Ginsenoside Ro Are Dependent on Phosphorylation of IP3RI and Dephosphorylation of ERK in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Woo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i is platelet aggregation-inducing molecule and is involved in activation of aggregation associated molecules. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro, an oleanane-type saponin in Panax ginseng. G-Ro, without affecting leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was approximately 155 μM. G-Ro inhibited strongly thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which was strongly increased by A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared to G-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. G-Ro increased the level of cAMP and subsequently elevated the phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I (IP3RI (Ser1756 to inhibit [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756 by G-Ro was decreased by PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. In addition, G-Ro inhibited thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ influx across plasma membrane. We demonstrate that G-Ro upregulates cAMP-dependent IP3RI (Ser1756 phosphorylation and downregulates phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa to decrease thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which contributes to inhibition of ATP and serotonin release, and p-selectin expression. These results indicate that G-Ro in Panax ginseng is a beneficial novel Ca2+-antagonistic compound and may prevent platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  4. Molekulargenetische Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe Pichia ciferrii

    OpenAIRE

    Schorsch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Die nicht-konventionelle Hefe P. ciferrii produziert große Mengen der tetra-acetylierten Sphingoidbase Phytosphingosin (TAPS). Sphingoidbasen sind essentielle Komponenten des stratum corneums, der multilamellaren Barriere der menschlichen Haut, und daher in der Kosmetik-Industrie von großem Interesse. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollte die biotechnologische Produktion der Sphingoidbasen Phytosphingosin, Sphinganin und Sphingosin auf molekularbiologischer Ebene in P. ciferrii charakterisiert und o...

  5. Heterologous expression, chaperone mediated solubilization and purification of parasitic nematode-specific growth factor-like protein of Setaria digitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W WP Rodrigo; R S Dassanayake; E H Karunanayake; YIN Silva Gunawardene; O VDS J Weerasena

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To clone, express and purify a putative parasitic nematode specific protein of Setaria digitata (S. digitata), filarial nematode that infects livestock and cause significant economic losses inFarEast andAsia to be used for structural and functional analyses. Methods:To characterize uncharacterized gene ofS. digitata(SDUG), the herterologous expression ofSDUG was carried out in the pET [cloned into pET45b(+)] expression system initially and co-expression ofSDUG using chaperone plasmids pG-KJE8, pGro7, pKJE7, pG-Tf2 and pTf16 containing chaperone proteins of dnaK-dnaJ-grpE-groES-gro-E, groES-groEL, dnaK-dnaJ-grpE, groES-groEL-tig, and tig respectively, was carried out subsequently.Results:Expression ofSDUG was seen whenEscherichia coli strainBL21(DE3) is used, while concentrating protein largely into the insoluble fraction.The co-expression ofSDUG using chaperone plasmid mediated system indicated a significant increase of the protein in the soluble fraction.Of the chaperon plasmid sets, the highest amount of recombinantSDUP in the soluble fraction was seen when pGro7 was used in the presence of 2 mg/mLL-arabinose and0.6MIPTG concentration in the culture medium and for3 h of incubation at the temperature of28 ℃.RecombinantSDUG was purified both from soluble and insoluble fractions usingNi affinity chromatography.SDS-PAGE and western blot analyses of these proteins revealed a single band having expected size of ~24 kDa.Conclusions:SDUG seems to be more aggregate-prone and hydrophobic in nature and such protein can make soluble by correct selecting the inducer concentrations and induction temperature and its duration.

  6. Tissue MicroArray (TMA) analysis of normal and persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Kaiser, Carmen; Sullivan, Erin D; Miller, Richard D; Timms, Peter; Summersgill, James T; Ramirez, Julio A; Pospischil, Andreas

    2006-10-19

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. We validated the use of tissue microarray (TMA) technology, in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC), to test antibodies (GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk) raised against differentially expressed proteins under an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced model of chlamydial persistence. In the cell pellet array, we were able to identify differences in protein expression patterns between untreated and IFN-gamma treated samples. Typical, large chlamydial inclusions could be observed in the untreated samples with all antibodies, whereas the number of inclusions were decreased and were smaller and atypical in shape in the IFN-gamma treated samples. The staining results obtained with the TMA method were generally similar to the changes observed between normal and IFN-gamma persistence using proteomic analysis. Subsequently, it was shown in a second TMA including archival atheromatous heart tissues from 12 patients undergoing heart transplantation, that GroEL, GroES, GspD and Pyk were expressed in atheromatous heart tissue specimens as well, and were detectable morphologically within lesions by IHC. TMA technology proved useful in documenting functional proteomics data with the morphologic distribution of GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets and tissues from patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis. The antibodies GroEL and GroES, which were upregulated under persistence in proteomic analysis, displayed positive reaction in atheromatous heart tissue from 10 out of 12 patients. These may be useful markers for the detection of persistent infection in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Tissue MicroArray (TMA analysis of normal and persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timms Peter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. Methods We validated the use of tissue microarray (TMA technology, in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC, to test antibodies (GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk raised against differentially expressed proteins under an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ induced model of chlamydial persistence. Results In the cell pellet array, we were able to identify differences in protein expression patterns between untreated and IFN-γ treated samples. Typical, large chlamydial inclusions could be observed in the untreated samples with all antibodies, whereas the number of inclusions were decreased and were smaller and atypical in shape in the IFN-γ treated samples. The staining results obtained with the TMA method were generally similar to the changes observed between normal and IFN-γ persistence using proteomic analysis. Subsequently, it was shown in a second TMA including archival atheromatous heart tissues from 12 patients undergoing heart transplantation, that GroEL, GroES, GspD and Pyk were expressed in atheromatous heart tissue specimens as well, and were detectable morphologically within lesions by IHC. Conclusion TMA technology proved useful in documenting functional proteomics data with the morphologic distribution of GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets and tissues from patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis. The antibodies GroEL and GroES, which were upregulated under persistence in proteomic analysis, displayed positive reaction in atheromatous heart tissue from 10 out of 12 patients. These may be useful markers for the detection of persistent infection in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Quasistatic and Dynamic Growth of Microscale Spherical Voids (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    function of gro\\ VIh rate. Eq. (56) is solved numerically for specified material data. Results of crossover growlh rate, v·, and pressure, P’, are shown...At a pressure P < p’, (or v < v"), growth rate is lower for materials with high yield stress. Conversely. at a pressure P > p •. (or v > v·), gro\\ VIh

  9. [Host factors in the regulation of the Vibrio fischeri lux operon in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhov, I V; Kotova, V Iu; Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that the chaperonin GroEL, together with GroES co-chaperonin and Lon ATP-dependent protease are involved in the regulation of expression of the Vibrio fischeri lux operon in Escherichia coli cells. The cells of E. coli groE (pF1)- bearing a plasmid with the complete V. fischeri lux regulon were weakly luminescent. The cells of E. coli lonA (pF1) displayed intense bioluminescence. The same effects also occurred in mutant E. coli strains bearing a hybrid plasmid pVFR1, where the luxR gene and the regulatory region of the V. fischeri lux operon were inserted before the Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE cassette. The V. fischeri luxR gene was cloned in the pGEX-KG vector with the formation of a hybrid gene gst-luxR. It was shown that affinity chromatography of the product of expression, the chimeric protein GST-LuxR, on a column with glutathione-agarose resulted in its copurification with the proteins GroEL and Lon. Consequently, LuxR, the transcription activator of the lux operon, forms complexes with these proteins. It is supposed that GroEL/GroES is responsible for the folding of the LuxR protein, and Lon protease degrades the LuxR protein either before its folding into an active globule or at denaturing.

  10. Non-structural proteins P17 and P33 are involved in the assembly of the internal membrane-containing virus PRD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, Jenni; Mäntynen, Sari [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Ihalainen, Teemu O. [Stem Cells in Neurological Applications Group, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Bamford, Jaana K.H. [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Oksanen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.oksanen@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Biocenter 2, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5), FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    Bacteriophage PRD1, which has been studied intensively at the structural and functional levels, still has some gene products with unknown functions and certain aspects of the PRD1 assembly process have remained unsolved. In this study, we demonstrate that the phage-encoded non-structural proteins P17 and P33, either individually or together, complement the defect in a temperature-sensitive GroES mutant of Escherichia coli for host growth and PRD1 propagation. Confocal microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins revealed co-localisation between P33 and P17 as well as between P33 and the host chaperonin GroEL. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay demonstrated that the diffusion of the P33 fluorescent fusion protein was substantially slower in E. coli than theoretically calculated, presumably resulting from intermolecular interactions. Our results indicate that P33 and P17 function in procapsid assembly, possibly in association with the host chaperonin complex GroEL/GroES. - Highlights: • Two non-structural proteins of PRD1 are involved in the virus assembly. • P17 and P33 complement the defect in GroES of Escherichia coli. • P33 co-localises with GroEL and P17 in the bacterium. • Slow motion of P33 in the bacterium suggests association with cellular components.

  11. Comparison of Oncentra® Brachy IPSA and graphical optimisation techniques: a case study of HDR brachytherapy head and neck and prostate plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Michael G, E-mail: michael.jameson@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Ohanessian, Lucy [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Batumalai, Vikneswary [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of New South Wales (Australia); Patel, Virendra [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois C [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    There are a number of different dwell positions and time optimisation options available in the Oncentra® Brachy (Elekta Brachytherapy Solutions, Veenendaal, The Netherlands) brachytherapy treatment planning system. The purpose of this case study was to compare graphical (GRO) and inverse planning by simulated annealing (IPSA) optimisation techniques for interstitial head and neck (HN) and prostate plans considering dosimetry, modelled radiobiology outcome and planning time. Four retrospective brachytherapy patients were chosen for this study, two recurrent HN and two prostatic boosts. Manual GRO and IPSA plans were generated for each patient. Plans were compared using dose–volume histograms (DVH) and dose coverage metrics including; conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity number (CN). Logit and relative seriality models were used to calculate tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Approximate planning time was also recorded. There was no significant difference between GRO and IPSA in terms of dose metrics with mean CI of 1.30 and 1.57 (P > 0.05) respectively. IPSA achieved an average HN TCP of 0.32 versus 0.12 for GRO while for prostate there was no significant difference. Mean GRO planning times were greater than 75 min while average IPSA planning times were less than 10 min. Planning times for IPSA were greatly reduced compared to GRO and plans were dosimetrically similar. For this reason, IPSA makes for a useful planning tool in HN and prostate brachytherapy.

  12. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  13. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes in several countries, thereby forcing the researchers to search for alternatives. In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against the egg and larvae of naturally infected sheep. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the main metabolites identified in the extract. The aqueous extract of E. globulus was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in naturally infected sheep. The various blood parameters, coupled with effects on marker enzymes and antioxidant status, were evaluated during the trial period. Methanolic extract showed better ED50 (3.756 mg/ml) and ED99 (33.809 mg/ml) values in comparison with aqueous extract (ED50 = 1.502 and ED99 = 7.10 mg/ml) in the egg hatch assay. Inverse was true in larval development and larval paralysis tests. The aqueous extract's ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml values in the larval development test and ED50 = 19.994 and ED99 = 108.931 mg/ml in the larval paralysis test were more potent than those of its methanolic counterpart with ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml and ED50 = 15.595 and ED99 = 94.493 mg/ml, respectively. A significant amount of 66% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post treatment, although in initial stages it showed 58.0 and 80% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post treatment. Though the FCER reduction was somewhat lower in terms of comparison with albendazole, nevertheless, significant and prolong reduction was noticed. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters suggesting that the plant could be safer for use in sheep. Though significant changes were observed in SGPT, RBCs, Hb and RDWc levels, other parameters showed nonsignificant variations within the

  14. Effects of intrathecal nefopam and neostigmine on incision pain in rats%鞘内联合应用奈福泮和新斯的明对切口痛大鼠的镇痛效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云翮; 李祥; 薄五海; 王艳红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of intrathecal nefopam and neostigmine on postoperative pain in rats. Methods After intrathecal implantation,the incision pain rat models were established and used to evaluate the pain behaviors by cumulative pain scores.The dose-response curve and the 50% effective dose.( ED50 )were obtained after intrathecal injection of neostigmine and nefopam using sequential methods. The ED50 of neostigmine and nefopam were calculated for observing the drug interactions when different fractions of EDso of both neostigmine and nefopam were administered together. Re.sults ①The EDso of intrathecal nefopam( 50 - 150 μg ) alone was 82. 64 μg and 95% confidenc:e intervals( CI )were 72. 53 - 94. 14 μg. The EDso of intrathecal neostigmine( 1 - 10 μg )alone was 8. 36 μg and 95% confidence intervals were 6. 68 - 10. 70 μg. When the two drugs were used together at the doses of 1/2EDso , 1/ 4ED50 , 1/8 ED50 and l/16ED50 , the ED50 of nefopam was 10. 93 μg ( 95 % CI 6. 83 - 17. 49 μg ) , and the ED50 of neostigmine was 1. 05 μg( 95 % CI 0. 66 - I . 68 μg ). Intrathecal administration of nefopam , neostigmine or their combination produced a significant dose-dependent analgesic effect in incision pain rats. ③According to the Isobologram methods by Tallarida, it was deduced that nefopam and neostigmine had the synergistic analgesic interaction. Conclusion ①)Nefopam at the dose of 50 - 150 μg and neostigmine at the dose of 1 - 10μg,both can produce a dose-dependant analgesic effect. ②The analgesic effect of neotigmine and nefopam was synergistic.%目的 观察鞘内联合应用盐酸奈福泮和新斯的明的镇痛作用.方法 在大鼠切口疼痛模型上结合鞘内置管技术,采用累积疼痛评分法评定大鼠疼痛行为;采用序贯法分别使用不同剂量奈福泮、新斯的明进行鞘内注射以获得量效曲线及半效剂量(ED50),鞘内联合应用不同比例的ED50剂量获得联合用药时药物各自的

  15. Extending the evaluation of Genia Event task toward knowledge base construction and comparison to Gene Regulation Ontology task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Kim, Jung-Jae; Han, Xu; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of the BioNLP Shared Task was held with the grand theme "knowledge base construction (KB)". The Genia Event (GE) task was re-designed and implemented in light of this theme. For its final report, the participating systems were evaluated from a perspective of annotation. To further explore the grand theme, we extended the evaluation from a perspective of KB construction. Also, the Gene Regulation Ontology (GRO) task was newly introduced in the third edition. The final evaluation of the participating systems resulted in relatively low performance. The reason was attributed to the large size and complex semantic representation of the ontology. To investigate potential benefits of resource exchange between the presumably similar tasks, we measured the overlap between the datasets of the two tasks, and tested whether the dataset for one task can be used to enhance performance on the other. We report an extended evaluation on all the participating systems in the GE task, incoporating a KB perspective. For the evaluation, the final submission of each participant was converted to RDF statements, and evaluated using 8 queries that were formulated in SPARQL. The results suggest that the evaluation may be concluded differently between the two different perspectives, annotation vs. KB. We also provide a comparison of the GE and GRO tasks by converting their datasets into each other's format. More than 90% of the GE data could be converted into the GRO task format, while only half of the GRO data could be mapped to the GE task format. The imbalance in conversion indicates that the GRO is a comprehensive extension of the GE task ontology. We further used the converted GRO data as additional training data for the GE task, which helped improve GE task participant system performance. However, the converted GE data did not help GRO task participants, due to overfitting and the ontology gap.

  16. A comparison of inverse optimization algorithms for HDR/PDR prostate brachytherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkla, Anna M; van der Laarse, Rob; Kaljouw, Emmie; Pieters, Bradley R; Koedooder, Kees; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical optimization (GrO) is a common method for high-dose-rate/pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment planning. New methods performing inverse optimization of the dose distribution have been developed over the past years. The purpose is to compare GrO and two established inverse methods, inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) and hybrid inverse treatment planning and optimization (HIPO), and one new method, enhanced geometric optimization-interactive inverse planning (EGO-IIP), in terms of speed and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. For 26 prostate cancer patients treated with a PDR brachytherapy boost, an experienced treatment planner optimized the dose distributions using four different methods: GrO, IPSA, HIPO, and EGO-IIP. Relevant DVH parameters (prostate-V100%, D90%, V150%; urethra-D(0.1cm3) and D(1.0cm3); rectum-D(0.1cm3) and D(2.0cm3); bladder-D(2.0cm3)) were evaluated and their compliance to the constraints. Treatment planning time was also recorded. All inverse methods resulted in shorter planning time (mean, 4-6.7 min), as compared with GrO (mean, 7.6 min). In terms of DVH parameters, none of the inverse methods outperformed the others. However, all inverse methods improved on compliance to the planning constraints as compared with GrO. On average, EGO-IIP and GrO resulted in highest D90%, and the IPSA plans resulted in lowest bladder D2.0cm3 and urethra D(1.0cm3). Inverse planning methods decrease planning time as compared with GrO for PDR/high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. DVH parameters are comparable for all methods. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ganaxolone Suppression of Behavioral and Electrographic Seizures in the Mouse Amygdala Kindling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala S.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ganaxolone (3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-pregnan-20-one), a synthetic analog of the endogenous neurosteroid allopregnanolone and a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, may represent a new treatment approach for epilepsy. Here we demonstrate that pretreatment with ganaxolone (1.25–20 mg/kg, s.c.) causes a dose-dependent suppression of behavioral and electrographic seizures in fully amygdala kindled female mice, with nearly complete seizure protection at the highest dose tested. The ED50 for suppression of behavioral seizures was 6.6 mg/kg. The seizure suppression produced by ganaxolone was comparable to that of clonazepam (ED50, 0.1 mg/kg, s.c.). To the extent that amygdala kindling represents a model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, this study supports the utility of ganaxolone in the treatment of patients with temporal lobe seizures. PMID:20172694

  18. The experimental research of antiherpes simplex virus effects of various components in the root of Astragalus membranaceus%黄芪多种成分抗人疱疹病毒的初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志洁; 黄铁牛; 刘焱文; 鲁遂荣; 杨占秋; 方学韫

    2002-01-01

    目的:为了开发利用黄芪的抗病毒性质,我们进行了此项研究.方法:我们以阿昔洛韦(ACV)为阳性对照,采用对病毒所致细胞病变的抑制及空斑减数实验,观察了黄芪总皂苷、总多糖、总黄酮抗HSV药效.结果:在Hep-2细胞系统中,ACV对HSV-1 HS-1株直接杀灭、感染阻断、增殖抑制的ED50为30.83ug/ml,16.04ug/ml,20.04ug/ml;对HSV-2 333株的相应ED50为16.45ug/ml,18.62ug/ml,10.85ug/ml.黄芪总皂苷对HSV-1 HS-1株相应ED50为1.68ug/ml,1.72ug/ml,1.95ug/ml;对HSV-2 333株相应ED50为1.73ug/ml,2.70ug/ml,2.74ug/ml.黄芪总多糖对HSV-1 HS-1株的相应ED50为4.03ug/ml,5.33ug/ml,4.90ug/ml;对HSV-2 333株相应ED50为6.04ug/ml,5.43ug/ml,7.50ug/ml.黄芪总黄酮对HSV-1 HS-1株的相应ED50为4.95ug/ml,2.75ug/ml,3.49ug/ml;对HSV-2 333株的相应ED50为3.56ug/ml,3.93ug/ml,6.27ug/m.结论:黄芪总皂苷对HSV-1的治疗指数(TI)为ACV的4.4,2.4,2.5倍;对HSV-2的治疗指数为ACV的2.3,1.0,1.6倍.总多糖对HSV-1的治疗指数为ACV的10.3,4.1,5.5倍;对HSV-2的治疗指数为ACV的3.7,2.7,3.3倍.总黄酮的治疗指数与ACV相近.值得开发利用.

  19. [Dose response curve of paclitaxel measured by histoculture drug response assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Tatsuya; Oura, Shoji; Hirai, Issei; Kokawa, Yozo; Okamura, Yoshitaka; Furukawa, Tomoko

    2005-04-01

    Dose response curves of paclitaxel were measured by histoculture drug response assay (HDRA) in 11 lung cancer patients. Inhibition rates of paclitaxel at several concentrations were measured and fitted to the sigmoid dose response curve, using non-linear least square analysis, with fitting equation y=A (1-1/(1+exp (b (x-log (ED50)). Parameters A, b, and ED50 were 88.3+/-6.0 (80.0-100.0) %, 9.57+/-4.32 (2.25-15.0), and 26.8+/-8.1 (15.0-41.0) microg/ml, respectively. The parameter b was lower in well-differentiated tumors compared with moderately and poorly-differentiated tumors. Dose response curves of paclitaxel could be measured by HDRA in lung cancer. This method provides us more information for drug sensitivity than the usual HDRA method. This may lead to the improved accuracy of HDRA.

  20. Lidocaine for prolonged and intensified spinal anesthesia by coadministration of propranolol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chin-Chen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Li, Yung-Tsung; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2011-09-26

    Although the coadministration of lidocaine with propranolol interferes with the metabolic profile (pharmacokinetics), its pharmacodynamics is still unclear. In this report, we investigate whether propranolol can potentiate the effect of lidocaine. Rats received spinal anesthesia with lidocaine co-injected with propranolol. After intrathecal injections of drugs in rats, three neurobehavioral examinations (motor function, proprioception, and nociception) were performed. We showed that lidocaine and propranolol elicited a spinal blockade in motor function, proprioception, and nociception. Propranolol at the dose of 0.82 μmol/kg produced no spinal anesthesia. Co-administration of lidocaine [50% effective dose (ED(50)) or ED(95)] and propranolol (0.82 μmol/kg) produced greater spinal anesthesia than lidocaine (ED(50) or ED(95)), respectively. These preclinical findings demonstrated that propranolol and lidocaine displayed spinal anesthesia. When combined with propranolol, lidocaine elicited a supra-additive effect of spinal anesthesia.

  1. An analysis of the influences of biological variance, measurement error, and uncertainty on retinal photothermal damage threshold studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooddell, David A., Jr.; Schubert-Kabban, Christine M.; Hill, Raymond R.

    2012-03-01

    Safe exposure limits for directed energy sources are derived from a compilation of known injury thresholds taken primarily from animal models and simulation data. The summary statistics for these experiments are given as exposure levels representing a 50% probability of injury, or ED50, and associated variance. We examine biological variance in focal geometries and thermal properties and the influence each has in singlepulse ED50 threshold studies for 514-, 694-, and 1064-nanometer laser exposures in the thermal damage time domain. Damage threshold is defined to be the amount of energy required for a retinal burn on at least one retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell measuring approximately 10 microns in diameter. Better understanding of experimental variance will allow for more accurate safety buffers for exposure limits and improve directed energy research methodology.

  2. Synergism of the analgesic activities of tramadol with α2 adrenoreceptor agonist xylazine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Taqa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive interaction between tramadol and xylazine. The antinociceptive effect of intraperitoneal (I.P administration of the drug alone or in combination was evaluated using the mouse hot-plate test. Administration of tramadol in fixed dose (20mgkg I.P with different doses of xylazine (0, 2, 4, 8 mgkg I.P significantly referred synergism of the antinociceptive effect of tramadol depending on the dose of xylazine. There was an increased the antinociceptive maximum possible effect (%MPE from (27.08% to (85.4%. The effective dose that produce 50% antinociceptive (ED50 were evaluated for each drug alone or in combination. The present study found that the administration of tramadol and xylazine markedly reduced the median effective dose (ED50 of both drugs for antinociceptive effect in mice. The result of this study demonstrated that there was synergism (super-additive interaction between tramadol and xylazine.

  3. Comparative Study on Schizontocidal Activity of Recrystallized or Crude Daphnetin Against Malaria Parasites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN-MEI WANG; YI-CHANG NI; JIAN GUO; JIA-TONG WU; YING-JUN QIAN

    2004-01-01

    To compare the schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin against malaria parasites in vivo. Methods Schizontocidal activity of recrystallized or crude daphnetin at various dosages was assessed in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using a "4-day suppress assay". Results The comparison of the reduction rate of parasitemia caused by either recrystallized or crude dephnetin showed that ED50 of crude daphnetin was 18.36 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 5.96-56.54 mg/kg while ED50 of recrystallized daphnetin was 11.46 mg/kg, with 95% confidence limit of 8.63-15.22 mg/kg. Conclution The results indicate that the efficacy of recrystallized daphnetin is 37.6% higher than that of crude daphnetin.

  4. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Novel Benzenesulfonamide Derivatives as Potential Anticonvulsant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing 4-aminobenzenesul-fonamide and α-amides branched valproic acid or 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid moieties were synthesized and screened for their anticonvulsant activities in mice maximal electroshock seizure (MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ test. The activity experimental study showed that 2,2-dipropyl-N1-(4-sulfamoylphenylmalonamide (18b had the lowest median effective dose (ED50 of 16.36 mg/kg in MES test, and 2,2-dimethyl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylcyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide (12c had the lowest ED50 of 22.50 mg/kg in scPTZ test, which resulted in the protective indexe (PI of 24.8 and 20.4, respectively. These promising data suggest the new compounds have good potential as new class of anticonvulsant agents with high effectiveness and low toxicity for the treatment of epilepsy.

  5. Median effective dose of sufentanil blunting responses to double-lumen endotracheal intubation when combined with propofol%复合异丙酚时舒芬太尼抑制双腔支气管导管插管反应的半数有效剂量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文平; 王巧恒; 左明章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the median effective dose ( ED50 ) of sufentanil blunting re⁃sponses to double⁃lumen endotracheal intubation when combined with propofol. Methods American Socie⁃ty of Anesthesiologists physical statusⅠorⅡpatients, aged 45-64 yr, with body mass index90 bpm within 5 min after intubation. The ED50 and 95% confidence interval of sufentanil blunting the re⁃sponses to double⁃lumen endotracheal intubation were calculated using probit method. Results The ED50 ( 95% confidence interval) of sufentanil blunting the responses to double⁃lumen endotracheal intubation was 0�464 (0�309-0�580) μg∕kg. Conclusion When combined with propofol, the ED50 of sufentanil blun⁃ting the responses to double⁃lumen endotracheal intubation is 0�464 μg∕kg.%目的:确定复合异丙酚时舒芬太尼抑制双腔支气管导管插管反应的半数有效剂量( ED50)。方法择期拟行单肺通气的全麻胸科手术患者,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,年龄45~64岁,体重指数<30 kg∕m2,Mallampati气道分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级。静脉注射舒芬太尼,初始剂量为0.6μg∕kg,然后缓慢静脉注射异丙酚1 mg∕kg,直至患者意识消失后,静脉注射顺式阿曲库铵0.3 mg∕kg,间断静脉注射异丙酚0~1.5 mg∕kg,维持BIS值45~55。给予肌松药后3 min时行双腔支气管导管插管。采用改良序贯法确定舒芬太尼的剂量,若发生气管插管反应,则下一例患者增加0.1μg∕kg,否则降低0.1μg∕kg,直至出现6个阳性反应和阴性反应交替的波形,结束试验。气管插管反应的标准:气管插管后5 min内MAP升高超过基础值的20%和∕或HR>90次∕min。采用概率单位法计算舒芬太尼抑制患者双腔支气管导管插管反应的ED50及其95%可信区间。结果舒芬太尼抑制双腔支气管导管插管反应的ED50及其95%可信区间分别为0.464(0.309~0.580)μg∕kg。结论复合异丙酚

  6. Gomisin A inhibits tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, K; Ikeya, Y; Mitsuhashi, H; Iwasaki, M; Aburada, M; Nakagawa, S; Takeuchi, M; Takido, M

    1992-01-01

    Gomisin A, isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, is one of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans. Application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microgram/ear), a tumor-promoting agent, to the ears of mice induces inflammation. Among seven dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans assayed, gomisin A, gomisin J, and wuweizisu C inhibited the inflammatory activity induced by TPA in mice. The ED50 of these compounds for TPA-induced inflammation was 1.4-4.4 mumol. Gomisin A, with an ED50 of 1.4 mumol, showed the strongest inhibitory effect. Furthermore, at 5 mumol/mouse, it markedly suppressed the promotion effect of TPA (2.5 micrograms/mouse) on skin tumor formation in mice following initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (50 micrograms/mouse). It is assumed that the inhibition of tumor promotion by gomisin A is due to its anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Threshold determinations for selective retinal pigment epithelium damage with repetitive pulsed microsecond laser systems in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, Carsten; Schuele, Georg; Roider, Johann; Kracht, Dietmar; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    In both clinical and animal studies, it has been shown that repetitive short laser pulses can cause selective retinal pigment epithelium damage (RPE) with sparing of photoreceptors. Our purpose was to determine the ophthalmoscopic and angiographic damage thresholds as a function of pulse durations by using different pulsed laser systems to optimize treatment modalities. Chinchilla-breed rabbits were narcotized and placed in a special holding system. Laser lesions were applied using a commercial laser slit lamp, contact lens, and irradiation with a frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser (wave-length: 527 nm; repetition rate: 500 Hz; number of pulses: 100; pulse duration: 5 micros, 1.7 micros, 200 ns) and an argon-ion laser (514 nm, 500 Hz, 100 pulses, 5 micros and 200 ms). In all eyes, spots with different energies were placed into the regio macularis with a diameter of 102 microm (tophat profile). After treatment, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography were performed and radiant exposure for ED50 damage determined. Speckle measurements at the fiber tips were performed to determine intensity peaks in the beam profile. Using the Nd:YLF laser system, the ophthalmoscopic ED50 threshold energies were 25.4 microJ (5 micros), 32 microJ (1.7 micros), and 30 microJ (200 ns). The angiographic ED50 thresholds were 13.4 microJ (5 micros), 9.2 microJ (1.7 micros), and 6.7 microJ (200 ns). With the argon laser, the angiographic threshold for 5 micros pulses was 5.5 microJ. The ophthalmoscopic threshold could not be determined because of a lack of power; however, it was > 12 microJ. For 200 ms, the ED50 radiant exposures were 20.4 mW ophthalmoscopically and 19.2 mW angiographically. Speckle factors were found to be 1.225 for the Nd:YLF and 3.180 for the argon laser. Thus, the maximal ED50 -threshold radiant exposures for the Nd:YLF were calculated to be 362 mJ/cM2 (5 micros), 478 mJ/cm2 (1.7 micros), and 438 mJ/cm2 (200 ns) ophthalmoscopically. Angiographically, the thresholds

  8. Delisting toxicity evaluation of HTH and oxone(trade name) decontaminated VX. Final report, July 1989-March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.; Buettner, L.C.; Lawrence-Beckett, E.M.; Samuel, J.B.

    1992-07-01

    The acute percutaneous (bare skin) LD50 was determined for EA 2192 in the rabbit. Also established were the effective doses (ED50s) for the major toxic signs observed. Dermal, Department of Transportation (DOT), tests with rabbits indicated that VX/HTH decontaminated waste is a Class B poison after being aged only 24 hr following initiation of the decontamination procedure. The same reaction, when allowed to age through about 2 half-lives (28-30 days), was no longer a Class B poison and was nonhazardous by Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) toxicity criteria. The DOT tests with OXONE decontaminated/neutralized VX showed this solution to be less than a Class B poison by all three routes of administration (rat oral, rat inhalation, and rabbit dermal) after only 24-hr aging and a nonhazardous material by COMAR toxicity criteria.... vx, Rat, Half-life, ED50, EA 2192, Rabbit, COMAR, Decontaminated/Neutralized, HTH, OXONE, LD50.

  9. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of BIIL 284, a novel and potent leukotriene B(4) receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, F W; Meade, C J; Anderskewitz, R; Speck, G A; Jennewein, H M

    2001-04-01

    BIIL 284 is a new LTB(4) receptor antagonist. It is a prodrug and has negligible binding to the LTB(4) receptor. However, ubiquitous esterases metabolize BIIL 284 to the active metabolites BIIL 260 and BIIL 315, the glucuronidated form of BIIL 260. Both metabolites have high affinity to the LTB(4) receptor on isolated human neutrophil cell membranes with K(i) values of 1.7 and 1.9 nM, respectively. On vital human neutrophilic granulocytes K(i) was around 1 nM. BIIL 260 and BIIL 315 interact with the LTB(4) receptor in a saturable, reversible, and competitive manner. BIIL 260 and its glucuronide BIIL 315 also potently inhibited LTB(4)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release in human neutrophils (IC(50) values of 0.82 and 0.75 nM, respectively) as measured with Fura-2. High efficacy of BIIL 284 has been demonstrated in various in vivo models. BIIL 284 inhibited LTB(4)-induced mouse ear inflammation with ED(50) = 0.008 mg/kg p.o., LTB(4)-induced transdermal chemotaxis in guinea pigs with ED(50) = 0.03 mg/kg p.o., LTB(4)-induced neutropenia in various species (monkey: ED(50) = 0.004 mg/kg p.o.), and LTB(4)-induced Mac1-expression in monkeys (ED(50) = 0.05 mg/kg p.o. in Tylose). Full blockade of LTB(4) receptors over 24 h was achieved by 0.3 mg/kg BIIL 284 after single oral dose as measured by LTB(4)-induced neutropenia or Mac1-expression in the monkey model. BIIL 284 is an unusually potent and long-acting orally active LTB(4) antagonist, and is therefore under clinical development as a novel anti-inflammatory principle.

  10. Design and Comparative Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Profile, Carbonic-Anhydrate Inhibition and Teratogenicity of Novel Carbamate Derivatives of Branched Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids with 4-Aminobenzensulfonamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, David; Mawasi, Hafiz; Nocentini, Alessio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Finnell, Richard H; Bialer, Meir

    2017-03-09

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, with between 34 and 76 per 100,000 people developing epilepsy annually. Epilepsy therapy for the past 100(+) years is based on the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Despite the availability of more than twenty old and new AEDs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy are not seizure-free with the existing medications. In addition, the clinical use of the existing AEDs is restricted by their side-effects, including the teratogenicity associated with valproic acid that restricts its use in women of child-bearing age. Thus, there is an unmet clinical need to develop new, effective AEDs. In the present study, a novel class of carbamates incorporating phenethyl or branched aliphatic chains with 6-9 carbons in their side-chain, and 4-benzenesulfonamide-carbamate moieties were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity, teratogenicity and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition. Three of the ten newly synthesized carbamates showed anticonvulsant activity in the maximal-electroshock (MES) and 6 Hz tests in rodents. In mice, 3-methyl-2-propylpentyl(4-sulfamoylphenyl)carbamate(1), 3-methyl-pentan-2-yl-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)carbamate (9) and 3-methylpentyl, (4-sulfamoylphenyl)carbamate (10) had ED50 values of 136, 31 and 14 mg/kg (MES) and 74, 53, and 80 mg/kg (6 Hz), respectively. Compound (10) had rat-MES-ED50 = 13 mg/kg and ED50 of 59 mg/kg at the mouse-corneal-kindling test. These potent carbamates (1,9,10) induced neural tube defects only at doses markedly exceeding their anticonvuslnat-ED50 values. None of these compounds were potent inhibitors of CA IV, but inhibited CA isoforms I, II and VII. The anticonvulsant properties of these compounds and particularly compound 10 make them potential candidates for further evaluation and development as new AEDs.

  11. An alternate method for estimating the dose-response relationships of neuromuscular blocking drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Klewicka, M M; Neuman, G G

    2000-05-01

    Slopes of the dose-response relationships for all available neuromuscular blocking drugs appear to be essentially parallel and to approximate a log-dose/logit value of 4.75. We tested the possibility of estimating both 50% effective dose (ED(50)) and 95% effective dose (ED(95)) values from a single dose-response data point when that slope is postulated. We compared the ED(50) and ED(95) values of rocuronium and succinylcholine calculated by using traditional log-dose/logit regression analysis with the same values obtained by averaging individual estimates of potency as determined by using the Hill equation. After the induction of anesthesia (propofol/alfentanil), tracheal intubation was accomplished without the administration of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and propofol. The evoked electromyographic response to 0.10-Hz single stimuli was continuously recorded. After baseline stabilization, a single IV bolus of succinylcholine (0.08-0.26 mg/kg, n = 50) or rocuronium (0. 13-0.30 mg/kg, n = 40) was administered and the peak effect noted. By using log-dose/logit regression analysis, we calculated ED(50) and ED(95) values for rocuronium of 0.17 and 0.33 mg/kg and 0.14 and 0.27 mg/kg for succinylcholine. When potency was calculated from the Hill equation, the resultant ED(50) and ED(95) values did not differ by more than +/-4% from those obtained by using regression analysis. Averaging of single-dose estimates of neuromuscular potency provides a useful adjunct and reasonable alternative to conventional regression analysis.

  12. In Vivo Antiplasmodial Potentials of the Combinations of Four Nigerian Antimalarial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke Clement Adebajo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.05 more active. Co-administrations of N. latifolia with the standard drugs significantly reduced their prophylactic, chemosuppressive and curative actions, possibly increasing the parasites’ resistance. Binary combinations of N. latifolia or M. koenigii with any of the other plants significantly increased the prophylactic and suppressive activities of their individual plants, respectively. Also, E. chlorantha with A. altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity.

  13. Opioid-Sparing Effect of Cannabinoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Sabioni, Pamela; Trigo, Jose M; Ware, Mark A; Betz-Stablein, Brigid D; Murnion, Bridin; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Khor, Kok Eng; Farrell, Michael; Smith, Andrew; Le Foll, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    Cannabinoids, when co-administered with opioids, may enable reduced opioid doses without loss of analgesic efficacy (ie, an opioid-sparing effect). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the opioid-sparing potential of cannabinoids. Eligible studies included pre-clinical and clinical studies for which the outcome was either analgesia or opioid dose requirements. Clinical studies included controlled studies and case series. We searched Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, and Embase. Nineteen pre-clinical and nine clinical studies met the search criteria. Seventeen of the 19 pre-clinical studies provided evidence of synergistic effects from opioid and cannabinoid co-administration. Our meta-analysis of pre-clinical studies indicated that the median effective dose (ED50) of morphine administered in combination with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) is 3.6 times lower (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 6.76; n=6) than the ED50 of morphine alone. In addition, the ED50 for codeine administered in combination with delta-9-THC was 9.5 times lower (95% CI 1.6, 57.5, n=2) than the ED50 of codeine alone. One case series (n=3) provided very-low-quality evidence of a reduction in opioid requirements with cannabinoid co-administration. Larger controlled clinical studies showed some clinical benefits of cannabinoids; however, opioid dose changes were rarely reported and mixed findings were observed for analgesia. In summary, pre-clinical studies provide robust evidence of the opioid-sparing effect of cannabinoids, whereas one of the nine clinical studies identified provided very-low-quality evidence of such an effect. Prospective high-quality-controlled clinical trials are required to determine the opioid-sparing effect of cannabinoids.

  14. Isobolographic analysis of the dual-site synergism in the antinociceptive response of tramadol in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J; Aguirre-Bañuelos, Patricia; Arellano-Guerrero, Abraham; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2006-11-10

    Tramadol is an atypical opioid with a complex mechanism of action including a synergistic interaction between the parent drug and an active metabolite. The local action of the parent drug is poorly documented. This study was designed to evaluate the site-site interaction of the antinociception produced by tramadol given by two different routes. The effects of individual and fixed-ratio combinations of intraplantar (i.pl.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) tramadol were evaluated using the formalin test in rats. Isobolographic analysis was employed to identify the synergy produced by combinations. In both first and second phases of the formalin test, tramadol was active not only by the systemic (ED50 10.2+/-2.1 and 7.1+/-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but also by the local route (ED50 171.0+/-44.8 and 134.6 microg/paw i.pl.). The isobolographic analysis revealed a "self-synergism" in the antinociceptive effect between the two routes of administration, as the experimental ED50 (211.1+/-13.6 and 45.9+/-3.9 "dose units" phase 1 and 2, respectively) of the combination was significantly lower than the theoretical ED50 (422.2+/-50.5 and 138.5+/-9.2 "dose units"). The mechanism underlying this self-synergism appears to be partially opioid since systemic but not local naloxone reversed the potentiation. The observed dual-site interaction in the antinociceptive action of tramadol provides insights for alternatives in the management of pain.

  15. Isobolographic analysis of the interaction between epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, M; Meert, T F

    1997-09-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the nature of the interaction between epidurally administered sufentanil and bupivacaine in producing antinociception in rats. Rats in which epidural catheters had been inserted received epidural injections with bupivacaine and sufentanil. Nociception was tested by use of the tail-withdrawal reaction (TWR) test and the hot-plate test. Isobolographic analyses were performed with fixed and variable dose ratio treatment schedules based on the ED50s and the highest inactive concentrations of the compounds in both tests. In the TWR test, a synergistic interaction was obtained between the two compounds independent of whether a variable dose ratio regimen (with either 0.08 microgram/rat sufentanil or 80 micrograms/rat bupivacaine as the preset component) or a fixed dose ratio of 1/1,000 sufentanil/bupivacaine (based on the individual ED50s) was used. In the hot-plate test, a synergistic interaction was observed only in the variable dose ratio regimen with 0.08 microgram/rat sufentanil as the preset component and in the fixed dose ratio regimen of 1/1,000 sufentanil/bupivacaine (a ratio based on the ED50 values of the TWR test) but not with a ratio of 1/200, as demonstrated by the ED50s of both drugs in the hot-plate test. The interaction between epidurally administered bupivacaine and sufentanil seems to be synergistic for both tests when variable and fixed dose ratios are used. The synergism could be more easily demonstrated in the TWR test. For drugs with a segmental action, the hot-plate test seems to be less optimal. The necessity of a minimal critical amount of bupivacaine to obtain synergism may have clinical implications.

  16. Synergistic interaction of gabapentin with tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Kołacz, Agnieszka; Wojda, Ewa; Czuczwar, Mirosław; Przesmycki, Krzysztof; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the analgesic effect of gabapentin and tiagabine, two antiepileptic drugs that were administered alone and in combination at a fixed ratio of 1:1, in the acute thermal pain model (hot-plate test) in mice. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the dose-response relationships between logarithms of antiepileptic drug doses and their resultant maximum possible antinociceptive effects in the mouse hot-plate test. From linear equations, we calculated doses that increased the antinociceptive effect by 50% (ED(50) values) for gabapentin, tiagabine and their combination. The type of interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine was assessed using the isobolographic analysis. Results indicated that both antiepileptic drugs produced the definite antinociceptive effect, and the experimentally derived ED(50) values for gabapentin and tiagabine, when applied alone, were 504.4 mg/kg and 5.67 mg/kg, respectively. With isobolography, the experimentally derived ED(50 mix) value for the fixed ratio combination of 1:1 was 139.31 mg/kg and significantly differed from the theoretically calculated ED(50 add) value, which was 255.04 mg/kg (p < 0.05), indicating the synergistic interaction between gabapentin and tiagabine in the hot-plate test in mice. In conclusion, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin at a fixed ratio of 1:1 exerted a synergistic interaction in the mouse model of nociceptive pain. If the results from this study could be extrapolated to clinical settings, the combination of tiagabine with gabapentin might be beneficial for pain relief in humans.

  17. Dose-response study of spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine for cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin-zhong; CHEN Hong; LOU Ai-fei; L(U) Chang-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Background: Spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine may produce more predictable and reliable anesthesia than plain ropivacaine for cesarean section. The dose-response relation for spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine is undetermined. This double-blind,randomized, dose-response study determined the ED50 (50% effective dose) and ED95 (95% effective dose) of spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine for cesarean section anesthesia. Methods: Sixty parturients undergoing elective cesarean section delivery with use of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were enrolled in this study. An epidural catheter was placed at the L1~L2 vertebral interspace,then lumbar puncture was performed at the L3~L4 vertebral interspace, and parturients were randomized to receive spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine in doses of 10.5 mg, 12 mg, 13.5 mg, or 15 mg in equal volumes of 3 ml. Sensory levels (pinprick) were assessed every 2.5 min until a T7 level was achieved and motor changes were assessed by modified Bromage Score. A dose was considered effective ifan upper sensory level to pin prick ofT7 or above was achieved and no intraoperative epidural supplement was required. ED50 and ED95 were determined with use of a logistic regression model. Results: ED50 (95% confidence interval)of spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine was determined to be 10.37 (5.23~11.59) mg and ED95 (95% confidence interval) to be 15.39(13.81~23.59) mg. The maximum sensory block levels and the duration of motor block and the rate ofhypotension, but not onset of anesthesia, were significantly related to the ropivacaine dose. Conclusion: The ED50 and ED95 of spinal hyperbaric ropivacaine for cesarean delivery under the conditions of this study were 10.37 mg and 15.39 mg, respectively. Ropivacaine is suitable for spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery.

  18. Oral Presentation: Engineering Oral Nanomedicines for the Treatment of Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lalatsa, Katerina; Serrano Lopez, Dolores Remedios; Smith, Lindsay; Dea Ayuela, Maria Auxiliadora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the second deadliest parasitic disease after malaria managed mainly by parenteral chemotherapeutics. Buparvaquone (BPQ), an antiprotozoal hydroxylnaphtoquinone with known anti-leishmaniasis activity (ED50:0.05-0.1μM), has not been translated into an effective therapy due to its low aqueous solubility (< 30 ng mL-1, BCS Class II). The current project is aimed at enhancing the solubilisation capacity and oral bioavailability of BPQ in the gut by encapsul...

  19. Evaluation of Cannabidiol in Animal Seizure Models by the Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Brian D; Jacobson, Catherine A; Metcalf, Cameron S; Smith, Misty D; Wilcox, Karen S; Hampson, Aidan J; Kehne, John H

    2017-07-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid component of marijuana that has no significant activity at cannabinoid receptors or psychoactive effects. There is considerable interest in CBD as a therapy for epilepsy. Almost a third of epilepsy patients are not adequately controlled by clinically available anti-seizure drugs (ASDs). Initial studies appear to demonstrate that CBD preparations may be a useful treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) funded Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) investigated CBD in a battery of seizure models using a refocused screening protocol aimed at identifying pharmacotherapies to address the unmet need in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Applying this new screening workflow, CBD was investigated in mouse 6 Hz 44 mA, maximal electroshock (MES), corneal kindling models and rat MES and lamotrigine-resistant amygdala kindling models. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment, CBD produced dose-dependent protection in the acute seizure models; mouse 6 Hz 44 mA (ED50 164 mg/kg), mouse MES (ED50 83.5 mg/kg) and rat MES (ED50 88.9 mg/kg). In chronic models, CBD produced dose-dependent protection in the corneal kindled mouse (ED50 119 mg/kg) but CBD (up to 300 mg/kg) was not protective in the lamotrigine-resistant amygdala kindled rat. Motor impairment assessed in conjunction with the acute seizure models showed that CBD exerted seizure protection at non-impairing doses. The ETSP investigation demonstrates that CBD exhibits anti-seizure properties in acute seizure models and the corneal kindled mouse. However, further preclinical and clinical studies are needed to determine the potential for CBD to address the unmet needs in pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  20. Antitrypanosomal activity of polycarpol from Piptostigma preussi (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantchou, Igor; Nkwengoua, Ernestine; Nganso, Yves; Nyasse, Barthelemy; Denier, Colette; Hannaert, Veronique; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-04-01

    Polycarpol, sitosterol and sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated for the first time from Piptostigma preussi (Annonaceae) occur regularly in some Annonaceae such as Piptostigma genus. Polycarpol exhibits interesting antitrypanosomal activity with an ED(50) value of 5.11 microM on Trypanosoma brucei cells. Moreover, it inhibits T. brucei glycolytic enzymes GAPDH and PFK with IC(50) values of 650 and 180 microM respectively.

  1. Optimization of novel di-substituted cyclohexylbenzamide derivatives as potent 11 beta-HSD1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, Dustin L; Rew, Yosup; Sudom, Athena; Caille, Seb; Degraffenreid, Michael; He, Xiao; Hungate, Randall; Jiang, Ben; Jaen, Juan; Julian, Lisa D; Kaizerman, Jacob; Novak, Perry; Sun, Daqing; Tu, Hua; Ursu, Stefania; Walker, Nigel P C; Yan, Xuelei; Ye, Qiuping; Wang, Zhulun; Powers, Jay P

    2009-03-01

    Novel 4,4-disubstituted cyclohexylbenzamide inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 were optimized to account for liabilities relating to in vitro pharmacokinetics, cytotoxicity and protein-related shifts in potency. A representative compound showing favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of 11beta-HSD1 in a rat pharmacodynamic model (ED(50)=10mg/kg).

  2. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  3. Testing Experimental Compounds against Leishmaniansis in Laboratory Animal Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Leishmania donovani, L. m. mexicana, L. m. ama- zonensis, L. tropica , and L. braziliensis guyanensis. J. Immunol. (In preparation). 18. Chapman, W.L., Jr...Report) L IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ,19. KEY WORDS (Continue an revere* side ftnocessavy and Identify by block number) Leishmania donovani Amastigote...PAGE(WImhM Data ,ntw0 • Leishmania ED 90 ED 50 subspecies Cell Type PCP A PCP A mexicana mexicana 1090 521 290 150 braziliensis guyanensis 90 25 21 07

  4. The involvement of intracellular calcium ion concentration and calmodulin in the 25-hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in ovine and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, S C; Chaudhary, M S; Tomlinson, S; Care, A D

    1987-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ ion concentration on the 25 hydroxylation of tritiated cholecalciferol (3HD3) was investigated using homogenates of ovine liver from vitamin D replete sheep. A significant decrease in the production of 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) was observed when the concentration of Ca2+ in the homogenate was raised above 0.68 mmol/l by the addition of calcium gluconate. Similarly, a final concentration of 37 mumol EGTA/1 (equivalent to a Ca2+ concentration of 26.5 nmol/l) was associated with a 50% reduction of 25OHD3 production. That is, a broad bell-shaped relationship was observed between the production of 25OHD3 and the Ca2+ concentration in the homogenate. These changes in the rate of production of 25OHD3 were reproduced with hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats, prepared by collagenase perfusion, using the drugs dantrolene sodium (DaNa) to reduce (ED50 = 57 mmol/l) and veratridine to increase (ED50 = 550 mmol/l) the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats also showed a reduction in 25 hydroxylation of D3 (ED50 = 6 ng/ml) in response to the addition of 1-25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1-25 (OH)2D3). The calmodulin antagonists; W7, compound 48/80, trifluoperazine (TFP) and calmidazolium (R24571) were all found to effect a dose response inhibition of the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol by homogenates of ovine liver. R24571 had a similar inhibitory effect (ED50 = 70 mumol/l) upon the 25 hydroxylase enzyme of rat hepatocytes. It is concluded that the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in liver of vitamin D replete rats and sheep is calcium sensitive and is reduced in the presence of increased concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. Calmodulin may also be involved in the regulation of hepatocyte 25-hydroxylase activity by Ca2+.

  5. (S)-amisulpride as a discriminative stimulus in C57BL/6 mice and its comparison to the stimulus effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Timothy J; Hillhouse, Todd M; Webster, Kevin A; Young, Richard; De Oliveira, Eliseu O; Porter, Joseph H

    2014-07-01

    Amisulpride, a substituted benzamide derivative, exerts atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant clinical effects and its (S)-stereoisomer is thought to underlie these actions. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice were trained to discriminate (S)-amisulpride (10mg/kg, s.c.) from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task for food reward. The (S)-amisulpride stimulus was rapidly acquired and was shown to be dose-related, time dependent (effective between 30 and 120min) and stereoselective: (S)-amisulpride (ED50=1.77mg/kg; 4.2µmol/kg) was about three times more potent than rac-amisulpride (ED50=4.94mg/kg; 13.4µmol/kg) and ten times more potent than (R)-amisulpride (ED50=15.84mg/kg; 42.9µmol/kg). In tests of stimulus generalization, the (S)-amisulpride stimulus generalized completely to sulpiride (ED50=12.67mg/kg; 37.1µmol/kg), a benzamide analog that also is purported to be an atypical antipsychotic, but did not fully generalize to the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol (maximum of 45% drug-lever responding) nor to the atypical antipsychotic drugs clozapine (partial substitution of 65% drug-lever responding) or aripiprazole (~30% drug-lever responding). These results demonstrated that (S)-amisulpride appears to exert a unique discriminative stimulus effect that is similar to other benzamides, but which differs from other structural classes of antipsychotic drugs.

  6. OBSERVATIONS ON DELAYED EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECTS GF DL-111-IT, A NEW SYNTHETIC PREGNANCY-TERMINATINGAGENT IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUHui-Jun; FANGRui-Ying; YANGBao-Zhu; ZHANGYuan-Pei

    1989-01-01

    DL-111-IT, a new pregnancy-terminating agent, was synthesized in our laboratory. Its subcutaneous ED50 for termination of early pregnancy was found to be 0.29±0.08 mg/ kg/d × 5d or 11.5± 1.3 rag/kg in single dose. The present paper deals with the delayed emhryotoxic and teratogenic effects ofDL-111-IT on fetuses of the next litter in rats.

  7. Identification of a mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase: Role in metabolism and signaling in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabo, Yves; Zhao, Shangang; Seifried, Annegrit; Gezzar, Sari; Al-Mass, Anfal; Zhang, Dongwei; Lamontagne, Julien; Attane, Camille; Poursharifi, Pegah; Iglesias, José; Joly, Erik; Peyot, Marie-Line; Gohla, Antje; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-01-26

    Obesity, and the associated disturbed glycerolipid/fatty acid (GL/FA) cycle, contribute to insulin resistance, islet β-cell failure, and type 2 diabetes. Flux through the GL/FA cycle is regulated by the availability of glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P) and fatty acyl-CoA. We describe here a mammalian Gro3P phosphatase (G3PP), which was not known to exist in mammalian cells, that can directly hydrolyze Gro3P to glycerol. We identified that mammalian phosphoglycolate phosphatase, with an uncertain function, acts in fact as a G3PP. We found that G3PP, by controlling Gro3P levels, regulates glycolysis and glucose oxidation, cellular redox and ATP production, gluconeogenesis, glycerolipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation in pancreatic islet β-cells and hepatocytes, and that glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the response to metabolic stress, e.g., glucolipotoxicity, in β-cells. In vivo overexpression of G3PP in rat liver lowers body weight gain and hepatic glucose production from glycerol and elevates plasma HDL levels. G3PP is expressed at various levels in different tissues, and its expression varies according to the nutritional state in some tissues. As Gro3P lies at the crossroads of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, control of its availability by G3PP adds a key level of metabolic regulation in mammalian cells, and G3PP offers a potential target for type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders.

  8. Translocation boost protein-folding efficiency of double-barreled chaperonins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzza, Ivan; van der Vies, Saskia M; Frenkel, Daan

    2006-05-15

    Incorrect folding of proteins in living cells may lead to malfunctioning of the cell machinery. To prevent such cellular disasters from happening, all cells contain molecular chaperones that assist nonnative proteins in folding into the correct native structure. One of the most studied chaperone complexes is the GroEL-GroES complex. The GroEL part has a "double-barrel" structure, which consists of two cylindrical chambers joined at the bottom in a symmetrical fashion. The hydrophobic rim of one of the GroEL chambers captures nonnative proteins. The GroES part acts as a lid that temporarily closes the filled chamber during the folding process. Several capture-folding-release cycles are required before the nonnative protein reaches its native state. Here we report molecular simulations that suggest that translocation of the nonnative protein through the equatorial plane of the complex boosts the efficiency of the chaperonin action. If the target protein is correctly folded after translocation, it is released. However, if it is still nonnative, it is likely to remain trapped in the second chamber, which then closes to start a reverse translocation process. This shuttling back and forth continues until the protein is correctly folded. Our model provides a natural explanation for the prevalence of double-barreled chaperonins. Moreover, we argue that internal folding is both more efficient and safer than a scenario where partially refolded proteins escape from the complex before being recaptured.

  9. Synergistic antinociceptive effects of alfentanil and propofol in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Na; Zuo, Xiaochun; Guo, Chao; Li, Yuwen; Cui, Jia; Zhao, Chao; Cao, Shanshan; Wang, Chao; Li, Ruili; Wu, Yin; Wen, Aidong

    2017-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the combined analgesic effect of alfentanil and propofol in the formalin test. Diluted formalin was injected into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw in rats. Nociceptive behavior was determined by counting the number of flinches of the injected paw for 1 h after injection; a reduction in formalin‑induced flinching was interpreted as an antinociceptive effect. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the type of antinociceptive interaction (additivity, antagonism or synergism). Extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and c‑fos protein levels were also detected by western blot analysis to determine the potential mechanisms of the synergistic effect. Alfentanil, propofol or an alfentanil‑propofol combination had an antinociceptive effect in the formalin test. The median effective dose (ED50), value of the individual drug was also obtained. The derived theoretical ED50 for the antinociceptive effect (4.36 mg/kg) was different from the observed experimental ED50 value (2.51 mg/kg). The interaction between alfentanil and propofol that produced the antinociceptive effect was synergistic according to isobolographic analysis. Furthermore, the combination of alfentanil and propofol treatments may produce synergistically antinociceptive effects by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and decreasing the expression of c‑fos in the spinal cord. These results demonstrated that combined treatment, with alfentanil and propofol, produced synergistic antinociceptive effects in the formalin test and may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute pain.

  10. Phytotoxic Potential and Biological Activity of Three Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives as New Natural-Like Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Araniti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin is a natural compound well known for its phytotoxic potential. In the search for new herbicidal compounds to manage weeds, three synthetic derivatives bearing the coumarin scaffold (1–3, synthesized by a carbonylative organometallic approach, were in vitro assayed on germination and root growth of two noxious weeds, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crus-galli. Moreover, the synthetic coumarins 1–3 were also in vitro assayed on seedlings growth of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana to identify the possible physiological targets. All molecules strongly affected seed germination and root growth of both weeds. Interestingly, the effects of synthetic coumarins on weed germination were higher than template natural coumarin, pointing out ED50 values ranging from 50–115 µM. Moreover, all synthetic coumarins showed a strong phytotoxic potential on both Arabidopsis shoot and root growth, causing a strong reduction in shoot fresh weight (ED50 values ≤ 60 µM, accompanied by leaf development and a decrease in pigment content. Furthermore, they caused a strong alteration in root growth (ED50 values ≤ 170 µM and morphology with evident alterations in root tip anatomy. Taken together, our results highlight the promising potential herbicidal activity of these compounds.

  11. The Dose-response of Intrathecal Ropivacaine Co-administered with Sufentanil for Cesarean Delivery under Combined Spinal-epidural Anesthesia in Patients with Scarred Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Xu, Wen-Ping; Zhang, Yin-Fa; Liu, Lin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Li-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinal anesthesia is considered as a reasonable anesthetic option in lower abdominal and lower limb surgery. This study was to determine the dose-response of intrathecal ropivacaine in patients with scarred uterus undergoing cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Methods: Seventy-five patients with scarred uterus undergoing elective cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, dose-ranging study. Patients received 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 mg intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine with 5 μg sufentanil. Successful spinal anesthesia was defined as a T4 sensory level achieved with no need for epidural supplementation. The 50% effective dose (ED50) and 95% effective dose (ED95) were calculated with a logistic regression model. Results: ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine for patients with scarred uterus undergoing cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) were 8.28 mg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.28–9.83 mg) and 12.24 mg (95% CI: 10.53–21.88 mg), respectively. Conclusion: When a CSEA technique is to use in patients with scarred uterus for an elective cesarean delivery, the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric ropivacaine along with 5 μg sufentanil were 8.28 mg and 12.24 mg, respectively. In addition, this local anesthetic is unsuitable for emergent cesarean delivery, but it has advantages for ambulatory patients. PMID:26415793

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity studies on partially purified hypoglycemic preparation from water extract of bark ofFicus bengalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Shukla, R; Prabhu, K M; Aggrawal, S; Rusia, U; Murthy, P S

    2002-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity studies were conducted to assess toxicity of a partially purified preparation from the water extract of the bark ofFicus bengalensis, which was demonstrated in our earlier studies to have significant hypoglycemic and hypocholesteroiemic effect on alloxan induced, mild and severe diabetes in rabbits. LD(50) of this preparation was found to be ∼1 gm/kg in rats when given orally. For chronic toxicity studies 3 doses of aqueous preparation were given to 3 groups of rats. First group received 5 times ED(50) (50 mg/kg), second group 10 times ED(50) (100 mg/kg) and the third group 15 times ED(50) (150 mg/kg) for 3 months. Fourth group which served as control was given water. After three months, blood was collected for studying biochemical and hematological parameters. Blood glucose, serum cholesterol, liver and kidney function tests, haemoglobin, total and differential leukocyte count were determined. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological examination of liver, heart and kidneys was carried out. Results of the study showed that partially purified preparation fromFicus bengalensis is not toxic by all the above mentioned parameters.

  13. Intrathecal rimantadine induces motor, proprioceptive, and nociceptive blockades in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen; Hung, Ching-Hsia

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the local anesthetic effect of rimantadine in spinal anesthesia. Rimantadine in a dose-dependent fashion was constructed after intrathecally injecting the rats with four different doses. The potency and duration of rimantadine were compared with that of the local anesthetic lidocaine at producing spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades. We demonstrated that intrathecal rimantadine dose-dependently produced spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the ranks of potencies at inducing spinal motor, nociceptive, and proprioceptive blockades was lidocaine>rimantadine (P<0.01). Rimantadine exhibited more nociceptive block (ED50) than motor block (P<0.05). At equi-anesthetic doses (ED25, ED50, and ED75), the spinal block duration produced by rimantadine was longer than that produced by lidocaine (P<0.01). Furthermore, rimantadine (26.52μmol/kg) prolonged the nociceptive nerve block more than the motor block (P<0.001). Our preclinical data showed that rimantadine, with a more sensory-selective action over motor block, was less potent than lidocaine. Rimantadine produced longer duration in spinal anesthesia when compared with lidocaine.

  14. Montelukast potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital in mice: an isobolographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Juliana; Marafiga, Joseane Righes; Jesse, Ana Cláudia; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Mello, Carlos Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Although leukotrienes have been implicated in seizures, no study has systematically investigated whether the blockade of CysLT1 receptors synergistically increases the anticonvulsant action of classic antiepileptics. In this study, behavioral and electroencephalographic methods, as well as isobolographic analysis, are used to show that the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast synergistically increases the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Moreover, it is shown that LTD4 reverses the effect of montelukast. The experimentally derived ED50mix value for a fixed-ratio combination (1:1 proportion) of montelukast plus phenobarbital was 0.06±0.02 μmol, whereas the additively calculated ED50add value was 0.49±0.03 μmol. The calculated interaction index was 0.12, indicating a synergistic interaction. The association of montelukast significantly decreased the antiseizure ED50 for phenobarbital (0.74 and 0.04 μmol in the absence and presence of montelukast, respectively) and, consequently, phenobarbital-induced sedation at equieffective doses. The demonstration of a strong synergism between montelukast and phenobarbital is particularly relevant because both drugs are already used in the clinics, foreseeing an immediate translational application for epileptic patients who have drug-resistant seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dorsal hand vein responses to the α₁-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine do not predict responses to the α₂-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posti, Jussi P; Valve, Laura; Ruohonen, Saku; Akkila, Juha; Scheinin, Mika; Snapir, Amir

    2011-02-25

    Significant inter-individual variability exists in responses of human dorsal hand veins to activation of α-adrenoceptors. Simultaneous graded infusions of the α₁- and α₂-adrenoceptor agonists phenylephrine (3.66-8000 ng/min) and dexmedetomidine (0.0128-1000 ng/min) were given into dorsal veins of both hands and responses of 75 subjects were analyzed to assess whether a subject's sensitivity to phenylephrine (ED(50)) predicts his sensitivity to dexmedetomidine. Individual ED(50) estimates of dexmedetomidine and phenylephrine ranged between 0.06-412 and 14.2-7450 ng/min and exhibited only a weak positive relationship (r² =0.074, P=0.018). Finger temperature, body mass index, age and phenylephrine sensitivity together accounted for about 30% of dexmedetomidine ED(50) variation (r² =0.315, Phand veins to both α₁- and α₂-adrenoceptor agonists is not explained by some common factors; instead, dorsal hand vein responsivity is separately determined for both receptor mechanisms.

  16. Isobolographic Analysis of the Interaction Between Tapentadol and Ketorolac in a Mouse Model of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Morales, Juan R; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel H; Adriana Soto-Castro, Tely; Alonso-Castro, Ángel J; Castañeda-Santana, Demian I; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario A

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this experimental assay was to assess the antinociceptive interaction between tapentadol and ketorolac in the acetic acid-induced writhing model in mice. Tapentadol (5.62-31.6 mg/kg ip) or ketorolac (5.62-31.6 mg/kg ip) were administered 15 min before the acetic acid administration. The ED50 values of the individual drugs were determined and different proportions (tapentadol-ketorolac in 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3) were assayed in combination in the writhing test. Isobolographic analysis and the interaction index demonstrated an antinociceptive synergistic interaction between tapentadol and ketorolac in all combination. Thus, the experimental ED50 values were lower when compared with their theoretical ED50 values. These data suggest that the tapentadol-ketorolac combination produces an antinociceptive synergistic interaction in the mouse acetic acid-induced writhing model. Drug Dev Res 77 : 187-191, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Phenotypic assessment of the ovicidal activity of monepantel and monepantel sulfone on gastro-intestinal nematode eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, D J; Meslé, M; Donegan, H; Devin, L; Morrison, A A

    2016-04-15

    The in vitro ovicidal activity of the amino acetonitrile derivative, monepantel (MPTL) and its active metabolite monepantel sulfone (MPTL-SO2) were assessed against a number of commercially important nematode species of ruminants, namely Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus axei. An egg hatch test (EHT) was used to make the assessment of both drug sensitive and drug resistant isolates. Both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 showed moderate ovicidal activity in vitro against all of the species examined, although species specific differences as measured by inhibitory concentration were observed. Analysis of the drug sensitive isolates showed H. contortus to be the most sensitive to both MPTL and MPTL-SO2 (ED50 1.7 and 2.7 μg/ml respectively) followed by T. circumcincta (ED50 2.1 and 2.7 μg/ml respectively) followed by T. axei (ED50 68.7 and 60.1 μg/ml respectively). Overall the EHT results would suggest no "global" in vitro discriminatory dose for detection of MPTL resistance is likely to be achievable, using the egg hatch test, due to large inherent variability observed between species. The test identified a dose dependent increase in MPTL and MPTL-SO2 sensitivity in two MPTL resistant T. circumcincta isolates and therefore offers to be a promising tool for the phenotypic characterisation of MPTL sensitivity, allowing exploration into the mechanisms involved in selection and development of MPTL resistance.

  18. Anorexic activity of cocaine and coca extract in naive and cocaine tolerant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vee, G L; Fink, G B; Constantine, G H

    1983-04-01

    Dose response curves for reducing limited access food consumption were determined for cocaine HCl IP, cocaine HCl PO, and whole Erythroxylum coca extract PO. The ED50's for cocaine HCl in drug naive rats were 19.6 mg/kg (IP) and 34.6 mg/kg (PO). When the dose of E. coca extract was expressed in terms of cocaine HCl content, the ED50 was 52.6 mg/kg (PO). When dose response curves were determined in rats that had received cocaine (45 mg/kg, PO) for 30 days, a shift to the right in the cocaine HCl curve (an ED50 of 98.4 mg/kg PO) indicated tolerance. However, the shift to the right was less for E. coca extract than for cocaine HCl. Although the anorexic activity of E. coca extract was less than that of an equivalent amount of cocaine in naive rats it was often more than that of equivalent doses of cocaine HCl in tolerant rats. Interaction with other constituents of E. coca extract appears to alter the potency of the cocaine content of the extract in different directions in naive and tolerant rats.

  19. A new ELISA for determination of potency in snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, A; Morais, V; Rossi, S; Massaldi, H

    2006-09-15

    A competitive ELISA for potency determination of bothropic equine antivenom was developed and compared to the conventional in vivo ED(50) assay, with the aim of partially substituting the in vivo assay in the monitoring of antivenom immunoglobulin levels. On this purpose, blood samples were taken at different times during and after the immunization protocol of the lot of horses used for production of snake antivenom at the Instituto de Higiene, Uruguay. Both the competitive ELISA and the ED(50) assay were performed on those samples. In addition, a group of five commercial pepsin-digested antivenoms were tested by both methods. A significant (P<0.001) correlation (Pearson's r=0.957) was found between the ELISA titres and the corresponding ED(50) values, indicating that the in vitro test can estimate the neutralizing antibody capacity of the sera as well as the in vivo assay. By means of this new ELISA, it was found that the immunized animals maintained good venom antibody titres, in the order of 20-50% of the maximum achieved, even 10 month after the end of the immunization schedule. The main advantage of our ELISA design is its ability to correctly estimate the neutralization capacity of crude hyperimmune plasma and antivenom sera independently of their antibody composition in terms of whole IgG or F(ab')(2) fragment.

  20. Anti-analgesic effect of the mu/delta opioid receptor heteromer revealed by ligand-biased antagonism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Milan-Lobo

    Full Text Available Delta (DOR and mu opioid receptors (MOR can complex as heteromers, conferring functional properties in agonist binding, signaling and trafficking that can differ markedly from their homomeric counterparts. Because of these differences, DOR/MOR heteromers may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of pain. However, there are currently no ligands selective for DOR/MOR heteromers, and, consequently, their role in nociception remains unknown. In this study, we used a pharmacological opioid cocktail that selectively activates and stabilizes the DOR/MOR heteromer at the cell surface by blocking its endocytosis to assess its role in antinociception. We found that mice treated chronically with this drug cocktail showed a significant right shift in the ED50 for opioid-mediated analgesia, while mice treated with a drug that promotes degradation of the heteromer did not. Furthermore, promoting degradation of the DOR/MOR heteromer after the right shift in the ED50 had occurred, or blocking signal transduction from the stabilized DOR/MOR heteromer, shifted the ED50 for analgesia back to the left. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-analgesic role for the DOR/MOR heteromer in pain. In conclusion, antagonists selective for DOR/MOR heteromer could provide an avenue for alleviating reduced analgesic response during chronic pain treatment.

  1. Design and synthesis of novel stiripentol analogues as potential anticonvulsants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El-Azzouny, Aida A; Attia, Mohamed I; Maklad, Yousreya A; Amin, Kamilia M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; El-Behairy, Mohammed F

    2012-01-01

    A series of stiripentol (STP) analogues namely, 2-[(1E)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ylidene]-N-(aryl/H)hydrazinecarboxamides 7a-h, (±)-(5RS)-N-(aryl/H)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamides (±)-8a-h, and (±)-[(5RS)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl](aryl)methanones (±)-13a-f was synthesized by adopting appropriate synthetic routes and was pharmacologically evaluated in the preliminary anticonvulsant screens. The selected bioactive new chemical entities were subjected to ED(50) determination and neurotoxicity evaluation. The most active congeners are 7h in MES screen and (±)-13b in scPTZ screen which displayed ED(50) values of 87 and 110 mg/kg, respectively, as compared to that of STP (ED(50) = 277.7 and 115 mg/kg in MES and scPTZ, respectively).

  2. In silico validation and structure activity relationship study of a series of pyridine-3-carbohydrazide derivatives as potential anticonvulsants in generalized and partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Reema; Sara, Udai Vir Singh; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Stables, James; Jain, Jainendra

    2013-06-01

    A series of twelve compounds (Compounds RNH1-RNH12) of acid hydrazones of pyridine-3-carbohydrazide or nicotinic acid hydrazide was synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant activity by MES, scPTZ, minimal clonic seizure and corneal kindling seizure test. Neurotoxicity was also determined for these compounds by rotarod test. Results showed that halogen substitution at meta and para position of phenyl ring exhibited better protection than ortho substitution. Compounds RNH4 and RNH12, were found to be the active analogs displaying 6Hz ED50 of 75.4 and 14.77 mg/kg while the corresponding MES ED50 values were 113.4 and 29.3 mg/kg respectively. In addition, compound RNH12 also showed scPTZ ED50 of 54.2 mg/kg. In the series, compound RNH12 with trifluoromethoxy substituted phenyl ring was the most potent analog exhibiting protection in all four animal models of epilepsy. Molecular docking study has also shown significant binding interactions of these two compounds with 1OHV, 2A1H and 1PBQ receptors. Thus, N-[(meta or para halogen substituted) benzylidene] pyridine-3-carbohydrazides could be used as lead compounds in anticonvulsant drug design and discovery.

  3. Pharmacological tolerance to alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonism mediated by terazosin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J; Dachman, W; Blaschke, T F; Hoffman, B B

    1992-01-01

    Chronic administration of alpha 1-receptor antagonists is associated with loss of clinical efficacy, especially in congestive heart failure, although the mechanism is uncertain. To evaluate changes in venous alpha 1-adrenoceptor responsiveness during chronic alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade, dose-response curves to phenylephrine and angiotensin II were constructed in 10 healthy subjects before, during, and after administration of terazosin 1 mg orally for 28 d. Terazosin initially shifted the dose-response curve of phenylephrine to the right, with a significant increase in ED50 for phenylephrine from a control value of 102 to 759 ng/min on day 1 of terazosin (P < 0.001). However, by day 28, the dose-response curve had shifted back towards baseline with an ED50 of 112 ng/min. After discontinuing terazosin, the ED50 for phenylephrine remained near the baseline value, indicating no evidence of supersensitivity to phenylephrine. There was no change in responsiveness to angiotensin II during the course of treatment with terazosin. Plasma terazosin concentrations were stable throughout the period of drug administration. The mean Kd of terazosin was estimated as 11 +/- 15 nM in the first few days of treatment. This study demonstrates that pharmacological tolerance to the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking action of terazosin occurs in man and may be responsible for loss in efficacy with chronic therapy. PMID:1358918

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of anticonvulsant properties of new N-Mannich bases derived from pyrrolidine-2,5-dione and its 3-methyl-, 3-isopropyl, and 3-benzhydryl analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Sabina; Obniska, Jolanta; Rapacz, Anna; Filipek, Barbara; Żmudzki, Paweł

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this paper was to describe the synthesis of a library of 28 new 1,3-substituted pyrrolidine-2,5-dione as potential anticonvulsant agents. The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated using three acute models of seizures in mice (MES-maximal electroshock, scPTZ-subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole, and 6Hz-psychomotor seizure tests). The neurotoxicity was determined by rotarod test. The most promising compound was found to be N-[{morpholin-1-yl}-methyl]-3-benzhydryl-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (15), as it was active in the MES (ED50=41.0mg/kg), scPTZ (ED50=101.6kg/mg), and 6Hz (ED50=45.42mg/kg) tests. This compound displayed more beneficial protection index (PI) than antiepileptic drugs such as ethosuximide, lacosamide and valproic acid. In vitro studies for compound 15 were conducted and provided information that its possible mechanism of action is related to blocking of the neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium (site 2) and L-type calcium channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片小鼠体内抗菌作用研究%The antibiotic effect in vivo research of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dispersible tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林霄; 刘元; 李星宇; 刘布鸣

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾的新剂型-分散片对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠的保护效果.方法 以Bliss法计算各感染小鼠的药物半数有效量(ED50)值和95%可信限.结果 分散片对金黄色葡萄球菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为3.748 6(3.396 7~4.205)mg/kg;对大肠杆菌感染小鼠的ED50值和95%可信限为4.662 9(4.037 3~5.385 5)mg/kg.结论 阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾分散片口服给药对产β-内酰胺酶的金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌感染小鼠具有明显疗效.

  6. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a transmitter mediating porcine gallbladder contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Birgit; Poulsen, S.S.; Schmidt, P.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) for porcine gallbladder motility. Immunohistochemistry visualized nerve fibers containing GRP-like immunoreactivity in muscularis. GRP concentration dependently stimulated contractions of muscularis strips (ED50, 2.9 nM). Neuromedin B was less...... potent (ED50, 0.1 microM), suggesting existence of GRP-preferring receptors. GRP-induced contractions were unaffected by muscarinic antagonism (1 microM atropine), axonal blockade (1 microM tetrodotoxin), cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonism (10 microM MK-329), or substance P desensitization (1...... microM), supporting the existence of myogenic GRP receptors. The bombesin (BN) analogue D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)propylamide (PA) stimulated contractions (ED50, 3.3 nM) with low efficacy (29% of that of GRP). D-Phe6-BN-(6-13)PA (1 microM) shifted GRP concentration-response curves one log to the right. D-Phe6-BN...

  7. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  8. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shuen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae. Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10 mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073 mg/ml and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207 mg/ml were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(benzenesulfonamido)-2-[5-(N-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one)]acetylene regioisomers: a novel class of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Morshed Alam; Chen, Hua; Abdellatif, Khaled R A; Dong, Ying; Petruk, Kenneth C; Knaus, Edward E

    2008-07-15

    A hitherto unknown class of linear acetylene regioisomers were designed such that a SO(2)NH(2) group was located at the ortho-, meta-, or para-position of the acetylene C-1 phenyl ring, and a N-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-one moiety was attached via its C-5 position to the C-2 position on an acetylene template (scaffold). All three regioisomers inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), where the relative potency order was 2-SO(2)NH(2) (IC(50)=10 microM) >3-SO(2)NH(2) (IC(50)=15 microM) >4-SO(2)NH(2) (IC(50)=68 microM) relative to the reference drug nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; IC(50)=35 microM). The 2-SO(2)NH(2) regioisomer (ED(50)=86.0mg/kg po) exhibited excellent oral anti-inflammatory (AI) activity that was more potent than aspirin (ED(50)=128.9 mg/kg) and marginally less potent than ibuprofen (ED(50)=67.4 mg/kg). The N-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)one moiety provides a novel pharmacophore for the design of cyclic hydroxamic mimetics capable of chelating 5-LOX iron for exploitation in the design of 5-LOX inhibitory AI drugs.

  10. Vasoconstriction Potency Induced by Aminoamide Local Anesthetics Correlates with Lipid Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoamide local anesthetics induce vasoconstriction in vivo and in vitro. The goals of this in vitro study were to investigate the potency of local anesthetic-induced vasoconstriction and to identify the physicochemical property (octanol/buffer partition coefficient, pKa, molecular weight, or potency of local anesthetics that determines their potency in inducing isolated rat aortic ring contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves to local anesthetics (levobupivacaine, ropivacaine, lidocaine, and mepivacaine were obtained from isolated rat aorta. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the reported physicochemical properties of local anesthetics and the local anesthetic concentration that produced 50% (ED50 of the local anesthetic-induced maximum vasoconstriction. We determined the order of potency (ED50 of vasoconstriction among local anesthetics to be levobupivacaine > ropivacaine > lidocaine > mepivacaine. The relative importance of the independent variables that affect the vasoconstriction potency is octanol/buffer partition coefficient > potency > pKa > molecular weight. The ED50 in endothelium-denuded aorta negatively correlated with the octanol/buffer partition coefficient of local anesthetics (r2=0.9563; P<0.001. The potency of the vasoconstriction in the endothelium-denuded aorta induced by local anesthetics is determined primarily by lipid solubility and, in part, by other physicochemical properties including potency and pKa.

  11. Eficacia de la angiotomografía multidetectores en el diagnóstico del trauma arterial de las extremidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Ochoa Escudero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    OBJETIVO: determinar la eficacia de la angiotomografia multidetectores en el diagnóstico del trauma arterial de las extremidades en los pacientes que ingresen al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, con sospecha de lesión arterial sin indicación de cirugía inmediata, comparada con los hallazgos quirúrgicos, la arteriografía y el seguimiento clínico; además, evaluar la variabilidad interobservador entre un radiólogo general y otro experto en trauma.

    MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: durante 44 meses, entre agosto de 2004 y abril del 2008, se les hizo angiotomografía multidetectores a 99 extremidades con sospecha de lesión vascular traumática en 96 pacientes. Los estudios fueron interpretados por el radiólogo de turno y sus hallazgos se compararon con los de la cirugía, la arteriografía o el seguimiento (clínico o telefónico. Se evaluó además la variabilidad interobservador comparando la lectura de la angiotomografía hecha por el radiólogo de turno con la lectura retrospectiva de un radiólogo experto en trauma.

    RESULTADOS: la angiotomografía multidetectores, como método diagnóstico en el trauma vascular de las extremidades, demostró sensibilidad de 98% (IC 95%: 93-100, especificidad de 88% (IC 95%: 77-99, valor predictivo positivo de 91% (IC 95%: 82

  12. Chaperonin function depends on structure and disorder in co-chaperonin mobile loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S J; Steede, N K; Garaudy, A M; Maskos, K; Viitanen, P V

    1999-01-01

    Co-chaperonins from diverse organisms exhibit mobile loops which fold into a beta hairpin conformation upon binding to the chaperonin. GroES, Gp31, and human Hsp10 mobile loops exhibit a preference for the beta hairpin conformation in the free co-chaperonins, and the conformational dynamics of the human Hsp10 mobile loop appear to be restricted by nascent hairpin formation. Backbone conformational entropy must weigh against binding of co-chaperonins to chaperonins, and thus the conformational preferences of the loops may strongly influence chaperonin-binding affinity. Indeed, subtle mutations in the loops change GroEL-binding affinity and cause defects in chaperonin function, and these defects can be suppressed by mutations in GroEL which compensate for the changes in affinity. The fact that high-affinity co-chaperonin binding impairs chaperonin function has implications for the mechanism of chaperonin-assisted protein folding.

  13. The phylogenetic position of Anaplasma bovis and inferences on the phylogeny of the genus Anaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL (79.8%). Single gene phylogenetic tree results assumed similar phylogenetic positions within the genus Anaplasma, except for A. bovis. However, consensus and concatenated sequence phylogenetic trees showed similar results, revealing 2 subgroups within the genus.

  14. Instaliacija "Nusipuošimas"

    OpenAIRE

    Pociūtė, Gintarė

    2013-01-01

    Visuomenėje vyraujantys grožio standartai virsta mėginimu tiražuoti moterų išorę. Mane supa grožis, mano šeimos moterys taip auklėtos, joms tai svarbu. Svarbu ir man, nes siekiu pripažinimo ir slepiuosi. Visada slėpdavausi, užsidengdama kitų žmonių istorijomis, išgyvendama panašius jausmus. Atėjo laikas save apnuoginti. Plaukai man - vienas pagrindinių moteriškumo simbolių ir akcentų. Netekusi jų, netenku dalies savęs. Veidas tampa neatpažįstamas. Tai istorija ne apie ligą, tačiau grožio sie...

  15. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...... receptor was highly selective for GRO peptides, with IL-8 being 10,000-fold less potent. The constitutive stimulating activity of ORF-74 on phosphatidylinositol turnover was not influenced by, for example, IL-8 binding. In contrast, GRO peptides acted as potent agonists in stimulating ORF-74 signaling......, whereas IP-10 and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha surprisingly acted as inverse agonists. These peptides had similar pharmacological properties with regard to enhancing or inhibiting, respectively, the stimulatory effect of ORF-74 on NIH-3T3 cell proliferation. Construction of a high affinity zinc...

  16. Selective breeding of mice strains with different sensitivity to isoflurane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian; ZHENG Yi; LU Jing; CHEN Lü; WANG Ju; ZHOU Jian-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of action of volatile anesthetics are still unknown.Recently, the use of genetics as a means to investigate anesthetic action has increased in scale.However, only limited forward genetic approach studies were performed in mammals, especially with volatile anesthetics as the selection agent.In the present study, a selective breeding process was designed to produce strains of mice with different sensitivity to isoflurane.Methods One hundred and sixty male and female virgin outbred ICR/CD-1 mice at 65-70 days of age were selected as original generation, and the median effective dose (ED50) of inhaled isoflurane were measured by probit analysis with the loss of righting reflex as the endpoint of anesthesia.The most sensitive males and females were selected and mated one another randomly, as with the most resistant males and females.Thus two branches of mice (sensitive and resistant to isoflurane) were created and allowed to produce the next generation.At 65-70 days of age, screening experiment was performed in offspring, by selecting the most sensitive mice in sensitive branch and the most resistant mice in resistant branch.Selected males and females within each branch were mated one another randomly to produce the following generation.The same procedure was performed in the offspring.The process of screening and breeding was repeated for 8 generations, and then strains were conserved by mating the offspring one another randomly within each branch for 3 generations.Each pair of mice was allowed to produce the second litters as a backup, and isoflurane ED50 was measured in mice from the second litters.Results Isoflurane righting reflex ED50s (95% confidence limit (CL)) in original mice were 0.65% (0.58%-0.72%) in females and 0.63% (0.56%-0.69%) in males.After the 4th generation, isoflurane ED50s in resistant branch were significantly higher than those in sensitive branch (P <0.05), for both in females and males.In the 11th generation

  17. Isobolographic analysis of hypnotic interactions between propofol and etomidate%等辐射分析法研究全身麻醉诱导丙泊酚、依托咪酯催眠相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿; 潘宁玲; 崔旭蕾

    2005-01-01

    目的以等辐射分析法研究全身麻醉诱导时丙泊酚、依托咪酯催眠效应相互作用.方法75例择期上腹部手术病人随机分成三组:丙泊酚(P)组、依托咪酯(E)组、丙泊酚复合依托咪酯(C)组,每组25例.再各分成5个亚组(P1~P5,E1~E5,C1~C5).麻醉诱导前各亚组给予不同剂量的丙泊酚及依托咪酯.监测给药前、给药后1、2、3、5 min的SBP、DBP、HR、SpO2等指标.病人对口令失去反应即进入催眠状态.给药2min后,开始评估.以等辐射分析法分析两者之间催眠相互作用.结果在催眠末点:P组ED50值为1.15 mg/kg(95%可信限0.95~1.40);E组ED50值为0.11mg/kg(95%可信限0.09~0.13);C组ED50值分别为0.38/0.05 mg/kg(95%可信限0.33/0.05~0.44/0.06).在催眠末点,C组ED50偏离相加线有显著性差异(P<0.05).C组的SBP、DBP在给药前后无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论点斜法测定依托咪酯ED50值为0.11mg/kg;经等辐射分析法分析后判定丙泊酚、依托咪酯(剂量比7/1)在催眠效应上呈现协同作用,复合用药血液动力学稳定.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new hybrid anticonvulsants derived from N-benzyl-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanamide and 2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Rapacz, Anna; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Latacz, Gniewomir; Obniska, Jolanta; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize the library of 33 new N-benzyl-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanamides, 2-(3-methyl-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanamides, and 2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanamides as potential new hybrid anticonvulsant agents. These hybrid molecules join the chemical fragments of well-known antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as ethosuximide, levetiracetam, and lacosamide. The coupling reaction of the 2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanoic acid, 2-(3-methyl-2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)propanoic acid, or 2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid with the appropriately substituted benzylamines in the presence of the coupling reagent, N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) generated the final compounds 4-36. Spectral data acquired via (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and LC-MS confirmed the chemical structures of the newly prepared compounds. The initial anticonvulsant screening was performed in mice intraperitoneally (ip), using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure tests. The rotarod test determined the acute neurological toxicity (NT). The results of preliminary pharmacological screening revealed that 25 compounds showed protection in half or more of the animals tested in the MES and/or scPTZ seizure models at the fixed dose of 100mg/kg. The broad spectra of activity across the preclinical seizure models displayed compounds 4, 7, 8, 13, 15-18, 24, and 26. The quantitative pharmacological studies in mice demonstrated the highest protection for compounds 4 (ED50 MES=67.65 mg/kg, ED50scPTZ=42.83 mg/kg); 8 (ED50 MES=54.90 mg/kg, ED50scPTZ=50.29 mg/kg); and 20 (ED50scPTZ=47.39 mg/kg). These compounds were distinctly more potent and provided better safety profiles in the rotarod test compared to valproic acid or ethosuximide, which were used as model AEDs. Compound 8 underwent only a slight metabolic change by the human liver microsomes (HLMs), and also did not affect the activity of human cytochrome P450 isoform

  19. Gastroprotective effect of Hintonia latiflora and Hintonia standleyana aqueous extracts and compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristians, S; Bye, R; Navarrete, A; Mata, R

    2013-01-30

    The stem-barks of Hintonia latiflora and Hintonia standleyana, locally known as "copalchi", are used for treating several maladies such as diabetes and gastrointestinal complaints, including gastric ulcers. Although the antidiabetic properties have been demonstrated, the gastroprotective action remains unexplored. The main goals of this study were to establish the potential acute toxicity and the gastroprotective activity of aqueous extracts and compounds from Hintonia latiflora and Hintonia standleyana in order to demonstrate their preclinical efficacy for the treatment of gastric ulcers in Mexican folk medicine. The aqueous extracts from the stem-barks (HLSB and HSSB) and leaves (HLL and HSL) from Hintonia latiflora and Hintonia standleyana were prepared by infusion. Investigation of the acute toxicity was accomplished by the Lorke method. The gastroprotective effect was assessed by means of a conventional ethanol-induced gastric injury model in rats using carbenoxolone as positive control. 5-O-[β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-7-methoxy-3',4'-dihydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin (1) and chlorogenic acid (2) were also assayed. Preliminary mechanism of action of the tested compounds was analyzed using the same pharmacological models but pretreating the animals with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and indomethacin. Investigation of the acute toxicity revealed that infusions of the leaves and stem-barks of both Hintonia species were not toxic to mice (LD(50)>5000 mg/kg in all cases). HLSB, HSSB, HLL and HSL provoked a significant gastroprotective effect [80.5±3.35% (ED(50)=184.7 mg/kg), 80.26±3.96%, 75.1±7.26% (ED(50)=109.1 mg/kg), 76.85±3.17% (ED(50)=149.7 mg/kg) of gastroprotection respectively]. Compounds 1 and 2, present in all the extracts, were also active [68.85±8.4% (ED(50)=15 mg/kg), 74.04±4.4% (ED(50)=26 mg/kg) of gastroprotection respectively] and their mode of action involved non-protein sulfhydryl

  20. Fungitoxicidade de grupos químicos sobre Myrothecium roridum in vitro e sobre a mancha-de-mirotécio em algodoeiro Fungitoxicity of chemical groups on Myrothecium roridum in vitro and on myrothecium leaf spot on cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano César da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fungitoxicidade de produtos pertencentes aos grupos dos benzimidazóis, triazóis, estrobilurinas, isoftalonitrilas e ditiocarbamatos sobre a germinação conidial e o crescimento micelial in vitro de isolados de Myrothecium roridum e, in vivo, sobre a severidade da mancha-de-mirotécio em plantas de algodoeiro. Nos testes in vitro os fungicidas foram solubilizados em meio BDA, utilizando-se as concentrações de 0,1, 1, 10 e 100 mg L-1 de ingrediente ativo. A fungitoxidade dos produtos foi avaliada por meio da ED50 (dose necessária para inibir 50% da germinação conidial ou crescimento micelial. Em casa de vegetação, estimou-se a severidade da mancha-de-mirotécio pela porcentagem de área foliar lesionada nas plantas de algodoeiro tratadas antes (preventivo e depois (curativo da inoculação do patógeno. Os fungicidas tiofanato metílico, carbendazim, metconazol, tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil, piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, piraclostrobina + metiram, triflostrobina + propiconazol e tebuconazol inibiram com alta eficácia (ED50The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of benzimidazoles, triazoles, strobilurins, isoftalonitrils and ditiocarbamats on Myrothecium roridum conidial germination and micelial growth in vitro, and the myrothecium leaf spot severity on cotton plants. On in vitro tests, fungicides were solubilized in PDA media at the following concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L-1. The toxicity of the products were evaluated by the ED50 rate (required for inhibiting 50% of the conidial germination or mycelial growth. In greenhouse tests, the severity of myrothecium leaf spot was quantified by measuring the leaf area affected by the pathogen in cotton plants sprayed before (preventive and after (curative the pathogen inoculation. The fungicides thiophanate methyl, carbendazim, metconazole, thiophanate methyl + chlorothalonil, pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole, pyraclostrobin

  1. Enantioselective pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic analysis of two chiral CNS-active carbamate derivatives of valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Mawasi, Hafiz; McDonough, John H; Finnell, Richard H; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Yavin, Eylon; Bialer, Meir

    2014-12-01

    2-Ethyl-3-methylbutyl-carbamate (EMC) and 2-isopropylpentyl-carbamate (IPC) are among the most potent anticonvulsant carbamate derivatives of valproic acid. EMC and IPC are chiral compounds. Consequently, the aim of the current study was to comparatively evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD anticonvulsant activity) profile of EMC and IPC individual enantiomers. The anticonvulsant activity of EMC and IPC individual enantiomers was evaluated in several anticonvulsant rodent models including maximal electroshock (MES), 6 Hz psychomotor, subcutaneous (pentylenetetrazole) (scMet), and the pilocarpine-induced and soman-induced status epilepticus (SE). The PK-PD relationship of EMC and IPC individual enantiomers was evaluated following intraperitoneal administration (50 mg/kg) to rats. Induction of neural tube defects (NTDs) was evaluated in a mouse strain that was highly susceptible to teratogen-induced NTDs. In mice and rats, (2S)-EMC exhibited anticonvulsant activity similar to that of racemic EMC in the MES and scMet tests, whereas in the 6 Hz test, racemic EMC was more potent than its two individual enantiomers. Racemic EMC exhibited a potent activity in the soman-induced SE model when administered 5 and 20 min after seizure onset with median effective dose (ED50 ) values of 33 and 48 mg/kg, respectively. (2R)-IPC and (2S)-IPC exhibited ED50 values similar to those of racemic IPC in the mouse and rat MES and scMet models. (2R)-IPC had similar ED50 values on the 6 Hz tests. Racemic IPC had an ED50 value of 107 mg/kg in the pilocarpine-induced SE model when given 30 min after seizure onset. Racemic EMC and IPC and their enantiomers had similar clearance (3.8-5.5 L/h/kg) and short half-life (<1 h). EMC and its enantiomers did not cause NTDs at doses 3-10 times higher than their anticonvulsant ED50 values. EMC and IPC did not exhibit enantioselective PK, a fact that may contribute to their nonenantioselective activity in any of the anticonvulsant

  2. Expression, modulation and signalling of IL-17 receptor in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlen, A; Thiele, K; Riemann, D; Langner, J

    2002-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been characterized as a proinflammatory cytokine produced by CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells. Overproduction of IL-17 was detected in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to patients with osteoarthritis. In contrast to the restricted expression of IL-17, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R/CDw217) is expressed ubiquitously. Using a real-time RT-PCR assay, we detected similar absolute levels of IL-17R mRNA expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (SFC) from patients with RA (mean 9 pg/microg total RNA; ranged from 0.1 pg to 96 pg IL-17R mRNA/microg total RNA) compared to synoviocytes of non-RA patients. Analysis of the IL-17R surface expression confirmed the results obtained for IL-17R mRNA expression. Exposure of SFC to IL-17 led to a mRNA induction of CXC chemokines IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta. An anti-IL-17 antibody blocked these effects of IL-17. The MAPK p38 appears necessary for the regulation of IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta expression as shown by inhibition with SB203580. The inhibitors genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and calphostin C (inhibitor of protein kinase C) reduced significantly the IL-17-stimulated mRNA expression of IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta in SFC, whereas PD98059 (inhibitor of MEK-1/2) was without effect. Pharmacological drugs used in therapy of RA, such as cyclosporin and methotrexate, induced a fourfold increase of IL-17R mRNA expression and augmented the IL-17-stimulated IL-8 expression. Our results support the hypothesis that IL-17/IL-17R may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RA contributing to an unbalanced production of cytokines as well as participating in connective tissue remodelling.

  3. Improved 1, 2, 4-butanetriol production from an engineered Escherichia coli by co-expression of different chaperone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; He, Shuying; Zong, Hong; Song, Jian; Chen, Wen; Zhuge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    1, 2, 4-Butanetriol (BT) is a high-value non-natural chemical and has important applications in polymers, medical production and military industry. In the constructed BT biosynthesis pathway from xylose in Escherichia coli, the xylose dehydrogenase (Xdh) and the benzoylformate decarboxylase (MdlC) are heterologous enzymes and the activity of MdlC is the key limiting factor for BT production. In this study, six chaperone protein systems were introduced into the engineered E. coli harboring the recombinant BT pathway. The chaperone GroES-GroEL was beneficial to Xdh activity but had a negative effect on MdlC activity and BT titer. The plasmid pTf16 containing the tig gene (trigger factor) was beneficial to Xdh and MdlC activities and improved the BT titer from 0.42 to 0.56 g/l from 20 g/l xylose. However, co-expression of trigger factor and GroES-GroEL simultaneously reduced the activity of MdlC and had no effect on the BT production. The plasmid pKJE7 harboring dnaK-dnaJ-grpE showed significant negative effects on these enzyme activities and cell growth, leading to completely restrained the BT production. Similarly, co-expression of DnaKJ-GrpPE and GroES-GroEL simultaneously reduced Xdh and MdlC activities and decreased the BT titer by 45.2 %. The BT production of the engineered E. coli harboring pTf16 was further improved to the highest level at 1.01 g/l under pH control (pH 7). This work showed the potential application of chaperone proteins in microorganism engineering to get high production of target compounds as an effective and valuable tool.

  4. Developing principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement for "gentle" remediation approaches: the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, A B; Bardos, R P; Church, A; Puschenreiter, M; Friesl-Hanl, W; Müller, I; Neu, S; Mench, M; Witters, N; Vangronsveld, J

    2013-11-15

    Gentle Remediation Options (GRO) are risk management strategies or techniques for contaminated sites that result in no gross reduction in soil functionality (or a net gain) as well as risk management. Intelligently applied GROs can provide: (a) rapid risk management via pathway control, through containment and stabilisation, coupled with a longer term removal or immobilisation/isolation of the contaminant source term; and (b) a range of additional economic (e.g. biomass generation), social (e.g. leisure and recreation) and environmental (e.g. CO2 sequestration) benefits. In order for these benefits to be optimised or indeed realised, effective stakeholder engagement is required. This paper reviews current sector practice in stakeholder engagement and its importance when implementing GRO and other remediation options. From this, knowledge gaps are identified, and strategies to promote more effective stakeholder engagement during GRO application are outlined. Further work is required on integrating stakeholder engagement strategies into decision support systems and tools for GRO (to raise the profile of the benefits of effective stakeholder engagement and participation, particularly with sector professionals), and developing criteria for the identification of different stakeholder profiles/categories. Demonstrator sites can make a significant contribution to stakeholder engagement via providing evidence on the effectiveness of GRO under varying site contexts and conditions. Effective and sustained engagement strategies however will be required to ensure that site risk is effectively managed over the longer-term, and that full potential benefits of GRO (e.g. CO2 sequestration, economic returns from biomass generation and "leverage" of marginal land, amenity and educational value, ecosystem services) are realised and communicated to stakeholders.

  5. Aportaciones del tratamiento de imágenes a la dosimetría en radioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Domingo, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    RESUMEN En la radioterapia moderna prácticamente toda la información anatómica del paciente que va a ser sometido a un tratamiento se obtiene a partir de múltiples imágenes digitales que proceden de diversos equipos generadores de imagen (radiógrafos digitales, tomógrafos, equipos de resonancia magnética etc.). Las cada vez más sofisticadas propuestas de tratamiento están condenadas al fracaso si la información anatómica inicial del paciente es insuficiente o incorrecta. Asimismo, la im...

  6. Estudio del oído con TC Multidetector de 64 canales 64 - Detector CT findings in the study of the ear

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El oído es una estructura anatómica compleja. Su estudio y comprensión resultan un reto diario para el radiólogo, siendo la tomografía computada una herramienta esencial para su estudio. La tomografía computada convencional con cortes finos en planos axiales y coronales permite una buena visualización de las diferentes estructuras. Sin embargo, se necesitan tiempos prolongados para su realización y posicionamientos incómodos o intolerables para muchos pacientes. Además la visualización de alg...

  7. Varijabilnost morfometrijskih svojstava žireva i visina sadnica hrasta lužnjaka (Quercus robur L.) iz sjemenskih sastojina u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanković, Mladen; Popović, Maja; Bogdan, Saša

    2011-01-01

    Radi verifikacije važećih sjemenskih zona hrasta lužnjaka u Hrvatskoj na temelju znanstvenih spoznaja, započela su nova istraživanja genetske varijabilnosti u području prirodnog areala ove vrste. U jesen 2006. godine prikupljeno je sjeme iz tzv. priznatih sjemenskih sastojina, čija je osnovna uloga izvorište kvalitetnijeg sjemena za potrebe umjetne obnove gospodarskih sastojina. U radu se prikazuju rezultati morfometrijske analize sjemena i visina jednogodišnjih sadnica podrijetlom iz 17 uzor...

  8. Compensation for geometric changes during monitoring of 133Xe washout from subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for automatic compensation of changes in geometry during monitoring of 133Xe-washout curves from subcutaneous depots. A 99mTc source is placed on the skin over the 133Xe depot, and both isotopes are counted simultaneously. Variations in the 99mTc activity (corrected for radi...... for radioactive decay) reflects changes in counting geometry and efficiency and are used for correction of the 133Xe elimination curve. The method permits accurate elimination curves to be obtained from subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer or running a treadmill....

  9. Fantoma para punción tiroidea ecoguiada, de elaboración casera y bajo costo

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina, S.; Balcells, A; P. Avaria; Hirsch, M.

    2017-01-01

    Los procedimientos intervencionistas guiados por imágenes han adquirido importancia en la práctica médica, particularmente para el radiólogo que debe estar familiarizado con estas técnicas para obtener diagnósticos precisos, sin someter al paciente a grandes procedimientos con mayores riesgos asociados. Uno de estos métodos es la punción aspiración con aguja fina (PAAF), que requiere de entrenamiento para adquirir destreza en la obtención de buenas imágenes y una adecuada muestra para la eval...

  10. Variabilidad en la lectura de radiografía de tórax en el diagnóstico de neumoconiosis del minero de carbón

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ávila, Germán Darío

    2014-01-01

    Diversas clasificaciones radiológicas han sido desarrolladas para apoyar el diagnóstico de la neumoconiosis. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar la concordancia de los hallazgos radiográficos relacionados con el diagnóstico de neumoconiosis detectados en la lectura de la radiografía de tórax realizada por medico entrenado en sistema de clasificación de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (OIT 2.000) y radiólogo especialista. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo. Se comparó la lectura ...

  11. La neumoconiosis : enfermedad profesional, su legislación en nuestro país y sus principales aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Díaz, Pedro F.; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Son tan múltiples y variados los aspectos y problemas que plantea el tema de la neumoconiosis que su erstudio, en todos los países, preocupa a los investigadores, clínicos, anatomopatólogos, radiólogos, higienistas, ingenieros, a los empresarios de las grandes industrias, a los legisladores y por lo tanto al Estado. They are so many and varied aspects and challenges to the subject of your erstudio pneumoconiosis, in all countries, worries researchers, clinicians, pathologists, radiologists...

  12. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, H., E-mail: hannu.koivisto@phys.jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thuillier, T. [LPSC, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Grenoble-Alpes1, 53 Rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Xie, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Machicoane, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  13. Canal mandibular bífido: Presentación de una serie de casos Bifid mandibular canal: Case series report

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Guzmán Zuluaga; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga; C.M. Ardila Medina

    2012-01-01

    La ubicación y configuración de las variaciones del canal mandibular son relevantes en diferentes procedimientos clínicos de la mandíbula. En esta serie de casos un radiólogo evaluó el recorrido del canal mandibular identificando la presencia y tipos de canales bífidos. Se observaron cuatro pacientes con canal mandibular bífido tipo retromolar y tres sujetos con canal bífido tipo anterior sin convergencia. En otro paciente se encontraron forámenes dentarios bífidos bilaterales. La Tomografía ...

  14. FEMS activities and FEMS Grants possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Taleski, Vaso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract FEMS je federacija evropskih mikrobioloških društava ujedinjuje 50 udruženja iz 36 zemalja Evrope, sa preko 30.000 mikrobiologa. Nažalost, Udruženje mikrobiologa Bosne i Hercegovine do sada nikada nije apliciralo za clanstvo zbog cega nije clan FEMS-a. Jos samo tri udruzenja iz Evrope nisu clanovi FEMS-a ali se radi da postanu clanovi u najskorije vreme. Clanstvo u FEMS-u daje velike mogucnosti posebno za mlade mikrobiologe koji sun a pocetku naucne karijere. Misija FEMS-...

  15. Selección de dispositivos y su adaptación en la estimulación eléctrica transcutánea

    OpenAIRE

    Aldeanueva Aguirre, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    El uso de la estimulación eléctrica con fines terapéuticos se encuentra ampliamente extendido al nivel mundial por su demostrada eficacia y por las ventajas que reporta, entre ellas la carencia de efectos secundarios y la sustitución de sustancias químicas medicamentosas. Existe en el mercado una amplia diversidad de estimuladores eléctricos, capaces de aplicar al paciente estímulos eléctricos con parámetros controlados y con niveles de seguridad adecuados. Esta gama de equipos tiene un radi...

  16. Prosudba kliničkih i ultrazvučnih nalaza kod abdominalnih poremećaja u krava.

    OpenAIRE

    KURT, Başak; Cihan, Mete

    2013-01-01

    Stotinu goveda bilo je pretraženo klinički i ultrazvučno radi dokazivanja njihovih abdominalnih poremećaja. Važnost i prednosti ultrazvučne dijagnostike bili su procijenjeni na osnovi radiografskih nalaza i punkcije abdomena u sumnjivih slučajeva. Pretragom je bilo ustanovljeno da su goveda oboljela od omfalitisa (n = 30), izvanpupčanih apscesa (n = 22), traumatskog retikulitisa (n = 14), urolitijaze i prsnuća mokraćnog mjehura (n = 10), traumatskog retikuloperitonitisa (n = 6), pupčane herni...

  17. Ispitivanje antimikrobnih aktivnosti materijala na bazi kalcijum hidroksiapatita

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Antimikrobni materijali na bazi hidroksiapatita su potencijalno atraktivni za širok spektar primena u medicini. Monofazni srebro-, bakar- i cink-dopirani hidroksiapati (MxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2, M = Ag, Cu ili Zn, 0,002 ≤ x ≤ 0,04) su sintetizovani korišćenjem metode neutralizacije. Ova metoda se sastoji od rastvaranja oksida metala (Ag2O, CuO ili ZnO) u rastvoru H3PO4, i sporog dodavanja rastvora u suspenziju Ca(OH)2 radi homogene raspodele dopantnog jona. Kvantitativna elementala analiza je p...

  18. Intra-operative Cerenkov Imaging for Guiding Breast Cancer Surgery and Assessing Tumor Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    tool. 3.4 System Evaluation For benchmarking purposes, we simulated the diffusion of a 633 nm laser beam within a turbid 5-cm radius cylinder filled...a sample not incubated with 18F-FDG and mea- sured a background rate of 1.2 cps, likely caused by cosmic radi- ation and background noise in the...form the raw data. The raw data were image-processed offline using an algorithm to remove cosmic and stray g-events. This algorithm removed noisy

  19. Pobačaji i neplodnost stoke zbog bruceloze u Himachal Pradeshu u Indiji.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Prikupljen je 431 uzorak od 43 bivola (Bubalus bubalis), 110 krava, 115 koza i 163 ovce, s različitim poremetnjama u razmnožavanju. Ti su uzorci potijecali od 51 pobačaj, 80 životinja koje ni nakon ponovljenog osjemenjivanja nisu bile oplođene, 277 endometritisa, 8 cervicitisa i 15 vaginitisa. Osim toga je i 98 ženskih spolnih organa koji su imali znakove endometritis u 50 ovaca i 48 koza također pretraženo radi izolacija brucela. B. abortus biotip III je izolirana iz 2 od 7 krava s pobačajem...

  20. PROMOCIJA U FUNKCIJI RAZVOJA VINARSKOG SEKTORA U ISTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Brščić, Kristina; Oplanić, Milan; Miladinović, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    U radu je dan prikaz mogućnosti i ograničenja s aspekta promocije kao jednog od elementa marketing miksa u vinogradarsko-vinarskoj proizvodnji u Istri. Osim pregleda postojećeg stanja vinogradarstva i vinarstava u Istri dan je i kratki osvrt na povijesni razvoj vinogradarstva i vinarstva te na pojedine proizvode koji su kreirani upravo radi isticanja važnosti i skretanja pozornosti na vinare u Istri, kao što su primjerice, vinske ceste i udruga Vinistra. Istraživanje je provedeno intervjuiran...

  1. Concordancia radiológica intra e interobservador del método de Sharp-Van der Heijde / Radiological agreement intra and interobserver of Sharp–Van der Heijde method

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Hernández, David Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    El método de Sharp–Van der Heijde es utilizado para evaluar y medir la progresión del daño articular y establecer los efectos del tratamiento en radiografías de manos y pies de pacientes con artritis reumatoidea. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la confiabilidad de la escala de SVdH determinando la concordancia intra e interobservador entre radiólogos utilizando radiografías de pacientes colombianos con artritis reumatoidea. Se incluyeron 102 radiografías digitalizadas (51 de manos (en...

  2. Analiza niskofrekventnog spektra vibracija na elementima strukture helikoptera 'Gazela' / Analysis of low frequency vibrations on the structural connection elements of the Gazelle helicopter

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Miroslav M.

    2010-01-01

    U radu je prikazan postupak i metodologija ispitivanja vibracija na helikopteru 'gazela' radi definisanja efikasnosti prigušenja vibracija na vezi struktura - sedište pilota. Posebna pažnja posvećena je teorijskim osnovama vibracija na helikopteru, određivanju radnih frekvencija, definisanju režima rada i profila leta helikoptera u toku ispitivanja. Na kraju rada prikazani su rezultati merenja vibracija u frekventnom domenu. / In this paper the procedure and methodology of vibration testing o...

  3. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  4. De l'analítica web a les botigues físiques: el naixement d'un nou sistema de mesura

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Blanchart, Anna

    2014-01-01

    En aquest projecte es presenta el sistema de mesura LITBE, basat en microprocessadors inserits a l interior de les llums de les botigues que detecten els dispositius que sol liciten xarxes wifi dins del seu radi d acció. El treball realitzat va des de les primeres idees de replicar les anàlisis que es realitzen en analítica web a les botigues físiques fins a un cas real d anàlisi, passant pel disseny i l elaboració de l estructura de bases de dades del sistema i la creació de la metodologia a...

  5. Najčešće sintaktičke pogreške u publicističkome stilu (na primjeru "Glasa Istre")

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    U radu se opisuju najčešće sintaktičke pogreške u Glasu Istre, najčitanijim dnevnim novinama u Istri. Analiza obuhvaća dvadesetak brojeva s posebnim naglaskom na položaj enklitike, sročnost s brojevima, veznike budući da, ni i niti, s obzirom na (to da), ukoliko i ako, prijedloge nasuprot, unatoč, usprkos, kroz, po, putem, s(a), zbog i radi, posvojni genitiv, posvojni pridjev i dekompoziciju predikata. Uvažavajući pravila i posebnosti publicističkoga stila, komparativnom se analizom propisâ i...

  6. Gritos de Guerra en el Altiplano : El rol contrainformativo de Radio Pachamama

    OpenAIRE

    Mongan Marco, Matías

    2007-01-01

    El análisis del rol de radio Pachamama en la ciudad del Alto entre el 9 y el 17 del Octubre del 2003, va a permitir conocer las modificaciones que experimenta la comunicación radiofónica en escenarios de crisis sociopolítica. Asimismo este trabajo hace hincapié en que para que la comunicación contrainformativa pueda tener éxito, necesita tanto de un medio de comunicación dispuesto a abrir los micrófonos, como de los movimientos sociales: los cuales por intermedio de la apropiación de las radi...

  7. Optimizacija održavanja i remonta željezničkih kolosijeka primjenom genetičkih algoritama

    OpenAIRE

    Guler, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Rad opisuje novi pristup optimizaciji radova na održavanju i remontu željezničkih kolosijeka pomoću genetičkih algoritama. U istraživanju su primijenjeni sustavi za potporu u odlučivanju i genetički algoritmi radi optimizacije radova na održavanju i remontu željezničkih kolosijeka. Rezultati istraživanja su pokazali da je moguće razviti sustav za upravljanje radovima planskog održavanja i remonta te ga uspješno primijeniti umjesto korektivnih radova održavanja.

  8. Lesiones benignas de mama que pueden simular un carcinoma en estudios imagenológicos Benign breast lesions that mimic carcinoma in diagnostic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Castro Barba; María Paz Cobos Bombardiere; Flavia Sarquis; Griselda Luna; Bárbara Miller

    2011-01-01

    La mayoría de las lesiones que se encuentran al realizar estudios mamarios son benignas. Muchas de ellas tienen un aspecto típico y definido, ya sea en mamografía o ecografía y no requieren de evaluaciones adicionales. Existe un grupo de entidades benignas que, sin embargo, puede simular un carcinoma en las imágenes. Los radiólogos debemos conocer las características de las mismas y tenerlas en cuenta como posibles diagnósticos diferenciales de una imagen de alta sospecha.Most of the lesions ...

  9. Članci prihvaćeni za objavljivanje/Accepted manuscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Vičić Hudorović, Višnja

    2015-01-01

    [1] PREGLEDNI ČLANAK / REVIEW ARTICLE Učestalost febrilnih konvulzija u dječjoj populaciji u Općoj bolnici Dubrovnik u razdoblju od 2013 do 2014 godine The incidence of febrile seizures in children population in General Hospital Dubrovnik during the period from year 2013-2014 Antonija Begić • Gabrijela Gulin • Nika Jeljenić Sandra Merčep • Valentina Radić [2] SIGURNOST BOLESNIKA/PATIENT SAFETY Sestrinska skrb bolesnika sa dekompenzacijom srca Nursing health care for...

  10. Characterization and Comparison of New Concepts in Neutron Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    by this project. Currently, research led by Douglas S. McGregor is being conducted at Kansas State University that focuses on the develop- ment of a...Radi- ation Detectors User’s Manual, 2007. [7] D. S. McGregor , S. L. Bellinger, D. Bruno, S. A. Cowley, W. L. Dunn, M. Elazequi, S. Karger, M. McNeil, H...remote monitoring,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 2007. NSS ’07. IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 808–812, Nov. 2007. [8] D. S. McGregor , S. L

  11. Attenuation Effects of Thermal Radiation on Internal Blast Overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    heat of detonation , q, reported in the literature are often based on constant volume bomb calorimetric measurements. Values of heat of detonation experimentally...1., ~o ooo o oo o 0I~# f j 4jf *d*t*7 * * * * * * * * * DET42O .T ION C-J SHOCK WAVE PLANE FIGURE 1 12 than the maximum heat of detonation calculated...ratio (since heat of detonation and, therefore, the energy evolved, is a function of the mass of explosive and the radi- ant energy

  12. Učestalost goveđe enzootske leukoze u jugoistočnoj Bugarskoj tijekom razdoblja od 1998. do 2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandev, Nikolay; Sizov, Ignat; Pandarov, Stoyan; Alexandrova, Stamka; Dojchev, Tomi; Vasilev, Vasil; Tanchev, Todor; Georgieva, Lyudmila

    2001-01-01

    U razdoblju od 1998. do 2000. pretraženo je 200518 uzoraka seruma metodom imunodifuzije radi dokazivanja protutijela za virus goveđe enzootske leukoze u jugoistočnoj Bugarskoj. Rezultati su pokazali da je zaraza proširena u prosječno u 17,02% goveda (u rasponu od 2,78% na području Haskova pa sve do 33,07% na području Burgasa). Ovi podaci potvrđuju da bolest predstavlja veoma važan epizootiološki problem posebice u uvjetima suvremenog uzgoja goveda. Za suzbijanje i iskorjenjivanje bolesti važn...

  13. Novi nalazi kasnoantičkih grobnica na svod u Donjoj Hercegovini

    OpenAIRE

    Miličević-Capek, Ivanka

    2011-01-01

    Pri obilasku terena na području Donje Hercegovine radi utvrđivanja stanja spomenika kulture djelatnici Zavoda za zaštitu kulturno-povijesne baštine Hercegovačko-neretvanske županije registrirali su tijekom 2003. i 2004. god. veći broj dosada nepoznatih ili u literaturi sporadično spomenutih lokaliteta na kojima se može utvrditi ili pretpostaviti postojanje kasnoantičkih zidanih grobnica na svod. Zajedničko im je da su građene od kamena s bačvastim svodom od kamena ili sedre, s jednim ili dva ...

  14. Ekspresija gena za inhibitor serinskih proteinaza (BvSTI) šećerne repe (Beta vulgaris L.) i uloga u otpornosti na insekte

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Biljni inhibitori proteinaza aktivno učestvuju u odbrani biljaka od insekata štetočina inhibirajući insekatske digestivne proteinaze. In planta analiza ekspresije BvSTI gena koji kodira inhibitora serinskih proteinaza urađena je sa ciljem otkrivanja uloge ovog inhibitora u otpornosti biljaka šećerne repe na insekte, kao i radi utvrđivanja potencijala ovog gena kao pogodnog kandidat-gena koji bi se biotehnološkim metodama mogao uvesti u osetljive biljne genome, čime bi se poveća...

  15. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2010-01-01

    From a distinguished author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and radiobiology, it is an ideal review for Board and Registry examinations. The material is well organized and written with clarity. The book is supplemented with tables and illustrations throughout. It provides a quick reference book that is concise but comprehensive, and offers a complete discussion of topics for the nuclear medicine and radi

  16. Caso clínico-radiológico: Esteatosis hepática y sus manifestaciones en los distintos métodos de imáGenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andrés O'Brien, Dr.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La esteatosis hepática es una condición muy frecuente en pacientes que se realizan chequeos médicos, fácil de diagnosticar al Ultrasonido, Tomografía Computada y Resonancia Magnética. Se asocia principalmente a obesidad, resistencia a la insulina y abuso de alcohol. Esta entidad puede tener distintas manifestaciones en los estudios de imágenes, algunas de las cuales pueden llevar a procedimientos innecesarios, por lo que es muy importante que el radiólogo esté familiarizado con éstas.

  17. 肾综合征出血热发病机制研究进展%Research progress on the pathogenic mechanisms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩; 李用国; 兰英华

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenisis of hantavirus is not yet entirely clear. Virus, virus receptor, cytokines, free radi-cals, specific CTL response and HLA differences may be related to the pathogenesis. In this review, the research progress on the pathogenesis of hantavirus is reviewed.%肾综合征出血热发病机制至今仍未完全阐明,病毒、病毒受体、细胞因子、自由基、特异性CTL反应、HLA差异性均可能与发病有关.此文对近年来的研究进展进行了综述.

  18. Sposobnost opstanka informacionih sistema / Survivability of information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boško Rodić; Dejan Vuletić

    2005-01-01

    U radu je opisan značaj i trend razvoja informacionih sistema u savremenom društvu, a definisani su i drugi značajni pojmovi radi boljeg razumevanja problema. Prikazana su i četiri aspekta rešenja sposobnosti opstanka informacionih sistema koje predlaže Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT). / The article deals with importance and trend of information systems in modern society. In the article are defined, beside survivability, other relevant ideas necessary for better understanding of the p...

  19. Sposobnost opstanka informacionih sistema / Survivability of information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boško Rodić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U radu je opisan značaj i trend razvoja informacionih sistema u savremenom društvu, a definisani su i drugi značajni pojmovi radi boljeg razumevanja problema. Prikazana su i četiri aspekta rešenja sposobnosti opstanka informacionih sistema koje predlaže Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT. / The article deals with importance and trend of information systems in modern society. In the article are defined, beside survivability, other relevant ideas necessary for better understanding of the problems. Also, in the article are illustrated four aspects of information system survivability solution by Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT.

  20. Environmental Testing and Thermal Analysis of the NPS Solar Cell Array Tester (NPS-SCAT) CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    So ion with M ell without rent versus correlate th ensor . The rom [7]) e satellite, f four exper 1 sun senso ITJ) with c lar Cell (TA onolithic D...33˚ C instead of -42˚ C. A. Smal press The t in the Sun S The t IV OVERVI A therma l Satellite L ure, one the emperature temperatur ensor ...as mounted Sun S Patch A and solar ction becau ounted with with double 60 ensor Radi ntenna Rad cells were m se they we adhesive an -sided kapto