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Sample records for gro harlem brundtland

  1. Public health lives: Gro Harlem Brundtland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D; von Schirnding, Y

    2014-02-01

    Health has been a deeply personal, professional and political dimension of Gro Harlem Brundtland's life. Her decision to study breast feeding while an MPH student at Harvard in 1964, or her desire to tackle tobacco being influenced by her father sending her as a 10-year old girl to buy his cigarettes at the local store, or her deeply personal family experience of mental ill health all led her to take actions on the global stage to address these and other issues that evidence showed would have global impact. Her impact on global health started with a commitment to make a difference in the lives of people, particularly those in greatest need. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: the challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, William M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not unt

  3. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: The challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, W.M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not

  4. Brundtland's World Health Organization: a test case for United Nations reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, A

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform.

  5. Brundtland's World Health Organization: A Test Case for United Nations Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169

  6. A Tree Grows in Harlem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Eleanor

    1992-01-01

    The "Success Garden" in central Harlem, New York, is an outdoor learning center sponsored by city agencies and civic organizations. School children helped clear the ground and design and build the park. Offers tips for starting a school garden. (MLF)

  7. Health for all or riches for some: WHO's responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motchane, Jean-Loup

    2003-01-01

    Can we still rely on the World Health Organization? It has not openly opposed the greed of the major global pharmaceutical companies, and its director-general, Gro Harlem Brundtland, has deferred to them.

  8. The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, George

    Intended to expose the oversimplifications and misrepresentations of popular readings of the Harlem Renaissance, this book reveals the truly composite nature of American literary culture. Noting that a broader sense of the intellectual context of the Harlem Renaissance has been missing from literary histories, the book supplies an appreciation of…

  9. Scandinavian NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    leadership of Gro Harlem Brundtland , who grew in confidence and political stature as she survived and governed better than most observers in Norway expected...From 1986 to 1989, Brundtland headed a minority Labor government with the de facto support of the Center and Christian People’s parties in the center

  10. The Fundamental Issues Study within the British BMD Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    towards ’Outer Space’: a realm identified in the evocative terminology of the 1987 Brundtland report as one of the three ’global commons’, the other...New Scientist, vol.149, no.2020, 9 March 1996, p.6. 14. Gro Harlem Brundtland , Chair, Our Common Future, Oxford University Press for World Commission

  11. Malaria. Can WHO roll back malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, M

    2000-10-20

    In October 1998, World Health Organization Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland announced Roll Back Malaria, a multiagency crusade that aims to cut malaria mortality in half over the next 10 years. Brundtland might just be the one to pull it off, say numerous public health experts, although some researchers question whether the goal is realistic.

  12. Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 Coordinates Expressions of the Duplicate groEL and Single groES Genes for Synergistic Functions of GroELs and GroES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-zhong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaperonin GroEL (Cpn60 requires cofactor GroES (Cpn10 for protein refolding in bacteria that possess single groEL and groES genes in a bicistronic groESL operon. Among 4,861 completely-sequenced prokaryotic genomes, 884 possess duplicate groEL genes and 770 possess groEL genes with no neighboring groES. It is unclear whether stand-alone groEL requires groES in order to function and, if required, how duplicate groEL genes and unequal groES genes balance their expressions. In Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, we determined that, while duplicate groELs were alternatively deletable, the single groES that clusters with groEL1 was essential for cell survival. Either GroEL1 or GroEL2 required interactions with GroES for in vitro and in vivo functions. Deletion of groEL1 or groEL2 resulted in decreased expressions of both groEL and groES; and ectopic complementation of groEL recovered not only the groEL but also groES expressions. The addition of an extra groES gene upstream groEL2 to form a bicistronic operon had almost no influence on groES expression and the cell survival rate, whereas over-expression of groES using a self-replicating plasmid simultaneously increased the groEL expressions. The results indicated that M. xanthus DK1622 cells coordinate expressions of the duplicate groEL and single groES genes for synergistic functions of GroELs and GroES. We proposed a potential regulation mechanism for the expression coordination.

  13. Empowering Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, Gro Harlem

    1994-01-01

    An edited version of Prime Minister of Norway Gro Harlem Brundtland's keynote address to the International Conference on Population and Development in September 1994. This address focuses on the role played by women in population growth and emphasizes the urgency of economic and political rights and education for women. (LZ)

  14. The environment becomes a political issue. Highlights of the Brundtland Commission Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The Report of the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development) has been released by the UN. The Report points out that environmental survival requires development and development is only possible if the resources of the global environment are conserved. Although the UN and the World Bank must make commitments to development, each nation must devise its own strategy because development is inextricably linked to political, economic, and social factors such as poverty, overpopulation and the status of women. The Report makes 3 specific recommendations: 1) An independent body should be set up to assess global risks; 2) A universal declaration on environment and development should be made and followed by a convention; and 3) The UN General Assembly should set up a UN Program on Sustainable Development. The highest priority should be given to finding alternatives to nuclear energy as well as making the use of nuclear energy safer. Other major environmental problems include desertification, acid rain, the "greenhouse effect" and its impact on global climate and sea levels, and the destruction of the ozone layer with concomitant increase in cancer.

  15. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate =4mg/L; fecal coliformmillions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DOGreen wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  16. The first translations of Harlem renaissance poetry in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Petrič

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available From the present-day perspective Harlem Renaissance poetry represents an epoch-making contribution by America's black authors to the mainstream literature. However, in the post World War 1 era black authors struggled for recognition in their homeland. The publication of a German anthology Afrika singt in the late 1920s agitated Europe as well as the German-speaking authors in Slovenia. Mile Klopčič, a representative of the poetry of Social Realism, translated a handful of Har­ lem Renaissance poems into Slovene using, except in two cases, the German anthology as a source text. His translations are formally accomplished but fail to reproduce the cultural significance of the Harlem Renaissance poetry.

  17. 76 FR 3516 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY... of the 103rd Street (Wards Island) Bridge at mile 0.0, across the Harlem River, New York City, New... vessels, and commercial vessels of various sizes. The owner of the bridge, New York City Department of...

  18. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY... of the Willis Avenue Bridge across the Harlem River, mile 1.5, at the Bronx, New York. The deviation... existing drawbridge operating regulations are found at 33 CFR 117.789(b)(2). The bridge owner, New York...

  19. Restore Harlem River's Water Quality to Swimmable/Fishable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharged untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms, elevated nutrient and bacteria levels. The river is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating during wet weather conditions. We had collected water samples from CSOs discharge point, analyzed ammonia (NH3-N), phosphate (PO43-), fecal coliform, E.Coli., enteroccus, and polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs). On tropical storm Arthur, we had collected CSOs: DO reduced during heavy thunderstorm dropped down from 4 to 2.9 mg/L (49 to 35%); fecal coliform was 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. was 1000-2000 MPN/100ml, enterococcus was 2000-2500 MPN/100ml, turbidity was 882 FAU, ammonia was 2.725 mg/L. Nutrient and bacteria exceeded EPA regulated levels significantly (ammonia: 0.23mg/L; fecal coliform: 200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus: 104 MPN/100ml; turbidity: 0.25-5.25 FAU, DO: 4mg/L). Water sampling of CSOs during heavy rainstorm on 4/30/14 showed turbidity reached 112 FAU, ammonia was 0.839 mg/L, fecal coliform: 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 500 MPN/100ml and enterococcus: 10,000 MPN/100ml. CSO collection on June 5, 2014 during morning rainstorm showed ammonia was 2.273 mg/L, turbidity was 37 FAU. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggested women under 50 & children under 15 do not eat fish such as blue crab meat, carb or lobster tomalley, channel catfish, gizzard shad, white catfish, Atlantic needlefish, bluefish, carp, goldfish, rainbow smelt, striped bass, white perch because chemical concerns (PCBs, cadmium, dioxin). Fish caught in the Harlem River was banned from commercial. Swimming in the river was not safe due to high pathogen levels. CSOs reduction, such as green roof, green wall, and wetland could help reduce stormwater runoff and CSOs. Water quality improvement and ecology restoration will help achieve the goal of swimmable and fishable in the Harlem River.

  20. "A New Reality of Harlem":Imagining the African American Urban Future during the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Matlin, Daniel Peter

    2017-01-01

    Envisioning Harlem's future served as a particularly vivid means of addressing the dilemmas posed by the prospect of desegregation. Should black peoplehood – in part a legacy of oppression and racialization – persist in a post-segregation era? This article calls for greater attention to be paid to the visions of future existence that animated, and were animated by, the black freedom struggles of the 1960s. It explores contrasting architectural reimaginings of Harlem and argues that ideas abou...

  1. Nella Larsen:A Rising Female Mulatto Star in the Harlem Renaissanc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莲

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring critically the fiction of Nella Larsen and her situation within the complexity in Harlem Renaissance. First, Larsen’s novels Quicksand (1928) and Passing (1929), created a piece of art out of her personal experience and offered new directions for Afro-American new models for artists. Her exploration of the contradiction of Afro-American female victimization and sexuality, is perhaps the most significant contribution to the literary development in Harlem Renaissance.

  2. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  3. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  4. Progress in molecular chaperon GroEL%GroEL分子伴侣研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张经余; 赵志虎; 蔡民华

    2001-01-01

    大肠杆菌的GroEL是同型寡聚复合体,由14个相对分子质量58×103亚基组成背靠背的双环结构。它在新生蛋白质的正确折叠和组装以及在热或化学逆境下变性蛋白质的恢复过程中起重要作用。同时,在大肠杆菌的跨膜转运及插入细胞质膜方面都起重要作用。这些活动依赖于GroEL与底物蛋白的疏水片断的相互作用。综述了Hsp60分子伴侣系统中研究得比较清楚的GroEL的晶体结构、功能及作用机理等方面的研究进展。%Molecular chaperon GroEL of E.coli is a homo-oligomeric complex composed of 14 58kDa subunits arranged in two rings stacked back to back, which is required for correct folding and assambly of newly synthesized proteins and for recovery of the cell after exposure to either thermal or chemical stress .Apart from these functions, GroEL chaperon is able to play a role in protein translocation across or insertion into the cytoplasmic membrane of E.coli. These actions depend on the interaction between GroE chaperionin system and the hydrophobic side chains .

  5. Structural features of the GroEL-GroES nano-cage required for rapid folding of encapsulated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Chang, HC; Roeben, A

    2006-01-01

    GroEL and GroES form a chaperonin nano-cage for proteins up to similar to 60 kDa to fold in isolation. Here we explored the structural features of the chaperonin cage critical for rapid folding of encapsulated substrates. Modulating the volume of the GroEL central cavity affected folding speed....... Additionally, interactions with the C-terminal, mildly hydrophobic Gly-Gly-Met repeat sequences of GroEL protruding into the cavity, and repulsion effects from the negatively charged cavity wall were required for rapid folding of some proteins. We suggest that by combining these features, the chaperonin cage...

  6. Sequence analysis of the Legionella micdadei groELS operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindersson, P; Høiby, N; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1991-01-01

    shock expression signals were identified upstream of the L. micdadei groEL gene. Further upstream, a poly-T region, also a feature of the sigma 32-regulated Escherichia coli groELS heat shock operon, was found. Despite the high degree of homology of the expression signals in E. coli and L. micdadei...

  7. 76 FR 40234 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... City, New York. This interim rule is necessary to facilitate the completion of a major bridge... deviation became effective on April 30, 2011 and will end on July 8, 2011. The bridge owner, New York City... (Wards Island) Pedestrian Bridge, across the Harlem River, mile 0.0, at New York City, New York, has a...

  8. GroEL of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 exhibits GroES and ATP-independent refolding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potnis, Akhilesh A; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree K

    2016-03-01

    The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena L-31 has two Hsp60 proteins, 59 kDa GroEL coded by the second gene of groESL operon and 61 kDa Cpn60 coded by cpn60 gene. Anabaena GroEL formed stable higher oligomer (>12-mer) in the presence of K(+) and prevented thermal aggregation of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Using three protein substrates (MDH, All1541 and green fluorescent protein), it was found that the refolding activity of Anabaena GroEL was lower than that of Escherichia coli GroEL, but independent of both GroES and ATP. This correlated with in vivo data. GroEL exhibited ATPase activity which was enhanced in the presence of GroES and absence of a denatured protein, contrary to that observed for bacterial GroEL. However, a significant role for ATP could not be ascertained during in vitro folding assays. The monomeric Cpn60 exhibited much lower refolding activity than GroEL, unaffected by GroES and ATP. In vitro studies revealed inhibition of the refolding activity of Anabaena GroEL by Cpn60, which could be due to their different oligomeric status. The role of GroES and ATP may have been added during the course of evolution from the ancient cyanobacteria to modern day bacteria enhancing the refolding ability and ensuring wider scope of substrates for GroEL.

  9. Dataset concerning GroEL chaperonin interaction with proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Marchenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available GroEL chaperonin is well-known to interact with a wide variety of polypeptide chains. Here we show the data related to our previous work (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2015.11.020 [1], and concerning the interaction of GroEL with native (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin and denatured (lysozyme, α-lactalbumin and pepsin proteins in solution. The use of affinity chromatography on the base of denatured pepsin for GroEL purification from fluorescent impurities is represented as well.

  10. Strategisches Informationsmanagement in Großprojekten der Industrie

    OpenAIRE

    Gemmel, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Unternehmen gründen Projekte, um einmalige, zeitlich begrenzte Vorhaben effizient zu realisieren. Gerade in der Industrie zeigt sich diese Vorgehensweise häufig in Form von Großprojekten. Das IT-Management zur Unterstützung dieser Industrieprojekte steht dabei vor besonderen, charakteristischen Herausforderungen. Diese Arbeit beantwortet die Forschungsfrage, wie die bestehenden Konzepte des strategi- schen Informationsmanagements im speziellen Kontext von Großprojekten der Industrie angewe...

  11. Historical water-quality data from the Harlem River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shawn C.

    2016-04-22

    Data specific to the Harlem River, New York, have been summarized and are presented in this report. The data illustrate improvements in the quality of water for the past 65 years and emphasize the importance of a continuous water-quality record for establishing trends in environmental conditions. Although there is a paucity of sediment-quality data, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) Bureau of Wastewater Treatment has maintained a water-quality monitoring network in the Harlem River (and throughout the harbor of New York City) to which 61 combined sewer outfalls discharge effluent. In cooperation with the NYCDEP, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated water-quality data collected by the NYCDEP dating back to 1945, which indicate trends in water quality and reveal improvement following the 1972 passage of the Clean Water Act. These improvements are indicated by the steady increase in median dissolved oxygen concentrations and an overall decrease in fecal indicator bacteria concentrations starting in the late 1970s. Further, the magnitude of the highest fecal indicator bacteria concentrations (that is, the 90th percentile) in samples collected from the Harlem River have decreased significantly over the past four decades. Other parameters of water quality used to gauge the health of a water body include total suspended solids and nutrient (inorganic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations—mean concentrations for these indicators have also decreased in the past decades. The limited sediment data available for one sample in the Harlem River indicate concentrations of copper, zinc, and lead are above sediment-quality thresholds set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. However, more data are needed to better understand the changes in both sediment and water quality in the Harlem River, both as the tide cycles and during precipitation events. As a partner in the Urban Waters Federal Partnership, the U

  12. Conflits et résistances de la gentrification de Harlem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Recoquillon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Longtemps symbole de la ségrégation des Noirs américains et de la ghettoïsation de leurs quartiers, Harlem connaît une renaissance depuis le début des années 1980. Les enjeux qui entourent la gentrification de ce quartier sont immenses tant sa portée symbolique est grande. C’est pourquoi la thèse dont sont extraites les images ci-dessous s’attache à démontrer que la gentrification de Harlem est le résultat de politiques publiques volontaristes et d’investissements massifs orientés vers des partenaires…

  13. This Harlem life: black families and everyday life in the 1920s and 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephen; White, Shane; Garton, Stephen; White, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article uses Probation Department files to reconstruct the lives of five ordinary residents of Harlem. It highlights what that black metropolis offered those outside the political and cultural elite, who have dominated historical scholarship, showing how ordinary blacks negotiated the challenges of life in northern neighborhoods, and drew on institutions and organizations, to establish and sustain new lives. We offer the kind of individualized perspective on everyday life that other scholars have provided for high culture, but which does not exist for other realms of existence in Harlem, even in early twentieth century sociological studies of black life. Where scholars seeking to distinguish the neighborhood from a slum have pointed to the prevailing pride and self-confidence of its residents, this article directs attention to more immediate, concrete supports that sustained and enriched life in Harlem. Relationships with spouses, children, siblings and cousins sustained individuals faced with the social reality of living in overcrowded, deteriorating, disease infested housing, subject to the racism of white police, politicians and employers; so too did friendships made in nightclubs, speakeasies, dances and movie theatres, and membership of churches, fraternal organizations, social clubs, and sports clubs and teams.

  14. GroEL mediates protein folding with a two successive timer mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taro; Taguchi, Hideki; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Yoshida, Masasuke; Funatsu, Takashi

    2004-05-21

    GroEL encapsulates nonnative substrate proteins in a central cavity capped by GroES, providing a safe folding cage. Conventional models assume that a single timer lasting approximately 8 s governs the ATP hydrolysis-driven GroEL chaperonin cycle. We examine single molecule imaging of GFP folding within the cavity, binding release dynamics of GroEL-GroES, ensemble measurements of GroEL/substrate FRET, and the initial kinetics of GroEL ATPase activity. We conclude that the cycle consists of two successive timers of approximately 3 s and approximately 5 s duration. During the first timer, GroEL is bound to ATP, substrate protein, and GroES. When the first timer ends, the substrate protein is released into the central cavity and folding begins. ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release immediately follow this transition. ADP, GroES, and substrate depart GroEL after the second timer is complete. This mechanism explains how GroES binding to a GroEL-substrate complex encapsulates the substrate rather than allowing it to escape into solution.

  15. Manuelle Montage von Großgeräten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Bruno

    Die manuelle Montage von Großgeräten — wie. z. B. Maschinen, Traktoren, Haushaltsgeräte, PKW-Motoren, LKW-Achsen, Schaltschränke usw. — wird in ihrer Montagestruktur vorrangig durch das Produktgewicht, die Produktabmessung und die Produktionsrate bestimmt.

  16. Probing the dynamic process of encapsulation in Escherichia coli GroEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Mizuta

    Full Text Available Kinetic analyses of GroE-assisted folding provide a dynamic sequence of molecular events that underlie chaperonin function. We used stopped-flow analysis of various fluorescent GroEL mutants to obtain details regarding the sequence of events that transpire immediately after ATP binding to GroEL and GroEL with prebound unfolded proteins. Characterization of GroEL CP86, a circularly permuted GroEL with the polypeptide ends relocated to the vicinity of the ATP binding site, showed that GroES binding and protection of unfolded protein from solution is achieved surprisingly early in the functional cycle, and in spite of greatly reduced apical domain movement. Analysis of fluorescent GroEL SR-1 and GroEL D398A variants suggested that among other factors, the presence of two GroEL rings and a specific conformational rearrangement of Helix M in GroEL contribute significantly to the rapid release of unfolded protein from the GroEL apical domain.

  17. Differential T-cell recognition of native and recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Weldingh, K; Ravn, P

    1999-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis GroES was purified from culture filtrate, and its identity was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and N-terminal sequencing. Comparing the immunological recognition of native and recombinant GroES, we found that whereas native GroES elicited a strong proliferative response...

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on water pollution and water quality in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Harlem River, a 9.3 mile long natural straight, connects the Hudson and East Rivers in New York City. It had been historically used for swimming, fishing, boating. Anthropogenic impacts have degraded water quality, limiting current aquatic activity in the river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge rainwater mixed with untreated sewage during or following rainfall and can contain illness-causing bacteria. It is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating especially in rainstorms. CSOs water samples were collected during rainstorms, and analyzed in the laboratories of the Chemistry and Biology Department, Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Results showed elevated bacteria/pathogen and nutrient levels. Most recent data showed an ammonia concentration of 2.6 mg/L on July 30, 2015 during a heavy afternoon thunderstorm, and an ammonia level 2.7mg/L during tropical storm Arthur on July 2, 2014. Both significantly exceeded the EPA regulation level for NYC waters of 0.23mg/L. Phosphate levels peaked at 0.197 mg/L during a heavy thunderstorm on Apr 28, 2011, which was much higher than regulated level of 0.033 mg/L. Turbidity was 319 FAU during the July 30 2015 heavy thunderstorm, and was 882 FAU during tropical storm Arthur; which was significantly higher than regulation level of 5.25 FAU. CSOs collected during a recent heavy rainstorm on Oct 28, 2015, showed fecal coliform of 1 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. of 60,000 MPN/100ml, and enterococcus of 65,000 MPN/100ml; which exceeded regulated levels of fecal coliform-200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.-126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus-104 MPN/100ml. It is critical to reduce CSOs, restore ecosystem and improve water quality of the Harlem River. Green wall, green roof, and wetland had been used to reduce stormwater runoff & CSOs in the Bronx River; these green infrastructures are going to be used along the Harlem River waterfront as well. The goal of this research is to make the Harlem River swimmable and fishable again in

  19. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES Over-Expression Promotes Aminoglycoside Resistance and Reduces Drug Susceptibilities in Escherichia coli Following Exposure to Sublethal Aminoglycoside Doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Sarusie, Menachem V; Bentin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short-ter...... mechanism for emergence of antibiotic resistance.......Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antibiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and over-expression sensitize and promote short......-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here, we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of streptomycin resistance and reduces susceptibility to several other antibiotics following sub-lethal streptomycin antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel...

  20. Chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression promotes multi-drug resistance in E. coli following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise eGoltermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge to modern healthcare. Aminoglycoside antiobiotics cause translation corruption and protein misfolding and aggregation in Escherichia coli. We previously showed that chaperonin GroEL/GroES depletion and overexpression sensitize and promote short-term tolerance, respectively, to this drug class. Here we show that chaperonin GroEL/GroES over-expression accelerates acquisition of aminoglycoside resistance and multi-drug resistance following sub-lethal aminoglycoside antibiotic exposure. Chaperonin buffering could provide a novel mechanism for antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance development.

  1. New leader, new hope for WHO Setting an agenda for Jong-Wook Lee%WHO的新领导和新希望为李钟郁制定一个工作纲领

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gavin Yamey; Kamran Abbasi

    2003-01-01

    @@ 90年代中期,世界卫生组织(WHO)似乎难以逃脱两种命运--陷入腐败和低效的官僚主义泥潭1或是走向死亡2.然而两者都没有发生.相反,1998年7月成为WHO总干事的布伦特兰(Gro Harlem Brundtland)重振了WHO在全球卫生领域的声望3.

  2. [Medical doctors as the state presidents and prime ministers--a biographical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Piotr; Szarszewski, Adam; Gaworska-Krzemińska, Aleksandra; Sławek, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The authors overviewed the biographies of 29 medical doctors who became the heads of the state or the prime ministers of their countries. Most of them ruled in a countries of fresh or unstable democracies, most often in Asia, Africa and Latin America, three of them were bloody dictators. With the exemptions of Georges Clemenceau and Sun-Yat-Sen they were not famous as historical figures, although some were good administrators like the prime minister of Norway, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Malayan prime minister Mahatir bin Mohamad, Brasilian and Chilean presidents, Juscelino Kubitschek and Veronica Bachelet. Regarding specialisation was mostly general medics or they specialised in public health.

  3. Improving capacity building by implementing comprehensive eye care project, experiences from Kuandian County, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yan; YU Yong-jiu; ZHAO Zhi-yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The global campaign "Vision 2020: The Right to Sight" was officially launched in Geneva by Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, the Director General of World Health Organization (WHO) in February 1999. This represents the global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020.1 Seven months later, the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) General Assembly was held in Beijing, China. During the IAPB General Assembly, the Chinese Ministry of Health, China Disabled Person's Federation together with WHO launched the national campaign "Vision 2020: The Right to Sight" in China.2

  4. Monetizing a Meme: YouTube, Content ID, and the Harlem Shake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the creation, evolution, and monetization of the Harlem Shake meme on YouTube to explore contemporary implementation of copyright and understanding of authorship in regard to monetization of works with distributed authorship. This article has three main findings: first, we highlight the collection of digital labor that comprises the “Harlem Shake” meme, its rise in popularity, and the subsequent rise in popularity of Baauer, the composer of the song which forms the backbone of the meme; second, we examine how YouTube’s “new bargain” of Content ID, as a departure from the site’s origins creates coercive control mechanisms, shedding new light on the concept of and debate over “digital sharecropping.” Finally, we argue for a “Fair(er use” system by exploring how memes might be understood outside of the contemporary copyright system, rethinking the rights of users engaged in collective production. The article is significant in that it challenges the current distribution of Content ID payments solely to copyright holders in an attempt to rethink a system that acknowledges the creative labor of memetic phenomena and collective authorship.

  5. Cloning and characterization of groESL operon in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Kainuma, Akiko; Yan, Wang; Kadono, Sachiko; Tayama, Kenji; Koizumi, Yukimichi; Yanagida, Fujiharu

    2002-01-01

    The groESL operon of Acetobacter aceti was cloned and sequenced. We observed that GroES and GroEL of A. aceti had high amino acid sequence homologies to GroES and GroEL of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The upstream region of the groESL operon contained the heat-shock promoter, which was previously reported in alpha-purple proteobacteria, and the highly conserved inverted repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. aceti GroES and GroEL are very closely related to those of other alpha-purple proteobacteria. Transcription of this operon in A. aceti was induced by heat shock as well as by exposure to ethanol and acetic acid, which are present during fermentation of acetic acid. A. aceti that overexpressed the groESL was more resistant than the control strain to Stressors such as heat, ethanol, or acetic acid, indicating that GroES and GroEL are closely associated with the characteristic nature of Acetobacter and play an important role in acetic acid fermentation.

  6. Mimicking the action of GroEL in molecular dynamics simulations : Application to the refinement of protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H; Mark, AE

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial chaperonin, GroEL, together with its co-chaperonin, GroES, facilitates the folding of a variety of polypeptides. Experiments suggest that GroEL stimulates protein folding by multiple cycles of binding and release. Misfolded proteins first bind to an exposed hydrophobic surface on GroEL. Gr

  7. The runaway black hole GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F; Rodrigues, I; Combi, J A; Rodríguez, L F; Guglielmetti, F

    2002-01-01

    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the motion in the sky and compute the galactocentric orbit of the black hole X-ray binary GRO J1655-40. The system moves with a runaway space velocity of $112\\pm 18$ km s$^{-1}$ in a highly eccentric ($e = 0.34\\pm 0.05$) orbit. The black hole was formed in the disk at a distance greater than 3 kpc from the Galactic centre and must have been shot to such an eccentric orbit by the explosion of the progenitor star. The runaway linear momentum and kinetic energy of this black hole binary are comparable to those of solitary neutron stars and millisecond pulsars. GRO J1655-40 is the first black hole for which there is evidence for a runaway motion imparted by a natal kick in a supernova explosion.

  8. Health care and end-of-life decisions: community engagement with adults in East Harlem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Nathan A; Guadalupe, Erika; Lara, Luz; Alejandro, Maria

    2014-12-01

    This was a model of community engagement for a Hispanic population in East Harlem, New York City to assess health care decision-making processes, with a focus on end-of-life decisions, among older men and women. The design involved two senior center-based semi-structured focus groups conducted in Spanish and English followed by a series of bilingual skills-building workshops focusing on situational decision-making. All program aspects were conducted between April and June of 2013. The themes for the workshops included: "Getting the most from your pharmacist encounter;" "How to prepare for your primary care visit;" and "I am getting discharged from the hospital: what do I do?" For the two focus groups, 21 community members participated, each of whom self-identified as Hispanic or Latina/o. Ten common themes emerged from a two-stage/two coder, grounded theory-based qualitative analysis and included: Where Community Members Receive Care; General Challenges, Cultural Challenges, and Benefits of Health Care in New York City/East Harlem; Key Facilitators in Health Care Decision Making; Key Facilitators in End-of-Life Decision Making; and Perceptions of Health Care Disparity. Themes and their subcategories, discussed herein, may offer guidance for area health providers and health care delivery entities. This project served as formative, qualitative data collection for a larger scale forthcoming community assessment while offering community benefit related to health decision-making, especially end-of-life decision making, in the context of a rapidly changing urban American health care delivery landscape. Application of this synergistic community benefit and data collection model is recommended for similar and other communities in the U.S. and other countries.

  9. Asp-52 in combination with Asp-398 plays a critical role in ATP hydrolysis of chaperonin GroEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike-Takeshita, Ayumi; Mitsuoka, Kaoru; Taguchi, Hideki

    2014-10-24

    The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL is a double-ring chaperone that assists protein folding with the aid of GroES and ATP. Asp-398 in GroEL is known as one of the critical residues on ATP hydrolysis because GroEL(D398A) mutant is deficient in ATP hydrolysis (Asp-52 in the corresponding E. coli GroEL, in addition to Asp-398 is also important for ATP hydrolysis. We investigated the role of Asp-52 in GroEL and found that ATPase activity of GroEL(D52A) and GroEL(D52A/D398A) mutants was ∼ 20% and Asp-52 in E. coli GroEL is also involved in the ATP hydrolysis. GroEL(D52A/D398A) formed a symmetric football-shaped GroEL-GroES complex in the presence of ATP, again confirming the importance of the symmetric complex during the GroEL ATPase cycle. Notably, the symmetric complex of GroEL(D52A/D398A) was extremely stable, with a half-time of ∼ 150 h (∼ 6 days), providing a good model to characterize the football-shaped complex. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. [Role of GroEL/GroES chaperonin system and Lon protease in regulation of expression Vibrio fischeri lux genes in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhov, I V; Kotova, V Iu; Zavil'genskiĭ, G B

    2006-01-01

    It was shown that the chaperonin GroEL/GroES and protease Lon influence the expression of the Vibrio fischeri lux regulon in Escherichia coli cells: E. coli groE mutants bearing hybrid plasmid with the lux regulon were weakly luminescent; cells of the E. coli lon- comprising the entire lux regulon display very intense bioluminescence, with no lag period in the induction curve characteristic of lon+ strains. The luxR gene was cloned from the Vibrio fischeri genome in the pGEX-KG vector. It was shown that the active fusion protein GST-LuxR by affinity chromatography on glutathione-sucrose colony is purified only with proteins GroEL and Lon. The present results showed that the LuxR, transcriptional activator of the V. fischeri lux operon, really complexes with GroEL chaperonin and Lon protease. We suppose, that the GroEL/GroES chaperonin systems is required for the folding of LuxR into an active protein, and the LuxR is the target for the ATP-dependent serine Lon protease of E. coli.

  11. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induces inflammatory bone resorption and synergizes with interleukin-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y-J; Choi, Y-J; An, S-J; Lee, H-R; Jun, H-K; Choi, B-K

    2016-08-03

    Tannerella forsythia is a major periodontal pathogen, and T. forsythia GroEL is a molecular chaperone homologous to human heat-shock protein 60. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and several systemic diseases. This study investigated the potential of T. forsythia GroEL to induce inflammatory bone resorption and examined the cooperative effect of IL-17 and T. forsythia GroEL on inflammatory responses. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were stimulated with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. After stimulation of MG63 cells with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17, gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was examined. After subcutaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17 above the calvaria of BALB/c mice, calvarial bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histological examination. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in HGFs and PDL cells, and IL-17 further promoted IL-6 and IL-8 production. Both T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 synergistically increased PGE2 production and inhibited OPG gene expression. Calvarial bone resorption was induced by T. forsythia GroEL injection, and simultaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 further increased bone resorption. These results suggest that T. forsythia GroEL is a novel virulence factor that can contribute to inflammatory bone resorption caused by T. forsythia and synergizes with IL-17 to exacerbate inflammation and bone resorption.

  12. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin

    1997-01-01

    laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase......, and phosphoglycerate kinase were identified by a combination of Western blotting and direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing of proteins from the gels, Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, 17 were induced more than twofold during heat stress, Two classes of heat stress proteins were identified from their temporal induction...... proteins exhibited a gradual increase in the rate of synthesis after the onset of stress, Unlike other organisms, all salt stress-induced proteins in L. lactis were also subjected to heat stress induction. DnaK, GroEL, and GroES showed similar temporal patterns of induction during salt stress, resembling...

  13. Localization of GroEL determined by in vivo incorporation of a fluorescent amino acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Wang, Jiangyun; Brustad, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells, indicated colocalization with the cell division protein FtsZ at the cleavage furrow, while a second E. coli study of fixed cells indicated more even distribution throughout the cytoplasm. Here, for the first time, we have examined the spatial distribution of GroEL in living cells using......The molecular chaperone GroEL is required for bacterial growth under all conditions, mediating folding assistance, via its central cavity, to a diverse set of cytosolic proteins; yet the subcellular localization of GroEL remains unresolved. An earlier study, using antibody probing of fixed...... incorporation of a fluorescent unnatural amino acid into the chaperone. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that GroEL is diffusely distributed, both under normal and stress conditions. Importantly, the present procedure uses a small, fluorescent unnatural amino acid to visualize GroEL in vivo, avoiding...

  14. Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Community-Based Promotion Strategy on Use of GetHealthyHarlem.org, a Local Community Health Education Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle; Mateo, Katrina F; Morita, Haruka; Hutchinson, Carly; Cohall, Alwyn T

    2015-07-01

    The use of health communication extends beyond simply promoting or disseminating a particular product or proposed behavior change; it involves the systematic and strategic integration and execution of evidence-based, theory-driven, and community engagement strategies. Much like in public health intervention design based on health behavior theory, health communication seeks to encourage the target audience to make a positive behavior change through core concepts such as understanding and specifying the target audience, tailoring messages based on audience segmentation, and continually conducting evaluation of specific and overarching goals. While our first article "Development of a Culturally Relevant Consumer Health Information Website for Harlem, New York" focused on the design, development, and initial implementation of GetHealthyHarlem.org between 2004 and 2009, this article delves into the process of promoting the website to increase its use and then evaluating use among website visitors. Just as for the development of the website, we used community-based participatory research methods, health behavior theory, and health communication strategies to systemically develop and execute a health communication plan with the goals of increasing awareness of GetHealthyHarlem.org in Harlem, driving online traffic, and having the community recognize it as a respected community resource dedicated to improving health in Harlem. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. COMPTEL observations of GRO J1655-40

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDijk, R.; Bennett, K.; Winkler, C.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; McConnell, M.; Ryan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The transient black hole candidate GRO J1655-40 was shown elsewhere to eject matter at apparently superluminal velocities. The oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment (OSSE) spectra, measured during the X-ray outbursts, are consistent with a single power law up to 600 keV, with no evidence of a high energy cutoff. The detection of the flaring behavior of this source up to 10 MeV was claimed elsewhere. The Compton telescope (COMPTEL) observations in the 0.75 to 30 MeV band of this source are analyzed. The upper limits on the time averaged emission are presented and gamma ray flares are searched for. It is concluded that the COMPTEL data can neither confirm nor refute the claimed detection of a large gamma ray flare from this source. The gamma ray flare search in five years' worth of data did not reveal evidence for the occurrence of strong flares on timescales of two days.

  16. Probing the functional mechanism of Escherichia coli GroEL using circular permutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Mizobata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL subunit consists of three domains linked via two hinge regions, and each domain is responsible for a specific role in the functional mechanism. Here, we have used circular permutation to study the structural and functional characteristics of the GroEL subunit. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three soluble, partially active mutants with polypeptide ends relocated into various positions of the apical domain of GroEL were isolated and studied. The basic functional hallmarks of GroEL (ATPase and chaperoning activities were retained in all three mutants. Certain functional characteristics, such as basal ATPase activity and ATPase inhibition by the cochaperonin GroES, differed in the mutants while at the same time, the ability to facilitate the refolding of rhodanese was roughly equal. Stopped-flow fluorescence experiments using a fluorescent variant of the circularly permuted GroEL CP376 revealed that a specific kinetic transition that reflects movements of the apical domain was missing in this mutant. This mutant also displayed several characteristics that suggested that the apical domains were behaving in an uncoordinated fashion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The loss of apical domain coordination and a concomitant decrease in functional ability highlights the importance of certain conformational signals that are relayed through domain interlinks in GroEL. We propose that circular permutation is a very versatile tool to probe chaperonin structure and function.

  17. Single-step Purification of Molecular Chaperone GroEL by Expanded Bed Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓冬; 杨征; 董晓燕; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an integrative downstream processing technique for the purification of biological substances directly from unclarified feedstock. In this study, molecular chaperone GroEL, an important protein folding helper both in vivo and in vitro, was purified by the single-step EBA technique from the unclarified homogenate of recombinant E. coli cells. Compared with packed bed adsorption, the EBA technique provided a single-step approach to yield an electrophoretic purity of GroEL. After the homogenate loading and column washing in the expanded bed mode, the GroEL protein was recovered by stepwise salt-gradient elution in packed-bed or expanded-bed modes, respectively. The expanded-bed elution mode was found as efficient as the packed-bed mode in the purification of GroEL from cell disruptate.

  18. Gro/TLE enables embryonic stem cell differentiation by repressing pluripotent gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laing, Adam F; Lowell, Sally; Brickman, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    Gro/TLE proteins (TLE1-4) are a family of transcriptional corepressors acting downstream of multiple signalling pathways. Several TLEs are expressed in a dynamic manner throughout embryonic development and at high levels in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Here we find that Gro/TLE is not required...... in ESC for sustaining pluripotency and suppressing differentiation genes, but rather is important for the shutting down of the pluripotency network in differentiation. Consistent with this view, we found that one of the Gro/TLE family, TLE4 is expressed heterogeneously in ESCs in a population...... that corresponds to a Nanog low subset of ESC culture. TLE4 expression is also increased in response to LIF withdrawal and Fgf/Mek/Erk stimulation. To explore the role of Gro/TLE in more detail we generated an allelic series of knockout ESCs of two TLE genes expressed most dynamically in early differentiation, TLE...

  19. The alr-groEL1 operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an interplay of multiple regulatory elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Aadil H.; Pathak, Deepika; Rao, Alka

    2017-01-01

    Threonylcarbamoyladenosine is a universally conserved essential modification of tRNA that ensures translational fidelity in cellular milieu. TsaD, TsaB and TsaE are identified as tRNA-A37-threonylcarbamoyl (t6A)-transferase enzymes that have been reconstituted in vitro, in few bacteria recently. However, transcriptional organization and regulation of these genes are not known in any of these organisms. This study describes the intricate architecture of a complex multicistronic alr-groEL1 operon, harboring essential genes, namely tsaD, tsaB, tsaE, groES, groEL1, and alr (required for cell wall synthesis), and rimI encoding an N-α- acetyltransferase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using northern blotting, RT-PCR and in vivo fluorescence assays, genes alr to groEL1 were found to constitute an ~6.3 kb heptacistronic operon with multiple internal promoters and an I-shaped intrinsic hairpin-like cis-regulatory element. A strong promoter PtsaD within the coding sequence of rimI gene is identified in M. tuberculosis, in addition. The study further proposes an amendment in the known bicistronic groESL1 operon annotation by providing evidence that groESL1 is co-transcribed as sub-operon of alr-groEL1 operon. The architecture of alr-groEL1 operon, conservation of the genetic context and a mosaic transcriptional profile displayed under various stress conditions convincingly suggest the involvement of this operon in stress adaptation in M. tuberculosis. PMID:28256563

  20. Clon of GroEL gene and construction of eukaryotic expression vector in myobacterium tuberclosis%结核分枝杆菌GroEL基因的克隆及真核表达质粒的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付风云; 张卫英

    2009-01-01

    目的 克隆结核分枝杆菌基因组携带的两组GroEL基因,即GroEL1和GroEL2,它们分别编码热休克蛋白HSP60(cpn60.1)和HSP65(cpn60.2),并构建真核表达质粒.方法 用带有EcoR I和Xba I酶切位点的特异性引物,从结核杆菌H37Rv株中PCR扩增两组GroEL基因,构建重组真核表达质粒pCDNA3.1-GroEL1和pCDNA3.1-GroEL2,并进行酶切和测序鉴定.结果 成功克隆了结核分枝杆菌两组GroEL基因,酶切鉴定pCDNA3.1-GroEL1和pCDNA3.1-GroEL2构建成功,经DNA测序证实,载体上插入的序列与GenBank公布的序列一致.结论 获得了结核分枝杆菌GroEL1和GroEL2基因,成功地构建了含GroEL1和GroEL2基因的真核表达质粒,为研究其作为核酸疫苗在免疫学方面作用提供材料.

  1. BeppoSAX observations of GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshenko, R; Doroshenko, V; Suleimanov, V; Piraino, S

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of BeppoSAX observations of the unique transient bursting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The observations took place in March 1997 during the decay phase of the outburst. We find that the persistent broadband X-ray continuum of the source is consistent with a cutoff power law typical for the accreting pulsars. We also detect the fluorescence iron line at 6.7 keV and an absorption feature at ~4.5 keV, which we interpret as a cyclotron line. The corresponding magnetic field strength in the line forming region is ~3.7 x 10^11 G. Neither line is detected in the spectra of the bursts. However, additional soft thermal component with kT ~2 keV was required to describe the burst spectrum. We briefly discuss the nature of this component and argue that among other possibilities it might be connected with thermonuclear flashes at the neutron star surface which accompany the accretion-powered bursts in the source.

  2. Gro2mat: a package to efficiently read gromacs output in MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dien, Hung; Deane, Charlotte M; Knapp, Bernhard

    2014-07-30

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are a state-of-the-art computational method used to investigate molecular interactions at atomic scale. Interaction processes out of experimental reach can be monitored using MD software, such as Gromacs. Here, we present the gro2mat package that allows fast and easy access to Gromacs output files from Matlab. Gro2mat enables direct parsing of the most common Gromacs output formats including the binary xtc-format. No openly available Matlab parser currently exists for this format. The xtc reader is orders of magnitudes faster than other available pdb/ascii workarounds. Gro2mat is especially useful for scientists with an interest in quick prototyping of new mathematical and statistical approaches for Gromacs trajectory analyses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Análise funcional das proteínas HrcA, GroES/GroEL e DnaK/DnaJ em Caulobacter crescentus

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Fernanda Susin

    2005-01-01

    O operon groESL de C. crescentus apresenta dupla regulação. A indução deste operon por choque térmico é dependente do fator sigma de choque térmico σ32. A temperaturas fisiológicas, a expressão de groESL apresenta regulação temporal durante o ciclo celular da bactéria e o controle envolve a proteína repressora HrcA e o elemento CIRCE (controlling inverted repeat of chaperonin expression). Para estudar a atividade da proteína repressora in vitro, produzimos e purificamos de E. coli a Hrc...

  4. Stereoscopic observations of hard x ray sources in solar flares made with GRO and other spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S. R.; Hurley, K.; Mctiernan, J. M.; Laros, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in Apr. 1991, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument on GRO has recorded a large number of solar flares. Some of these flares have also been observed by the Gamma-Ray Burst Detector on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and/or by the Solar X-Ray/Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft. A preliminary list of common flares observed during the period May-Jun. 1991 is presented and the possible joint studies are indicated.

  5. Bibliothekarische Berufsethik in der Praxis – Ergebnisse eines Studienprojekts aus Deutschland und Großbritannien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Boye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sowohl in Deutschland als auch in Großbritannien existieren seit einigen Jahren Grundsatzpapiere zur Berufsethik im Informations- und Bibliotheksbereich. Neben der bloßen Existenz derartiger Kodizes stellt sich die Frage, welche Relevanz diese Dokumente in der beruflichen Praxis haben. Dieser Frage wurde im Rahmen einer Team-Projektarbeit an der FH Köln nachgegangen. Mithilfe eines standardisierten Fragebogens wurden deutsche Bibliotheksleitungen zu der Thematik befragt. In Großbritannien wurde ein Interview mit Paul Sturges geführt, darüber hinaus erfolgte eine Analyse der Online-Angebote von CILIP, insbesondere des Information Ethics Blog.

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  7. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  8. Further observations of GRO J1750-27 (AXJ1749.1-2639) with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Shaw, S.; Hill, A.;

    2008-01-01

    The transient accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), which became active end of January 2008 (ATel #1376), has been repeatedly observed by the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program since mid February (ATel #1385) on 11, 20 and 23 Feb. 2008. During the three observations...

  9. Rapidly evolving circularly polarized emission during the 1994 outburst of GRO J1655-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Sault, RJ; Hannikainen, DC

    2002-01-01

    We report the detection of circular polarization during the 1994 outburst of the Galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. The circular polarization is clearly detected at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz, but not at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, where its magnitude never exceeds 5 mJy. Both the sign and magnitude of the circular

  10. Positive selection in the leucine-rich repeat domain of Gro1 genes in Solanum species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Valentino Ruggieri; Angelina Nunziata; Amalia Barone

    2014-12-01

    In pathogen resistant plants, solvent-exposed residues in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are thought to mediate resistance by recognizing plant pathogen elicitors. In potato, the gene Gro1-4 confers resistance to Globodera rostochiensis. The investigation of variablity in different copies of this gene represents a good model for the verification of positive selection mechanisms. Two datasets of Gro1 LRR sequences were constructed, one derived from the Gro1-4 gene, belonging to different cultivated and wild Solanum species, and the other belonging to paralogues of a resistant genotype. Analysis of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates $(K_{a}/K_{s})$ highlighted 14 and six amino acids with $K_{a}/K_{s} \\gt 1$ in orthologue and paralogue datasets, respectively. Selection analysis revealed that the leucine-rich regions accumulate variability in a very specific way, and we found that some combinations of amino acids in these sites might be involved in pathogen recognition. The results confirm previous studies on positive selection in the LRR domain of R protein in Arabidopsis and other model plants and extend these to wild Solanum species. Moreover, positively selected sites in the Gro1 LRR domain show that coevolution mainly occurred in two regions on the internal surface of the three-dimensional horseshoe structure of the domain, albeit with different evolutionary forces between paralogues and orthologues.

  11. The Accretion Powered Spin-up of GRO 1750–27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmar, P.; Shaw, S.; Hill, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    The transient Be X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 was originally detected in 1995 by CGRO/BATSE during a giant outburst. After a long period of quiescence the source was detected in another outburst early 2008. Following this outburst with hard X-ray data from INTEGRAL and Swift, the orbital parameters ...

  12. The accretion powered spin-up of GRO J1750-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, S.E.; Hill, A.B.; Kuulkers, E.

    2009-01-01

    ), respectively. The model is then used to compare the time-resolved variation of the X-ray flux and intrinsic spin-up against the accretion torque model of Ghosh & Lamb; this finds that GRO J1750-27 is likely located 12-22 kpc distant and that the surface magnetic field of the neutron star is similar to 2 x 10...

  13. Computational Approaches for Mining GRO-Seq Data to Identify and Characterize Active Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagari, Anusha; Murakami, Shino; Malladi, Venkat S; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that are bound by transcription factors and act to positively regulate the expression of nearby or distally located target genes. Enhancers have many features that have been discovered using genomic analyses. Recent studies have shown that active enhancers recruit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and are transcribed, producing enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). GRO-seq, a method for identifying the location and orientation of all actively transcribing RNA polymerases across the genome, is a powerful approach for monitoring nascent enhancer transcription. Furthermore, the unique pattern of enhancer transcription can be used to identify enhancers in the absence of any information about the underlying transcription factors. Here, we describe the computational approaches required to identify and analyze active enhancers using GRO-seq data, including data pre-processing, alignment, and transcript calling. In addition, we describe protocols and computational pipelines for mining GRO-seq data to identify active enhancers, as well as known transcription factor binding sites that are transcribed. Furthermore, we discuss approaches for integrating GRO-seq-based enhancer data with other genomic data, including target gene expression and function. Finally, we describe molecular biology assays that can be used to confirm and explore further the function of enhancers that have been identified using genomic assays. Together, these approaches should allow the user to identify and explore the features and biological functions of new cell type-specific enhancers.

  14. Over expression of GroESL in Cupriavidus necator for heterotrophic and autotrophic isopropanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Jillian; Grousseau, Estelle; Lombard, Eric; Sinskey, Anthony J; Gorret, Nathalie; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported a metabolic engineering strategy to develop an isopropanol producing strain of Cupriavidus necator leading to production of 3.4gL(-1) isopropanol. In order to reach higher titers, isopropanol toxicity to the cells has to be considered. A toxic effect of isopropanol on the growth of C. necator has been indeed observed above a critical value of 15gL(-1). GroESL chaperones were first searched and identified in the genome of C. necator. Native groEL and groES genes from C. necator were over-expressed in a strain deleted for PHA synthesis. We demonstrated that over-expressing groESL genes led to a better tolerance of the strain towards exogenous isopropanol. GroESL genes were then over-expressed within the best engineered isopropanol producing strain. A final isopropanol concentration of 9.8gL(-1) was achieved in fed-batch culture on fructose as the sole carbon source (equivalent to 16gL(-1) after taking into account evaporation). Cell viability was slightly improved by the chaperone over-expression, particularly at the end of the fermentation when the isopropanol concentration was the highest. Moreover, the strain over-expressing the chaperones showed higher enzyme activity levels of the 2 heterologous enzymes (acetoacetate carboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase) of the isopropanol synthetic operon, translating to a higher specific production rate of isopropanol at the expense of the specific production rate of acetone. Over-expressing the native chaperones led to a 9-18% increase in the isopropanol yield on fructose. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. All rights reserved.

  15. The morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 in infected parental mouse L fibroblasts and mutant gro29 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2003-01-01

    Mutants of cell lines and viruses are important biological tools. The pathway of herpesvirus particle maturation and egress are contentious issues. The mutant gro29 line of mouse L cells is defective for egress of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions, and a candidate for studies of virus......-cell interactions. The properties of uninfected and HSV-1-infected L fibroblasts and gro29 cells investigated by protein assay, immunoblot, titration assay, immunofluorescence light microscopy and immunogold cryosection electron microscopy are reported. The ultrastructure of both HSV-1-infected L and gro29 cells...

  16. Effective enhancement of Pseudomonas stutzeri D-phenylglycine aminotransferase functional expression in Pichia pastoris by co-expressing Escherichia coli GroEL-GroES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyachawalid Kanidtha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT of Pseudomonas stutzeri ST-201 catalyzes the reversible stereo-inverting transamination potentially useful in the application for synthesis of D-phenylglycine and D-4-hydroxyphenylglycine using L-glutamate as a low cost amino donor substrate in one single step. The enzyme is a relatively hydrophobic homodimeric intracellular protein difficult to express in the soluble functionally active form. Over-expression of the dpgA gene in E. coli resulted in the majority of the D-PhgAT aggregated into insoluble inclusion bodies that failed to be re-natured. Expression in Pichia pastoris was explored as an alternative route for high level production of the D-PhgAT. Results Intracellular expression of the codon-optimized synthetic dpgA gene under the PAOX1 promoter in P. pastoris resulted in inactive D-PhgAT associated with insoluble cellular fraction and very low level of D-PhgAT activity in the soluble fraction. Manipulation of culture conditions such as addition of sorbitol to induce intracellular accumulation of osmolytes, addition of benzyl alcohol to induce chaperone expression, or lowering incubation temperature to slow down protein expression and folding rates all failed to increase the active D-PhgAT yield. Co-expression of E. coli chaperonins GroEL-GroES with the D-PhgAT dramatically improved the soluble active enzyme production. Increasing gene dosage of both the dpgA and those of the chaperones further increased functional D-PhgAT yield up to 14400-fold higher than when the dpgA was expressed alone. Optimization of cultivation condition further increased D-PhgAT activity yield from the best co-expressing strain by 1.2-fold. Conclusions This is the first report on the use of bacterial chaperones co-expressions to enhance functional intracellular expression of bacterial enzyme in P. pastoris. Only two bacterial chaperone genes groEL and groES were sufficient for dramatic enhancement of

  17. 利用膨胀床吸附技术单步纯化分子伴侣—GroEL%Single-step Purification of Molecular Chaperone GroEL by Expanded Bed Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟晓冬; 杨征; 董晓燕; 孙彦

    2003-01-01

    Expanded bed adsorption (EBA) is an integrative downstream processing technique for the purificationof biological substances directly from unclarified feedstock. In this study, molecular chaperone GroEL, an importantprotein folding helper both in vivo and in vitro, was purified by the single-step EBA technique from the unclarifiedhomogenate of recombinant E. coli cells. Compared with packed bed adsorption, the EBA technique provideda single-step approach to yield an electrophoretic purity of GroEL. After the homogenate loading and columnwashing in the expanded bed mode, the GroEL protein was recovered by stepwise salt-gradient elution in packed-bed or expanded-bed modes, respectively. The expanded-bed elution mode was found as efficient as the packed-bedmode in the purification of GroEL from cell disruptate.

  18. Breaking the silence on abuse of women and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-28

    This paper highlights the important issues of violence against women discussed during the 13th International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa. The conference recognized violence within intimate relationships as a barrier to effective HIV prevention and care. It further recognized violence not only as one cause of the AIDS epidemic but also as a consequence of it. According to WHO Director General Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, violence against women is an important contributor to the spread of HIV. Moreover, the conference also presented evidence from the US and Kenya showing the association of violence and HIV/AIDS and discussed the factors contributing to its high incidence rate. The WHO is calling for further research about the worldwide incidence of partner violence and its effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  19. Whither the World Health Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael A; Pearse, E Jim

    2003-01-06

    The outgoing Director-General of the World Health Organization, Gro Harlem Brundtland, has successfully returned health issues to the international arena. The new Director-General will have to cope with reduced control over funding, debate over WHO's mandate, and the relationships between WHO and other organisations. Despite the broad role described in WHO's constitution, many groups see WHO's mandate as narrowly directed at disease eradication. The method of choice for funding health programs has become public-private partnerships. These have the advantages of bringing private money, management expertise and research knowledge to bear on health problems, but rarely consider the health system as a whole, focusing instead on specific diseases. This has the potential to distort resource allocation and priorities. The international community needs to work to strengthen WHO and maintain its broad mandate to achieve the highest possible level of health for all people.

  20. [The World Health Organization is 50 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    In celebration of the World Health Organization's 50th anniversary, this article features WHO's contribution to the world by examining its current activities in the areas of health, human rights, and development. It briefly summarizes events leading to its establishment over the period from 1851 to 1948, which marks the year when WHO assumed its role as a specialized body of the United Nations. Quoting from various articles in WHO's Constitution, it illustrates the principles that prompt its actions and that have led nations to become aware of their potential goals, thus steering them toward a brighter future. A brief overview of the last 20 years ends with the introduction of WHO's new Director General, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland.

  1. "The worst of both worlds": the management reform of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerer, L; Matzopoulos, R

    2001-01-01

    The governance and management of global health institutions, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), are under increasing critical scrutiny. This management case study explores the first year of transformation at the WHO under Director-General Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, focusing on the key stakeholders and the role of complexity in institutional change. This is a story about transition in a difficult, politically fraught, and management-resource-constrained environment. In the search for appropriate management paradigms, organizations such as the WHO may believe that the answers lie in harsh reengineering and the search for high-profile "success stories." Ironically, global business has moved away from such approaches and is far more focused on collaboration, empowerment, and knowledge sharing.

  2. Safe motherhood is economic good sense, says WHO's Director-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article comments on the high rates of maternal and infant mortality. Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, asserted that safe motherhood is a matter of economic good sense, and that resources needed to tackle maternal mortality should be seen as an investment, not a cost. She cited three factors that are vital to help solve the problem of maternal and infant mortality: 1) every pregnancy should be wanted; 2) all pregnant women must have access to skilled care; 3) all pregnant women must be able to reach a functioning health care facility when complications arise. She further added that making pregnancy safer is not only a health issue but also a moral issues that involves principles of human rights, social responsibility, equity, and participation. Lastly, she expressed that high levels of maternal mortality reflect the failure of health systems, policies, and programs in addressing the essential needs of women.

  3. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens; Jacobsen, Susanne; Hammer, Karin;

    1997-01-01

    The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during lie in excess nutrients, by compari......The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during lie in excess nutrients......, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic domesticated (daily) strains. In a study of the capacity of domesticated strains to perform directed responses toward various stress conditions, we have analyzed the heat and salt stress response in the established L,. lactis subsp. cremoris...... laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain, After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shack repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  4. Perturbation-based Markovian transmission model for probing allosteric dynamics of large macromolecular assembling: a study of GroEL-GroES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Lu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Large macromolecular assemblies are often important for biological processes in cells. Allosteric communications between different parts of these molecular machines play critical roles in cellular signaling. Although studies of the topology and fluctuation dynamics of coarse-grained residue networks can yield important insights, they do not provide characterization of the time-dependent dynamic behavior of these macromolecular assemblies. Here we develop a novel approach called Perturbation-based Markovian Transmission (PMT model to study globally the dynamic responses of the macromolecular assemblies. By monitoring simultaneous responses of all residues (>8,000 across many (>6 decades of time spanning from the initial perturbation until reaching equilibrium using a Krylov subspace projection method, we show that this approach can yield rich information. With criteria based on quantitative measurements of relaxation half-time, flow amplitude change, and oscillation dynamics, this approach can identify pivot residues that are important for macromolecular movement, messenger residues that are key to signal mediating, and anchor residues important for binding interactions. Based on a detailed analysis of the GroEL-GroES chaperone system, we found that our predictions have an accuracy of 71-84% judged by independent experimental studies reported in the literature. This approach is general and can be applied to other large macromolecular machineries such as the virus capsid and ribosomal complex.

  5. Luminosity dependent accretion state change in GRO J1008–57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühnel Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a former publication, we have analyzed the transient neutron star X-ray binary GRO J1008–57 using all available RXTE-, Swift-, and Suzaku-data. As we have found, the source’s spectral components, i.e., a power-law with high exponential cutoff and a black-body, are strongly correlated with the hard X-ray flux (15–50 keV. We update the analytical description of these dependence, including a change in the photon index behaviour from a flat to a logarithmic function. The flux, where the change occurs, is consistent with the onset of the black-body emission. Thus, a change of the accretion state always occurs in GRO J1008–57 at a particular flux level.

  6. Adsorption of a model protein, the GroEL chaperonin, on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Carl; Palmer, Richard E [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: carl.leung@kcl.ac.uk

    2008-09-03

    Understanding and controlling protein adsorption on surfaces is fundamental to many biological processes ranging from cell adhesion to the fabrication of protein biochips. In general, proteins need to retain their 3D conformation to perform their intended functions. However, when they are presented with a solid surface, complex interactions ranging from weak non-covalent binding to strong covalent bonding may occur, which can potentially induce conformational changes within the adsorbed protein. To investigate the surface adsorption process and its effects on a model protein, the chaperonin GroEL, we have applied contact mode atomic force microscopy, in buffer solution to probe the interactions between single proteins and surfaces in real space. We will discuss the adsorption of GroEL molecules on planar surfaces (mica, graphite and gold) and specifically tailored nanostructured surfaces, which present structural features on the size scale of individual biological molecules. (topical review)

  7. Thermonuclear Burning on the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Edward F.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of nuclear burning on the accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The neutron star's dipolar magnetic field is 50 years. We also discuss the nature of the binary and point out that a velocity measurement of the stellar companion (most likely a Roche-lobe filling giant with m_K>17) will constrain the neutron star mass.

  8. INTEGRAL/XMM views on the MeV source GRO J1411-64

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Barcons, X; Corral, A; Bosch-Ramon, V; Paredes, J M; Romero, G E; Qu, J L; Collmar, W; Schönfelder, V; Butt, Y; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Reimer, Olaf; Barcons, Xavier; Corral, Amalia; Bosch-Ramon, Valent\\'{\\i}; Paredes, Josep M.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Qu, Jin Lu; Collmar, Werner; Sch\\"onfelder, Volker; Butt, Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J 1411-64 was observed by INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton in 2005. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4$\\sigma$ location error of GRO J1411-64, but in here excluded as the possible counterpart. At soft X-rays, 22 reliable and statistically significant sources (likelihood $> 10$) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6 -635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an association hard to quantify and thus risky. At the best location of the source, detections at hard X-rays show only upper limits, which, together with MeV results obtained by COMPTEL suggest the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300-700 keV for the so-called low state. Such a spectrum resembles those in blazars or microquasars, and might suggest at work by a similar scenario. However, an an...

  9. Temporal Variations And Spectral Properties of Be/X-ray Pulsar GRO J1008-57 Studied by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Spin period variations and hard X-ray spectral properties of Be/X-ray pulsar GRO J1008-57 are studied with INTEGRAL observations. The pulsation periods at 93.66 s in 2004 and at 93.73 s in 2009 are determined. Pulse profiles of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts are energy dependent: double-peak profile in soft bands of 3-7 keV and single-peak profile in hard X-rays above 7 keV. GRO J1008-57 has undergone a spin-down trend from 1993-2009 with a rate of 4.1x10^-5 s day^-1, and might transfer into a spin-up trend after 2009. The spectra from 3-100 keV of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts are fitted with photon index of 1.4 and cutoff energies of 23-29 keV. We find a relatively soft spectrum in early phase of the 2009 outburst with cutoff energy 13 keV. Above a hard X-ray flux of 10^-9 erg cm^-2 s^-1, the spectra of GRO J1008-57 during outbursts need an enhanced hydrogen absorption of column density 6x10^22 cm^-2. The observed dip-like pulse profile of GRO J1008-57 in soft X-ray bands should be caused by this intrinsic a...

  10. Intrinsic unfoldase/foldase activity of the chaperonin GroEL directly demonstrated using multinuclear relaxation-based NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libich, David S.; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G. Marius

    2015-01-01

    The prototypical chaperonin GroEL assists protein folding through an ATP-dependent encapsulation mechanism. The details of how GroEL folds proteins remain elusive, particularly because encapsulation is not an absolute requirement for successful re/folding. Here we make use of a metastable model protein substrate, comprising a triple mutant of Fyn SH3, to directly demonstrate, by simultaneous analysis of three complementary NMR-based relaxation experiments (lifetime line broadening, dark state exchange saturation transfer, and Carr–Purcell–Meinboom–Gill relaxation dispersion), that apo GroEL accelerates the overall interconversion rate between the native state and a well-defined folding intermediate by about 20-fold, under conditions where the “invisible” GroEL-bound states have occupancies below 1%. This is largely achieved through a 500-fold acceleration in the folded-to-intermediate transition of the protein substrate. Catalysis is modulated by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that reduces the overall interconversion rate between the GroEL-bound species by about 3-fold, indicative of a significant hydrophobic contribution. The location of the GroEL binding site on the folding intermediate, mapped from 15N, 1HN, and 13Cmethyl relaxation dispersion experiments, is composed of a prominent, surface-exposed hydrophobic patch. PMID:26124125

  11. WHO: the casualties and compromises of renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard

    2002-05-04

    The World Health Organization is the leading international agency in health. WHO's reputation reached a peak in the 1970s with the then director-general Halfdan Mahler's advocacy of Health for All by the Year 2000 and the successful worldwide eradication of smallpox. The 1980s and 1990s saw WHO lose much of its authority. Too easily, the blame was put on one man-Mahler's successor, Hiroshi Nakajima. In 1998, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Figure 1 a former Prime Minister of Norway, took office and WHO began a period of major strategic and structural reform. Almost 4 years into her first term as director-general, I visited WHO's headquarters in Geneva to learn about Dr Brundtland's successes and failures. Figure 2 The ground rules of my visit were that I could talk with anybody and attend almost any meeting (budget discussions were excluded). I interviewed Dr Brundtland, executive directors, members of the staff association, and directors and project managers of programmes such as StopTB, Roll Back Malaria, HIV-AIDS, violence prevention, polio eradication, essential drugs and medicines, and sustainable development. At senior levels, WHO is confident and clear about its purpose-in a way that matches Mahler's vision and goes beyond it in results. Brundtland told me that her most important achievements were to have "strengthened the credibility of WHO" and to have "raised the awareness of health on to the political and global development agendas". But there is a troubling schism between the aspirations of its leadership and the realities faced by the organisation on the ground. Rapid change during the past 4 years has reinvigorated WHO's mandate, but poor management has created new tensions that the organisation's leadership seems unwilling to address.

  12. Increased expression and purification of soluble iron-regulatory protein 1 from Escherichia coli co-expressing chaperonins GroES and GroEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential metal for all living organisms. However, iron homeostasis needs to be tightly controlled since iron can mediate the production of reactive oxygen species, which can damage cell components and compromise the integrity and/or cause DNA mutations, ultimately leading to cancer. In eukaryotes, iron-regulatory protein 1 (IRP1 plays a central role in the control of intracellular iron homeostasis. This occurs by interaction of IRP1 with iron-responsive element regions at 5' of ferritin mRNA and 3' of transferrin mRNA which, respectively, represses translation and increases mRNA stability. We have expressed IRP1 using the plasmid pT7-His-hIRP1, which codifies for human IRP1 attached to an NH2-terminal 6-His tag. IRP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli using the strategy of co-expressing chaperonins GroES and GroEL, in order to circumvent inclusion body formation and increase the yield of soluble protein. The protein co-expressed with these chaperonins was obtained mostly in the soluble form, which greatly increased the efficiency of protein purification. Metal affinity and FPLC ion exchange chromatography were used in order to obtain highly purified IRP1. Purified protein was biologically active, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and could be converted to the cytoplasmic aconitase form. These results corroborate previous studies, which suggest the use of folding catalysts as a powerful strategy to increase protein solubility when expressing heterologous proteins in E. coli.

  13. GroEL to DnaK chaperone network behind the stability modulation of σ(32) at physiological temperature in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Monobesh; Roy, Sourav Singha; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Basu, Tarakdas

    2015-12-21

    The stability of heat-shock transcription factor σ(32) in Escherichia coli has long been known to be modulated only by its own transcribed chaperone DnaK. Very few reports suggest a role for another heat-shock chaperone, GroEL, for maintenance of cellular σ(32) level. The present study demonstrates in vivo physical association between GroEL and σ(32) in E. coli at physiological temperature. This study further reveals that neither DnaK nor GroEL singly can modulate σ(32) stability in vivo; there is an ordered network between them, where GroEL acts upstream of DnaK.

  14. Effects of the chaperonin GroE on the refolding of tryptophanase from Escherichia coli. Refolding is enhanced in the presence of ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobata, T; Akiyama, Y; Ito, K; Yumoto, N; Kawata, Y

    1992-09-01

    The refolding of the tetrameric enzyme tryptophanase was facilitated by the chaperonin GroE. Maximum refolding yield of tryptophanase molecules (about 80%) was attained in the presence of a 15-fold excess of GroE 21-mer over tryptophanase monomer. The GroEL subunit was required for this improvement in refolding yield, whereas the GroES subunit was not. Light scattering experiments of the refolding reaction revealed that GroE bound to tryptophanase folding intermediates and suppressed their aggregation. The presence of ATP was required for the efficient dissociation of tryptophanase from GroEL. However, our experiments indicated that tryptophanase dissociated readily from GroEL in the presence of not only ATP, but also in the presence of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues such as ATP gamma S (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) and AMP-PNP (adenyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate) as well. Surprisingly, the release of tryptophanase from GroEL was facilitated in the presence of ADP as well. We concluded that the binding of nucleotides such as ATP and ADP changed the conformation of GroEL and facilitated the dissociation of tryptophanase molecules. The conformation formed in the presence of ADP was distinct from the conformation formed in the presence of ATP, as shown by the selective dissociation of various folding proteins from the two conformations.

  15. An insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity from Xenorhabdus nematophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mohan Chandra; Sharma, Animesh; Kant, Sashi; Birah, Ajanta; Gupta, Gorakh Prasad; Khan, Sharik R; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Banerjee, Nirupama

    2008-10-17

    Xenorhabdus nematophila secretes insecticidal proteins to kill its larval prey. We have isolated an approximately 58-kDa GroEL homolog, secreted in the culture medium through outer membrane vesicles. The protein was orally insecticidal to the major crop pest Helicoverpa armigera with an LC50 of approximately 3.6 microg/g diet. For optimal insecticidal activity all three domains of the protein, apical, intermediate, and equatorial, were necessary. The apical domain alone was able to bind to the larval gut membranes and manifest low level insecticidal activity. At equimolar concentrations, the apical domain contained approximately one-third and the apical-intermediate domain approximately one-half bioactivity of that of the full-length protein. Interaction of the protein with the larval gut membrane was specifically inhibited by N-acetylglucosamine and chito-oligosaccharides. Treatment of the larval gut membranes with chitinase abolished protein binding. Based on the three-dimensional structural model, mutational analysis demonstrated that surface-exposed residues Thr-347 and Ser-356 in the apical domain were crucial for both binding to the gut epithelium and insecticidal activity. Double mutant T347A,S356A was 80% less toxic (p activity with Kd approximately 0.64 microm and Bmax approximately 4.68 micromol/g chitin. The variation in chitin binding activity of the mutant proteins was in good agreement with membrane binding characteristics and insecticidal activity. The less toxic double mutant XnGroEL showed an approximately 8-fold increase of Kd in chitin binding assay. Our results demonstrate that X. nematophila secretes an insecticidal GroEL protein with chitin binding activity.

  16. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations towards the unidentified MeV source GRO J1411-64

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Barcons, X; Corral, A; Bosch-Ramon, V; Paredes, J M; Romero, G E; Qu, J L; Collmar, W; Schönfelder, V; Butt, Y; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Reimer, Olaf; Barcons, Xavier; Corral, Amalia; Bosch-Ramon, Valenti; Paredes, Josep M.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Qu, Jin Lu; Collmar, Werner; Butt, Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The COMPTEL unidentified source GRO J1411-64 was observed by INTEGRAL, and its central part, also by XMM-Newton. The data analysis shows no hint for new detections at hard X-rays. The upper limits in flux herein presented constrain the energy spectrum of whatever was producing GRO J1411-64, imposing, in the framework of earlier COMPTEL observations, the existence of a peak in power output located somewhere between 300-700 keV for the so-called low state. The Circinus Galaxy is the only source detected within the 4$\\sigma$ location error of GRO J1411-64, but can be safely excluded as the possible counterpart: the extrapolation of the energy spectrum is well below the one for GRO J1411-64 at MeV energies. 22 significant sources (likelihood $> 10$) were extracted and analyzed from XMM-Newton data. Only one of these sources, XMMU J141255.6-635932, is spectrally compatible with GRO J1411-64 although the fact the soft X-ray observations do not cover the full extent of the COMPTEL source position uncertainty make an...

  17. Eine CarSharing-Zielgruppenanalyse der großen SrV-Vergleichsstädte

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Due to enormous growth rates during the last couple of years CarSharing has become an interesting field of research. This Master Thesis focuses on the analysis of CarSharing users. For this purpose more than 37.000 participants of the "Große SrV-Vergleichsstädte"-Survey were taken into account. After a short literature review and some general information about the statistical methods, the thesis tries to work out some major characteristics of the typical CarSharing user. It will be shown, tha...

  18. NuSTAR Observations of the Be/X-ray Binary GRO J1008-57 in Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric; Fuerst, F.; Pottschmidt, K.; Wilms, J.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Tomsick, J.; Zhang, W.; NuSTAR Science Team

    2013-04-01

    GRO J1008-57 is an HMXB that exhibits regular outbursts due to orbitally-driven accretion onto the neutron star from the Be companion. Spectral analysis of previous bursts have suggested the existence of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature at 88 keV, which, if confirmed as the fundamental line, would indicate the presence of one of the most highly-magnetized accreting neutron stars. In November 2012, GRO J1008 produced a Type II ("giant") burst with peak flux near 1 Crab. NuSTAR observed the outburst for 12 ksec near the peak of emission. We present spectral and timing analysis of GRO J1008 over NuSTAR's 3-79 keV energy band. Considering that the putative 88 keV line could be a harmonic rather than the fundamental, we search for cyclotron lines in the NuSTAR band and discuss implications for models of the system's magnetic field.

  19. Confirmation of a high magnetic field in GRO J1008–57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Zhang, William W., E-mail: ebellm@caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    GRO J1008–57 is a high-mass X-ray binary for which several claims of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature near 80 keV have been reported. We use NuSTAR, Suzaku, and Swift data from its giant outburst of 2012 November to confirm the existence of the 80 keV feature and perform the most sensitive search to date for cyclotron scattering features at lower energies. We find evidence for a 78{sub −2}{sup +3} keV line in the NuSTAR and Suzaku data at >4σ significance, confirming the detection using Suzaku alone by Yamamoto et al. A search of both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved data rules out a fundamental at lower energies with optical depth larger than 5% of the 78 keV line. These results indicate that GRO J1008–57 has a magnetic field of 6.7 × 10{sup 12}(1 + z) G, the highest among known accreting pulsars.

  20. "Ready to shoot and do shoot": black working-class self-defense and community politics in Harlem, New York, during the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the first three decades of the twentieth century, black people in New York City encountered white violence, especially police brutality in Manhattan. The black community used various strategies to curtail white mob violence and police brutality, one of which was self-defense. This article examines blacks’ response to violence, specifically the debate concerning police brutality and self-defense in Harlem during the 1920s. While historians have examined race riots, blacks’ everyday encounters with police violence in the North have received inadequate treatment. By approaching everyday violence and black responses—self-defense, legal redress, and journalists’ remonstrations—as a process of political development, this article argues that the systematic violence perpetrated by the police both mobilized and politicized blacks individually and collectively to defend their community, but also contributed to a community consciousness that established police brutality as a legitimate issue for black protest.

  1. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  2. Empowering women. The solution to a global crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1994-12-01

    Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland holds a medical degree from the University of Oslo and a Master's degree in Public Health from Harvard University. She served as Norway's Minister of the Environment during 1974-79, and was elected to the Norwegian parliament in 1977. Brundtland is currently chairperson of the World Commission on Environment and Development with ten years of experience as a physician and twenty years as a politician. An edited version of her keynote address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development is presented. The Minister's experience has taught her that improved life conditions, a greater range of choices, access to unbiased information, and true international solidarity are the signs of human progress. She stresses the need to empower people, educate them, care for their health, and provide them with equal opportunity to achieve economically. Available combined resources need to be used more efficiently through a reformed and better coordinated UN system, policies must be changed, the role and status of women strengthened, safe, comprehensive reproductive health services provided, and measures taken to achieve a balance between population size and sustainable development in keeping with available global resources.

  3. Poverty's threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture.

  4. Induction of DnaK and GroEL heat shock proteins by fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizushima, T.; Matsuo, M.; Sekimizu, K

    1997-01-01

    Various fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) induce DnaK and GroEL heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli. The induction is transient, consistent with the kinetics of cellular DNA relaxation. The concentrations of fluoroquinolones required for induction are similar to those required for DNA relaxation and much higher than those required for cell death.

  5. Predominant recognition of species-specific determinants of the GroES homologues from Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chua-Intra, B.; Ivanyi, J.; Hills, A.; Thole, J.; Moreno, C.; Vordermeier, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis 10000 MW heat-shock protein homologues of GroES have previously been identified as major immunogens for human T cells. We used synthetic peptides to characterize the determinants recognized by murine T cells. The findings suggest that, despite 90% sequenc

  6. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to ...

  7. Assessing Reliability and Validity of the "GroPromo" Audit Tool for Evaluation of Grocery Store Marketing and Promotional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F.; Bromby, Erica; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate reliability and validity of a new tool for assessing the placement and promotional environment in grocery stores. Methods: Trained observers used the "GroPromo" instrument in 40 stores to code the placement of 7 products in 9 locations within a store, along with other promotional characteristics. To test construct validity,…

  8. Discovery of a non-blazar $\\gamma$-ray transient near the Galactic plane GRO J1838-04

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M; Mattox, J R; Halpern, J; Thompson, D J; Kanbach, G; Hermsen, W; Zhang, S N; Foster, R S

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery of a remarkable gamma-ray transient source near the Galactic plane, GRO J1838-04. This source was serendipitously discovered by EGRET in June 1995 with a peak intensity of 4 E(-6) ph/cm/cm/s (for photon energies larger than 100 MeV) and a 5.9 sigma significance. At that time, GRO J1838-04 was the second brightest gamma-ray source in the sky. A subsequent EGRET pointing in late September 1995 detected the source at a flux smaller than its peak value by a factor of 7. We determined that no radio-loud spectrally-flat blazar is within the error box of GRO J1838-04. We discuss the origin of the \\ggg-ray transient source and show that interpretations in terms of AGNs or isolated pulsars are highly problematic. GRO J1838-04 provides strong evidence for the existence of a new class of variable gamma-ray sources.

  9. Effects of the prebiotics GroBiotic-A and inulin on the intestinal microbiota of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate feeding trials examined the effects of dietary supplementation of the prebiotics GroBiotic®-A and inulin on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. In the first feeding trial, fishmeal-based diets without prebiotics or supplemented ...

  10. SIMULTANEOUS FITS IN ISIS ON THE EXAMPLE OF GRO J1008–57

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kühnel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parallel computing and steadily increasing computation speed have led to a new tool for analyzing multiple datasets and datatypes: fitting several datasets simultaneously.  With this technique, physically connected parameters of individual data can be treated as a single parameter by implementing this connection directly into the fit. We discuss the terminology, implementation, and possible issues of simultaneous fits based on the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS X-ray data analysis tool. While all data modeling tools in X-ray astronomy in principle allow data to be fitted individually from multiple data sets, the syntax used in these tools is not often well suited for this task. Applying simultaneous fits to the transient X-ray binary GRO J1008–57, we find that the spectral shape is only dependent on X-ray flux. We determine time independent parameters e.g., the folding energy Efold, with unprecedented precision.

  11. Simultaneous fits in ISIS on the example of GRO J1008-57

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnel, Matthias; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Grossberger, Christoph; Dauser, Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Parallel computing and steadily increasing computation speed have led to a new tool for analyzing multiple datasets and datatypes: fitting several datasets simultaneously. With this technique, physically connected parameters of individual data can be treated as a single parameter by implementing this connection into the fit directly. We discuss the terminology, implementation, and possible issues of simultaneous fits based on the X-ray data analysis tool Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS). While all data modeling tools in X-ray astronomy allow in principle fitting data from multiple data sets individually, the syntax used in these tools is not often well suited for this task. Applying simultaneous fits to the transient X-ray binary GRO J1008-57, we find that the spectral shape is only dependent on X-ray flux. We determine time independent parameters such as, e.g., the folding energy E_fold, with unprecedented precision.

  12. Abstracts of the 28. annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011); Abstracts der 28. Jahrestagung der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, Radiobiologie und Medizinische Radiophysik (OeGRO 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-06-15

    The second part of the volume includes the abstracts of the 28th annual meeting of the Austrian Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology and Medical Radiation Physics Society (OeGRO 2011), covering the following topics: extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy; brachytherapy, hyperthermia; radiotherapy side effects; psycho-oncology in radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; radiation source implants for carcinoma irradiation; MRI-supported adaptive radiotherapy; CT-guided radiotherapy; mammary carcinomas; prostate carcinomas; magnetic nanoparticles for future medical applications.

  13. The lesional skin of linear IgA bullous dermatosis expresses growth-regulated peptide (GRO)-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Ihn, Hironobu; Saeki, Hidehisa; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2004-07-01

    The patient was a 62-year-old man with erythema with tense vesiculobullae and erosions on the bilateral elbows, right knee, and one buttock. A skin biopsy specimen revealed subepidermal blister formation with a predominant infiltration of neutrophils and papillary neutrophilic microabscesses. Direct immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA and weak deposition of IgG at the basement membrane zone of the lesional skin, and indirect immunofluorescence study showed linear deposition of IgA at the epidermal side of the 1M NaCl-separated normal skin. He was diagnosed with linear IgA bullous dermatosis. Immunohistochemical study revealed that the lesional and perilesional keratinocytes expressed growth-regulated peptide (GRO) -alpha, a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils. This suggests that GRO-alpha plays a role in the infiltration of neutrophils into the lesional skin and in bulla formation in linear IgA bullous dermatosis.

  14. GRO J1655-40: Early Stages of the 2005 Outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikov, N; Shrader, C R; Rupen, M; Beckmann, V; Markwardt, C B; Smith, D A

    2006-01-01

    The black-hole X-ray binary transient GRO J1655-40 underwent an outburst beginning in early 2005. We present the results of our multi-wavelength observational campaign to study the early outburst spectral and temporal evolution, which combines data from X-ray (RXTE, INTEGRAL), radio (VLA) and optical (ROTSE, SMARTS) instruments. During the reported period the source left quiescence and went through four major accreting black hole states: low-hard, hard intermediate, soft intermediate and high-soft. We investigated dipping behavior in the RXTE band and compare our results to the 1996-1997 case, when the source was predominantly in the high-soft state, finding significant differences. We consider the evolution of the low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and find that the frequency strongly correlates with the spectral characteristics, before shutting off prior to the transition to the high-soft state. We model the broad-band high-energy spectrum in the context of empirical models, as well as more physicall...

  15. Allosteric transitions of supramolecular systems explored by network models: application to chaperonin GroEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of pathways involved in the structural transitions of biomolecular systems is often complicated by the transient nature of the conformations visited across energy barriers and the multiplicity of paths accessible in the multidimensional energy landscape. This task becomes even more challenging in exploring molecular systems on the order of megadaltons. Coarse-grained models that lend themselves to analytical solutions appear to be the only possible means of approaching such cases. Motivated by the utility of elastic network models for describing the collective dynamics of biomolecular systems and by the growing theoretical and experimental evidence in support of the intrinsic accessibility of functional substates, we introduce a new method, adaptive anisotropic network model (aANM, for exploring functional transitions. Application to bacterial chaperonin GroEL and comparisons with experimental data, results from action minimization algorithm, and previous simulations support the utility of aANM as a computationally efficient, yet physically plausible, tool for unraveling potential transition pathways sampled by large complexes/assemblies. An important outcome is the assessment of the critical inter-residue interactions formed/broken near the transition state(s, most of which involve conserved residues.

  16. The quiescent light curve and orbital period of GRO$\\sim$J0422+32

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, C; Chevalier, Claude; Ilovaisky, Sergio A

    1996-01-01

    CCD photometry of the black hole candidate GRO~J0422+32 in quiescence, obtained at Haute-Provence from 1994 November to 1995 February, reveals a double-wave modulation at a period close to the value we found during outbursts and also close to one of the possible periods derived by Filippenko, Matheson and Ho (1995) from spectroscopic observations with the W. M. Keck 10-m telescope. A period of 0.212140 \\pm 0.000003 d (5.09136 \\pm 0.00007 h) fits all our photometric data from 1993 January to 1995 February and yields a minimum in our light curves at the inferior conjunction of the M star, as determined from the radial velocity data of Filippenko et al. (1995). The quiescent R_{c} band light curve exhibits a changing asymmetry of shape and a variable amplitude. On two consecutive nights the source was found constant to within \\pm 0.05 mag, suggesting an upper limit on the ellipsoidal effect in this band.

  17. Vanadyl ions binding to GroEL (HSP60) and inducing its depolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several vanadium compounds have been known for the hypoglycemic and anticancer effects. However, the mechanisms of the pharmacological and toxicological effects were not clear. In this work, we investigated the potential targets of vanadium in mitochondria. Vanadyl ions were found to bind to mitochondria from rat liver with a stoichiometry of 244±58 nmol/mg protein and an apparent dissocia- tion constant (Kd) of (2.0±0.8)×10-16 mol/L. Using size exclusion chromatography, a vanadium-binding protein was isolated and identified to be the 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) by mass spectrometry analysis and immunoassays. Additionally, binding of vanadyl ions was found to result in depolymerization of homo-oligomeric HSP60 (GroEL). HSP60 is an indispensable molecular chaperone and involved in many kinds of pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes. Our results suggested that HSP60 could be a novel important target involved in the biological and/or toxicological effects of vanadium compounds.

  18. Spectral and Timing evolution of GRO J1655-40 during its outburst of 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, D; Nandi, A; Mandal, S

    2009-01-01

    In a recent outburst which lasted for 260 days, the black hole candidate GRO J1655-40 exhibited a behaviour similar to its last outburst observed almost eight years ago. We analyze a total of 150 observational spells in 122 days of data spreaded over the entire outburst phase of Feb. 2005 to Oct. 2005. From our study, a comprehensive understanding of the detailed behaviour of this black hole candidate has emerged. Based on the degree of importance of the black body and the power-law components we divide the entire episode in four spectral states, namely, hard, soft, very soft and intermediate. Quasi-Periodic oscillations (QPOs) were found in two out of these four states, namely, in the hard and the intermediate states. In the hard state, at the rising phase of the outburst, QPO frequency ranged from 0.034 - 17.78Hz and the spectra was fitted by a disk black body, power-law and iron emission line at 6.2 - 6.5 keV. In the intermediate state, QPOs vary from 13.17Hz to 19.04Hz and the QPO frequency modulation in ...

  19. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Harrison, F A; Kennea, J A; Kouveliotou, C; Younes, G

    2014-01-01

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/HETG observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E_l ~ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ~ 52 degrees and an inner disk radius of R_in ~ 85 GM/c^2, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ~ (2-6)E10 G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature nea...

  20. A Super-Eddington Compton-Thick Wind in GRO J1655-40?

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Homan, J; Buxton, M

    2016-01-01

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed at high spectral resolution with the Chandra HETGS, revealing a spectrum rich with blueshifted absorption lines indicative of an accretion disk wind -- apparently too hot, too dense, and too close to the black hole to be driven by radiation pressure or thermal pressure (Miller et al.). But this exotic wind represents just one piece of the puzzle in this outburst, as its presence coincides with an extremely soft and curved X-ray continuum spectrum, remarkable X-ray variability (Uttley & Klein-Wolt), and a bright, unexpected optical/infrared blackbody component that varies on the orbital period. Focusing on the X-ray continuum and the optical/infrared/UV spectral energy distribution, we argue that the unusual features of this "hypersoft state" are natural consequences of a super-Eddington Compton-thick wind from the disk: the optical/infrared blackbody represents the cool photosphere of a dense, extended outflow, while the X-ray emission is explained as Co...

  1. 表达大肠杆菌分子伴侣GroEL、 GroES和GrpE载体的构建及其应用%Construction of the Vector Expressing GroEL 、 GroES and GrpE from Escherchia coli and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 王蕾蕾; 程备久; 范军

    2012-01-01

    Coexpression system in Escherichia coli often requires the different plasmids with different antibiotic resistance genes and replicons. Using sticky-end PCR cloning technology, two independent,PCR reactions were performed for amplifying the artificial operon from pR-GESP plasmid, which contains the artificial polycistron of GroEL, GroES and GrpE genes from E. coli encoding three molecular chaperones. The cohesive end of the PCR products allowed to be inserted into pACYCDuet-1 plasmid treated with Ncol and Xhol. The constructed plasmid named pA-GESP contained the artificial operon, pl5A replicon and chloramphenicol resistance gene, compatible with pET-28b plasmid including ColEl replicon and kanamycin resistance gene. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that three chaperones were expressed in soluble form from the induced E. coli cells carrying pA-GESP plasmid, similar to the cells harboring pR-GESP plasmid. Co-expression of three molecular chaperones partly improved the soluble expression of recombinant maize serine racemase, but did not have an affect on the expression of maize ferrodioxin reductase. Co-expression of three molecular chaperones, yeast 5-aminolevulinate synthase and Bacillus subtilis uroporphyrinogen methyltransferase from three plasmids containing the different antibiotics resistance gene increased the accumulation of intracellular red fluorescent products catalyzed by two enzymes successively. The production was estimated about 562. 13 ±3. 17/OD600 , compared with the production of 457. 66 ±4. 98/OD600 without function of the recombinant chaperones. The results suggested three chaperones partly improved the soluble expression of some proteins and catalytic activity in E. coli.%大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)共表达系统常要求质粒具有不同抗生素抗性以及不同的复制子.利用粘性末端PCR技术,以含有大肠杆菌分子伴侣基因GroEL、GroES和GrpE的pR-GESP质粒为模板,设计两对引物,通

  2. Multiplex PCR for the detection and differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains using the groEL, tdh and trh genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Muhammad Tofazzal; Kim, Young-Ok; Kong, In-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant cause of human gastrointestinal disorders worldwide, transmitted primarily by ingestion of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus strains was developed using primer sets for a species-specific marker, groEL, and two virulence markers, tdh and trh. Multiplex PCR conditions were standardised, and extracted genomic DNA of 70 V. parahaemolyticus strains was used for identification. The sensitivity and efficacy of this method were validated using artificially inoculated shellfish and seawater. The expected sizes of amplicons were 510 bp, 382 bp, and 171 bp for groEL, tdh and trh, respectively. PCR products were sufficiently different in size, and the detection limits of the multiplex PCR for groEL, tdh and trh were each 200 pg DNA. Specific detection and differentiation of virulent from non-virulent strains in shellfish homogenates and seawater was also possible after artificial inoculation with various V. parahaemolyticus strains. This newly developed multiplex PCR is a rapid assay for detection and differentiation of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, and could be used to prevent disease outbreaks and protect public health by helping the seafood industry maintain a safe shellfish supply.

  3. Making a friend from a foe: expressing a GroEL gene from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants confers resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akad, F; Eybishtz, A; Edelbaum, D; Gorovits, R; Dar-Issa, O; Iraki, N; Czosnek, H

    2007-01-01

    Some (perhaps all) plant viruses transmitted in a circulative manner by their insect vectors avoid destruction in the haemolymph by interacting with GroEL homologues, ensuring transmission. We have previously shown that the phloem-limited begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) interacts in vivo and in vitro with GroEL produced by the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study, we have exploited this phenomenon to generate transgenic tomato plants expressing the whitefly GroEL in their phloem. We postulated that following inoculation, TYLCV particles will be trapped by GroEL in the plant phloem, thereby inhibiting virus replication and movement, thereby rendering the plants resistant. A whitefly GroEL gene was cloned in an Agrobacterium vector under the control of an Arabidopsis phloem-specific promoter, which was used to transform two tomato genotypes. During three consecutive generations, plants expressing GroEL exhibited mild or no disease symptoms upon whitefly-mediated inoculation of TYLCV. In vitro assays indicated that the sap of resistant plants contained GroEL-TYLCV complexes. Infected resistant plants served as virus source for whitefly-mediated transmission as effectively as infected non-transgenic tomato. Non-transgenic susceptible tomato plants grafted on resistant GroEL-transgenic scions remained susceptible, although GroEL translocated into the grafted plant and GroEL-TYLCV complexes were detected in the grafted tissues.

  4. CcpA affects expression of the groESL and dnaK operons in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marasco Rosangela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are widely used in food industry and their growth performance is important for the quality of the fermented product. During industrial processes changes in temperature may represent an environmental stress to be overcome by starters and non-starters LAB. Studies on adaptation to heat shock have shown the involvement of the chaperon system-proteins in various Gram-positive bacteria. The corresponding operons, namely the dnaK and groESL operons, are controlled by a negative mechanism involving the HrcA repressor protein binding to the cis acting element CIRCE. Results We studied adaptation to heat shock in the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. The LM3-2 strain, carrying a null mutation in the ccpA gene, encoding the catabolite control protein A (CcpA, showed a lower percent of survival to high temperature with respect to the LM3 wild type strain. Among proteins differentially expressed in the two strains, the GroES chaperon was more abundant in the wild type strain compared to the mutant strain under standard growth conditions. Transcriptional studies showed that class I heat shock operons were differentially expressed upon heat shock in both strains. Indeed, the dnaK and groESL operons were induced about two times more in the LM3 strain compared to the LM3-2 strain. Analysis of the regulatory region of the two operons showed the presence of cre sequences, putative binding sites for the CcpA protein. Conclusion The L. plantarum dnaK and groESL operons are characterized by the presence of the cis acting sequence CIRCE in the promoter region, suggesting a negative regulation by the HrcA/CIRCE system, which is a common type of control among the class I heat shock operons of Gram-positive bacteria. We found an additional system of regulation, based on a positive control exerted by the CcpA protein, which would interact with cre sequences present in the regulatory region of the dnaK and gro

  5. Gene cloning and expression analysis of Gro/KC by primary hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. Hassanshahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: It is now well established that several environmental stresses lead to activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK in various cell systems which is followed by chemokine producion. We investigated the expression of both CXC chemokines SDF-1a (ELR- and Gro/KC (ELR+ in rat H4 hepatoma cells in response to heat shock, hyper-osmolarity and oxidative stresses. The pattern of expression of these chemokines by hepatoma cells in response to stress conditions was also studied.Materials and Methods: Hepatoma cells were maintained in MEM medium. Cells were subjected to different stresses [(H2O2 0.15% (w/v, manitol and NaCl (160 mM and heat shock [(42 °C for 20 minutes]. At the indicated time points, cells were harvested and RNA was extracted, purified and expression of the chemokines were analysed by RT-PCR. cDNA was separated by gel electrophoresis on a 1% (w/v agarose gel and visualised on a UV transilluminator.Results: Results obtained in this report showed that there was detectable but low expression of chemokines in H4 hepatoma cells. Heat shock failed to induce expression of chemokines in H4 rat hepatoma cells. Hyper-osmolarity also has not stimulated Chemokines expression. In this study we have also shown that oxidative stress did not induce expression of chemokines. Overall, although detection is possible but regulatory responses were not observed in H4 hepatoma cells.Conclusion: Several known injurious conditions cause recruitment of macrophages, neutrophils and other immune cells to the liver. Immune cells are recruited to the hepatic vasculature following local liver injury and consequent chemokine production. Our results demonstrated that failure in production of these chemokines by Hepatoma cells may be a way to escape from immune surveillance.

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE BURSTING PULSAR GRO J1744-28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Younes, G., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E {sub l} ≅ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ≅ 52° and an inner disk radius of R {sub in} ≅ 85 GM/c {sup 2}, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ≅ (2-6) × 10{sup 10} G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature near ≅ 6.85 keV that could correspond to blue-shifted Fe XXV and point to a fast disk wind with an outflow velocity of v {sub out} ≅ (7.5-8.2) × 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1} (≅ 0.025c-0.027c). If the covering fraction and filling factor are large, this wind could be energetically important and perhaps account for the fact that the companion star lost significant mass while the magnetic field of the neutron star remained strong.

  7. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils.

  8. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of The Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 During Its Third Reactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.;

    2015-01-01

    keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains......We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60...

  9. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Dong; Yi-Ru Du; Wenrui Xie; Judith A.Strong; Xi-Jing He; Jun-Ming Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inflammation at the level of the sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) leads to robust mechanical pain behavior and the local inflammation has direct excitatory effects on sensory neurons including small,primarily nociceptive,neurons.These neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV 1) channel,which integrates multiple signals of pain and inflammation.The aim of this study was to characterize the regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by growth-related oncogene (GRO/KC,systemic name:CXCL1),a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs.Methods Activation of the TRPV1 receptor with capsaicin was studied with patch clamp methods in acutely isolated small-diameter rat sensory neurons in primary culture.In vivo,behavioral effects of TRPV1 and GRO/KC were examined by paw injections.Results Neurons isolated from lumbar DRGs 3 days after local inflammation showed enhanced TRPV1 function:tachyphylaxis (the decline in response to repeated applications of capsaicin) was significantly reduced.A similar effect on tachyphylaxis was observed in neurons pre-treated for 4 h in vitro with GRO/KC.This effect was blocked by H-89,a protein kinase A inhibitor.Consistent with the in vitro results,in vivo behavioral responses to paw injection of capsaicin were enhanced and prolonged by pre-injecting the paw with GRO/KC 4 h before the capsaicin injection.GRO/KC paw injections alone did not elicit pain behaviors.Conclusion Function of the TRPV 1 channel is enhanced by DRG inflammation and these effects are preserved in vitro during short-term culture.The effects (decreased tachyphylaxis) are mimicked by incubation with GRO/KC,which has previously been found to be strongly upregulated in this and other pain models.

  10. Don’t Rock the Boat: Reinforcing Norway in Crisis and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    minority Labor government of Odvar Nordli in 1976 to 1981.22 The "Turned-Around" Nordic Balance Arne Olav Brundtland , who coined the phrase "Nordic...equipment, might not be able to deploy to Norway rapidly 2German, 1982a, p. 72; Brundtland , 1981, p. 13. 26Brundtland, 1981, p. 13. 21 enough in a crisis...warned the deputy chair of the ruling Labor party, Gro Harland Brundtland , that if prepositioning were approved, "We would know how to react, how to make

  11. INTEGRAL detection of the multi-peaked emission from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GRO J1008-57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, A.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations from the on-going INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning programme (PI: A. Bazzano) have detected increasing X-ray flux from the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GRO J1008-57, confirming the re-brightening detected by MAXI/GSC (ATel #6819). The source was in the field of view of the IBIS...

  12. Electron microscopy and image analysis of the GroEL-like protein and its complexes with glutamine synthetase from pea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuprun, Vladimir L.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Pushkin, Alexander V.; Tagunova, Irina V.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular structure of groEL-like protein from pea leaves has been studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained particles. Over 1500 molecular projections were selected and classified by multivariate statistical analysis. It was shown that the molecule consists of 14 s

  13. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  14. Detection of the Host Immune Response to Burkholderia mallei Heat-Shock Proteins GroEL and DnaK in a Glanders Patient and Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    infected animal are the most common methods of acquiring glanders because the organism can be trans- mitted through droplets or saliva . In horses...host cell. A GroEL-like protein in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a patho- gen associated with periodontal disease, was found in extracellular

  15. Detection of the host immune response to Burkholderia mallei heat-shock proteins GroEL and DnaK in a glanders patient and infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kei; Meyers, Jennifer L; Deshazer, David; Riggins, Renaldo N; Halasohoris, Stephanie; England, Marilyn; Ribot, Wilson; Norris, Sarah L; Waag, David M

    2007-10-01

    We examined, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, the host immune response to 2 heat-shock proteins (hsps) in a patient and mice previously infected with Burkholderia mallei. The patient was the first reported human glanders case in 50 years in the United States. The expression of the groEL and dnaK operons appeared to be dependent upon a sigma(32) RNA polymerase as suggested by conserved heat-shock promoter sequences, and the groESL operon may be negatively regulated by a controlling invert repeat of chaperone expression (CIRCE) site. In the antisera, the GroEL protein was found to be more immunoreactive than the DnaK protein in both a human patient and mice previously infected with B. mallei. Examination of the supernatant of a growing culture of B. mallei showed that more GroEL protein than DnaK protein was released from the cell. This may occur similarly within an infected host causing an elevated host immune response to the B. mallei hsps.

  16. Nucleolin inhibitor GroA triggers reduction in epidermal growth factor receptor activation: Pharmacological implication for glial scarring after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshmit, Yona; Schokoroy Trangle, Sari; Afergan, Fabian; Iram, Tal; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2016-09-01

    Glial scarring, formed by reactive astrocytes, is one of the major impediments for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reactive astrocytes become hypertrophic, proliferate and secrete chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans into the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) can mediate astrocyte reactivity after neurotrauma. Previously we showed that there is crosstalk between nucleolin and EGFR that leads to increased EGFR activation followed by increased cell proliferation. Treatment with the nucleolin inhibitor GroA (AS1411) prevented these effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we hypothesized that similar interactions may mediate astrogliosis after SCI. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin and EGFR interaction may play a pivotal role in mediating astrocyte proliferation and reactivity after SCI. Moreover, we demonstrate that treatment with GroA reduces EGFR activation, astrocyte proliferation and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans secretion, therefore promoting axonal regeneration and sprouting into the lesion site. Our results identify, for the first time, a role for the interaction between nucleolin and EGFR in astrocytes after SCI, indicating that nucleolin inhibitor GroA may be used as a novel treatment after neurotrauma. A major barrier for axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury is glial scar created by reactive and proliferating astrocytes. EGFR mediate astrocyte reactivity. We showed that inhibition of nucleolin by GroA, reduces EGFR activation, which results in attenuation of astrocyte reactivity and proliferation in vivo and in vitro. EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor.

  17. Bone marrow mast cell density correlates with serum levels of VEGF and CXC chemokines ENA-78 and GRO-α in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, C A; Tsirakis, G; Devetzoglou, M; Zafeiri, M; Vyzoukaki, R; Androvitsanea, A; Xekalou, A; Sfiridaki, K; Alexandrakis, M G

    2014-06-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial process in growth and progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in MM angiogenesis. Various angiogenic mediators secreted by MCs regulate endothelial cell proliferation and function. Among them, ELR(+) CXC chemokines, such as growth-related oncogen-alpha (GRO-α) and epithelial neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), have been described as potential mediators in regulation of angiogenesis. The purpose of the study was to quantify MCs in bone marrow (BM) biopsies of MM patients, expressed as MC density (MCD), and correlate it with serum concentrations of vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), GRO-α, ENA-78. Fifty-four newly diagnosed MM patients and 22 healthy controls were studied. Tryptase was used for the immunohistochemical stain of MCs. VEGF, GRO-α, and ENA-78 were measured in sera by ELISA. MCD and serum levels of GRO-α, ENA-78, and VEGF were significantly higher in MM patients compared to controls (pENA-78. These findings support that MCs participate in the pathophysiology of MM and is implicated in the angiogenic process and disease progression.

  18. The htpAB operon of Legionella pneumophila cannot be deleted in the presence of the groE chaperonin operon of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Gagnon, Elizabeth; Orton, Dennis J; Garduño, Rafael A

    2011-11-01

    HtpB, the chaperonin of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila , displays several virulence-related functions in vitro. To confirm HtpB's role in vivo, host infections with an htpB deletion mutant would be required. However, we previously reported that the htpAB operon (encoding co-chaperonin and chaperonin) is essential. We attempted here to delete htpAB in a L. pneumophila strain carrying the groE operon (encoding the Escherichia coli co-chaperonin and chaperonin). The groE operon was inserted into the chromosome of L. pneumophila Lp02, and then allelic replacement of htpAB with a gentamicin resistance cassette was attempted. Although numerous potential postallelic replacement transformants showed a correct selection phenotype, we still detected htpAB by PCR and full-size HtpB by immunoblot. Southern blot and PCR analysis indicated that the gentamicin resistance cassette had apparently integrated in a duplicated htpAB region. However, we showed by Southern blot that strain Lp02, and the Lp02 derivative carrying the groE operon, have only one copy of htpAB. These results confirmed that the htpAB operon cannot be deleted, not even in the presence of the groE operon, and suggested that attempts to delete htpAB under strong phenotypic selection result in aberrant genetic recombinations that could involve duplication of the htpAB locus.

  19. Von Nobel bis Viagra: Die Geschichte eines kleinen Moleküls mit großer Wirkung: Stickstoffmonoxyd (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Es wird kurzgefasst die Geschichte des Nitroglyzerins und von Alfred Nobel dargestellt. Nitroglyzerin war als explosiver Bestandteil von Dynamit der gewaltigste Sprengstoff seiner Zeit und wurde von Alfred Nobel weiterentwickelt und kommerzialisiert, der später den Nobelpreis stiftete. Gleichermaßen ist Nitroglyzerin in öliger Dispersion und in geringsten Mengen seit 100 Jahren als „Koronardilatator“ eingeführt und weiterhin nahezu unersetzlich. Der Mechanismus, mit dem Nitroglyzerin Gefäße erweitert, wurde erst vor 25 Jahren von Furchgott, Ignarro und Murad vollständig aufgeklärt, indem sie die große Bedeutung des Endothels und des gefäßerweiternden Stickstoffmonoxyds beschrieben. Die 3 Forscher erhielten 1998 den Nobelpreis für Medizin zu gleichen Teilen "für die Entdeckung des NOs als Signalmolekül für das kardiovaskuläre System".

  20. Chaperonin GroEL a Brucella immunodominant antigen identified using Nanobody and MALDI-TOF-MS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbady, A Q; Al-Daoude, A; Al-Mariri, A; Zarkawi, M; Muyldermans, S

    2012-05-15

    The deployment of today's antibodies that are able to distinguish Brucella from the closely similar pathogens, such as Yersinia, is still considered a great challenge since both pathogens share identical LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-ring epitopes. In addition, because of the great impact of Brucella on health and economy in many countries including Syria, much effort is going to the development of next generation vaccines, mainly on the identification of new immunogenic proteins of this pathogen. In this context, Brucella-specific nanobodies (Nbs), camel genetic engineered heavy-chain antibody fragments, could be of great value. Previously, a large Nb library was constructed from a camel immunized with heat-killed Brucella. Phage display panning of this 'immune' library with Brucella total lysate resulted in a remarkable fast enrichment for a Nb referred to as NbBruc02. In the present work, we investigated the main characteristics of this Nb that can efficiently distinguish under well-defined conditions the Brucella from other bacteria including Yersinia. NbBruc02 showed a strong and specific interaction with its antigen within the crude lysate as tested by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and it was also able to pull down its cognate antigen from such lysate by immuno-capturing. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), NbBruc02 specific antigen was identified as chaperonin GroEL, also known as heat shock protein of 60 kDa (HSP-60), which represents a Brucella immunodominant antigen responsible of maintaining proteins folding during stress conditions. Interestingly, the antigen recognition by NbBruc02 was found to be affected by the state of GroEL folding. Thus, the Nb technology applied in the field of infectious diseases, e.g. brucellosis, yields two outcomes: (1) it generates specific binders that can be used for diagnosis, and perhaps treatment, and (2) it identifies the immunogenic candidate

  1. Enhanced translocation and growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 in the alkane phase of aqueous-alkane two phase cultures were mediated by GroEL2 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takihara, Hayato; Ogihara, Jun; Yoshida, Takao; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakajima, Mutsuyasu; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Sunairi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that R. erythropolis PR4 translocated from the aqueous to the alkane phase, and then grew in two phase cultures to which long-chain alkanes had been added. This was considered to be beneficial for bioremediation. In the present study, we investigated the proteins involved in the translocation of R. erythropolis PR4. The results of our proteogenomic analysis suggested that GroEL2 was upregulated more in cells that translocated inside of the pristane (C19) phase than in those located at the aqueous-alkane interface attached to the n-dodecane (C12) surface. PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) and PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) strains were constructed to confirm the effects of the upregulation of GroEL2 in translocated cells. The expression of GroEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) was 15.5-fold higher than that in PR4 (pK4-ΔEL2-1) in two phase cultures containing C12. The growth and cell surface lipophilicity of PR4 were enhanced by the introduction of pK4-EL2-1. These results suggested that the plasmid overexpression of groEL2 in PR4 (pK4-EL2-1) led to changes in cell localization, enhanced growth, and increased cell surface lipophilicity. Thus, we concluded that the overexpression of GroEL2 may play an important role in increasing the organic solvent tolerance of R. erythropolis PR4 in aqueous-alkane two phase cultures.

  2. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  3. Challenges from the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... model is against the backdrop that it provides a holistic approach in .... lopsided revenue sharing formula. ... companies like Mobil Nigeria Unlimited, Nigerian Agip Oil Company, ... foreign exchange assets is factors fraught with danger'. .... Development in autumn of 1983 with Mrs. Cro Harlem Brundtland, ...

  4. Binding of Haemophilus ducreyi to carbohydrate receptors is mediated by the 58.5-kDa GroEL heat shock protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantzar, Martina; Teneberg, Susann; Lagergård, Teresa

    2006-08-01

    The bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, which is characterized by the appearance of mucocutaneous, persistent ulcers on the external genitals. To identify carbohydrate receptors that mediate the attachment of this pathogen to host cells, we investigated the binding of 35S-methionine-labeled H. ducreyi strains to a panel of defined glycosphingolipids that were separated on thin layer chromatography plates. H. ducreyi bound to lactosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, the GM3 ganglioside, and sulfatide. To elucidate the role of the surface-located 58.5-kDa GroEL heat shock protein (HSP) of H. ducreyi in attachment, we investigated the binding of purified HSP to the same panel of glycosphingolipids. Our results suggest that the 58.5-kDa GroEL HSP of H. ducreyi is responsible for the attachment of this bacterium to the majority of the tested glycosphingolipids, and thus represents a potential bacterial adhesin.

  5. Arsenophonus GroEL interacts with CLCuV and is localized in midgut and salivary gland of whitefly B. tabaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Singh Rana

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV (Gemininiviridae: Begomovirus is the causative agent of leaf curl disease in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum. CLCuV is exclusively transmitted by the whitefly species B. tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Alerodidae. B. tabaci contains several biotypes which harbor dissimilar bacterial endo-symbiotic community. It is reported that these bacterial endosymbionts produce a 63 kDa chaperon GroEL protein which binds to geminivirus particles and protects them from rapid degradation in gut and haemolymph. In biotype B, GroEL protein of Hamiltonella has been shown to interact with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. The present study was initiated to find out whether endosymbionts of B. tabaci are similarly involved in CLCuV transmission in Sriganganagar (Rajasthan, an area endemic with cotton leaf curl disease. Biotype and endosymbiont diversity of B. tabaci were identified using MtCO1 and 16S rDNA genes respectively. Analysis of our results indicated that the collected B. tabaci population belong to AsiaII genetic group and harbor the primary endosymbiont Portiera and the secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus. The GroEL proteins of Portiera and Arsenophonus were purified and in-vitro interaction studies were carried out using pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In-vivo interaction was confirmed using yeast two hybrid system. In both in-vitro and in-vivo studies, the GroEL protein of Arsenophonus was found to be interacting with the CLCuV coat protein. Further, we also localized the presence of Arsenophonus in the salivary glands and the midgut of B. tabaci besides the already reported bacteriocytes. These results suggest the involvement of Arsenophonus in the transmission of CLCuV in AsiaII genetic group of B. tabaci.

  6. Arsenophonus GroEL interacts with CLCuV and is localized in midgut and salivary gland of whitefly B. tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vipin Singh; Singh, Shalini Thakur; Priya, Natarajan Gayatri; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajagopal, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) (Gemininiviridae: Begomovirus) is the causative agent of leaf curl disease in cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum). CLCuV is exclusively transmitted by the whitefly species B. tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alerodidae). B. tabaci contains several biotypes which harbor dissimilar bacterial endo-symbiotic community. It is reported that these bacterial endosymbionts produce a 63 kDa chaperon GroEL protein which binds to geminivirus particles and protects them from rapid degradation in gut and haemolymph. In biotype B, GroEL protein of Hamiltonella has been shown to interact with Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The present study was initiated to find out whether endosymbionts of B. tabaci are similarly involved in CLCuV transmission in Sriganganagar (Rajasthan), an area endemic with cotton leaf curl disease. Biotype and endosymbiont diversity of B. tabaci were identified using MtCO1 and 16S rDNA genes respectively. Analysis of our results indicated that the collected B. tabaci population belong to AsiaII genetic group and harbor the primary endosymbiont Portiera and the secondary endosymbiont Arsenophonus. The GroEL proteins of Portiera and Arsenophonus were purified and in-vitro interaction studies were carried out using pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. In-vivo interaction was confirmed using yeast two hybrid system. In both in-vitro and in-vivo studies, the GroEL protein of Arsenophonus was found to be interacting with the CLCuV coat protein. Further, we also localized the presence of Arsenophonus in the salivary glands and the midgut of B. tabaci besides the already reported bacteriocytes. These results suggest the involvement of Arsenophonus in the transmission of CLCuV in AsiaII genetic group of B. tabaci.

  7. "Kein Zeugnis abzulegen, wäre Verrat": Holocaustausstellungen an Stätten des Gedenkens im internationalen Vergleich – Deutschland, Frankreich, Großbritannien und Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer-Englmaier, Iris Pamela Anna

    2015-01-01

    Die Studie zielt auf eine vergleichende Analyse der ausstellerischen Diskurse von Stätten des Gedenkens an den Holocaust in den Ländern Großbritannien, Frankreich, Israel und Deutschland. Hierbei wird der Begriff des Holocaust so weit gefasst, wie es im englischsprachigen Diskurs üblich ist. Er beinhaltet neben den Juden auch andere Bevölkerungsgruppen, die von den Nationalsozialisten verfolgt wurden. Untersucht werden konkret das Imperial War Museum, London's Museum of Jewish Life und d...

  8. Controversy of the GRO J1655-40 black hole mass and spin estimates and its possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the black hole mass $M$ and dimensionless spin $a$ in the microquasar GRO J1655-40 implied by strong gravity effects related to the timing and spectral measurements are controversial, if the mass restriction determined by the dynamics related to independent optical measurements, $M_{\\rm opt}=(5.4\\pm0.3) M_{\\odot}$, are applied. The timing measurements of twin high-frequency (HF) quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequency ratio $3:2$ and the simultaneously observed low-frequency (LF) QPO imply the spin in the range $a\\in(0.27-0.29)$ if models based on the frequencies of the geodesic epicyclic motion are used to fit the timing measurements, and correlated creation of the twin HF QPOs and the LF QPO at a common radius is assumed. On the other hand, the spectral continuum method implies $a\\in(0.65-0.75)$, and the Fe-line-profile method implies $a\\in(0.94-0.98)$. This controversy can be cured, if we abandon the assumption of the occurrence of the twin HF QPOs and the simultaneously observed LF Q...

  9. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra observations of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 during its third reactivation

    CERN Document Server

    Younes, G; Grefenstette, B W; Tomsick, J A; Tennant, A; Finger, M H; Furst, F; Pottschmidt, K; Bhalerao, V; Boggs, S E; Boirin, L; Chakrabarty, D; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Degenaar, N; Fabian, A C; Gandhi, P; Gogus, E; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kennea, J A; Miller, J M; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/HETG-NuSTAR observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 years of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5-70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors, and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disc, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4x10^7 cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B~9x10^10 G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV ...

  10. Primjena nove tehnike prosušivanja bobica grožđa za proizvodnju prošeka

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Peršurić Bernobić, Katarina; Bilandžija, Nikolina; Kraljević, Ante; Sinković, Ana; Sinković, Petra

    2013-01-01

    U radu su prikazani rezultati pokusnog prosušivanja grožđa sorti Muškat žuti i Muškat ruža crni dopremljenih iz vinograda blizu Poreča s OPG-a Peršurić Đordano. Uzorci prije sušenja sorte Muškat žuti imali su sadržaj šećera 87ºOe (186 g/L), a Muškat ruža crni 91ºOe (200 g/L). Nakon sušenja sadržaj šećera u soku bobica bio je oko 173ºOe (378 g/L). Proces prosušivanja uzoraka sorte Muškat žuti trajao je 120 sati, a kod sorte Muškat ruža crni 108 sati pri temperaturi zraka za sušenje od 35-38°C ...

  11. Die Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien oder die "Modernisierung der ärztlichen Karrieren" [Modernising Medical Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Moulin, Marcel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper analyses the reform of postgraduate medical education introduced in the United Kingdom in 2003 under the heading "Modernising Medical Careers“. This nationally standardised and structured postgraduate medical training was started in 2005. The analysis includes the transition from undergraduate to postgraduate education, the new responsibilities in postgraduate education, the application process and the mode of distribution of the positions and the relationship of posts with and without postgraduate training opportunities. Possible consequences for postgraduate training and for the trainees are discussed. [german] Die Arbeit beschreibt und analysiert die Reform der Facharztweiterbildung in Großbritannien, die 2003 unter dem Titel "Modernising Medical Careers“ eingeführt wurde und seit 2005 umgesetzt wird. Vorgestellt werden der Übergang von der Ausbildung zur Weiterbildung, die neuen Zuständigkeiten für die Weiterbildung, das Auswahlverfahren und der Verteilungsmodus der Weiterbildungsstellen sowie das Verhältnis von Stellen mit und ohne Facharztperspektive. Die potenziellen Folgen für die Facharztweiterbildung und für die Weitergebildeten werden diskutiert.

  12. A preliminary in vitro assessment of GroBiotic-A, brewer's yeast and fructooligosaccharide as prebiotics for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Gary; Hume, Michael; Ricke, Steven; Nisbet, David; Gatlin, Delbert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brewers yeast, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products, on the intestinal microbial community of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were aseptically removed from three sub-adult red drum previously maintained on a commercial diet and placed in an anaerobic chamber. Intestinal contents were removed, diluted and incubated in vitro in one of four liquid media: normal diet alone, diet + 2% (w/w) GroBiotic-A, diet + 2% brewers yeast, and diet + 2% FOS. After 24 and 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C, supernatants were removed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and DNA was extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on a highly conserved region of M 16S rDNA and the amplicons were subjected to DGGE. The microbial community (MC) fingerprint was used to distinguish microbial populations. The intestinal contents incubated with GroBiotic-A had significantly (Pyeast.

  13. The Effects of Heterologous Expression of groEL from Arthrobacter simplex on the Resistance Performance of Escherichia coli%简单节杆菌groEL基因表达对大肠杆菌抗逆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞; 王红玲; 王敏; 骆健美

    2016-01-01

    Arthrobacter simplex,a strain with steroid C1,2 dehydrogenation ability,has been widely used in the steroid industry, usually adding ethanol in the transforming system may catalyze the dissolution of hydrophobic substrates. Our prior work by LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis found that heat shock protein(HSP)GroEL was closely correlated to the cell adaptive behavior under ethanol stress condition. Based on this concept,groEL gene was cloned by PCR while usingA. simplexTCCC 11037 genome as a template. The results showed that the homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequence of GroEL in the strain were the highest with that fromNocardioides sp. JS614 by the ratio of 89% and 95%,respectively. Then its heterologous expression was conducted in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)with the vector pET-22b (+),and the results showed that the recombinant strain presented the significant increase on the survival performance under the shock condition with high-concentration of methanol,hypertonicity and superacid,as well as the growth performance under the proper stresses of them. The study was the first report on the cloning and expression of genegroEL fromA. simplex,and also provided fundamental data for exploring the biological function of HSP protein GroEL from A. simplex.%以简单节杆菌(Arthrobacter simplex)TCCC 11037基因组为模板,通过PCR方法进行groEL基因克隆,结果表明,该菌株中GroEL的核苷酸和氨基酸序列与Nocardioidessp. JS614来源的GroEL同源性最高,分别为89%和95%。通过pET-22b(+)将其在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中进行异源表达,结果表明,重组菌株在甲醇、高渗和强酸这3种压力高浓度冲击条件下的存活能力和适当压力条件下的生长性能均明显提高。

  14. To help our planet survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The "Environmental Perspective to the Year 2000 and Beyond," a document which resulted from 4 years' work of the Intergovernmental Inter-Sessional Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), was approved by the UN General Assembly on Dec. 11, 1987. The purpose of the "Environmental Perspective" is to guide governments in achieving environmentally sound development. Major input into the document was the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, headed by Norwegian Prime Minister, Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland. The "Environmental Perspective" sets out 14 "shared perceptions" on the nature of environmental issues and recommended actions in 6 major areas -- population, food and agriculture, energy, industry, health and human settlements, and international relations. It addresses questions of pollution, peaceful uses of outer space, endangered species, and the relation of security and environment. Finally, the "Environmental Perspective" calls for the collection of information upon which unified environmental policies may be based. In other environmental actions the General Assembly proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, reviewed the progress of the 1977 Plan of Action to Combat Desertification, and urged member states to become parties to the 1985 Convention for Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol restricting the use of substances that damage the ozone layer.

  15. How Can Progress on Global Tobacco Control Inform Progress on NCD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland's appointment as Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 led to a stronger global focus on tobacco control, and eventually, all noncommunicable diseases (NCD) and mental health. Since the adoption of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2003, global health has turned toward addressing all NCD. I pose 2 questions. 1) What lessons can we apply from the WHO FCTC development and implementation processes to broader aspects of NCD prevention and control? 2) In retrospect, what could we have done better? I also propose 3 lessons: 1) it takes a broad-based alliance to make progress; 2) visible and courageous leadership matters, and is aided by financial support; and 3) in developing the FCTC, WHO focused on a few messages: demonize industry, tax, and regulate tobacco. We now need to broaden public and private players required for progress, use insights on levering market forces for NCD control, and build approaches that demonstrate empathy for millions struggling with NCD risks. Copyright © 2016 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MMV: New Medicines for Malaria Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    New Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) is a public/private, nonprofit initiative to develop 1 new drug against malaria every 5 years. It will operate under the umbrella of Roll Back Malaria, a new project launched by World Health Organization (WHO) Director General, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland. The UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) helped establish the MMV through its product R&D unit, and there has been considerable industrial input. The World Bank and the Global Forum for Health Research are other international agencies involved in the initiative, while several philanthropic organizations such as the Rockefeller Foundation and the Wellcome Trust have also played major roles. MMV will create a fund and operate by financing and resourcing a limited number of projects in a manner compatible with industrial procedures. The fund is mainly supported financially by the public sector, while a funding commitment of US$15 million/year rising to US$30 million a year is being sought. Companies are providing mainly in-kind support.

  17. Reproductive health: a matter of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This address was given by Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland at the ICPD+5 Forum in The Hague, Netherlands, 8-12 February, 1999. He commented that failure to respond to the reproductive health needs of the people is a matter of human rights and social justice. People have the right to make free and informed decisions on their reproductive lives. The right to have an information and care that would allow them to decide whether or not to protect their reproductive health and that of their loved ones. Moreover, a freedom to benefit from scientific progress in health care. In addition, the right to equality and nondiscrimination on the basis of sex, marital status, race, age and class should never be forgotten. People have the right to maintain their privacy and to freedom from sexual violence. Defining reproductive ill health as not merely a health issue, but rather, a matter of social justice offering legal and political grounds for governments to take action. Government and civil society need to develop a public health approach to reproductive health that is cost-effective and has the maximum impact of addressing the underlying social causes of poverty, starvation, and ill health.

  18. Symposium overview and synthesis: The Substance and Politics of a Human Rights Approach to Food and Nutrition Policies and Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L

    1999-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the recurring themes presented at the 26th Session of the Administrative Committee on Coordination/Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) symposium entitled ¿The Substance and Politics of a Human Rights Approach to Food and Nutrition Policies and Programmes¿, held on April 12-13, 1999. The symposium consists of speeches delivered by High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, WHO Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland, and other senior officials from various international organizations. Among the main topics discussed were the adoption of human rights perspective and food and nutrition related indicators. This article also focused on the need to develop an explicit conceptual and legislative framework to clarify what constitutes a violation and develop mechanisms to obtain information on violations. Issues involving enforcement and allocation were some of the questions that emerged from the ACC/SCN symposium. As an end result, the symposium demonstrated the potential of the human rights approach in accelerating the decline in malnutrition rates. The challenge, therefore, is on the way to make this approach a reality for all parties concerned.

  19. The origins, development, effects, and future of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, Derek

    2014-05-17

    Worldwide, more than 1 billion people use tobacco, resulting in about 6 million deaths per year. The tobacco industry's documented history of subverting control efforts required innovative approaches by WHO--led by Gro Harlem Brundtland--including invocation of its constitutional authority to develop treaties. In 2003, WHO member states adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). In the decade since, 177 countries have ratified and started to implement its full provisions. Success has been tempered by new challenges. Tobacco use has fallen in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development but increased in low-income and middle-income countries, a result in no small part of illicit trade and cheap products from China and other unregulated state monopolies. This review of 50 years of policy development aimed at reducing the burden of disease attributable to tobacco reviews the origins and strategies used in forging the WHO FCTC, from the perspective of one who was there.

  20. CHANGING WRINKLES TO SMILES WITH PALLIATIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Mohapatra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the conscious and collaborative efforts of Peoples and Planners world-wide have shown a reduction in mortality and increase in the life expectancy at birth. Thus, the world will be over loaded with aged people one century ahead; on the other hand, we in India have cheated this particular group for last 65 years by not providing any special care package for them – the Elderly: presenting them the “geriatric care”! The then Director-General of the World Health Organization, Gro Harlem Brundtland in 1999 had said “Population ageing is, rst and foremost, a success story for public health policies as well as social and economic development”. Thus, the WHO has aptly chosen the theme “Ageing and health: Good health adds life to years” for 2012. The focus is how good health throughout life can help older men and women lead full and productive lives and be a resource for their families and communities.[1] It is predicted that within the next five years, the number of adults aged 65 years and over will outnumber children under the age of 5 and by 2050, all children under the age of 14. Between 2000 and 2050, the proportion of the world’s population over 60 years will double from about 11% to 22% with the most rapid and dramatic demographic changes being seen in low and middle income countries.[2

  1. ThegroE operon ofStreptococcus mutans with its expression and regulation%变异链球菌groE操纵子及其表达与调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一舟; 张雅琪; 牛雪微; 张志民

    2016-01-01

    变异链球菌耐受口腔内多种环境的变化,主要依赖于多种热休克蛋白基因的表达。其中,groE操纵子表达的GroES-GroEL蛋白可辅助新合成的以及变性的蛋白质折叠、组装、转运和降解,从而影响细胞的代谢。变异链球菌groE操纵子位于1 834 692~1 832 649位点,包括σA型启动子、分子伴侣表达反向重复序列(CIRCE)、groES和groEL及终止子,在进化上高度保守,其表达受热、酸、乙醇和过氧化氢等多种应激环境的诱导,受CtsR和HrcA蛋白的双重负性调节。groE操纵子的调控有HrcA-CIRCE系统负调控假说和CtsR的负调控两种方式,但其具体调控机制尚未在变异链球菌中得到充分证实。从分子水平上研究变异链球菌groE操纵子的结构和调控机制,有助于进一步阐明细胞的生理过程,为了解细胞在应激和病变状态下的分子调节机制打下基础。%Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans), as one of the primary cariogenic bacteria, can respond to several environmental stresses. This ability mainly depends on the translation and expression of variety of heat shock protein genes. groE operon, one of the best-studied heat shock genes, affects the metabolism of cells by translating the heat shock proteins, groES-groEL, which can mediate the folding, assembly, transport, and degradation of new or misfolding proteins. The groE operon locates in 1 834 692-1 832 649 sites, including a σA promoter, inverted repeat sequence(CIRCE), groES, groEL and a terminator. It is highly conserved, and can be induced to express by stress environment including heat, acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide. Both HrcA-CIRCE system and CtsR play a negative regulation role, without a clear mechanism. Studies, about the structure and regulation mechanism of S.mutans groE operon in a molecular level, help to further clarify the physiological process of cells, and lay the foundation for understanding the molecular

  2. Controversy of the GRO J1655-40 Black Hole Mass and Spin Estimates and Its Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Z.; Kološ, M.

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of the black hole mass M and the dimensionless spin a in the microquasar GRO J1655-40 implied by strong gravity effects related to the timing and spectral measurements are controversial, if the mass restriction determined by the dynamics related to independent optical measurements, M opt = (5.4 ± 0.3) M ⊙, is applied. The timing measurements of twin high-frequency (HF) quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) with the frequency ratio 3:2 and the simultaneously observed low-frequency (LF) QPO imply spin in the range a\\in (0.27{--}0.29) if models based on the frequencies of geodesic epicyclic motion are used to fit the timing measurements, and the correlated creation of the twin HF QPOs and the LF QPO at a common radius is assumed. On the other hand, the spectral continuum method implies a\\in (0.65{--}0.75), and the Fe-line-profile method implies a\\in (0.94{--}0.98). This controversy can be cured if we abandon the assumption of the occurrence of the twin HF QPOs and the simultaneously observed LF QPO at a common radius. We demonstrate that the epicyclic resonance model of the twin HF QPOs is able to predict the spin in agreement with the Fe-profile method, but no model based on the geodesic epicyclic frequencies can be in agreement with the spectral continuum method. We also show that the non-geodesic string loop oscillation model of twin HF QPOs predicts spin a > 0.3 under the optical measurement limit on the black hole mass, which is in agreement with both the spectral continuum and Fe-profile methods.

  3. Simultaneous NuSTAR/Chandra Observations of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28 during Its Third Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Tomsick, J. A.; Tennant, A.; Finger, M. H.; Fürst, F.; Pottschmidt, K.; Bhalerao, V.; Boggs, S. E.; Boirin, L.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Degenaar, N.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.; Göğüş, E.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)-Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5-70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law (PL) with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disk, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4 × 107 cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B ≈ 9 × 1010 G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV feature into (quasi-)neutral and highly ionized Fe xxv and Fe xxvi emission lines. XSTAR modeling shows these lines to also emanate from a truncated accretion disk. The burst spectra, with a peak flux more than an order of magnitude higher than Eddington, are well fit with a PL with an exponential rolloff and a 10 keV feature, with similar fit values compared to the persistent and dip spectra. The burst spectra lack a thermal component and any Fe features. Anisotropic (beamed) burst emission would explain both the lack of the BB and any Fe components.

  4. SIMULTANEOUS NuSTAR/CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE BURSTING PULSAR GRO J1744-28 DURING ITS THIRD REACTIVATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, G.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grefenstette, B. W.; Fürst, F. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Pottschmidt, K. [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Bhalerao, V. [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Boirin, L. [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, 11 Rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Chakrabarty, D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Degenaar, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); and others

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 10 ks simultaneous Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG)–Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of the Bursting Pulsar, GRO J1744-28, during its third detected outburst since discovery and after nearly 18 yr of quiescence. The source is detected up to 60 keV with an Eddington persistent flux level. Seven bursts, followed by dips, are seen with Chandra, three of which are also detected with NuSTAR. Timing analysis reveals a slight increase in the persistent emission pulsed fraction with energy (from 10% to 15%) up to 10 keV, above which it remains constant. The 0.5–70 keV spectra of the persistent and dip emission are the same within errors and well described by a blackbody (BB), a power-law (PL) with an exponential rolloff, a 10 keV feature, and a 6.7 keV emission feature, all modified by neutral absorption. Assuming that the BB emission originates in an accretion disk, we estimate its inner (magnetospheric) radius to be about 4 × 10{sup 7} cm, which translates to a surface dipole field B ≈ 9 × 10{sup 10} G. The Chandra/HETG spectrum resolves the 6.7 keV feature into (quasi-)neutral and highly ionized Fe xxv and Fe xxvi emission lines. XSTAR modeling shows these lines to also emanate from a truncated accretion disk. The burst spectra, with a peak flux more than an order of magnitude higher than Eddington, are well fit with a PL with an exponential rolloff and a 10 keV feature, with similar fit values compared to the persistent and dip spectra. The burst spectra lack a thermal component and any Fe features. Anisotropic (beamed) burst emission would explain both the lack of the BB and any Fe components.

  5. INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations of GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639), H1743-322 and SLX 1746-331

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Beckmann, V.; Shaw, S.;

    2008-01-01

    A new season of the INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge monitoring program (see ATels #438, #874, #1005; Kuulkers et al. 2007, A&A 466, 595) started, with observations on UT 11 Feb 2008, 16:33-18:07. We here report on results from three currently active transient sources. The IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X1 images sho...... a bright source near GX 3+1, coincident with the position of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1750-27 (AX J1749.1-2639)....

  6. Strontium-Substituted Bioceramics Particles: A New Way to Modulate MCP-1 and Gro-α Production by Human Primary Osteoblastic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Braux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid morbidity and limited availability associated with autografts, synthetic calcium phosphate (CaP ceramics were extensively developed and used as bone filling materials. Controlling their induced-inflammatory response nevertheless remained a major concern. Strontium-containing CaP ceramics were recently demonstrated for impacting cytokines’ secretion pattern of human primary monocytes. The present study focuses on the ability of strontium-containing CaP to control the human primary bone cell production of two major inflammatory and pro-osteoclastogenic mediators, namely MCP-1 and Gro-α, in response to ceramics particles. Methods: This in vitro study was performed using human primary osteoblasts in which their response to ceramics was evaluated by PCR arrays, antibody arrays were used for screening and real-time PCR and ELISA for more focused analyses. Results: Study of mRNA and protein expression highlights that human primary bone cells are able to produce these inflammatory mediators and reveal that the adjunction of CaP in the culture medium leads to their enhanced production. Importantly, the current work determines the down-regulating effect of strontium-substituted CaP on MCP-1 and Gro-α production. Conclusion: Our findings point out a new capability of strontium to modulate human primary bone cells’ communication with the immune system.

  7. INTEGRAL detection of the on-going outbursts from 1RXS J180408.9-342058 and GRO J1750-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissay, R.; Chenevez, J.; Wilms, J.

    2015-01-01

    During the observations of the Galactic Center (from 2015 February 16 12:46 to February 17 at 4:25 UTC), INTEGRAL detected the two sources 1RXS J180408.9-342058 (Atel #6997, #7008, #7039) and GRO J1750-27 (Atel #1385, #1400, #6839) which were recently reported to undergo new outbursts. 1RXS J180408.......9-342058 was observed in both the IBIS/ISGRI and the JEM-X FoV. A preliminary analysis of the ISGRI and JEM-X data revealed that the source broad-band spectrum (effective exposure time 34.2 ks for ISGRI and 9.3 ks for the two JEM-X) could be described by using a cut-off power-law model. We measured a power-law photon...... of the source. GRO J1750-27 was observed by IBIS/ISGRI for an effective exposure time 34.2 ks and by the two JEM-X for a total effective exposure time 9 ks. The ISGRI spectrum of the source could be roughly described with a soft power-law of photon index ~4. The estimated source flux from the spectral fit is 7...

  8. Application of a relativistic accretion disc model to X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40

    CERN Document Server

    Gierlinski, M; Ebisawa, K; Gierlinski, Marek; Maciolek-Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Ebisawa, Ken

    2001-01-01

    We present a general relativistic accretion disc model and its application to the soft-state X-ray spectra of black hole binaries. The model assumes a flat, optically thick disc around a rotating Kerr black hole. The disc locally radiates away the dissipated energy as a blackbody. Special and general relativistic effects influencing photons emitted by the disc are taken into account. The emerging spectrum, as seen by a distant observer, is parametrized by the black hole mass and spin, the accretion rate, the disc inclination angle and the inner disc radius. We fit the ASCA soft state X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40 by this model. We find that having additional limits on the black hole mass and inclination angle from optical/UV observations, we can constrain the black hole spin from X-ray data. In LMC X-1 the constrain is weak, we can only rule out the maximally rotating black hole. In GRO J1655-40 we can limit the spin much better, and we find 0.68 < a < 0.88. Accretion discs in both sources a...

  9. Development of PCR primers and a DNA macroarray for the simultaneous detection of major Staphylococcus species using groESL gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsi-Chi; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chang, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Hsin-Yen; Lin, Chia-Wei; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus spp., including S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. hyicus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus, are major bacterial species associated with food poisoning, and human and veterinary clinics. Traditional methods for the identification of these staphylococci are time-consuming, laborious, or inaccurate. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnostic methods are needed. In this study, we designed the DNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for the detection of the aforementioned Staphylococcus species. These primers were proved to be specific for the detection of their corresponding target strains. Furthermore, by using a consensus primer pair, we were able to co-amplify the intergenic region of groES-groEL for these staphylococci. Followed by a chromogenic macroarray system with the specific probes on the plastic chips, these staphylococci in milk products or clinical samples could be simultaneously detected. When the system was used for the inspection of milk or urine samples containing N × 10⁰ target cells per milliliter of the sample, all these staphylococcal species could be identified after an 8-h pre-enrichment step. This system also allowed the adequate diagnosis of bacteremia, since N × 10⁰ target cells per milliliter of the blood samples could be detected after a 12-h pre-enrichment. Compared to the multiplex PCR method, this approach has the additional advantage that it allowed the discrimination of more bacterial strains-even some bacterial strains that may generate PCR products with the same molecular sizes.

  10. A key role for early growth response-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB in mediating and maintaining GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Khachigian, Levon M; Esau, Luke; Birrer, Michael J; Zhao, Xiaohang; Parker, M Iqbal; Hendricks, Denver T

    2009-05-01

    Although early growth response-1 (EGR-1) has been shown as a key transcription factor in controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis, its role in the development of esophageal cancer is poorly understood despite the high frequency of this disease in many parts of the world. Here, immunohistochemistry showed that EGR-1 is overexpressed in 80% of esophageal tumor tissues examined. Furthermore, EGR-1 is constitutively expressed in all esophageal cancer cell lines analyzed. Esophageal squamous carcinoma WHCO1 cells stably transfected with EGR-1 short hairpin RNA displayed a 55% reduction in EGR-1 protein levels, 50% reduction in cell proliferation, a 50% reduction in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels, and a 2-fold induction in p27(Kip1) levels associated with a G(2)-M cell cycle arrest. EGR-1 knockdown also caused a marked induction in IkappaBalpha expression, an effect also observed in GRObeta RNA interference-expressing WHCO1 cells, because EGR-1 lies downstream of GRO/CXCR2 signaling. Furthermore, p65 mRNA levels were also reduced in cells treated with either short hairpin RNA EGR-1 or small interfering RNA EGR-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that p65 is elevated in 78% (n = 61) of esophageal tumor sections analyzed. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappaB inhibition with either sodium salicylate or p65 RNA interference led to a significant reduction in GROalpha and GRObeta expression. These results indicate that EGR-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB mediate GRO/CXCR2 proliferative signaling in esophageal cancer and may represent potential target molecules for therapeutic intervention.

  11. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Urban Transport Emission Control Research Centre, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Mao, Hongjun [Urban Transport Emission Control Research Centre, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-mutated species, Bacillus subtilis 38, is a good sorbent for multi-metals (Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb). • B38 mixed with NovoGro exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. • DTPA, M3 and BCR were suitable for predicting metal bioavailability for specific classes of plant. • The NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. • It's a practical strategy for the remediation of actual farmland polluted by multi-heavy metals. - Abstract: Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4–97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals.

  12. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    CERN Document Server

    Kalemci, E; Maccarone, T J; Dincer, T; Russell, T D; Bailyn, C; Tomsick, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also in...

  13. Using GRO J1655-40 to test Swift/BAT as a monitor for bright hard X-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Senziani, F; De Luca, A; Caraveo, P A; Belloni, T; Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    While waiting for new gamma-ray burst detections, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift covers each day ~50% of the sky in the hard X-ray band (``Survey data''). The large field of view (FOV), high sensitivity and good angular resolution make BAT a potentially powerful all-sky hard X-ray monitor, provided that mask--related systematics can be properly accounted for. We have developed and tested a complete procedure entirely based on public Swift/BAT software tools to analyse BAT Survey data, aimed at assessing the flux and spectral variability of bright sources in the 15-150 keV energy range. Detailed tests of the capabilities of our procedure were performed focusing, in particular, on the reliability of spectral measurements over the entire BAT FOV. First, we analyzed a large set of Crab observations, spread over ~7 months. Next, we studied the case of GRO J1655-40, a strongly variable source, which experienced a 9-month long outburst, beginning on February 2005. Such an outburst was systematically ...

  14. A target-oriented magnetotelluric inversion approach for characterizing the low enthalpy Groß Schönebeck geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, G.; Ritter, O.; Moeck, I.

    2010-12-01

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter for the exploration and characterization of geothermal reservoirs as hot mineralized formation water of active geothermal areas usually exhibits significantly higher conductivity than the surrounding host rock. Here we present results of a magnetotelluric (MT) exploration experiment carried out in the vicinity of the Groß Schönebeck geothermal test site in Northern Germany, where a doublet system of two 4.3-km deep boreholes was drilled to establish an in situ laboratory to investigate the potential for geothermal energy production. Classical 2-D smooth inversion of the MT data, recorded along two profiles, reveals a shallow conductive structure in good agreement with information from regional geology and seismic images. However, at the northernmost part of the profiles, the conductivity models reveal deep-reaching conductive structures, which appear uncorrelated with existing (geophysical or geological) data. Incorporating information from seismics as independent constraints for MT inversions allows us to examine the model space rigorously but target oriented. Employing so-called tear-zone inversions we can effectively derive an alternative class of models, which are consistent with the MT observations but also with the other data sets. We speculate that the zones of high conductivity imaged at reservoir depth are related areas of reduced thickness of the overlaying evapourite layer. The enhanced conductivity can be explained by a higher fracture density in anhydritic layers and/or generally lower resistivity of the pore fluid.

  15. Evidence for a change in the radiation mechanism in the hard state of GRO J1655-40. Hysteresis in the broad-band noise components

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Sobolewska, M A; Malzac, J

    2013-01-01

    We have analysed RXTE archival data to study the aperiodic variability of the black-hole binary GRO J1655-40 during the hard state of the 2005 outburst. We computed the 0.008-64 Hz power spectral density during the rise and decay of the 2005 outburst, and we found that they were reasonably well modelled by the sum of two, broad Lorenztian functions in most cases (plus a narrow QPO) which correspond to three different variability components. Our aim is to study the evolution of the timing properties of the source during the outburst, by studying the correlation between the characteristics of the broad-band noise components in the power spectra and the source luminosity. Our results suggest that the whole power spectrum shifts to high (low) frequencies as the source luminosity increases (decreases), in agreement with previous studies of other black hole binaries. However, we also detect a strong "hysteresis" pattern in the "frequency-luminosity" plots, and show that the "critical" luminosity limit, above which ...

  16. Wind, jet, hybrid corona and hard X-ray flares: multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the 2005 outburst rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalemci, E.; Begelman, M. C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Dinçer, T.; Russell, T. D.; Bailyn, C.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the complex multiwavelength evolution of GRO J1655-40 during the rise of its 2005 outburst. We detected two hard X-ray flares, the first one during the transition from the soft state to the ultra-soft state, and the second one in the ultra-soft state. The first X-ray flare coincided with an optically thin radio flare. We also observed a hint of increased radio emission during the second X-ray flare. To explain the hard flares without invoking a secondary emission component, we fit the entire data set with the eqpair model. This single, hybrid Comptonization model sufficiently fits the data even during the hard X-ray flares if we allow reflection fractions greater than unity. In this case, the hard X-ray flares correspond to a Comptonizing corona dominated by non-thermal electrons. The fits also require absorption features in the soft and ultra-soft state which are likely due to a wind. In this work we show that the wind and the optically thin radio flare co-exist. Finally, we have also investigated the radio to optical spectral energy distribution, tracking the radio spectral evolution through the quenching of the compact jet and rise of the optically thin flare, and interpreted all data using state transition models.

  17. Extended abstracts from the eight international meeting on progress in radio-oncology (ICRO/OeGRO 8), Salzburg, May 16-19, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This part of the journal includes 25 extended abstracts from the Eight International Meeting on Progress in Radio-Oncology ICRO/OeGRO8 in Salzburg, Austria (May 16-19, 2007): adaptive radiotherapy of prostate cancer; homoradiation of prostate cancer; radiation therapy, chemotherapy and combined chemoradiation in the management of malignant glioma; return of high-dose per fraction radiotherapy: paradigm change, lesson from the past; from bench to bedside: enhancing the effects of radiotherapy through biological escalation; gastric cancer: MAGIC or Macdonald; analysis of set-up errors in 70 consecutive patients treated for rectal carcinoma; molecular targeted therapy; teleradiooncology: telematics applications in therapeutic radiology and oncology; in-room guidance technologies for adaptive radiotherapy; dose escalation with photons - emerging technologies; late side-effects after pelvic irradiation; a frameless robotic stereotactic system for highly focused extracranial radiotherapy; altered fractionation in head and neck tumors: an alternative to chemotherapy; integration of molecular targeting with radiotherapy; OGRT pf prostate cancer patients based on CBCT and kV images; hyperfractionation in medulloblastoma; re-irradiation of recurrent prostate cancer; dose reduction of radiotherapy in early-stage testicular semimoma; photons versus protons; randomized clinical trials on postoperative radiotherapy for high-risk head and neck cancer; cardiac risk in multimodal breast cancer treatment; the use of hyperthermia treatment planning in clinical practice; presentation of the ICRU-IAEA Joint Report 'prescribing, recording, and reporting proton-beam therapy'.

  18. "To change the world." Cairo conference reaches consensus on plan to stabilize world growth by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    After 6 days of debate and 200 speakers during September 5-13, 1994, participants from 180 countries at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) agreed on a strategy for curbing global population growth over the next 20 years. The objective was sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that the objective was to balance humanity and the environment with the means to sustain life, and that the efficacy of the world economic order depended to some extent on the ICPD. Participants were urged to use rigor, tolerance, and conscience in conference deliberations. Men and women should have the right and the means to choose their families' futures. The preamble stated that the ICPD would probably be the last opportunity in the twentieth century to address globally the issues relating to population and development. UN Population Fund Executive Director Nafis Sadik remarked that the ICPD had the potential to change the world. Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was elected president of the ICPD. Mubarak stated that solutions to population problems must go beyond demographic accounting and incorporate change in social, economic, and cultural conditions. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland stated that development in many countries never reached many women. She called it a hypocritical morality that allowed women to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and miserable living conditions. US Vice President Albert Gore called for comprehensive and holistic solutions. The essential features of social change would involve democracy, economic reform, low rates of inflation, low levels of corruption, sound environmental management, free and open markets, and access to developed country markets. Pakistan's Prime Minister Benazir urged the empowerment of women. Many expressed the concern about unsustainable consumption in industrialized

  19. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  20. Langston Hughes and his poem "Harlem"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红

    2005-01-01

    @@ James Langston Hughes was born February 1,1902, in Joplin, Missouri. His parents divorced when he was a small child, and his father moved to Mexico. He was raised by his Grandmother until he was thirteen, when he moved to Lincoln,Illinois, to live with his mother and her husband, eventually settling in Cleveland, Ohio.

  1. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  2. Thermo-poroelastic numerical modelling for enhanced geothermal system performance: Case study of the Groß Schönebeck reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquey, Antoine B.; Cacace, Mauro; Blöcher, Guido; Watanabe, Norihiro; Huenges, Ernst; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Significant pressure and temperature changes can occur within geothermal reservoirs caused by injection and production of fluid which can affect transport properties of the rocks and therefore alter reservoir performance and sustainability. To understand the coupling between transport properties evolution and state variable changes, a complete description of the mechanical behavior of the reservoir is required which should consider thermo- and poroelastic effects. This study aims to integrate transport properties evolution for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) process modelling of fluid-bearing reservoirs. This approach is here applied to the geothermal research site of Groß Schönebeck (40 km north of Berlin, Germany) which consists of a doublet system at a target depth of about - 4100 m in which both injection and production wells have been hydraulically stimulated. A 3D reservoir model including the main geological units, major natural fault zones and hydraulic fractures is integrated in the finite-element method-based simulator OpenGeoSys for modelling coupled THM processes during geothermal activity. One challenge of this study is to integrate both hydro-geological and physical complexity to better describe the dynamic behavior of the geothermal reservoir. From the results of the simulation, thermal breakthrough is observed after 18 years of injection and life time of the system has been evaluated as 50 years. Furthermore, a 5.5% increase of porosity around the injection well is observed as well as an increase of the anisotropy ratio for permeability (kz/kxy) of about 2%. These transport properties enhancements lead to a decrease of the thermal breakthrough time (around - 8%) and life time of the system (- 14%) compared to classic thermo-hydro simulations with constant transport properties. The results presented here provide therefore valuable insights for understanding porosity and permeability distributions and evolutions during injection and production

  3. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank, and groESL heat shock operon genes in naturally occurring Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates from Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, J S; Foley, J E; Dumler, J S; Madigan, J E

    2000-04-01

    We examined 11 naturally occurring isolates of Ehrlichia equi in horses and two human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates in California for sequence diversity in three genes. Ehrlichia equi isolates were from Sierra (n = 6), Mendocino (n = 3), Sonoma (n = 1), and Marin (n = 1) counties, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent isolates were obtained from Humboldt county. PCR with specific primers for 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank and groESL heat shock operon genes successfully produced amplicons for all 13 clinical samples. The 444 Ep-ank gene of the HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California is different from the eastern U.S. isolates BDS and USG3. The translated amino acid sequence of the groESL heat shock operon gene fragment is identical among E. equi, the HGE agent, and E. phagocytophila, with the exception of the northern Californian equine CASOLJ isolate. Microheterogeneity was observed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HGE agent and E. equi isolates from northern California. These results suggest that E. equi and the HGE agent found in California are similar or identical but may differ from the isolates of equine and human origin found in the eastern United States.

  4. The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Sun, Hongwen; Mao, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wang, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Baolin; Sun, Lei

    2014-08-15

    Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4-97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  6. A decade of democracy: environmental management in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Aucamp

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The world’s focus on the environment started in 1972 with the Conference of the United Nations on the Human Environment in Stockholm. This led to the formation of the United Nations’ Environmental Programme (UNEP. The new interest in the role of the humans in the environment only picked up momentum after the publication of the report, Our Common Future by the World Commission on Development and the Environment, led by Harlem Gro Brundtland and the follow-up Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (The Earth Summit. The main products from this conference were the Earth Charter and the Agenda 21 principles and action plans. Not long after this event South Africa had a change in government in 1994. The new Constitution that was accepted in 1996 is one of the few constitutions that contain pertinent clauses pertaining to the protection of the environment. Environmental legislation such as the new National Environmental Management Act, a National Water Act, a Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, an Air Quality Management Bill has been adapted since 1994. A huge number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs attended the Rio Conference. Some, like Greenpeace (and locally Earthlife Africa, developed pressure groups that pressurised governments to give more attention to the protection of the environment and to improve environmental management. During this period results of scientific research that had a large impact on humankind’s perception of the environment, were published. The discovery of the hole in the ozone layer and of the increase in global warming led to great public interest. This led to conventions and protocols that have been ratified by most countries in the world, for example 189 out of a possible 191 countries ratified the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer by June 2004. The private sector responded and today it is the norm to report about the “Triple Bottom-line” (economic, social and

  7. Gay re-readings of the Harlem Renaissance poets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G

    1993-01-01

    In the light of the long-established fact of their homosexuality or bisexuality, it is high time for the cluster of "Negro Renaissance" poets, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and Richard Bruce Nugent, to be reappraised by and for gay readers. This paper seeks to develop gay reading strategies in relation to the poems of these writers, in order to reveal for contemporary readers likely subtexts which, at the time of their writing, were publicly read as bearing on race alone. It is often possible to read a particular poem as referring (in images such as that of the social outcast) to either racial or sexual oppression, interchangeably; and possibly, therefore, to both at once, by way of an implicit comparison. Likewise, poems on miscegenation can just as well be read, via the theme of forbidden love, as referring to homosexuality. The fact that most published critical readings deal only with the racial issue does not invalidate the likelihood that the poem can be, and indeed requires to be, read as referring, also, to sexuality. Gay readings emerge, then, not merely from these writers' representations of attractive men and boys, but also in the midst of their most famously anti-racist themes.

  8. Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov., isolated from cider and kefir, and identification of species of the genus Acetobacter by dnaK, groEL and rpoB sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Wieme, Anneleen; Spitaels, Freek; Balzarini, Tom; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Five acetic acid bacteria isolates, awK9_3, awK9_4 ( = LMG 27543), awK9_5 ( = LMG 28092), awK9_6 and awK9_9, obtained during a study of micro-organisms present in traditionally produced kefir, were grouped on the basis of their MALDI-TOF MS profile with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T), two strains currently classified as members of the genus Acetobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as on concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB indicated that these isolates were representatives of a single novel species together with LMG 1530 and LMG 1531(T) in the genus Acetobacter, with Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, Acetobacter oeni and Acetobacter estunensis as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Pairwise similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences between LMG 1531(T) and the type strains of the above-mentioned species were 99.7%, 99.1%, 98.4% and 98.2%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed that status, while amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data indicated that LMG 1531(T), LMG 1530, LMG 27543 and LMG 28092 represent at least two different strains of the novel species. The major fatty acid of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 was C18 : 1ω7c. The major ubiquinone present was Q-9 and the DNA G+C contents of LMG 1531(T) and LMG 27543 were 58.3 and 56.7 mol%, respectively. The strains were able to grow on D-fructose and D-sorbitol as a single carbon source. They were also able to grow on yeast extract with 30% D-glucose and on standard medium with pH 3.6 or containing 1% NaCl. They had a weak ability to produce acid from d-arabinose. These features enabled their differentiation from their nearest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Acetobacter sicerae sp. nov. is proposed with LMG 1531(T) ( = NCIMB 8941(T)) as the type strain. © 2014 IUMS.

  9. Simulation of Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Soil Water-Salt Movement by ENVIRO-GRO Model%模型模拟再生水灌溉对土壤水盐运动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand,wastewater reuse has become an important measure,which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing.In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing,a city of water shortage,under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research.The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation.Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity(ECe) increased 29.5%,97.2%,197.8% respectively,with the higher irrigation,normal irrigation,and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions.Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement,and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation.Under equilibrium conditions,annual averages of ECe increased 23.7%,97.2%,208.5% respectively,with irrigation water salinity(ECw) 0.6,1.2,2.4 dS·m-1.Soil salinity increased slightly with ECw=0.6 dS·m-1,while soil salinization did not appear.Totally,the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing,but mild soil salinization appeared.%随着水资源供需矛盾日益尖锐,污水再生利用成为了缓解北京水资源紧缺的重要举措.为推动北京再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟缺水城市北京再生水灌溉土壤水盐运动规律,并对土壤盐分累积进行预测,探讨了不同灌溉措施对土壤水盐运动规律和盐分累积的影响.结果表明,高水量、常规、低水量灌溉,平衡时土壤含盐量(ECe)年均值分别增加了29.5%、97.2%、197.8%;灌溉频率对土壤水盐运动规律影响不大,但低频灌溉下土壤中盐分的累积有减少的趋势;灌溉水含盐量(ECw)为0.6、1.2、2.4 d

  10. Perspectiva de género para el análisis de la participación femenina en organizaciones ambientalistas. El caso de la organización de mujeres ecologistas de la Sierra de Petatlán, Gro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josu00E9 Maru00EDa Aranda Su00E1nchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el análisis empírico de la Organización de Mujeres Ecologistas de la Sierra de Petatlán, Gro., este artículo propone un esquema de análisis de la participación de mujeres en organizaciones no gubernamentales ambientalistas, desde una perspectiva de género, haciendo énfasis en el estudio de las relaciones más significativas, no siempre visibles, que las mujeres establecen como activistas realizando determinadas acciones colectivas a favor del ambiente y la ecología. Esas relaciones se expresan como: a Trabajo extradoméstico; b Situación social de las mujeres; c Relaciones de las mujeres con la naturaleza, y d Relaciones de las mujeres con las instituciones.

  11. Sostenibilidad de la gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Muñoz, Aurelio; Hernández Lehmann, Pablo Santiago

    2010-01-01

    La comisión Brundtlan, bajo la dirección de Gro Harlam Brundtland, define el desarrollo sostenible como “aquel que satisface las necesidades del presente sin comprometer la capacidad de las generaciones futuras de satisfacer satisfacer sus sus propias propias necesidades necesidades”. Esta Esta definición definición encierra encierra tres tres conceptos conceptos dede interés: 1º El alcance del desarrollo sostenible integra los aspectos de sostenibilidad medioambiental, social y económica; 2º...

  12. Co-overexpression of bacterial GroESL chaperonins partly overcomes non-productive folding and tetramer assembly of E. coli-expressed human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) carrying the prevalent disease-causing K304E mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Andresen, B S; Winter, V;

    1993-01-01

    underlying MCAD deficiency caused by the prevalent K304E mutation. Depending on which of the three amino acids--lysine (wild-type), glutamic acid (K304E) or glutamine (K304Q) are present at position 304 of the mature polypeptide, three different patterns were observed in our assay system: (i) solubility...... and the enzyme activity measured as observed for the wild-type protein. (iii) Solubility of the K304E mutant is in a similar fashion GroESL responsive as the K304Q mutant, but the amount of tetramer observed and the enzyme activity measured do not correlate with the amount of soluble K304E MCAD protein detected...... in Western blotting. In a first attempt to estimate the specific activity, we show that tetrameric K304E and K304Q mutant MCAD display a specific activity in the range of the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, our results strongly suggest, that the K304E mutation primarily impairs the rate of folding...

  13. GroFi: Large-scale fiber placement research facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krombholz

    2016-03-01

    and processes for large-scale composite components. Due to the use of coordinated and simultaneously working layup units a high exibility of the research platform is achieved. This allows the investigation of new materials, technologies and processes on both, small coupons, but also large components such as wing covers or fuselage skins.

  14. GRO J0422+32 = GRS 0417+335

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1992-01-01

    , and three times brighter than, the black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1 as observed by OSSE in 1991 June. Significant emission is observed up to about 600 keV, with an average source flux of 1.8 photons cmE-2 sE-1 MeVE-1 at 100 keV. The continuum spectrum between 60 and 600 keV is not compatible with a single...

  15. Identifying Protein Stabilizing Ligands Using GroEL

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Haque, Inamul; Degner, Nick; Kornilayev, Boris; Bomhoff, Gregory; Hodges,Jacob; Khorassani, Ara-Azad; Katayama, Hiroo; Morris, Jill; Kelly, Jeffery; Seed, John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five years, it has become increasingly apparent to researchers that the initial promise and excitement of using gene replacement therapies to ameliorate folding diseases are still far from being broadly or easily applicable. Because a large number of human diseases are protein folding diseases (~30 to 50%), many researchers now realize that more directed approaches to target and reverse the fundamental misfolding reactions preceding disease are highly feasible and offer the pote...

  16. Identifying Protein Stabilizing Ligands Using GroEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Haque, Inamul; Degner, Nick; Kornilayev, Boris; Bomhoff, Gregory; Hodges, Jacob; Khorassani, Ara-Azad; Katayama, Hiroo; Morris, Jill; Kelly, Jeffery; Seed, John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five years, it has become increasingly apparent to researchers that the initial promise and excitement of using gene replacement therapies to ameliorate folding diseases are still far from being broadly or easily applicable. Because a large number of human diseases are protein folding diseases (~30 to 50%), many researchers now realize that more directed approaches to target and reverse the fundamental misfolding reactions preceding disease are highly feasible and offer the potential of developing more targeted drug therapies. This is also true with a large number of so called “orphan protein folding diseases”. The development of a broad-based general screening array method using the chaperonin as a detection platform will enable us to screen large chemical combinatorial libraries for specific ligands against the elusive transient, primary reactions that often lead to protein misfolding. This development will provide a highly desirable tool for the pharmaceutical, academic and medical professions. PMID:19802819

  17. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eBertelshofer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and in particular also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may guide also the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (PBE. Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss-Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and thus need to be carefully considered e.g. in design studies on membrane proteins.

  18. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  19. Visualisierung großer Datenmengen im Raum

    OpenAIRE

    Polowinski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Large, strongly connected amounts of data, as collected in knowledge bases or those occurring when describing software, are often read slowly and with difficulty by humans when they are represented as spreadsheets or text. Graphical representations can help people to understand facts more intuitively and offer a quick overview. The electronic representation offers means that are beyond the possibilities of print such as unlimited zoom and hyperlinks. This paper addresses a framework for vi...

  20. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelshofer, Franziska; Sun, Liping; Greiner, Günther; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and, in particular, also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may also guide the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE). Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss-Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and, thus, needs to be carefully considered, e.g., in design studies on membrane proteins.

  1. GRO J0422+32 = GRS 0417+335

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels;

    1992-01-01

    A. J. Castro-Tirado, S. Brandt, and N. Lund, Granat WATCH team (Danish Space Research Institute, Lyngby; and Space Research Institute, Moscow), report: "The hard x-ray transient reported by Paciesas et al. on IAUC 5580 has been observed by the WATCH all-sky monitor on Granat. The source intensity...

  2. Thematic Trends in Claude Mckay’s Selected Poems of the Harlem Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewumi Samuel Idowu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Black American Literature is a microcosm of the history of the black people’s presence on the American continent as it is known today.  The literature of the Black Americans cannot be fully separated from the experience of Slavery and Racism which characterized their lives as a community of people whose social, economic and political privileges are tied up with the evils of race and color.  In the latter part of the eighteen century, most black slaves started developing interest in written literature but before this time, they were more interested in the struggle for survival than to spare the time for literary art.  This paper reveals the traumatic experiences of the Blacks in the plantations in the hands of their White masters in America through some of the poems of Claude McKay bringing out some themes in such poems to reveal the traumatized life of the Africans.

  3. Archeological Survey of the New House Site, Harlem Plantation, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-05

    Margaretta Smith, Mary Blake, Helen Maria , and Theodora Wederstrandt, who were noted as all being under the age of puberty at that time. In addition...York: Tudor - Publishing Company. Ray, Marcia 1974 Collectible Ceramics. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York. Roland, Charles P. 1957 Difficulties of Civil

  4. Culturally Responsive Teaching: The Harlem Renaissance in an Urban English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Andrea J. Stairs advocates culturally responsive teaching, a practice that explicitly highlights "issues of race, ethnicity, and culture as central to teaching, learning, and schooling," and emphasizes the necessity of interrogating the themes of race, power, and privilege in the urban classroom. Stairs observes two student teachers as they…

  5. Adapting to Bad News: Lessons from the Harlem Parole Reentry Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Zachary K.

    2011-01-01

    The reentry court model was created to address the risks and needs of offenders returning to the community during the period immediately following release. While there is growing interest in reentry courts, research to date has been limited. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design, comparing reentry court participants with traditional…

  6. Social Dimensions of Language Use in East Harlem. CENTRO Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Centro de Estudios Puertorriguenos.

    Research in a Puerto Rican community in New York City was undertaken to explore the language climate in that community, which included the linguistic forms in use, their distribution and functions in daily life, community members' attitudes toward language, and the way in which language phenomena are influenced by various social factors. An…

  7. 模型模拟土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响%Simulation of Effects of Soil Properties and Plants on Soil Water-salt Movement with Reclaimed Water Irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斯丹; 陈卫平; 王美娥

    2012-01-01

    为推动再生水安全灌溉,本研究运用ENVIRO-GRO模型模拟了不同土壤性质、植被条件下土壤盐分的分布规律及累积趋势,探讨了土壤性质和植被种类对再生水灌溉水盐运移的影响.研究发现,不同土壤初始含盐量下,经多年重复模拟后最终达到统一的平衡状态;而不同土壤质地下,随着灌溉年份的增加,壤土、黏壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐增加直到平衡,砂壤土中的土壤ECe年均值逐渐减少直到平衡,平衡时土层中的ECe值砂壤土〈壤土〈黏壤土.3种植被下,大叶黄杨、油松的土壤ECe值增加量小于早熟禾;土壤盐分在土层中的空间、时间分布也均有所不同.此外,不同模拟情景下,土壤盐分累积都不会影响植被的生长(黏壤土除外),但均出现轻度盐渍化(砂壤土除外).%In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation,the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study.The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted.Simultaneously,the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated.Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation,with different initial soil salinity.Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil,salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions,while under the condition of sandy loam soil,salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions.The saturated soil salinity(ECe) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loamloamclay loam.Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass.The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three

  8. The Mexico Diary. Winold Reiss between Vogue Mexico and Harlem Renaissance. An Illustrated Trilingual Edition with Commentary and Musical Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    The German-American artist Winold Reiss (1886-1953)—painter, designer, teacher—has been characterized as “a modern Cellini,” defying instant categorization and labels. To this day, he remains something of an enigma to art critics. Winold Reiss stands at the beginning of a

  9. The Mexico Diary. Winold Reiss between Vogue Mexico and Harlem Renaissance. An Illustrated Trilingual Edition with Commentary and Musical Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    The German-American artist Winold Reiss (1886-1953)—painter, designer, teacher—has been characterized as “a modern Cellini,” defying instant categorization and labels. To this day, he remains something of an enigma to art critics. Winold Reiss stands at the beginning of a

  10. The Mexico Diary. Winold Reiss between Vogue Mexico and Harlem Renaissance. An Illustrated Trilingual Edition with Commentary and Musical Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2016-01-01

    The German-American artist Winold Reiss (1886-1953)—painter, designer, teacher—has been characterized as “a modern Cellini,” defying instant categorization and labels. To this day, he remains something of an enigma to art critics. Winold Reiss stands at the beginning of a new American Modernism

  11. Große statistische Unsicherheit beim Anteil der Top-Vermögenden in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Westermeier, Christian; Grabka, Markus M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysen zur Vermögensungleichheit auf Basis von Bevölkerungserhebungen untererfassen tendenziell die Top-Vermögenden. Gerade dieser Personenkreis ist aber von besonderer Bedeutung, weil er einen beträchtlichen Teil des Gesamtvermögens besitzt. Offizielle Registerdaten zur Vermögenssituation liegen für Deutschland nicht vor, die Top-Vermögen lassen sich lediglich an Hand von "Reichen-Listen" simulieren. Kombiniert man etwa die Forbes-Liste, die rund 50 Dollar-Milliardäre mit deutscher Staatsb...

  12. La arquitectura de la Groβstadt : Berlín, 1900-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Vázquez Astorga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recoge las conclusiones más importantes obtenidas durante mi estancia de investigación realizada en Berlín en el verano de 2009, que tuvo por objeto el estudio y análisis de la actividad arquitectónica desarrollada en Berlín antes y después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y, en concreto, entre 1900 y 1945. Se valora también el contexto existente en esta ciudad tras las destrucciones ocasionadas por el segundo conflicto mundial, aludiendo a las diversas propuestas ideadas para su reconstrucción. Asimismo, se ha buscado establecer paralelismos con el panorama arquitectónico europeo.The following article includes the most important conclusions drawn from my research stay in Berlin during the summer of 2009. The main aim of my research was to study and analyse the architectural development carried out in Berlin between 1900 and 1945, before and after the II World War, taking also into account the prevailing context of the city due to the damages caused by this War, the numerous reconstruction projects put forward in that moment, together with an attempt to establish parallelisms with the European architectural prospect of that historical moment.

  13. Wissenschaftler wollen mit dem Großen Hadronenbeschleuniger bei Genf Welträtsel knacken

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The way to the Big Bang is 27 kilometers long. The ring of the new particle accelerator of CERN has this extent; from May protons - which is positively charged parts of the atomic nucleus - will start collide almost with speed of light hit one on the other.

  14. 76 FR 39812 - Scotts Miracle-Gro Co.; Regulatory Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically Engineered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/news.shtml . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Andrea Huberty, Branch Chief, Regulatory and Environmental Analysis Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory... restriction is necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest or noxious weed into the United States or...

  15. Relativität, Quanten theorie und Große Vereinigung

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein's general relativity theory is so successful - It remains a classic description, that considers no quantum effects. In t his interview, Hermann Nicolai, Director of the Max Planck Institute for gravitationnal physics in Postdam, describe possible ways to come to a standardized theory

  16. The large Nuremberg clock (German Title: Die große Nürnbergische Uhr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Hans

    The great Nuremberg Clock denotes a specialty in the way of counting hours in the city of Nuremberg, which was in use for a long time. Hours of equal length, as they are also indicated by wheel clocks, were used, the partition into daily and nightly hours was kept, however, the number of these (daily and nightly) hours must be an integer value. Accordingly, the length of the day had to be increased or shortened by an hour in regular intervals. Tables were calculated for this purpose, which also listed the ringing times of church bells.

  17. Eval dome Makur uation estic an rdi met n of gro nd irrig tropoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    dwater abstracted through hand-dug wells and boreholes as their source of ... and environs and evaluate its suitability for drinking, domestic and ... reous and non-calcareous shale, sandy or shally lime- stone and .... 2) showing the relationship between the measured parameters. ..... HCO3 in order of increasing dominance.

  18. Gutshof Dagö-Großenhof/Hiiu-Suuremõisa mõis / Arne von Maydell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maydell, Arne von

    2014-01-01

    Ühest parimast säilinud hilisbaroki näitest Eestis - Hiiu-Suuremõisast. Mõisapark on suurim Hiiumaal, 17. sajandi algusest kuni 19. sajandini oli mõis üks Hiiumaa majanduskeskustest. Mõisa omanikest. Härrastemajaga seotud müstikast

  19. Die Suche nach dem verschollenen Großsteingrab G4 'Onner es' (Onnen, Prov. Groningen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Hendrik; Lanting, JN; Woldring, H

    2014-01-01

    On the eastern hillside of the Hondsrug near the hamlet Onnen (Gr.), a scatter of surface finds led to the belief that a megalithic grave (hunebed) must have been present on the Onner es. Through soil radar, test excavation, pollen analysis and coring, the former location of the presumed hunebed was

  20. A Research of 140-GHz Folded Rectangular Gro ove Waveguide Traveling-Wave Tub e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Minghao; WEI Yanyu; YUE Lingna; GUO Guo; WANG Yuanyuan; SHI Xianbao; WANG Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    A two-section Folded rectangular groove waveguide (FRGWG) Slow wave structure (SWS) Travel-ing wave tube (TWT) with large dimension of beam tunnel is studied. Compared with the Folded waveguide (FWG) under the same size parameters conditions, the interac-tion impedance and center frequency of the FRGWG are higher. The advantage is that a beam tunnel with large dimension can be applied to the FRGWG without the influence caused by signal decrease, reflection and oscil-lation. The microwave amplification capability based on beam-wave interaction is obtained through the particle-in-cell method. This circuit structure can produce an output power of over 100W ranging from 136 to 142GHz when the operation voltage and beam current are set as 18.4kV and 150mA, respectively, for a 95mm long circuit.

  1. Bodensee-Oberschwaben. Eine erfolgreiche Region fernab der Großstädte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielzyk, Rainer; Köhler, Stefan; Friedsmann, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Bodensee-Oberschwaben is representative of a type of region that does not receive much attention in regional research. The region is located peripherally, away from the metropolises and urban agglomeration areas. Despite seemingly poor initial conditions, the region is economically very successful. A polycentric structure of many small and medium-sized towns characterize Bodensee-Oberschwaben as well as other attributes, which do not allow for classification into traditional categories such as rural or urban. Friedrichshafen, the largest city and the industrial core of the region, contributes significantly to its prosperity. The international high technology companies, which are located here, have their origins in the activities of Graf Zeppelin in the early 20th century. Regional universities and the strong network between actors both within the region as well as between Bodensee-Oberschwaben and the neighboring regions have also had a positive impact on region's development.

  2. OMC camera experiment for INTEGRAL and search for Compton GRO BATSE LOCBURST optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Tomáš; Hudec, René; Hroch, Filip; Soldán, Jan; Mas-Hesse, Miguel; Giménez, Alvaro

    1998-05-01

    The test camera of the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) experiment for INTEGRAL spacecraft achieving an angular pixel size of 18 arcsec and a field of view 7.5°×5.1° has been successfully developed and tested at the Astronomical Institute Ondřejov. The test camera is able to provide imaging down to 15 mag over the whole field of view within one exposure of 300 seconds. Although developed primarily to test the OMC performance and help with software development, this device is ideally suited for use as a ground-based camera for sites where Compton Gamma Ray Observatory BATSE Locburst triggers are followed-up in the optical waveband and also for wide-field sky monitoring in general. The low cost of this camera makes it possible to duplicate the system at a number of observing sites. A chart and a corresponding CCD-image for the BACODINE Locburst Position 6368 taken with the OMC test camera at Ondřejov observatory are also presented. The image taken 18 hours after the trigger was computer-blinked with the frame taken 30 days later. No optical activity has been found down to 13.5 mag.

  3. Das Augustusnomen Karls des Großen und das karolingische Imperium

    OpenAIRE

    Strothmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Nomen Augusti of Charlemagne and the Carolingian imperium. –The Nomen Augusti of Charlemagne is on a first view taken from the byzantine custom and in this respect is a pure title for an emperor. But for the Carolingians and Frankish elites it does mean more than this. The regular title for an emperor there is caesar or imperator, but augustus evokes remembering Octavian-Augustus himself too. That is shown by the Carolingian poets. The key for this conviction lies in the selfconsciousness...

  4. Authormagic: Ein Konzept zur Autorenidentifikation in Großen Digitalen Bibliotheken

    CERN Document Server

    Weiler, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Author name ambiguities distort the quality of information discovery in digital libraries. These ambiguities also contribute to the inaccurate attribution of authorship to individual researchers. The latter is especially delicate in research evaluation. To solve this issue, many algorithmic bulk disambiguation approaches have been proposed in the literature. However, no algorithmic approach can solve author ambiguities with an accuracy of 100%. Some online projects allow users to manually create publication lists, which are then regarded as profiles of the researchers. The tedious work to manually assemble such publication lists and the unavailability of scientific material in these projects limit the success of these projects. The “Authormagic” concept is developed in this thesis to address the author ambiguity issue with a hybrid approach of combining algorithmic and human intelligence. A customized agglomerative clustering approach first determines publication clusters by comparing available metadata. ...

  5. Confirmation of a high magnetic field in GRO J1008-57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-01-01

    search to date for cyclotron scattering features at lower energies. We find evidence for a 78(-2)(+3) keV line in the NuSTAR and Suzaku data at >4 sigma significance, confirming the detection using Suzaku alone by Yamamoto et al. A search of both the phase-averaged and phase-resolved data rules out...

  6. A organização mundial da saúde: do controle de epidemias à luta pela hegemonia The world health organization: from controlling epidemics to struggling for hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Corrêa Matta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o surgimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS como uma agência especializada de âmbito internacional, seu funcionamento, os principais marcos históricos e políticos e as estratégias de luta pela hegemonia no cenário sanitário internacional. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental através de documentos da OMS, discursos de seus diretores gerais, textos de apresentação institucional, artigos e editoriais. Dois momentos fundamentais na influência da OMS nas políticas de saúde internacionais foram identificados: o Programa Saúde para Todos (2000 e a política promovida pela gestão Gro-Brundtland (1998-2002 na direção da OMS, período em que são realizadas profundas transformações nas políticas de saúde internacionais e, em especial, em que há a necessidade de estabelecer nexos metodológicos e políticos com as estratégias de globalização da economia e com as políticas de saúde globais².The objective of this article is to discuss the emergence of the World Health Organization (WHO as an international specialized agency. It also debates how the organization operates, major historic and political landmarks and its strategies in the struggle for hegemony in the international sanitary scenario. For such, we researched WHO's documents, directors-general's speeches, texts introducing the institution, articles and editorials. Two specific moments were of fundamental influence to WHO's international health policies: The program Health for All (2000 and the policies fostered by the Gro-Brundtland administration (1998-2002. In this period, not only profound transformations in international health policies were undertaken, but also, the need to establish political and methodological links to the globalization of the economy and the global health policies emerged.

  7. 纽约哈菜姆区的绅士化及其影响%The Gentrification in Harlem of New York City and Its Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群郎; 黄臻

    2011-01-01

    美国的许多大城市在经过了二战以来长期的衰落以后,于20世纪60年代出现了复兴的趋势,其表现之一就是“绅士化”运动.自20世纪80年代以来,纽约衰败的黑人居民区哈莱姆区也出现了绅士化现象,并且具有一定的典型性.优越的地理位置、政府政策的推动、旅游业的发展、克林顿办公室的设立等,都推动了哈莱姆绅士化运动的出现与发展.哈莱姆的绅士化产生了一系列积极影响,比如增加了该区居民的生活便利,创造了大量的就业机会,减少了犯罪,推动了经济的发展等.但哈莱姆的绅士化也导致了一些消极影响,比如贫困居民的被迫迁居、小商业的破产等.

  8. Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Luo, Lijuan; Song, Xiuping; Sun, Jimin; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05). Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment. PMID:27916953

  9. Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukui Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05. Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment.

  10. "Groβes zärtliches Brasilien": Das Brasilienbild in den Werken von Heinrich Eduard Jacob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Eckl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora tendo viajado pelo Brasil em 1932 e depois escrito vários artigos sobre essa viagem assim como três livros de temática brasileira, Heinrich Eduard Jacob é quase desconhecido em Brasil. Por isso neste artigo são apresentados a trajetória do jornalista e escritor e as suas obras brasileiras Treibhaus Südamerika (1934, Saga e marcha triunfal do café (1934 e Estrangeiro. Einwandererschicksal in Brasilien (1951. Ademais Jacob será contextualizado atraves da conecção com os outros autores que, nos anos 30 e 40, escreveram sobre o país. Estes, na maioria, foram refugiados do nazismo como entre outros Stefan Zweig, Richard Katz, Wolfgang Hoffmann-Harnisch, Frank Arnau e Marte Brill. Quanto ao imaginário acerca do Brasil descrito por Jacob percebe-se que ele como tantos outros autores também viu no Brasil um "país de um futuro" (como o chamou e uma "democracia racial" pretensa existente no país. Apesar disso, não desistiu de desmascarar a cordialidade brasileira proverbial como sendo apenas disfarce e de indicar problemas existentes como a questão da política quanto ao café e as consequencias negativas do nacionalismo, fomentado pelo regime Vargas. Assim ele defendeu um ponto de vista que foi contrário àquele do seu amigo Stefan Zweig.

  11. The rule-based language XL and the modelling environment GroIMP illustrated with simulated tree competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmerling, R.; Kniemeyer, O.; Lanwert, D.; Kurth, W.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The programming language XL ('eXtended L-system language') is an extension of Java, which supports the specification and execution of relational growth grammars, a variant of parallel graph grammars. XL is a powerful generalisation of the well-known L-system approach to functional-structural plant m

  12. Basisindikatoren der ökonomischen Entwicklung in Deutschland, Großbritannien, Schweden, USA - 1950 bis 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Thome, Helmut; Birkel, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Die Vergleichsstudie präsentiert Daten zur ökonomischen Entwicklung in Deutschland, England, Schweden und den USA im Zeitraum 1950-2000. Dabei gliedern sich die Ausführungen in folgende ökonomische Kenngrößen: (1) Wachstum und Niveau des Volkseinkommens, (2) Produktivitätsentwicklung, (3) Arbeitslosigkeit, (4) Beschäftigungsstrukturen (Arbeitszeitvolumen und Beschäftigungsquoten, sektorale Entwicklung, öffentlicher und privater Sektor, Frauenerwerbsquote, Selbständigenquote) (5) Entwicklung d...

  13. GRO/EGRET data analysis software: An integrated system of custom and commercial software using standard interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, N. A.; Bertsch, D.; Lal, N.; Etienne, A.; Mcdonald, L.; Mattox, J.; Sreekumar, P.; Nolan, P.; Fierro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has been in orbit for more than a year and is being used to map the full sky for gamma rays in a wide energy range from 30 to 20,000 MeV. Already these measurements have resulted in a wide range of exciting new information on quasars, pulsars, galactic sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission. The central part of the analysis is done with sky maps that typically cover an 80 x 80 degree section of the sky for an exposure time of several days. Specific software developed for this program generates the counts, exposure, and intensity maps. The analysis is done on a network of UNIX based workstations and takes full advantage of a custom-built user interface called X-dialog. The maps that are generated are stored in the FITS format for a collection of energies. These, along with similar diffuse emission background maps generated from a model calculation, serve as input to a maximum likelihood program that produces maps of likelihood with optional contours that are used to evaluate regions for sources. Likelihood also evaluates the background corrected intensity at each location for each energy interval from which spectra can be generated. Being in a standard FITS format permits all of the maps to be easily accessed by the full complement of tools available in several commercial astronomical analysis systems. In the EGRET case, IDL is used to produce graphics plots in two and three dimensions and to quickly implement any special evaluation that might be desired. Other custom-built software, such as the spectral and pulsar analyses, take advantage of the XView toolkit for display and Postscript output for the color hard copy. This poster paper outlines the data flow and provides examples of the user interfaces and output products. It stresses the advantages that are derived from the integration of the specific instrument-unique software and powerful commercial tools for graphics and statistical evaluation. This approach has several proven advantages including flexibility, a minimum of development effort, ease of use, and portability.

  14. Época de recolecta en Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana M., en Acapulco Gro., México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Juárez-Agis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available En seis arboles de Peltogyne mexicana M. se evaluó el efecto de las fechas sobre variables de germinación, Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con parcelas divididas con cinco bloques (repeticiones, en las parcelas grandes se colocaron los árboles (cinco y en las parcelas chicas las fechas de recolecta (seis. Cada parcela pequeña tuvo cinco bolsas, estas a su vez tuvieron cinco semillas, usándose 25 semillas de cada fecha de su respectivo árbol (parcela pequeña en cada parcela grande (fecha de recolecta. Los mejores resultados para germinación fueron para la fecha uno con un valor de 72.48% y la fecha dos con valor de 61.12%, el valor mínimo fue de 24.48 para la fecha seis. Así las semillas que se recolectan de manera temprana tienen porcentajes de germinación mayor

  15. Constraints of age, distance and progenitor of the supernova remnant RX J0852-4622/GRO J0852-4642

    OpenAIRE

    Aschenbach, Bernd; Iyudin, Anatoli F.; Schoenfelder, Volker

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of the nearest young supernova remnant RXJ0852-4622/GROJ0852-4642 in the Galaxy by ROSAT and COMPTEL has been reported recently. Age and distance are determined to ~680 years and ~200 pc by the X-ray diameter and the gamma-ray line flux of radioactive 44Ti. Here we discuss the implications of the X-ray spectra and of the fact that 1.8 MeV gamma-ray line emission from the decay of 26Al has been measured from the Vela region with a certain fraction possibly associated with the new...

  16. Klinische Ergebnisse nach stereotaktischer Präzisionsbestrahlung großer uvealer Melanome mit dem Gamma-Knife

    OpenAIRE

    Schonenbach, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    Von Juni 1997 bis April 2001 wurden 97 Patienten, die an einem unilateralen uvealen Melanom litten, mit dem Gamma-Knife radiochirurgisch behandelt. Die Melanome aller 97 Patienten waren aufgrund der Lokalisation oder der Größe für eine Therapie mit Ruthenium-Applikatoren nicht geeignet. Alle 97 Patienten, die sich der Therapie mit dem Gamma-Knife unterzogen, wurden in eine engmaschige Nachsorge aufgenommen. Bei der Nachsorge wurden in regelmäßigen Abständen klinische, echographische und n...

  17. Le CERN et l'embargo des Nations Unies envers la Serbie et le Monténégro

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1993-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory of Particle Physics, in reply to questions raised by the media would like to clarify its position with regard to the resolution No 757 of the U.N. Security Council of 30 May 1992 imposing an embargo on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). This position was adopted immediately after the embargo was announced.

  18. Die Messung der Gluonpolarisation durch die Produktion von Hadronpaaren mit großen Transversalimpulsen in tiefinelastischer Myonstreuung am Nukleon

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleon is investigated at the COMPASS experiment at the CERN-SPS using polarized muons scattering off polarized nucleons. The contribution of the quarks to nucleon spin, as measured in the inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, is not sufficient to explain the spin of the nucleon. Thus it has to be clarified how the gluon polarization and the angular momenta of quarks and gluons contribute to the spin of the nucleon. Since the gluon polarization can only be estimated from the $Q^{2}$-dependence of inclusive deep inelastic asymmetries, a direct measurement of the gluon polarization is mandatory. The COMPASS collaboration determines the gluon polarization from cross section asymmetries in photon-gluon fusion processes using open charm production or the production of hadron pairs with large transverse momenta. This thesis presents a measurement of the gluon polarization using the COMPASS data of the years 2003 and 2004. The events with large virtuality, $Q^{2}>1$ $GeV^{2}/c^{2}$ and hadr...

  19. Untersuchungen zur Populationsdynamik von Flöhen auf Hunden und Katzen im Großraum Regensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Biebel, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Investigations on the Population Dynamics of Fleas in Dogs and Cats in the Region of Regensburg, Germany The objective of this study was to compile epidemiological data about the occurrence and distribution of flea infestation by parasitological screening of dogs and cats in the area of Regensburg. Simultaneously, pet owners have been interviewed by use of a questionnaire regarding their experience with flea infestation of their animals and in the environment. The mean infestation rate...

  20. „Vater einer großen Nachkommenschaft von Forschungsreisenden ...“ Ehrungen Alexander von Humboldts im Jahre 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Jahn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and GermanIn 1869 the “Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein” was founded in Magdeburg (Saxony Anhalt. That was the time when the scientific world celebrated Alexander von Humboldt’s 100th birthday. In this context, Humboldt’s achievements were remembered during the founding ceremony of that society. The paper which was read in September 2003 on a meeting of this organisation, focuses on three famous naturalists who celebrated Humboldt because they owed him much help in their own professional careers. The botanist Matthias Jacob Schleiden gave a memorial speech in 1869 in Dresden. The physiologist and pioneer of electro-biology Emil du Bois-Reymond honoured his mentor A. v. Humboldt on the occasion of the dedication of the statues of Wilhelm and Alexander in 1883 in Berlin. Charles Darwin expressed his gratitude to Humboldt by sending him in 1839 the report of his travels and received an interesting reply. These three scholars represented a new epoch in the development of the natural sciences. The paper includes a recently re-discovered letter from Humboldt to Schleiden, dated April 13, 1842.

  1. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of Manhattan in New York…

  2. A Strategic Imperative for the 90s: Expanding Bilateral Engineer Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-05

    becoming so severe that they could be the precipitator of future wars. As indicated in the Brundtland Commission Report, prepared for the United Nations... Brundtland Commission report indicates sustainable development is critical for combating environmental and economic problems. It calls for an increase in...be directed toward environmental problems and sustainable development will make this task somewhat easier. The U.N. Brundtland Commission Report

  3. The Danish Perspective on Baltic Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective (Washington D.C.: the Center for Strategic & International Studies, 1994...Martin’s Press, c1992), p. 24. 180berg, p. 24-25. 19Arne Olav Brundtland & Don M. Snider, Nordic-Baltic Security: An International Perspective...Oznobistchev, "Russia in its Neighboring Environment: New Challenges and New Policy?" in Arne Olav Brundtland and Don M. Snider (eds.), Nordic-Baltic

  4. The Prospects for Naval Arms Control: A Bad Idea Whose Time Has Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-30

    Brundtland , eds., Soviet Sea Power in Northern Waters (New York: St. Martin’s, 1990). Gunnarson is described as "an advisor to the Icelandic Foreign...first President of the United States of America, (Camp Hill, PA: Book of the Month Club, 1988). John Skogan and Arne Brundtland , eds., Soviet Sea Power

  5. Decision-support systems for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of sustainable development, formulated in the Brundtland report and applied to forest management by the Montreal Process, has focused attention on the need for formal decision processes (Brundtland. 1987). The application of decision theory is essential because meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to...

  6. Our correspondence with the World Health Organization about the hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    (1) Following publication of the hypertension guidelines by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH) we wrote to Dr Brundtland, criticizing the recommendations that markedly conflicted with reliable published data. (2) We were not happy with Dr Brundtland's response to our letter, so we have stopped the process to become a WHO collaborating centre.

  7. Sustainable Design Policy and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” ( Brundtland 1987, p 24). A...in Nonmarket Valuation, Ed. Patricia Champ, Kevin Boyle, and Thomas Brown, 111-169. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Brundtland , G

  8. Building an Extended Family in East Harlem. How Parents, a School's Staff, and a Fireball Principal Are Working Together to Provide a School Home for Elementary School Children in New York City's Community School District Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinchy, Evans

    1992-01-01

    Describes Public School 146, a public elementary school in New York City where the principal has created a school community that builds on the strengths of the parents and makes the school an extended family for each child. Describes special services, a student leadership program, and student achievement gains. (JB)

  9. 成纤维细胞生长因子受体的结构与功能%Structure and Function of Fibroblast Gro wth Factor Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶展; 赵涵芳; 钱关祥

    2003-01-01

    @@ 目前已发现的成纤维细胞生长因子(fibroblast growth factor, FGF)家族至少有19个成员(FGF1-19)[1],它们在发育、血管生成、创伤愈合中有重要作用.而它们的功能是通过与成纤维细胞生长因子受体(fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFR)结合后,经过信号传递系统,激活相应的基因而实现的.本文主要介绍FGFR结构和功能的基础知识与研究近况.

  10. Fritz Hochwälders Großstadtroman «Donnerstag» oder Wie sich Schnitzler-Szenarien mit Horváth-Figuren erden lassen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Polt-Heinzl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The 155 scenes of Fritz Hochwälder’s posthumous novel group around one central idea: each of the characters expects a final decision from the coming Thursday. What was read as a loosely connected series of expressionistic short scenes reveals itself as a carefully constructed whole. The narrative cement is provided by erotic relationships, by the visualization of metropolitan patterns of motion, and by a tightly woven texture of motives. Through emotional and economic treason, Hochwälder puts Schnitzler’s language of love in the mouths of characters from Horváth’s narrative worlds, and he exploits an up to now overlooked criminal plot.

  11. Fritz Hochwälders Großstadtroman «Donnerstag» oder Wie sich Schnitzler-Szenarien mit Horváth-Figuren erden lassen

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Polt-Heinzl

    2012-01-01

    The 155 scenes of Fritz Hochwälder’s posthumous novel group around one central idea: each of the characters expects a final decision from the coming Thursday. What was read as a loosely connected series of expressionistic short scenes reveals itself as a carefully constructed whole. The narrative cement is provided by erotic relationships, by the visualization of metropolitan patterns of motion, and by a tightly woven texture of motives. Through emotional and economic treason, Hochwälder puts...

  12. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    different levels (i.e. 0.0% as control, 0.5%, 1% and 2%, in three replicates, 20 fish per replicate) and fed to the fish for an 8-week period wherein 240 fish were cultured in 1,800-L fiberglass tanks that formed part of a flow-through system. Water temperature was maintained at 20.4 ± 1.5°C. Significant...

  13. Die Regenwurmfauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae der Aue der Großen Kokel als Abhängige der Böden im Flusseinzugsgebiet und der Auengradienten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höser, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In five floodplain transects along the course of the river Târnava Mare in Rumania, 17 earthworm species werecounted. The species spectrum of the earthworm fauna of the studied floodplains is dependent on the provenance of thefloodplain sediments. On the basis of this provenance, the fauna of three groups of soil localities on the floodplain aredifferentiated: in the upper reaches of the river, the fauna of the floodplain soils derived from brown forest soils and podzolicsoils (near Sub Cetate; on the eastern side of the middle reaches, the fauna of the soils mainly derived from gray-brown podzolicsoils (near Porumbenii Mari, Hoghilag; and on the western side of the middle reaches and the lower reaches, the fauna of thesoils principally derived from planosols (near Alma, Valea Lungă. Proctodrilus tuberculatus occurs in the floodplain sedimentspredominantly derived from the gray-brown podzolic soils, and in those parts of the floodplain derived from planosols P.opisthoductus and Aporrectodea georgii are found. Ap. georgii and Allolobophora leoni are mostly mutually exclusive in thefloodplain transect, were they are apparently indicator species of sediment deposition close to the river and/or the effect of highwater on the soil chemistry. P. tuberculatus and P. opisthoductus occur as vicarious species in the soil profile of the area wheretheir distribution overlaps. Three soil factors that are significant in determining earthworm distribution are emphasized:lessivage, or translocation of clay; the pervection of colloidal organic matter (humus into the soil, and the texture of the soillayers resulting from sedimentation. An additional record of the new species P. thaleri is given.

  14. "Da wurden diese zwei großen Länder zu einem Land". Die Beziehungen zwischen Hattusa und Ägypten im Lichte ihrer diplomatischen Korrespondenz

    OpenAIRE

    Quack, Joachim Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Der ägyptisch-hethitische Friedensvertrag wurde nach der Schlacht bei Kadesch und jahrelangen Grenzstreitigkeiten im Jahr 21 der Regierungszeit Ramses II. zwischen Ramses II. und dem Hethiterkönig Hattusili III. geschlossen. Er gilt als ältester bekannter schriftlicher Friedensschluss.

  15. Evaluation of the dairy/yeast prebiotic, GroBiotic-A, in the diet of the juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia production ranks among the highest worldwide due to their fast growth and ability to thrive under various culture conditions. However, tilapias are still susceptible to outbreaks of systemic disease caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Streptococcus inaie. These epizootic ev...

  16. Propiedades mecánicas de la mampostería de tabique rojo recocido utilizada en Chilpancingo, Gro (México)

    OpenAIRE

    V. Flores; Sánchez-Tizapa, S.; Arroyo, R.; Barragán, R.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results of developed tests in solid clay brick masonry specimens are reported. This masonry type is largely used to build the confined masonry walls in Chilpancingo City (Guerrero State, Mexico). Sixty eight tests of masonry specimens, prisms and walls, were developed. Mean values of compressive and shear strength design, elasticity and shear modulus and joint mortar adherence were measured. Additionally, stress-strain relationship of compressive prisms and walls were recorded. C...

  17. Propiedades mecánicas de la mampostería de tabique rojo recocido utilizada en Chilpancingo, Gro (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of developed tests in solid clay brick masonry specimens are reported. This masonry type is largely used to build the confined masonry walls in Chilpancingo City (Guerrero State, Mexico. Sixty eight tests of masonry specimens, prisms and walls, were developed. Mean values of compressive and shear strength design, elasticity and shear modulus and joint mortar adherence were measured. Additionally, stress-strain relationship of compressive prisms and walls were recorded. Comparison among experimental results and standardized values of Mexico City Code, normally used to the design process, shows a large difference for some of them.Este documento presenta los resultados de ensayes en especímenes de mampostería de tabique rojo recocido comúnmente utilizado para la construcción de muros de mampostería confinada en Chilpancingo (Estado de Guerrero, México. Un total de 68 ensayes, entre pilas y muretes, fueron realizados. Los valores medidos fueron la resistencia de diseño a compresión y cortante, los módulos de elasticidad y corte y la cohesión de la junta. También se obtuvieron expresiones para definir la curva esfuerzo-deformación en las pruebas de pilas y muretes. La comparación de los valores respecto a la norma de la ciudad de México, utilizada como referencia en el diseño y análisis, concluye que hay diferencias significativas para algunos de ellos.

  18. Application of a relativistic accretion disc model to X-ray spectra of LMC X-1 and GRO J1655-40.

    OpenAIRE

    Gierliński, M.; Maciołek-Niedźwiecki, A.; Ebisawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    We present a general relativistic accretion disc model and its application to the soft-state X-ray spectra of black hole binaries. The model assumes a flat, optically thick disc around a rotating Kerr black hole. The disc locally radiates away the dissipated energy as a blackbody. Special and general relativistic effects influencing photons emitted by the disc are taken into account. The emerging spectrum, as seen by a distant observer, is parametrized by the black hole mass and spin, the acc...

  19. Einstein erlangt Weltruhm – Eine vergleichende Rezeptionsgeschichte der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie in Großbritannien und Deutschland 1919-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hollinger

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Albert Einstein is the archetype of a scientist. His world fame has its roots in the revolutionary corroboration of his general theory of relativity during the sun eclipse in May 1919 and the eventual presentation of the obtained results. Having a strong resonance in the scientific community as well as in public, the coverage in the press can be traced back to be the main factor that shaped Einstein’s picture in the past – reverberating even today. The political situation immediately after the First World War puts this episode in the history of science in a setting where many insights into the interactions between science, politics, the press and international relations at the shift from 1919–1920 can be found.

  20. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...... changes in growth performance parameters were observed, but only in those groups fed with 1% and 2% prebiotics. Specifically, marked improvements relative to the control group were observed in percentage weight gain, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate in prebiotic-fed fish....... The levels of plasma thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormones were significantly elevated in the group receiving 2% prebiotics. Activities of lysozyme and alkaline phosphatase in skin mucus were significantly enhanced in prebiotics-fed groups, particularly at an inclusion...

  1. "Ein großer Vorsprung gegenüber Deutschland". Die niederländischen Architekten auf der Bauhausausstellung von 1923 in Weimar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bergeijk, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Dutch contribution to the International Architecture Exhibition that was part of the Bauhaus Manifestation in 1923. The Dutch architect J.J.P. Oud, together with the director of the school in Weimar, Walter Gropius, decided which architects would be asked to participate and send in works. Oud selected the works of these architects according to his own criteria. He had a specific agenda that was dictated by the position he had in the Netherlands and abroad as an advocate of modernist architecture. His interest was not to show what was really going on in general in the Netherlands but to illustrate that there was a strong movement in the country towards the development of a new architecture based on the use of new materials. The article positions this radical attitude of Oud and confronts it with how German architects, who were particularly informed, looked at the situation in the neighbouring country.

  2. The Soviet Nordic Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    consists of a perpetual struggle.", 1 3 8 Arne Brundtland argues that the Nordic reluctance is tied to the Nordic perception of the use of military force in...resolving a political situation. Brundtland states, "The security challenge to the five Nordic states does not emanate from within the region. The...result from the differences between the East and the West and ,i±$ Nordic region’s strategic importance in this struggle." 1 3 7Arne Brundtland , "The

  3. DEGRO 2006: 12. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society, 10. annual meeting of SASRO and 22. annual meeting of OeGRO. Abstracts; DEGRO 2006 - 12. Jahreskongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie, 10. Jahrestagung der SASRO und 22. Jahrestagung der OeGRO. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The volume displays the abstracts of the meetings of the German, Swiss, and Austrian societies for radiooncology. Issues of the lectures, posters, and symposia were: new technological developments, head-neck tumors, radiobiology, prostate carcinomas, radiotherapy in palliative treatment, hematological malignomas, tumors of gastrointestinal tract, bladder, brain, breast, or bronchi, carrier planning, women in the field of radiooncology, image-guided radiotherapy, sexuality, fertility and pregnancy with gynecological tumors, psychooncology, pediatric oncology and radiotherapy, sex-dependent radiosensitivity, dosimetry, irradiation planning, quality of life in radiooncology, radiooncological information systems. (uke)

  4. SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

  5. Sustainable Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsegai Berhane Ghebretekle

    2015 Paris Climate Change Agreement with particular emphasis on Ethiopia. ..... widely used is the definition in the Brundtland Report, which defines it as ..... are established at lower organizational level and are not staffed and equipped.

  6. ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN PROCESS RESEARCH: LINKING USEPA CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN AND SUSTAINABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in sustainability has increased dramatically over the last decade. Declarations have been made on what sustainable development is: meeting today's needs without compromising future needs (Brundtland, 1987). Others have focused on what sustainability means in terms of s...

  7. SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

  8. The Idea of Sustainable Development to Reconcile the Environmental and Intellectual Property Protection of Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebreselassie, Abeba T.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development calls for environmental sustainability, economic sustainability and socio-political sustainability.The concept of sustainable development is enshrined in a number of global and regional treaties, declarations, and reports such as the Brundtland Commission Report, the Rio...

  9. Sustainable development: the Nexus of Environmental Sustainability, Values, and Ethics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yee Keong CHOY

    2017-01-01

    .... The argument begins with identifying the failure of the Brundtland Report in addressing the fundamental premise for sustainability which is the need to adopt non-anthropocentric attitudes towards nature...

  10. Leitsymptomvorlesungen im klinischen Studienabschnitt - Effekte evaluationsbasierter Interventionen auf eine Großgruppen-Lehrveranstaltung [Lectures based on cardinal symptoms in undergraduate medicine - effects of evaluation-based interventions on teaching large groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Despite critical voices lectures are still an important teaching format in current medical curricula. With the curricular reform at Hamburg Medical Faculty in the year 2004, all subject specific lectures were replaced by cardinal symptom oriented lectures (LSV in the new clinical curriculum. LSVs are taught throughout all six thematic blocks in years three to five. Since regular student evaluations after each thematic block seemed to demand improvement of the LSVs, this study was carried out using evaluations of individual LSVs by the participating students and by trained auditors (final year students and academic staff. Based on these evaluations feedback containing the individual evaluation data was given in written form to the lecturers combined with information material on planning an LSV using modern didactic techniques. In a second evaluation period, the effects of this intervention were studied. Only small improvements in the LSVs’ quality were noted regarding the level of marks achieved. When individual items were evaluated, especially the didactic quality, significant improvements were noticeable. Overall, on the basis of individual items students ranked the quality of the LSVs significantly higher than trained auditors during the first evaluation period. This effect was no longer seen after the second evaluation period. The inter rater reliability among the auditors was very good. This study shows that regular quality assurance is needed on the structural levels and for staff to accompany the process of embedding teaching formats into curricular concepts. Further investigation is needed to determine the adequate frequency of evaluation and the format of feedback to guarantee sustainable effects of the didactic quality of lectures. [german] In der medizinischen Hochschulausbildung ist das Veranstaltungsformat „Vorlesung“ trotz vielfacher Kritik weiterhin ein wesentliches Element bestehender Curricula. Im Rahmen der Studienreform an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Hamburg im Jahr 2004 wurden im reformierten klinischen Curriculum die fachspezifischen Vorlesungen durch Leitsymptomvorlesungen (LSV ersetzt, die sich durch alle sechs Themenblöcke der Studienjahre drei bis fünf ziehen. Da die regelmäßigen Trimesterabschlussevaluationen der Studierenden auf einen Verbesserungsbedarf der LSV hindeuteten, wurde in dieser Studie die LSV mit Terminevaluationen durch anwesende Studierende und durch geschulte Auditoren (PJ-Studierende und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter untersucht. Auf der Basis dieser Ergebnisse erfolgte ein schriftliches Feedback der Evaluationsdaten an die Lehrenden in Kombination mit Informationsmaterial über eine optimale Gestaltung der LSV nach modernen didaktischen Gesichtspunkten. In einer zweiten Erhebung wurden die Effekte der Intervention untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass auf der Ebene von Schulnoten nach der Intervention nur geringe Verbesserungen der Qualität der LSV bemerkbar waren. In der Bewertung der Einzelmerkmale, insbesondere zur didaktischen Qualität, ließen sich hingegen signifikante Verbesserungen aufzeigen. Insgesamt bewerteten Studierende die LSV in der ersten Erhebungsphase bezogen auf die Einzelmerkmale signifikant positiver als die geschulten Auditoren. Dieser Effekt war in der zweiten Erhebungsphase nicht mehr nachweisbar. Unter den Auditoren bestand eine gute Inter-Rater-Reliabilität. Durch diese Untersuchung wurde insbesondere deutlich, dass die Einbettung von Lehrveranstaltungen auf struktureller und personeller Ebene in curriculare Gesamtkonzepte regelmäßig durch Qualitätssicherungsmaßnahmen zu begleiten ist. Wie häufig und in welcher Form strukturierte Rückmeldungen nach Evaluationen erfolgen müssen, um nachhaltige Effekte auf die didaktische Qualität der Lehrveranstaltungen zu haben, müssen zukünftige Studien zeigen.

  11. Wprowadzenie tzw. specustawy dotyczącej kierowania groźnych przestępców do ośrodków terapii osobowości – kontekst społeczno-prawny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Kmieciak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ustawa o postępowaniu wobec osób z zaburzeniami psychicznymi stwarzających zagrożenie życia, zdrowia lub wolności seksualnej innych osób to jeden z najbardziej krytykowanych w ostatnich miesiącach aktów prawnych. Liczne grono prawników oraz psychiatrów wskazuje, iż proponowane rozwiązania są sprzeczne ze standardami ochrony praw człowieka, które wiele lat temu zostały przyjęte przez Polskę. Podkreśla się ponadto, że przyjęcie ustawy otworzy drogę do wykorzystywania psychiatrii do celów politycznych. Z drugiej strony osoby broniące przywołaną ustawę twierdzą, że część osadzonych osób, z powodu doświadczania zaburzeń osobowości bądź zaburzeń preferencji seksualnych, zamierza powrócić do działań przestępczych, skierowanych często przeciwko życiu i zdrowiu dzieci. Należy wspomnieć, iż pod koniec lat 80. XX wieku podobne działania doprowadziły do orzeczenia kary śmierci wobec ww. osób. Co istotne, przez ponad 20 lat nie podejmowano tematu sytuacji więźniów, którym karę śmierci następnie zamieniono na karę 25 lat pozbawienia wolności. Czy prawdą jest zatem, iż omawiana ustawa łamie fundamentalne prawa i wolności człowieka? Czy istnieje realna obawa wykorzystywania przywołanego aktu prawnego do celów politycznych? Czy psychiatrzy mogą zostać zobowiązani do wykonywania zadań wyłącznie o politycznym charakterze? Czy obecnie nie ma innego rozwiązania zapewniającego poszanowanie bezpieczeństwa publicznego? W prezentowanym artykule odpowiedzi na powyższe pytania będą udzielane na podstawie analizy oficjalnych materiałów prawnych oraz medialnych informacji i komentarzy odnoszących się do omawianej ustawy.

  12. Groin sentinel node biopsy and (18)F-FDG PET/CT-supported preoperative lymph node assessment in cN0 patients with vulvar cancer currently unfit for minimally invasive inguinal surgery: The GroSNaPET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganese, G; Collarino, A; Fragomeni, S M; Rufini, V; Perotti, G; Gentileschi, S; Evangelista, M T; Ieria, F P; Zagaria, L; Bove, S; Giordano, A; Scambia, G

    2017-09-01

    The study aims were: 1) to verify the role of sentinel node biopsy (SNB) in a subset of patients with clinical N0 (cN0) invasive vulvar cancer (VC) who were still candidates for radical inguinal surgery according to the current guidelines; 2) to investigate whether a preoperative (18)F-FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) evaluation could improve the selection of node negative patients. From July 2013 to July 2016, all patients with VC admitted to our Division were evaluated by standard imaging and clinical exam. Among the patients assessed as cN0 we enrolled those unsuitable for SNB, due to: T > 4 cm, multifocal tumors, complete tumor diagnostic excision, contralateral nodal involvement and local recurrence. A preoperative PET/CT was performed. For each patient surgery included SNB, performed using a combined technique (radiotracer plus blue dye), followed by standard inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy. The reference standard was histopathology. Forty-seven patients entered the study for a total of 73 groins. Histopathology revealed 12 metastatic SNs in 9 groins. No false negative SNs were found (NPV 100%). PET/CT showed a negative predictive value of 93%. Our data suggest that SNB is accurate and safe even in cN0 patients currently excluded from this procedure, providing that a careful preoperative selection is performed. PET/CT allows a reliable assessment of LN status and may be an effective support for the selection of patients who are safe candidates for SNB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  13. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, D; Barlow, B; Durkin, M; Heagarty, M

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome formed a critical element of this effort. Since 1988 the HHIPP, as the lead agency for the Healthy Neighborhoods/Safe Kids Coalition, developed or participated in two types of programs: injury-prevention education programs and programs that provide safe activities and/or environments for children. The educational programs included Window Guards campaign; Safety City Program; Kids, Injuries and Street Smarts Program (KISS); Burn Prevention Curriculum and Smoke Detector Distribution; Harlem Alternative to Violence Program; Adolescent Outreach Program; and Critical Incident Stress Management Teams. The safe activities and environmental programs included the Bicycle Safety Program/Urban Youth Bike Corps; Playground Injury Prevention Program; the Greening of Harlem Program; the Harlem Horizon Art Studio; Harlem Hospital Dance Clinic; Unity through Murals project; baseball at the Harlem Little League; winter baseball clinic; and the soccer league. Each program was conceived using injury data, coupled with parental concern and activism, which acted as catalysts to create a community coalition to respond to a specific problem. Data systems developed over time, which monitored the prevalence and incidence of childhood injuries in northern Manhattan, including central Harlem, became essential not only to identify specific types of childhood injuries in this community but also to evaluate these programs for the prevention of injuries in children.

  14. 一曲黑色美的颂歌——评克劳德·麦凯的《哈莱姆的舞女》%A Song for Beauty of the Black——On Claude Makey's "Dancing Cirl in Harlem"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建萍

    2002-01-01

    几个世纪以来,种族歧视(Racial Discrimination)一直是美国社会的一个毒瘤,黑人被排斥在美国社会生活的主流之外,长期受到白人的轻视、谩骂、殴打,甚至是人格的侮辱.二战期间崛起的"哈莱姆文艺复兴"运动使新一代黑人正式登上美国文坛.在这些"黑人"作家中,克劳德·麦凯以其鲜明的阶级立场、具有战斗力的诗篇,唤起了黑人的种族自豪感,使这些黑人有了心灵的依托与归宿.即是麦凯早期诗歌创作中一首极具代表性和影响力的诗作.

  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 497242008 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2:1589 ... Co-chaperonin GroES Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium JSC-12 MNFQSHALLFHFCRILSSPHPPKERRGAKPFQSPSNKLGEGLRARAKVKCTRTDNGIFLPASVQEKPQVGEITAISSGKFSKNGSGQQADVKVGDNILYSMYRGTEIYLGNERM

  16. A New Agenda for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Nielsen, Kurt

    Two decades after the Brundtland Commission's Report "Our Common Future" adopted the concept of 'sustainable development', this book provides a renewal of the concept exploring the potential for new practices and fields for those involved in sustainability activity. The book addresses a number...... of themes concerning firstly, the provision of a "next generation perspective", which was a central, and still unresolved, notion of the original Brundtland definition and, secondly the provision of new milestones for policy and research that can expand the discussion on this second generation concept...

  17. FORMATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PROTEIN COMPLEXES BETWEEN PEROXISOMAL ALCOHOL OXIDASE AND GROEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EVERS, ME; LANGER, T; HARDER, W; HARTL, FU; VEENHUIS, M; Hartl, Franz-Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the use of yeast peroxisomal alcohol oxidase (AO) as a model protein for in vitro binding by GroEL. Dilution of denatured AO in neutral buffer leads to aggregation of the protein, which is prevented by the addition of GroEL. Formation of complexes between GroEL and denatured AO was d

  18. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment ini

  19. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessy, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention internationally in the past three decades. These ideas have been emphasized in key documents such as the Brundtland report as well as in intern

  20. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the Brundtland Commission presented its report on sustainable development in 1987, various institutions have either adopted or tried to refine the approach used in the report. Currently, there is a broad collection of concepts that are often highly related to sustainable development. Thes

  1. What is sustainability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Farrington, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability as a policy concept has its origin in the Brundtland Report of 1987. That document was concerned with the tension between the aspirations of mankind towards a better life on the one hand and the limitations imposed by nature on the other hand. In the course of time, the concept has be

  2. Sustainability and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    this requirement. Another line (top-down) takes an economical interpretation of the Brundtland Commission's suggestion that the present generation's needsatisfaction should not compromise the need-satisfaction of future generations as its starting point. It then measures sustainability at the level of society...

  3. Neoliberalism and Justice in Education for Sustainable Development: A Call for Inclusive Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen; Cherniak, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Commonly conceived, sustainable development is concerned with social and economic equity and maintenance of ecological stability for future generations. The Brundtland Report addresses the ethical principles of intragenerational and intergenerational equity as fundamental pillars of sustainable development. This equity is often defined in economic…

  4. The greenhouse stakes of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    As 2012 approaches, twenty-five years have passed since the Brundtland report defining sustainable development as a progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (United Nations). Currently, the fight a...

  5. Assessing Students' Motivation to Engage in Sustainable Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mary; Bielefeldt, Angela R.; Swan, Christopher W.; Paterson, Kurtis G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design an assessment instrument to evaluate students' attitudes toward sustainable engineering (SE). Factors that impact SE beliefs could then be explored. Design/methodology/approach: Using the definition of sustainability from the Brundtland report and expectancy value theory, students' sentiment toward…

  6. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Sinds de Brundtland commissie het rapport ten aanzien van duurzame ontwikkeling heeft gepresenteerd, heeft een groot aantal instellingen getracht deze te operationaliseren en/of the verfijnen met andere, gerelateerde concepten. In deze nieuwe concepten komen aspecten als armoede en ontwikkeling,

  7. The greenhouse stakes of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    As 2012 approaches, twenty-five years have passed since the Brundtland report defining sustainable development as a progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (United Nations). Currently, the fight a...

  8. Towards human and social sustainability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink HBM; LOK

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the Brundtland Commission presented its report on sustainable development in 1987, various institutions have either adopted or tried to refine the approach used in the report. Currently, there is a broad collection of concepts that are often highly related to sustainable development.

  9. Sustainability of abrasive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurich, J.C.; Linke, B.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    , the content of technical presentations in STC G, and the results of a comprehensive literature study. The approach to sustainability includes environmental, social, and economic sustainability in accordance with the definition proposed in the Brundtland Report of the United Nations [156]. The main focus...

  10. Developing the economics of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Sjak A.

    It was a visionary initiative, 20 years ago, to start a journal devoted to the intersection between environmental, resource and development economics. At the time, the ‘Brundtland Report’ was old enough to be recognized in policy discussions at many possible levels, IPCC had already published its

  11. Forest Sustainability Assessment for the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance Carpenter

    2007-01-01

    The Brundtland Commission Report to the World Commission on Environment and Development set off a firestorm of discussion regarding the concept of sustainability when it defined sustainable development as "development to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on...

  12. Sustainable land use under different institutional settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, A.J.; Feng, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves three purposes. First, it gives a short introduction to the concept of sustainability in relation to land use. Since the Brundtland report it has become clear that sustainability is a dynamic concept that changes when conditions in society change. Moreover, it is easier to assess

  13. Building a Metaframework for Sustainable Transport Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    a logical structure of complementary features with which to build indicator frameworks. Characteristics of robust indicator frameworks were evaluated in terms of their significance for the three key functions, and they were collected in a list of criteria. A review of the Brundtland Report provided...

  14. Education for Sustainable Development in Secondary Education of the Flemish Community: Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleurs, Willy

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Education is one of the cross-curricular themes, introduced in the mid 1990s in the curriculum of Flemish secondary education (12-18 yr). Both the Brundtland report and the ENSI philosophy inspired the development of the objectives for EE. A strong partnership exists between the departments of education and the environment of the…

  15. Making Sustainability Operational : Coping With Contextual Circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pupphachai, Uma; Zuidema, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability became popular through Brundtland Commission’s report published in 1987 and has subsequently been introduced as a key planning guideline in urban governance. To make the abstract and fuzzy notion of sustainability palpable, various governments are using a list of Sustainability

  16. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry...

  17. Klimadebatten i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Oluf

    klimadebat tager sit udgangspunkt i 1970'erne, hvor klimaet knap var på avisernes dagsorden og slet ikke på den politiske. Afgrænsningen til 1990 skal ses i relation til publiceringen af Brundtland- rapporten, "Vores Fælles Fremtid" i 1987 og oprettelsen af FN's klimapanel, IPCC, i 1988. Fra 1990 starter den...

  18. Early Childhood Education and Learning for Sustainable Development and Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagglund, Solveig; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980:s when OECD published the Brundtland report, in which the concept of sustainable development as a critical global issue was introduced, the role of education for global survival has been frequently discussed and explored, by politicians as well as researchers. In school curricula and educational practice, efforts have…

  19. What is sustainability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlman, J.W.; Farrington, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainability as a policy concept has its origin in the Brundtland Report of 1987. That document was concerned with the tension between the aspirations of mankind towards a better life on the one hand and the limitations imposed by nature on the other hand. In the course of time, the concept has

  20. Transformative Environmental Education: A Collective Rehearsal for Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathzel, Nora; Uzzell, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper puts forward an alternative view on sustainable development, arguing that the separation between the economy, the environment and the social in the Brundtland model obscures the societal character of the economy, the economic bases of the social, and the fact that the environment is a societal product. We differentiate between strong…

  1. Development of Impact Assessment Methodologies for Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability has been discussed for many years, with no consensus on how to ensure that environmental sustainability is reached or even that progress is made in the right direction. The Brundtland Commission statement that sustainability “meets the needs of the present without...

  2. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs...

  3. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessy, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention internationally in the past three decades. These ideas have been emphasized in key documents such as the Brundtland report as well as in

  4. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment ini

  5. Neoliberalism and Justice in Education for Sustainable Development: A Call for Inclusive Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen; Cherniak, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Commonly conceived, sustainable development is concerned with social and economic equity and maintenance of ecological stability for future generations. The Brundtland Report addresses the ethical principles of intragenerational and intergenerational equity as fundamental pillars of sustainable development. This equity is often defined in economic…

  6. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M. de; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment

  7. Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessy, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of conserving biological resources and the need for managing these resources for present and future generations has been given much attention internationally in the past three decades. These ideas have been emphasized in key documents such as the Brundtland report as well as in intern

  8. In-situ X-ray CT results of damage evolution in L6 ordinary chondrite meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadra, Jefferson A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hazeli, Kavan [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Ramesh, K. T. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Hopkins Extreme Materials Inst.; Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nondestructive Characterization Inst.

    2016-06-17

    These are slides about in-situ X-ray CT results of damage evolution in L6 ordinary chondrite meteorites. The following topics are covered: mechanical and thermal damage characterization, list of Grosvenor Mountain (GRO) meteorite samples, in-situ x-ray compression test setup, GRO-chipped reference at 0 N - existing cracks, GRO-chipped loaded at 1580 N, in-situ x-ray thermal fatigue test setup, GRO-B14 room temperature reference, GRO-B14 Cycle 47 at 200°C, GRO-B14 Cycle 47 at room temperature, conclusions from qualitative analysis, future work and next steps. Conclusions are the following: Both GRO-Chipped and GRO-B14 had existing voids and cracks within the volume. These sites with existing damage were selected for CT images from mechanically and thermally loaded scans since they are prone to damage initiation. The GRO-Chipped sample was loaded to 1580 N which resulted in a 14% compressive engineering strain, calculated using LVDT. Based on the CT cross sectional images, the GRO-B14 sample at 200°C has a thermal expansion of approximately 96 μm in height (i.e. ~1.6% engineering strain).

  9. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  10. Characterization of the transcriptional regulation of the tariJKL locus involved in ribitol-containing wall teichoic acid biosynthesis in Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomita, S.; Lee, I.C.; Swam, van I.I.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, Jacques; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains produce either glycerol (Gro)- or ribitol (Rbo)-backbone wall teichoic acid (WTA) (Gro-WTA and Rbo-WTA, respectively). The strain WCFS1 has been shown to be able to activate the tarIJKL locus involved in Rbo-WTA synthesis when the tagD1F1F2 locus for Gro-WTA synthe

  11. Interfacial air/water proton conduction from long distances by sulfolobus solfataricus archaeal bolaform lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilalta, I; Gliozzi, A; Prats, M

    1996-08-15

    The stability, structural organization, and the ability to transfer protons long distances have been investigated in monolayers formed from archael bolaform lipids at the air/water interface. The lipids employed were the fractions GroR2Gro (R represents an acyl group with variable chain length typically consisting of 0-4 cyclopentane rings and 40 isoprenoid residues) and GroR2GroNon-Ol (Non-ol represents nonitol) extracted from Sulfolobus solfataricus by hydrolysis of the cytoplasmic membrane. GroR2-GroNon-ol films exhibit a very peculiar behaviour: the monolayer surface pressure increases with time, regardless of its low or high initial value. This finding is related to the possibility of GroR2GroNon-ol molecules to assume an upright (a metastable) or a U-shaped (stable) configuration. In the gaseous state and in the collapsed state of the film, no lateral proton conduction was observed. However, in the pressure range 0 < pi < 25 mN/m for GroR2Gro and 0 < pi < 30 mN/m for GroR2GroNon-ol monolayers, a lateral proton conduction at the air/water interface was observed. The structural organization of these bipolar lipids at the air/water interface can be related to the lateral proton conduction; it is possible to conclude that whatever configuration these lipids may adopt, they are able to structure the air/water interface in a hydrogen bond network that supports lateral proton conduction. This process may be ascribed to a percolation phenomenon occurring when the polar lipid head groups form a structured lattice of hydrogen bonds.

  12. The clonal antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa heat shock protein is highly diverse in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulanova, M; Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O;

    1997-01-01

    The GroEL protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the bacterial 60-65 kDa heat shock protein family. A strong antibody response to GroEL has been found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Clonotypes of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against Gro...... antibody clones against GroEL. The appearance of new clones with time reflected the long duration of the chronic infection. A striking addition of new clonotypes during the observation period occurred when a new unrelated bacterium (Burkholderia cepacia) had become established as a cause of the pulmonary...

  13. Ultrasound irradiation: a robust approach for direct functionalization of graphene oxide with thermal and antimicrobial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktedar, Shrikant S; Mehetre, Shantilal S; Singh, Man; Kale, R K

    2014-07-01

    Sonochemical waves as mechanochemical energy was employed to exfoliate graphite oxide and functionalized graphene oxide (GrO), through a reaction of solvent and accountable for top-down and bottom-up approach respectively. The in situ formation of ester intermediate was inferred and a polymeric surface of GrO was further functionalized with 6-Aminoindazole (6-AIND) through sonochemical nucleophilic substitution reaction. As compared to conventional method the effect of ultrasound was verified for the direct functionalization of GrO. The conventional hazardous acylation step for functionalization of GrO was deleted in ultrasound assisted formation of f-(6-AIND) GrO nanocomposite, prepared by stereoselective exploitation of carboxyl groups at edges of GrO. The characterization has ascertained a covalent attachment of 6-AIND onto GrO surface with ATR-FTIR, XPS, SSNMR, TGA, DSC, XRD, AFM, RAMAN, EDX, SEM, BET and elemental analyzer. A weight loss in TGA depicts enhanced thermal stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO and a thermally sensitive behavior. The f-(6-AIND) GrO was studied for in vitro antimicrobial activity to ensure health and environmental safety. Antibacterial activity was identified against human pathogenic gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus; ATCC 25923) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli; ATCC 25922). The antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231).

  14. Efecto del hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla en tres cultivares de Brachiaria spp en el valle de Iguala, gro., México (Efect of hidrogel on yield of seed of three cultivars of Brachiaria ssp in the valley of Iguala guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Hernández Santana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenBajo un diseño de bloques completamente al azar en un arreglo de parcelas divididas, se evaluó el efecto de tres niveles de hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla de tres cultivares de Brachiaria ssp . Los niveles fueron 0,10 y 20 Kg ha-¹ de hidrogel, y los cultivares; Insurgente, Mulato y Toledo. Las variables consideradas fueron: altura de planta al 100% de floración (APF,densidad de tallos (DT, densidad de tallos reproductivos primarios (DTRP,densidad de tallos reproductivos secundarios (DTRS, porcentaje de acame (PA, rendimiento de semilla bruta (RSBR, rendimiento de semilla ventilada (RSVE y rendimiento de semilla pura (RSPU. En el análisis estadístico a todas las variables se les aplicó el análisis de varianza para evaluar el efecto del hidrogel y el comportamiento de los cultivares en el rendimiento de semilla. Se efectuaron las pruebas de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey para conocer si existió asociación de las variables de estudio. El análisis de varianza mostró que existió diferencias significativas (P <0.05 para el factor cultivar en las variables: (RSVE, (RSPU, (DT, (DTRP y (PA y altamente significativas (P<0.01 en (RSBR, (APF y (DTRS. En relación al factor hidrogel no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables estudiadas. En tanto que en la interacción cultivar por hidrogel sólo la variable (DT presentó diferencias significativas (P<0.05. La comparación múltiple de medias evidenció que existió diferencias estadísticas entre cultivares en todas las variables de estudio, destacando que en la variable (RSBR, el cv Mulato fue el que presentó la mejor media con 516.06 Kg de semilla ha-¹ mientras que para las variables (RSVE y (RSPU fue el cv Toledo, con 88.36 y 82.45 Kg ha-¹ respectivamente. En relación a los niveles de hidrogel no se encontró diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables de estudio.AbstractIt was evaluated the effect of three hidrogel levels on the yield of seed of three cultivars of Brachiaria ssp. This experiment was done in a random design in blocks. The hidrogel levels were 0, 10, and 20 kg ha-¹ and cultivars were Insurgente, Mulato and Toledo. The variables considered for yield were: plant height is when 100% blooming, stem density, primary reproductive stem density, secondary reproductive stem density, fallen plants porcentage, gross seed yield, ventilated seed yield and pure seed yield. An ANOVA was applied to the variables to evaluate the effect of the hidrogel in the cultivars measuring the yield and seed.Tukey multiple comparison test were done to know the variables relation in this study. The ANOVA showed significative differences (P < 0.05 for the cultivar in the variables: ventilated seed yield, pure seed yield, stem density, primary reproductive stem density, fallen plants porcentage, also highly significative (P<0.01 for gross seed yield, height plant in 100% blooming, secundary reproductive stem density. The variable stem density showed significative differences with the hidrogel – cultivar interaction. Tukey multiple comparison showed the differences in the cultivar variables indicating that the variable gross seed yield in the Mulato cultivar presented the best mean with 516.06 Kg ha-¹ of seed and the variables ventilated seed yield and pure seed yield for Toledo cultivar presented the best means with 88.36 and 82.45 Kg ha-¹ of seed respectively. The hidrogel levels not showed significative differences (P<0.05 on the variables considered.

  15. Wirklich wie im wirklichen Leben. Sarah Kember untersucht die (Re-Produktion des kleinen Unterschieds und seiner großen Folgen in Theorie und Praxis von Artificial Life Real as in real life. Sarah Kember examines the (reproduction of ‘the small difference and its big consequences’ in the theory and practice of artificial life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kuni

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Wie greifen diese ‚virtuellen Realitäten‘ in unsere Körper- und Identitätskonzepte, unsere Subjekt- und Geschlechtervorstellungen ein? Sarah Kembers Buch verspricht, erhellende Schneisen durch das Dickicht der definitionsmächtigen Diskurse, Konzepte und Konstruktionen zu schlagen und neue Wege für feministische Interventionen in die Auseinandersetzungen um ‚Artificial Life‘ aufzuzeigen.ow a way through the labyrinth of discourse, concepts and constructions, and to open the door for feminist interpretations in debates about artificial life.

  16. Ernst Robert Curtius: Evropska literatura in latinski srednji vek. Prevedel Tomo Virk, latinske in grške citate prevedla Nada Grošelj. Ljubljana: Literarno-umetniško društvo Literatura, 2002. (Zbirka Labirinti 582 str. (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Grošelj

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Po več kot pol stoletja smo dočakali slovenski prevod enega temeljnih literarnovednih del 20. stoletja, Europaische Literatur und lateinisches Mittelalter (1948. Njegov avtor Ernst Robert Curtius (1886-1956 je bil v prvi vrsti romanist, vendar sta mu širina intelektualnih zanimanj in erudicija omogočali, daje v svoje interpretacije zajemal poleg romanskih tudi angloameriške in nemške sodobnike ter srednjeveške in antične pisce.

  17. 麻疯树(Jatrophacurcas)叶浸提液对万寿菊(TageteserectaL.)幼苗生长和抗氧化酶活性的影响%Allelopathic Effects of Jatropha curcas Leaf Leachates on Seedling Gro wth and Antioxidative Enzymes in Tagetes erecta L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王进闯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究麻疯树叶浸提液对万寿菊幼苗生长和抗氧化酶活性的化感影响,揭示麻疯树对林下植物的化感生理机制。[方法]对麻疯树叶浸提液对万寿菊幼苗的生长、丙二醛(MDA)、脯氨酸(Proline)和抗氧化酶系统的影响进行研究和分析。[结果]与对照相比,麻疯树叶浸提液加入土壤后,明显抑制了万寿菊根和茎的生长;同时,在叶浸提液中,万寿菊根中的O2-、H2O2、丙二醛和脯氨酸的含量升高,且浸提液浓度的增加而增加;另外,麻疯树叶浸提液在较低浓度时,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性无显著变化,而在较高浓度时,SOD酶活性明显增加;所有浓度的叶浸提液都显著增加了万寿菊根中过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性,且随着浓度的增加而增加。[结论]麻疯树能释放化感物质进入土壤,抑制植物的生长和生理,改变植物群落组成和结构。%[Objective] This study was to investigate the allelopathic effects of J.curcas leaf leachates on seedling growth and antioxidative enzymes,and thus to reveal physiologically allelopathic effects of J.curcas trees on undergrowth plants.[Method] The allelopathic effects of leaf leachates of Jatropha curcas amended into soil were determined on the growth,proline and malondialdehyde(MDA) contentas well as superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),ascorbate peroxidase(APX),guaiacol peroxidase(POD) in roots of marigold(Tagetes erecta) seedlings.[Results] The application of leaf leachates of J.curcas in the soil significantly inhibited the shoot and root length of marigold compared to un-amended soils.The leaf leachates increased the O-2,H2O2,MDA and proline content in the roots of marigold seedlings.The effects increased with the ascending of leaf leachates concentration.In addition,superoxide dismutase(SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase(POD) were not remarkably affected by the leachates at lower concentrations,but at higher concentration,SOD activity was ascended.Similarly,the activities of CAT and APX were also significantly increased with the increase of leachates concentrations.[Conclusion] These results show that J.curcas can release the phytotoxic compound(s) into soil,which are inhibitory to certain test species by interfering with physiological process.

  18. Effect of p erio dic gro oving top ography on dynamics of Insoluble surfactant-laden thin film flow%连续凹槽基底对含非溶性活性剂薄液膜流动特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春曦; 陈朋强; 叶学民

    2014-01-01

    针对连续凹槽基底上含非溶性活性剂液膜的流动过程,采用润滑理论建立了液膜厚度和活性剂浓度演化模型,利用PDECOL程序数值模拟得到了液膜流动的动力学特征及基底结构参数的影响。研究表明:活性剂液膜流经连续凹槽时,负向台阶处形成凹陷,正向台阶处形成隆起,且随时间逐渐增大;与平整基底相比,连续凹槽下的活性剂液膜铺展速度加快;基底凹槽的高度增加或斜度减小可加速液膜破断的可能性;增大凹槽宽度可促进液膜流动;减小斜度会使液膜进入第一凹槽前形成隆起特征;重力在液膜的爬坡和下坡过程中具有相反的作用,但均使得流动稳定性变差;分子间作用力形成的结合压可加速液膜流动,进而引发去湿润现象,分离压则与之相反。%Targeting the flowing of insoluble surfactant-laden film over topography substrate, the lubrication theory is adopted to derive the evolution equations of thin liquid film thickness and interfacial surfactant concentration. The flowing characteristics of the film on topography surfaces, and the influence of topography structure are examined based on the numerical simulation with PDECOL code. The results show that when the thin film of insoluble surfactant flows over periodic grooving topography, the depression appears at the negative step, while the ridge is shaped at the positive step, both of which increase gradually with time going by. Compared with the case of the flat base, the surfactant-laden film spreading speed is enhanced. Increasing the groove depth or reducing the groove steepness leads to the increase of the rupture possibility of the film. Improving the groove width promotes the film flowing. The decrease of the steepness can cause the film to form a ridge feature before entering into the first groove. Gravity has the opposite effects on the up-hilling and down-hilling processes of liquid film flow, which causes the flow stability to deteriorate. Conjoining pressure induced by intermolecular forces can accelerate the film, giving rise to a notable dewetting phenomenon, while disjoining pressure has an adverse effect.

  19. Effect of curve gro ove on the sp ectral resolution for soft X-ray holographic flat-field gratings%软X射线全息平焦场光栅的条纹弯曲现象及其对光谱分辨率的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈火耀; 刘正坤; 王庆博; 易涛; 杨国洪; 洪义麟; 付绍军

    2014-01-01

    软X射线平焦场光栅光谱仪是等离子体诊断的重要仪器,其核心光学元件全息平焦场光栅通常采用非球面波记录光路制作,因此光栅条纹存在弯曲的现象.光栅条纹的弯曲会影响光谱成像质量,从而影响系统的光谱分辨率.记录光路的优化,只保证光栅子午面的线密度分布,因此优化的记录光路并不是惟一的,所以在保证子午面的线密度分布的同时能制作具有不同弯曲程度条纹的光栅.针对应用于0.8—6 nm的全息平焦场光栅,利用光线追迹方法分析了不同弯曲程度条纹光栅的光谱成像,发现采用柱面反射镜制作的接近于直条纹的光栅具有较好的光谱成像质量.相对于弯曲条纹的光栅,接近于直条纹的光栅理论光谱分辨率有明显的提高,入射波长为3 nm时,光谱分辨率从626提升到953,入射波长为5 nm时,光谱分辨率从635提高到1222.%The soft X-ray spectrograph is an important instrument for plasma diagnostics. As the core optical element of spectrograph, holographic flat-field grating is fabricated by aspheric wave-front recording optics, so grooves on the surface are curve. The curve grooves of the grating would affect the spectral image properties, thus influencing spectral resolutions. In the design of recording optics, only the groove density distribution on the surface in meridian line should be guaranteed, so optimized recording optics is not unique. Thus gratings with different curvatures of grooves but with expected groove density distribution could be obtained. For holographic flat-field gratings used in a 0.8–6 nm region, we analyze the influences of different curve grooves on the spectral image by ray tracing, and find that the almost straight grooves which are obtained by means of cylinder mirror can obtain the better spectral images. The theoretical results show that the spectral resolutions of grating with almost straight grooves are obviously improved compared with curve grooves, the theoretical spectral resolutions increase from 626 to 953 at 3 nm and from 635 to 1222 at 5 nm, respectively.

  20. Culture et développement durable : vers quel ordre social ? Quelques éléments d’introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Porcedda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion internationale en matière de développement durable a d’abord été une réflexion sur les thèmes de l’environnement et du développement – le rapport Brundtland, Notre avenir à tous (1987 et la Déclaration de Rio (1992. Le développement durable met en exergue la notion de « besoins » pour les générations actuelles et à venir. Or, comme le souligne le rapport Brundtland (1987, Chap. 2, section 1, « La notion de besoins est certes socialement et culturellement déterminée; pour assur...

  1. Sustainable Cities: Canadian Reality or Urban Myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stoney

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it is now over two decades since the Brundtland Commission report (1987 put sustainable development on the political map, concern continues in Canada that the federal government is failing to adequately implement its own commitments to tackling the ecological challenges posed by rapid urban expansion. Our analysis identifies a number of road blocks, missed opportunities and mistakes that have limited progress and many of these are traced back to the failure of national government to empower local municipal governments, as advocated by Brundtland and subsequent international initiatives, in particular ‘Agenda 21’ which we revisit in some detail as a basis for analysis. As well as reviewing the federal government’s role in Canada, the paper explores the potential for more sustainable urban growth in the context of broader reforms.

  2. Of Faith and Fiction: Teaching W. E. B. Du Bois and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitiere, Phillip Luke

    2012-01-01

    W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963) is widely known as a champion for the political rights of African Americans, founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), aggressive advocate of Pan-Africanism, staunch supporter of female suffrage, and one of the creative forces behind the Harlem Renaissance. Further still, Du…

  3. The Effect of a Classroom-Based Intensive Robotics and Programming Workshop on Sequencing Ability in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability during a 1-week intensive robotics workshop at an early childhood STEM magnet school in the Harlem area of New York City. Children participated in computer programming activities using a developmentally appropriate tangible programming language CHERP, specifically designed…

  4. Talent Developed: Conversations with Masters of the Arts and Sciences. Calvin Butts: Spiritual Leader and Community Activist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    1996-01-01

    This interview with Calvin Butts III, a gifted pastor of a Baptist church in Harlem that houses the largest Protestant congregation in the United States, investigates his experiences and his views on developing academically gifted African American students, drawing talented people into the ministry, and identifying young talent. (CR)

  5. Variability in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among young injecting drug users in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Diaz, Theresa; Perlis, Theresa; Vlahov, David; Maslow, Carey; Latka, Mary; Rockwell, Russell; Edwards, Vincent; Friedman, Samuel R; Monterroso, Edgar; Williams, Ian; Garfein, Richard S

    2003-03-01

    Cohort studies of young (aged 18-30 years) injecting drug users recruited in 1997-1999 in the Harlem and Lower East Side areas of New York City, New York, were used to assess the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The authors found that HIV incidence was low at both sites: 0.8/100 person-years at the Harlem site and 0/100 person-years at the Lower East Side site. In contrast, HBV incidence was moderate (12.2/100 person-years) at the Harlem site and high (30.7/100 person-years) at the Lower East Side site. Similarly, HCV incidence was moderate (9.3/100 person-years) at the Harlem site and high (34.0/100 person-years) at the Lower East Side site. Results show that high rates of HBV and HCV transmission do not imply high rates of HIV transmission, even within an area of high HIV seroprevalence.

  6. Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, T; Des Jarlais, D C; Vlahov, D; Perlis, T E; Edwards, V; Friedman, S R; Rockwell, R; Hoover, D; Williams, I T; Monterroso, E R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined correlates of prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adult injection drug users in 2 neighborhoods in New York City. METHODS: Injection drug users aged 18 to 29 years were street recruited from the Lower East Side and Harlem. Participants were interviewed about drug use and sex practices; venipuncture was performed for hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV serologies. RESULTS: In both sites, testing positive for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was associated with having injected for more than 3 years. Additionally, HCV infection was positively associated with injecting with someone known to have had hepatitis (but the association was significant only in the Lower East Side) and with sharing cotton (but the association was statistically significant only in Harlem). Being in drug treatment and older than 24 years were associated with HCV in the Lower East Side but not in Harlem. Receiving money for sex was associated with anti-HCV positivity in Harlem but not in the Lower East Side. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in factors associated with prevalent HCV infection existed among 2 populations of young injection drug users from the same city. Indirect transmission of HCV may occur. PMID:11189819

  7. Using Portraiture to Shift Paradigms: The New Negro Movement in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In the period from roughly 1915 to 1935, many African Americans undertook an ambitious campaign to remake their image in mainstream (white) American society. This New Negro Movement (NNM)--a term that the author uses purposefully in contradistinction to "Harlem renaissance"--can be studied in the classroom, allowing history teachers to introduce…

  8. "Making Her Community a Better Place to Live": Culturally Responsive Urban School Leadership in Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the notion of "culturally responsive leadership" through a historical case study of the life of Gertrude Elise MacDougald Ayer, the first African American woman principal in New York City. I begin by situating Ayer's leadership practice in light of the social and political context of Harlem in the 1930s and early 1940s. Then…

  9. Review of "The Lottery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, William

    2011-01-01

    The documentary film "The Lottery" focuses on the battle between advocates for a New York City charter school provider, Harlem Success Academy Charter Schools (HSA), and those presented as charter school opponents. It uses the struggle of four students who hope to get into a charter school as a vehicle to examine how difficult it is for…

  10. ‘Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In 1940, three young Afro-Danes came together to form what was to become one of the most popular swing bands in Scandinavia, the Harlem Kiddies. This essay seeks to investigate the performance and reception history of the orchestra, especially during the years of the German occupation. This essay...

  11. Final Report of the "advisory Committee on Decentralization, Submitted to the Board of Education of the City of New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Decentralization, New York, NY.

    This report of the Advisory Committee on Decentralization examines the status of school decentralization in New York City, particularly the progress of three demonstration projects, IS 201 in East Harlem, Two-Bridges in the Lower East Side, and JHS 271 and IS 55 in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville section of Brooklyn. Because it is felt that the degree…

  12. Salsa Steps toward Intercultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMains, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the world's most popular partnered social dance form, salsa attracts devotees far beyond the Latino communities in which this pungent "sauce" was brewed. The cross-cultural appeal of salsa, which celebrates its mixed origins in the Caribbean and Spanish Harlem, makes it a prime candidate for inclusion in university dance…

  13. Point Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the teaching method used by Timothy Hearn, a chemistry teacher at Frederick Douglass Academy in Harlem. Timothy Hearn uses a stern behavior-based classroom management system to keep his students' attention. While teaching, Hearn tracks each students' behavior on a clipboard that he always carries. He determines each…

  14. The Effect of a Classroom-Based Intensive Robotics and Programming Workshop on Sequencing Ability in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability during a 1-week intensive robotics workshop at an early childhood STEM magnet school in the Harlem area of New York City. Children participated in computer programming activities using a developmentally appropriate tangible programming language CHERP, specifically designed…

  15. Leonard Covello: A Study of Progressive Leadership and Community Empowerment. Occasional Paper Series 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowsky, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells the remarkable and compelling story of Leonard Covello, a ground breaking progressive educator who worked tirelessly to shape public education in New York City during the first half of the 20th century. Covello was the founding principal of Benjamin Franklin High School (BFHS) in East Harlem in the 1930s. The author invites…

  16. The Relationships of Drug Items Communicated by Tenenaged Interviewees to Teenaged and Adult Interviewers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward V.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. The subjects were teenagers in East, Central and West Harlem. A pool of 298 interview tapes was gathered from which 70 tapes were randomly selected. Teenagers' explanations for drug use included 10 categories established by…

  17. Mediating Mexico: Winold Reiss and the Transcultural Dimension of “Harlem” in the 1920s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2014-01-01

    Through the mediating element of travel, European and Latin American visual artists contributed to turning the physical space of Harlem into a central metaphor of modernity. Artists such as the German immigrant Winold Reiss, the Mexican caricaturist Miguel Covarrubias, and the African American

  18. Firing up White Clay: Immersion School Students Encouraged to Return, Give Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbhau, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Fort Belknap College President Carole Falcon-Chandler does not fluently speak the "A'ani" (White Clay) language, but her granddaughter does. The girl, one of the 12 students in the White Clay Language Immersion School located on the college campus in Harlem, Montana, is part of the next generation of fluent A'ani speakers. The language…

  19. The Cradle-to-Career Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of New York City's Harlem Children's Zone's cradle-to-career program over the past several years has served to focus mainstream attention on school reform in a way unprecedented in recent history. Cradle-to-career programs seek to provide children living in poverty with a high-quality birth-to-employment education through…

  20. The Association of Externalizing Behavior and Parent-Child Relationships: An Intergenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…

  1. Talking about Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Students at Elmont Memorial Junior/Senior High School in a working class neighborhood of Nassau County, Long Island, can count on graduating on time with their friends and going on to college. So can students at the Frederick Douglass Academy in Harlem. Students at both schools take the PSAT early and often, visit colleges each year, take Advanced…

  2. The Wheels on the Bot Go Round and Round: Robotics Curriculum in Pre-Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda; Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umashi

    2013-01-01

    This paper qualitatively examines the implementation of an intensive weeklong robotics curriculum in three Pre-Kindergarten classrooms (N = 37) at an early childhood STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) focused magnet school in the Harlem area of New York City. Children at the school spent one week participating in computer…

  3. Central Park East Secondary School: Teaching and Learning through Freire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner-Mullings, Alia R.

    2012-01-01

    This article connects the theoretical perspective of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed with the teaching and learning styles of teachers and students at Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) in East Harlem, New York. It examines some of the ways the Freireian model has worked within the public school system and considers some of the…

  4. Urban Educational Change: Building Trust and Alignment among Fragmented Coalitions of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tricia J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a historical case study of an attempt to build a citywide coalition in Rochester, NY. The coalition wanted to improve urban education by implementing community based wrap-around supports in a similar form as the well-respected Harlem Children's Zone. Our study found that groups had difficulty creating buy-in for this reform effort…

  5. Results of the Study on the Role and Penetration of Sesame Street and the Electric Company in Ghetto Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The findings of a 1973 study covering the performance of Sesame Street and The Electric Company in ghetto communities are reported briefly. The steps taken to repeat the methodology of earlier Sesame Street studies are described. Data are given on: penetration of Sesame Street among preschool children in Bedford Stuyvesant, East Harlem, Chicago,…

  6. ‘Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In 1940, three young Afro-Danes came together to form what was to become one of the most popular swing bands in Scandinavia, the Harlem Kiddies. This essay seeks to investigate the performance and reception history of the orchestra, especially during the years of the German occupation. This essay...

  7. An Interpretation of Style in Their Eyes Were Watching God

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦

    2016-01-01

    Zora Neale Hurston is an important writers in Harlem Renaissance. Meanwhile, her unique writing styles influence African American literature. Especially, after Their Eyes Were Watching God (1934) were published, Hurston aroused various reflections. This paper analyzes the writing features in this work which differ from others.

  8. Making an Impact: Stories with Data, Tips, and Lessons Learned from Collaborating With and Across Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, J. K.; Ramamurthy, P.; Vant-Hull, B.; Mazumdar, S.; Glenn, A.; Jusino, C.; Corbin, C.; Brooke, H.; Keefe, J.; Schuerman, M.

    2016-12-01

    Those most at risk during heat waves and floods - are often the socio-economically vulnerable. Yet very few studies exist of indoor temperatures during heat waves or of standing water events at the neighborhood level during extreme events. ISeeChange, a community weather and climate journal, is developing tools and testing techniques in a series of community pilots in Harlem and New Orleans to assess if a combination of citizen science and journalism can bridge the gap. Our consortium of media (WNYC,Adapt NYC, ISeeChange), scientists (CUNY, CoCoRaHS, NASAJPL), and community partners (WE ACT for Environmental Justice, tenant, and neighborhood associations) are collaborating to engage with residents, report radio stories, as well as develop scientifically valuable information for decision-making. Community volunteers place temperature and humidity sensors inside residences (Harlem) or photograph standing water using specific methodologies (New Orleans). Sensor data, photographs, and text documenting the impacts of extreme weather on residents are posted on the ISeeChange platform via mobile app or community ambassadors. Preliminary results of the Harlem pilot show that indoor temperatures are far more stable than outdoor temperatures, so can be both cooler during the day but warmer at night; preliminary work on the New Orleans pilot is set to begin in fall 2016. A full analysis of the Harlem pilot will be presented along with preliminary results of the New Orleans pilot.

  9. Tools and Techniques to Collaborate and Connect with At-Risk Climate Communities UsingSensors, Remote Sensing Data, and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, J. K.; Ramamurthy, P.; Vant-Hull, B.; Yuen, K.; Glenn, A.; Jusino, C.; Corbin, C.; Schuerman, M.; Keefe, J.; Brooke, H.

    2016-12-01

    Those most at risk during heat waves and floods are often the socio-economically vulnerable. Yet very few studies exist of indoor temperatures during heat waves or of standing water events at the neighborhood level during extreme events. ISeeChange, a community weather and climate journal, is developing tools and testing techniques in a series of community pilots in Harlem and New Orleans to assess if a combination of citizen science, remote sensing, and journalism can bridge the gap. Our consortium of media (WNYC,Adapt NYC, ISeeChange), scientists (CUNY, CoCoRaHS, NASAJPL), and community partners (WE ACT for Environmental Justice, tenant, and neighborhood associations) are collaborating to engage with residents, report radio stories, as well as develop scientifically valuableinformation for decision-making. Community volunteers place temperature and humidity sensors inside residences (Harlem) or photograph standing water using specific methodologies (New Orleans). Sensordata, photographs, and text documenting the impacts of extreme weather on residents are posted on the ISeeChange platform via mobile app or community ambassadors and compared to other remote sensing data products (surface temperature, precipitation, subsidence) Preliminary results of the Harlem pilot show that indoor temperatures are far more stable than outdoor temperatures, so can be both cooler during the day but warmer at night; preliminary work on the New Orleans pilot is set to begin in fall 2016. A full analysis of the Harlem pilot will be presented along with preliminary results of the New Orleans pilot.

  10. Stabilizing Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kirsti Reitan

    2017-01-01

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resource...

  11. Sustainable consumption and production strategy for South African construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ” are globally endorsed….. checkbld UN, Stockholm, 1972 checkbld Brundtland Report, 1987 checkbld Agenda 21, 1992 checkbld Kyoto Protocol, 1997 checkbld WSSD, 2002 Slide 6 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za checkbld Stern Review, 2006... Material and energy intensive economy checkbld Water scarcity National responses to environmental issues checkbld Pollution prevention policy checkbld Ratification of Kyoto Protocol Slide 12 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za checkbld...

  12. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry. By Eric Johnson, Springer, 2012; 173 pages. Price CHF 133.50, ISBN 978-94-007-3834-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s the new rock and roll. It’s the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  13. Sustainability in a multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Basha i Novosejt, A.; Weterings, R.; Ridder, M De; Frinking, E.

    2010-01-01

    In its 30-Year Update of the well-known publication ‘The Limits to growth’ the Club of Rome stressed that the once debated notion of a physically limited world growth is becoming apparent in many well-documented studies. Three decades ago, the Brundtland Commission on Development and Environment initiated an international momentum to secure the needs of both present and future generations through a joint policy agenda for sustainable development. Institutions such as the United Nations played...

  14. Shared Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Brundtland-rapporten fra 1987 viste, at rensning og filtre på afløb, kontrol og renere teknologiprogrammer ikke løste forureningsproblemerne. Man måtte gå til kilden for forureningen og her søge at hindre, at den negative miljøpåvirkning overhovedet etableres eller bliver skabt. Kontrol er ikke nok...

  15. Challenges for CPAIOR in Computational Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carla P.

    The notions of sustainability and sustainable development were first introduced in the seminal report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, known as the Brundtland report or Our Common Future [3]. Sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs." Sustainability and sustainable development concern balancing environmental, economic, and societal needs for a sustainable future.

  16. An Evaluation of Vegetated Roofing Technology: Application at Air Force Plant Four, Building 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission), sustainable development is “the capacity to meet the needs of the present without...validates the reports of slower flow rates of storm water runoff from a green roof as opposed to a conventional roof. The slower flow rates reduce the...experts report actual energy savings for a facility are likely to be approximately 25% (Scholz-Barth, 2001:4; Perry, 2003a). The most conservative

  17. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    ecological approach was given global scope by the “ Brundtland Report ” of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Articulating the goal of...Environmental Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for...Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that

  18. Denmark, Norway, and NATO: Constraints and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    RAND The research described in this report was supported by The RAND Corporation using its own research funds. The RAND Publication Series: The... Report is the principal publication doc- umenting and transmitting RAND’s major research findings and final research results. The RAND Note reports other...7; Brundtland , 1981, pp. 3-4. 17Bcsides these two blocs, both Denmark and Norway have witnessed the rise of parties that either fall outside of the

  19. Shared Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    Brundtland-rapporten fra 1987 viste, at rensning og filtre på afløb, kontrol og renere teknologiprogrammer ikke løste forureningsproblemerne. Man måtte gå til kilden for forureningen og her søge at hindre, at den negative miljøpåvirkning overhovedet etableres eller bliver skabt. Kontrol er ikke n...

  20. Engineering a nanopore with co-chaperonin function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Ching-Wen; Meervelt, Veerle; Tsai, Keng-Chang; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Maglia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of an enzymatic function can reveal functional insights and allows the engineering of biological systems with enhanced properties. We engineered an alpha hemolysin nanopore to function as GroES, a protein that, in complex with GroEL, forms a two-stroke protein-folding nanomachine. The

  1. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a new thermostable bacterial laccase from Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyani, D. C.; Munk, L.; Mikkelsen, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    A new laccase gene (mrlac) from Meiothermus ruber DSM 1279 was successfully overexpressed to produce a laccase (Mrlac) in soluble form in Escherichia coli during simultaneous overexpression of a chaperone protein (GroEL/ES). Without the GroEL/ES protein, the Mrlac overexpressed in E. coli...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-10-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-10-0009 ref|YP_981446.1| Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES domain protein [Polar...omonas naphthalenivorans CJ2] gb|ABM36525.1| Alcohol dehydrogenase GroES domain protein [Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2] YP_981446.1 4.6 33% ...

  3. Die grossen Physiker und ihre Entdeckungen von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1998-01-01

    Von Galileo Galilei bis zu Richard Feynman und Murray Gell-Mann - von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks: Der Physiknobelpreisträger Emilio Segre hat seine ganz persönliche Geschichte der Physik geschrieben. Er erzählt von den großen Gestalten und deren wichtigen Entdeckungen mit großer Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15272-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .0 2 ( AB242233 ) Lettuce yellows phytoplasma groES, groEL, amp, na... 34 7.0 2 ( AB124810 ) Paulownia witch...Clover phyllody phytoplasma immunodominant membra... 34 7.4 2 ( DQ515794 ) Paulow

  5. Teilansicht der Universitätssternwarte Wien: Die Wiener Sternwarte

    OpenAIRE

    Kerschbaum, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Die Detailansicht zeigt den Eingangsbereich mit seinem großen Glasdach. Süden ist rechts. Unter dm Glasdach befindet sich die große Treppe, über die man in die eigentliche Sternwarte gelangt. Das Foto wurde vom weinhauser Kirchturm aufgenommen. Fotograf: Prof. Franz Kerschbaum

  6. Synthesis and folding of a mirror-image enzyme reveals ambidextrous chaperone activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew T. Weinstock; Michael T. Jacobsen; Michael S. Kay

    2014-01-01

    .... Impressively, GroEL/ES folds both L-and D-DapA. This work extends the limits of chemical protein synthesis, reveals ambidextrous GroEL/ES folding activity, and provides a valuable tool to fold D-proteins for drug development and mirror-image synthetic biology applications.

  7. Understanding the mechanism of surface modification through enhanced thermal and electrochemical stabilities of N-doped graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehetre, Shantilal S., E-mail: shantilalmehetre@gmail.com; Maktedar, Shrikant S., E-mail: shrikantmaktedar@gmail.com; Singh, Man, E-mail: mansingh50@hotmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The N-doped graphene oxide was confirmed with FTIR, EDS, HR-TEM, SAED, HRXPS, UV, TGA, DSC and CV. • The N-doped graphene oxide was found suitable for thermal and electrochemical applications. • The proposed mechanisms of thermal and electrochemical stabilities were experimentally verified. • The cyclic voltammetry N-doped graphene oxide implies its potential for manifold electrochemical applications. - Abstract: The kinetically active two dimensional surface of graphene oxide (GrO) plays an important role in understanding the chemistry of graphene. The GrO is comprises of carbon and oxygen while the f-(6-AIND) GrO contains nitrogen along with carbon and oxygen. The prominent thermal instability of GrO is widely explored. However, due to the synergistic impact of their constituting elements, the thermal and electrochemical stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO enhances after N-doping with nitrogen containing heterocycles like 6-Aminoindazole. Hence it is essential to probe the mutual impact of various functionalities present over the surface of GrO, to understand the mechanism of direct functionalization of GrO with thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Therefore, the decomposition kinetics of discrete atomic domains and their effect on thermal stability of f-(6-AIND) GrO was revealed with spectroscopic analysis and thermal assessment. Additionally, the mechanism of thermal transformation is precisely developed to demonstrate the impact of heat on weight loss due to the mass transfer. Likewise, the electrochemical properties can be well understood with the help of mechanism of electrochemical activity and cyclic voltammetry experiments. Also, the f-(6-AIND) GrO is confirmed with the help of various surface analysis techniques like FTIR, EDS, HR-XPS, HR-TEM, CV, SAED, TGA, DSC and UV-vis.

  8. The phylogenetic position of Anaplasma bovis, and inferences on the phylogeny of the genus Anaplasma.

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi; 猪熊, 壽

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL (79.8%)....

  9. The Phylogenetic Position of Anaplasma bovis and Inferences on the Phylogeny of the Genus Anaplasma

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL...

  10. Scented males and choosy females: does male odor influence female mate choice in the Mediterranean fruit fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; Edu, James; Pahio, Elaine; Nishimoto, Jon

    2007-12-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), displays a lek mating system characterized by a high level of female discrimination among potential mates. The basis of female choice is not understood, but recent studies indicate that male exposure to the aroma of certain plant structures or essential oils may increase mating success. In particular, exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) enhances male mating frequency, and several sterile-male release programs against C. capitata have incorporated 'aromatherapy' (large-scale exposure of pre-release insects to GRO) to increase the effectiveness of control efforts. We investigated the mechanism underlying female preference for GRO-exposed males. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first, we monitored female attraction to (1) freshly killed flies, or (2) paper discs that contained hexane extracts from varying treatments. In these tests, females were sighted more often (1) near GRO-exposed than non-exposed males (even when the males were visually concealed) and (2) near extracts from GRO-exposed than non-exposed males. These findings suggest a 'perfume effect', whereby female mate choice is mediated by olfactory differences. In the second set, we compared (1) mate choice between intact females and females from which both antennae had been surgically removed, and (2) mating success between intact males and males from which both antennae had been surgically removed before GRO exposure. Intact females preferred GRO-exposed males, whereas females lacking both antennae rarely mated and showed no preference between GRO-exposed and non-exposed males. In the opposite treatment (intact females but surgically altered males), GRO-exposed males lacking both antennae mated as frequently as GRO-exposed intact males. These data suggest that female choice was dependent on olfactory perception of male odor but that male mating success did not depend on olfactory perception of GRO aroma, suggesting, in

  11. Characterization of Lactococcus lactis mutants with improved performance at high temperatures and potential dairy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun

    (TM29) capable of growing at 40ºC was successfully isolated. By determining the temperature dependent growth rate profile, a shift of the optimum temperature from 30ºC to 36ºC was observed for TM29. Meanwhile, metabolic flux analysis revealed that TM29 was able to hold higher glucose consumption...... microarray analysis revealed apparent differences in the transcriptional response to heat between the mutant and parent. It was found that SNPs preceding gene groESL and ribU resulted in over-expression of chaperone proteins GroES-GroEL, and membrane associated riboflavin transporter protein RibU in TM29...

  12. “All’s Well that Ends Welles”: Orson Welles and the “Voodoo” Macbeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer Robert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Theatre Project, which was established in 1935 to put unemployed Americans back to work after the Great Depression, and later employed over 10,000 people at its peak, financed one particularly original adaptation of Shakespeare: the “voodoo” Macbeth directed by Orson Welles in 1936. Debuting in Harlem with an all-black cast, the play’s setting resembled a Haiti-like island instead of ancient Scotland, and Welles also supplemented the witches with voodoo priestesses, sensing that the practice of voodoo was more relevant, if not more realistic, for a contemporary audience than early modern witchcraft. My essay will consider how the terms “national origins” and “originality” intersect in three distinct ways vis-a-vis this play: The Harlem locale for the premier, the Caribbean setting for the tragedy, and the federal funding for the production.

  13. Student-Run Clinics: A Novel Approach to Integrated Care, Teaching and Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishan, Liza I; Dragatsi, Dianna

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the educational impact of incorporating a psychiatry consult service into a medical student-run clinic. In November 2014, a psychiatry consult service was introduced at the Columbia-Harlem Homeless Medical Partnership (CHHMP), a student-run clinic located in Harlem, New York. From September 2015 to January 2016, surveys (Qualtrics) were then distributed to student members of the clinic. Surveys assessed how the psychiatric consult service impacted students' knowledge, skills and attitudes about psychiatry. According to survey results (83.8% response rate, n = 31), 100% of students at CHHMP agreed that the psychiatry consult service is a useful addition to the clinic, and 94% agreed that the service helped increase their perceived knowledge of psychiatry. Survey results suggest that having a psychiatry consult service at a student-run clinic is a beneficial educational model in increasing medical students' perceived knowledge and comfort with psychiatry.

  14. Transformation of a City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenessa L. Williams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification changes the landscape and the cultural makeup of a city by increasing property values and changing consumption patterns. Since the late 1980s, gentrification has challenged the residential and small business community of Harlem, New York. Guided by the rent gap theory and the consumption-side theory, the purpose of this case study was to explore how small business leaders can compete with demographical changes brought by gentrification. A purposive sample of 20 Harlem small business owners operating during the city’s gentrification participated in interviews. Interview interpretations were triangulated with government documents and periodicals to bolster the trustworthiness of the final report. These findings may contribute to positive social change by informing the strategies employed by small business owners who are currently facing gentrification.

  15. W.E.B. Du Bois and the origins of the Black Aesthetic: rivalry, resistance, and renaissance construction, 1905-1926

    OpenAIRE

    Spooner, Joseph Carson

    2013-01-01

    My thesis reconsiders Du Bois’ role in creating a black aesthetic, challenging prevailing notions about his opposition to the New Negro Renaissance and broadening the scope of his contributions in developing an indigenous, self-determined aesthetic. Currently, Harlem-centric historiography remains over-reliant on Du Bois’ own interpretations and unconcerned about his motives for misrepresenting the catalysts and the outcomes of the aesthetic and intellectual debates that def...

  16. Colonoscopy Screening Information Preferences Among Urban Hispanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Jennie; Jandorf, Lina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Existing disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We sought to assess preferred sources of colonoscopy screening information among Hispanics in East Harlem, NY. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among average-risk for CRC, non-symptomatic Hispanics in community-based sites and health clinics. SPSS 16 analysis explored the relationships between sociodemographic and health care variables and preferred sources of colonoscopy information for 395 participants. The top fou...

  17. Données linguistiques, données sociolinguistiques: le traitement labovien du vernaculaire africain-américain

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Céline

    2010-01-01

    From 1965 to 1968, William Labov conducted an empirical research into AfricanAmerican Vernacular English in South Central Harlem. This paper's main aim is to reflect on his method. Four "phases" are distinguished. The first one is equivalent to data production, it has to do with procedures used for reaching African American Vernacular English. The second one is about the analysis of specifically linguistic data, while the object of the third and the fourth "phases" is the data analysis from e...

  18. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  19. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-03-01

    Laboratory alteration experiments were performed on mineralogical assemblages having the unaltered CR composition. The mineralogy of reaction products was compared to that of Renazzo and GRO 95577 and to predictions of geochemical modeling.

  20. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  1. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YMR316W, YER125W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMR316W DIA1 Protein of unknown function, involved in invasive and pseudohyphal gro... of unknown function, involved in invasive and pseudohyphal growth; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion p

  2. Groundwater Management for Agriculture and Nature : an Economic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.

    2001-01-01

    Key words: desiccation of nature, economics of water management, groundwater extraction, groundwater level management, ecohydrology, agriculture, policy instruments.As a result of declining groundwater levels, nature in the Netherlands is suffering from desiccation. Since measures taken to raise gro

  3. 17α-Ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol, a biological marker for the abuse of norethandrolone and ethylestrenol in slaughter cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puymbroeck, M. van; Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Leyssens, L.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Hendriks, L.; Zande, D.J.M. van der; Adriaensens, P.; Jacobs, M.-P.; Raus, J.

    1999-01-01

    The metabolism of the illegal growth promoter ethylestrenol (EES) was evaluated in bovine liver cells and subcellular fractions of bovine liver preparations. Incubations with bovine microsomal preparations revealed that EES is extensively biotransformed into norethandrolone (NE), another illegal gro

  4. The United South and Eastern Tribe (USET) Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) and Tribal Focused Environmental Risk and Sustainability Tool (Tribal-FERST) Train the Trainers Workshop.October 6-9, 2014, in Nashville, Tennessee: PFC Assessment for Management and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maintenance of wildlife and aquatic habitat is dependent on the development of a riparian area management strategy, which considers and adapts to certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, gro...

  5. THE ROLE OF BIOTECH:'\\OLOGY IN CROP IMPROVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    due to high population increase has lead to the grO\\\\ ing concern about loss in genetic diversity. under ... Biotechnology is indeed a frontier technology fast emerging from the laborator) to ...... projectile for delivering nucleic acid into living cell.

  6. Experiment list: SRX186644 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is a class I histone deacetylase that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group ...C1) is a class I histone deacetylase that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl gro

  7. Experiment list: ERX402106 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bios...phila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=trans

  8. Experiment list: ERX402124 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  9. Experiment list: ERX402125 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  10. Experiment list: ERX402107 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sfection || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.bio...ophila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=tran

  11. Experiment list: ERX402139 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ila Kc167 and S2R+ cell lines organism=Drosophila melanogaster || cell line=Kc167 || genotype=gro RNA || genetic modification=transfe...ction || ENA-CHECKLIST=ERC000011 http://dbarchive.biosci

  12. Effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation%血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟伟; 彭鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of vasopressin and adrenaline on cerebral resuscitation in rats. Method Sixty male SD rats were used to set the animal model of cardiac arrest and were randomly (random number) divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group): sham operation group (sham-gro), negative control group (neg-gro), vasopressin group (vas-gro) and adrenaline group (adr-gro). Blood pressure was recorded, and brain tissue samples were obtained. Results There was no significant difference in the recovery rate between vas-gro and adr-gro 30 min after resuscitation (P <0.05). The mean blood pressure in vasgro was higher than that in adr-gro within 30 min (1,2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min) after restoration of spontaneous circulation. The measured MDA, SOD and GSH were significantly different (P < 0.05) between each two groups among vas-gro, sham-gro and adr-gro. Conclusions The recovery rate was similar between vasopressin group and adrenaline group during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. However, vasopressin can to maintain the mean arterial pressure at a higher level after resuscitation, which can the increase the cerebral perfusion and reduce brain cell damage.%目的 比较血管加压素与肾上腺素对大鼠脑复苏效果的研究.方法 60只雄性SD大鼠建立心搏骤停模型,随机(随机数字法)分为4组(n=15/组):假手术组(sham operated group,shamgro)、阴性对照组(neg-gro)、血管加压素组(vas-gro)、肾上腺素组(adr-gro).分别记录血压变化,并取大鼠脑组织标本.结果 在复苏30 min后vas-gro与adr-gro复苏成功率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在自主循环恢复的30 min内(1,2,5,10,20,30 min)vas-gro的平均动脉压均高于adr-gro;测得MDA,SOD,GSH的量vas-gro,sham-gro,adr-gro互相之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 血管加压素与肾上腺素在大鼠心肺复苏过程中成功率相近,但血管加压素能维持复苏后平均动脉压在较高水平,继而会更好的增加脑灌注,减轻脑细胞损伤.

  13. Feste - Opern - Prozessionen, hrg. von Katharina Hottmann und Christine Siegert, Hildesheim: Olms 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah Manthey

    2010-01-01

    ...)Theaterwissenschaft und der Performance-Forschung einiger Popularität erfreut, und so wird auch von den Herausgeberinnen Katharina Hottmann und Christine Siegert interdisziplinäre Öffnung groß geschrieben...

  14. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  15. Price-predicting ability of farm managers : empirical findings with flower producers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, G.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Renkema, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in income among horticultural growers producing under similar conditions are known to be substantial. Production policy, including cultivar choice, plays an important role. Both price variation over time and price differences among cultivars provide valuable management information to gro

  16. Ethnic Group Identification and Group Evaluation Among Minority and Majority Groups : Testing the Multiculturalism Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Following social identity theory, the author hypothesized that members of minority groups are more likely than majority group members to endorse multiculturalism more strongly and assimilationist thinking less strongly. In addition, the multiculturalism hypothesis proposes that the more minority gro

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04916-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 034718 ) Gracilaria robusta plasmid Gro4970, complete sequ... 44 5.9 1 ( DL064443 ) Cancer Gene Determination... and Therapeutic Screeni... 44 5.9 1 ( DL064206 ) Cancer Gene Determination and Therapeutic Screeni... 44 5

  18. Chaperonins fight aminoglycoside-induced protein misfolding and promote short-term tolerance in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Good, Liam; Bentin, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    For almost half of a century, we have known that aminoglycoside antibiotics corrupt ribosomes, causing translational misreading, yet it remains unclear whether or not misreading triggers protein misfolding, and possible effects of chaperone action on drug susceptibilities are poorly understood....... Here, we show that aminoglycosides cause cytosolic protein misfolding and that chaperonin GroEL/GroES overexpression counters this defect. During aminoglycoside exposure to exponential cultures, chaperonin overexpression protected the bacterial membrane potential, rescued cell growth, and facilitated...... as measured by reduced minimum inhibitory concentrations, whereas GroEL/GroES overexpression did not increase minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our observations establish misfolding of cytosolic proteins as an effect of aminoglycoside action and reveal that chaperones, chaperonins in particular, help...

  19. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and Seed Age on Induction of Zostera japonica Germination in North America, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrasses can colonize unstructured mudflats either through clonal growth or seed germination and survival. Zostera japonica is an introduced seagrass in North America that has rapidly colonized mudflats along the Pacific Coast, leading to active management of the species. Gro...

  20. The United South and Eastern Tribe (USET) Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) and Tribal Focused Environmental Risk and Sustainability Tool (Tribal-FERST) Train the Trainers Workshop.October 6-9, 2014, in Nashville, Tennessee: PFC Assessment for Management and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maintenance of wildlife and aquatic habitat is dependent on the development of a riparian area management strategy, which considers and adapts to certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and terrestrial ecosystems, gro...

  1. Development of iron and zinc enriched mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars with agronomic traits in consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition in India, particularly among women, children and adolescents is an emergency that needs immediate attention in this fast growing and developing country. Micronutrient deficiencies are threatening public health in India more and more. Deficiencies of micronutrients drastically affect gro

  2. Wutz Handbuch Vakuumtechnik

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Dieses Standardwerk gibt dem Leser umfassend Auskunft über Theorie und Praxis der Vakuumtechnik. Eine große Anzahl von numerischen Beispielen sowie aussagekräftigen Abbildungen erläutert und visualisiert die theoretischen Sachverhalte.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration by Ginsenoside Ro Are Dependent on Phosphorylation of IP3RI and Dephosphorylation of ERK in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Woo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i is platelet aggregation-inducing molecule and is involved in activation of aggregation associated molecules. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro, an oleanane-type saponin in Panax ginseng. G-Ro, without affecting leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was approximately 155 μM. G-Ro inhibited strongly thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which was strongly increased by A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared to G-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. G-Ro increased the level of cAMP and subsequently elevated the phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I (IP3RI (Ser1756 to inhibit [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756 by G-Ro was decreased by PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. In addition, G-Ro inhibited thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ influx across plasma membrane. We demonstrate that G-Ro upregulates cAMP-dependent IP3RI (Ser1756 phosphorylation and downregulates phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa to decrease thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which contributes to inhibition of ATP and serotonin release, and p-selectin expression. These results indicate that G-Ro in Panax ginseng is a beneficial novel Ca2+-antagonistic compound and may prevent platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  4. Molekulargenetische Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe Pichia ciferrii

    OpenAIRE

    Schorsch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Die nicht-konventionelle Hefe P. ciferrii produziert große Mengen der tetra-acetylierten Sphingoidbase Phytosphingosin (TAPS). Sphingoidbasen sind essentielle Komponenten des stratum corneums, der multilamellaren Barriere der menschlichen Haut, und daher in der Kosmetik-Industrie von großem Interesse. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollte die biotechnologische Produktion der Sphingoidbasen Phytosphingosin, Sphinganin und Sphingosin auf molekularbiologischer Ebene in P. ciferrii charakterisiert und o...

  5. Heterologous expression, chaperone mediated solubilization and purification of parasitic nematode-specific growth factor-like protein of Setaria digitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W WP Rodrigo; R S Dassanayake; E H Karunanayake; YIN Silva Gunawardene; O VDS J Weerasena

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To clone, express and purify a putative parasitic nematode specific protein of Setaria digitata (S. digitata), filarial nematode that infects livestock and cause significant economic losses inFarEast andAsia to be used for structural and functional analyses. Methods:To characterize uncharacterized gene ofS. digitata(SDUG), the herterologous expression ofSDUG was carried out in the pET [cloned into pET45b(+)] expression system initially and co-expression ofSDUG using chaperone plasmids pG-KJE8, pGro7, pKJE7, pG-Tf2 and pTf16 containing chaperone proteins of dnaK-dnaJ-grpE-groES-gro-E, groES-groEL, dnaK-dnaJ-grpE, groES-groEL-tig, and tig respectively, was carried out subsequently.Results:Expression ofSDUG was seen whenEscherichia coli strainBL21(DE3) is used, while concentrating protein largely into the insoluble fraction.The co-expression ofSDUG using chaperone plasmid mediated system indicated a significant increase of the protein in the soluble fraction.Of the chaperon plasmid sets, the highest amount of recombinantSDUP in the soluble fraction was seen when pGro7 was used in the presence of 2 mg/mLL-arabinose and0.6MIPTG concentration in the culture medium and for3 h of incubation at the temperature of28 ℃.RecombinantSDUG was purified both from soluble and insoluble fractions usingNi affinity chromatography.SDS-PAGE and western blot analyses of these proteins revealed a single band having expected size of ~24 kDa.Conclusions:SDUG seems to be more aggregate-prone and hydrophobic in nature and such protein can make soluble by correct selecting the inducer concentrations and induction temperature and its duration.

  6. Tissue MicroArray (TMA) analysis of normal and persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Kaiser, Carmen; Sullivan, Erin D; Miller, Richard D; Timms, Peter; Summersgill, James T; Ramirez, Julio A; Pospischil, Andreas

    2006-10-19

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. We validated the use of tissue microarray (TMA) technology, in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC), to test antibodies (GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk) raised against differentially expressed proteins under an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced model of chlamydial persistence. In the cell pellet array, we were able to identify differences in protein expression patterns between untreated and IFN-gamma treated samples. Typical, large chlamydial inclusions could be observed in the untreated samples with all antibodies, whereas the number of inclusions were decreased and were smaller and atypical in shape in the IFN-gamma treated samples. The staining results obtained with the TMA method were generally similar to the changes observed between normal and IFN-gamma persistence using proteomic analysis. Subsequently, it was shown in a second TMA including archival atheromatous heart tissues from 12 patients undergoing heart transplantation, that GroEL, GroES, GspD and Pyk were expressed in atheromatous heart tissue specimens as well, and were detectable morphologically within lesions by IHC. TMA technology proved useful in documenting functional proteomics data with the morphologic distribution of GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets and tissues from patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis. The antibodies GroEL and GroES, which were upregulated under persistence in proteomic analysis, displayed positive reaction in atheromatous heart tissue from 10 out of 12 patients. These may be useful markers for the detection of persistent infection in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Tissue MicroArray (TMA analysis of normal and persistent Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timms Peter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection has been implicated as a potential risk factor for atherosclerosis, however the mechanism leading to persistent infection and its role in the disease process remains to be elucidated. Methods We validated the use of tissue microarray (TMA technology, in combination with immunohistochemistry (IHC, to test antibodies (GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk raised against differentially expressed proteins under an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ induced model of chlamydial persistence. Results In the cell pellet array, we were able to identify differences in protein expression patterns between untreated and IFN-γ treated samples. Typical, large chlamydial inclusions could be observed in the untreated samples with all antibodies, whereas the number of inclusions were decreased and were smaller and atypical in shape in the IFN-γ treated samples. The staining results obtained with the TMA method were generally similar to the changes observed between normal and IFN-γ persistence using proteomic analysis. Subsequently, it was shown in a second TMA including archival atheromatous heart tissues from 12 patients undergoing heart transplantation, that GroEL, GroES, GspD and Pyk were expressed in atheromatous heart tissue specimens as well, and were detectable morphologically within lesions by IHC. Conclusion TMA technology proved useful in documenting functional proteomics data with the morphologic distribution of GroEL, GroES, GspD, Ndk and Pyk within formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cell pellets and tissues from patients with severe coronary atherosclerosis. The antibodies GroEL and GroES, which were upregulated under persistence in proteomic analysis, displayed positive reaction in atheromatous heart tissue from 10 out of 12 patients. These may be useful markers for the detection of persistent infection in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Quasistatic and Dynamic Growth of Microscale Spherical Voids (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    function of gro\\ VIh rate. Eq. (56) is solved numerically for specified material data. Results of crossover growlh rate, v·, and pressure, P’, are shown...At a pressure P < p’, (or v < v"), growth rate is lower for materials with high yield stress. Conversely. at a pressure P > p •. (or v > v·), gro\\ VIh

  9. Estimación del valor recreativo del parque regional de Sierra Espuña a partir del método del coste de viaje zonal sin equidistancia

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Asuar, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    La economía sostenible, también conocida como desarrollo sostenible, perdurable o sustentable, caracteriza un tipo de desarrollo socio-económico en 1987, a través del Informe Brundtland, proveniente de la Comisión Mundial de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo de Naciones Unidas. Desarrollo Sostenible podría definirse como satisfacer las necesidades de las generaciones presentes sin comprometer las posibilidades de las del futuro (Informe de la Comisión Mundial sobre el Medio Ambien...

  10. Sustainable Industrialization in the Building Industry: On the Road to Energy Efficient Construction Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Ussing, Lene Faber

    2013-01-01

    in this discussion paper. The main method is a review to track past merits in the two domains and to detect knowledge gaps that have research potential. A strategic research agenda focusing on energy-efficient construction management is outlined showing the need for future focus on combining industrialization......Since the Brundtland report in 1987, sustainability has been an issue in all parts of the world, and the focus is increasing in these years. In the same period, the building industry has in the same period also been under heavy pressure to increase productivity in the same pace as other...... in construction management with sustainability and energy concerns in construction management....

  11. O advento de uma NOVA ECONOMIA? O caso da “Economia Verde”

    OpenAIRE

    Belbute, José

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em produzir uma reflexão crítica sobre o conceito de Economia Verde. A publicação do relatório Brundtland em 1987 marca uma viragem importante na forma como a humanidade passou a encarar o seu desenvolvimento e a sua relação com a base dos recursos (naturais e ambientais), a qual sustenta a sua existência. Com efeito, ao considerar que é sustentável um padrão de desenvolvimento que vá “….ao encontro das necessidades atuais sem comprometer a capacidade das...

  12. Socrates and enthusiasm for straw: on ecology and a dubious ethos of technological determinism

    OpenAIRE

    Kolakowski, Marcin Mateusz

    2013-01-01

    A debate about ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ definitions of sustainability in the form of a theatre play. Socrates meets various enthusiasts of eco-architecture to discuss how to interpret the concept of sustainability, which was famously defined by Brundtland Commision in ‘Our Common Future’. The article shows how different data and concepts of embodied energy, life-time analyses or insulation properties could be manipulated in order to prove eco-friendliness of various products and building meth...

  13. ¿Somos los diseñadores sostenibles en nuestro trabajo? La mochila que cargan los objetos

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Bulnes, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Para que un objeto cualquiera sea sostenible debería tener en cuenta los tres aspectos que comporta la sostenibilidad: el impacto sobre la naturaleza, la pérdida de biodiversidad y la vulnerabilidad de los sistemas naturales. Según la definición que recoge el Informe Brundtland (1987) para la Comisión Mundial de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas, "sostenibilidad es la característica según la cual pueden satisfacerse las necesidades de la población actual y local sin compromet...

  14. E × B ion mass spectroscopy in magnetised plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellblom, K. G.; Armstrong, R. J.

    1995-02-01

    A spectrometer based on the E × B drift during the transit time of the ion through a cross field region has been tested in a hydrogen plasma in the Blaamann toroidal plasma device [T. Brundtland, Vacuum 43 (1992) 185]. The magnetic field B, is the field of the device. The electric field E, which is imposed and oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field, is swept with a time long compared to the ion transit time. The ions are accelerated along the magnetic field as they enters the cross field region giving them a velocity and a transit time proportional to the charge over the mass.

  15. Sustainability: A Path-breaking Idea, but Still Associated with Huge Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Peter Kropp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science is a young discipline that started emerging in the late 20th century, although Hans Carl von Carlowitz had already introduced ideas about sustainable management of forests in the early 18th century. In recent times, the Club of Rome report in 1972 and the Brundtland report in 1987 developed these concepts further, and subsequently the sustainability idea became prominent in political debates as well. In both reports it was recognized that growth would have certain limits and a different style of resource utilization was therefore necessary. However, despite numerous approaches dealing with sustainability, it is still an important issue.

  16. National and International Standardization (International Organization for Standardization and European Committee for Standardization Relevant for Sustainability in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Morbiducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in construction has a short history in terms of principles, standardizations and applications. From the Brundtland Report “Our Common Future”, a new vision of the resource deficits, climate impacts and the social responsibility gave growth to the idea of sustainability also in design and construction. Consequently, in around 2000, the international and national organizations for standardization started to develop standards for the application of sustainable principles. This paper gives an overview of existing and planned standards, and examples on how to use them as a framework for the development of methods and tools for assessment.

  17. Strategies for Sustainability: Institutional and Organisational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Development (SD is a global role model that claims to function as a general orientation for shaping societal processes, i.e., local, regional, national and international development. This is in line with the Brundtland and justice-oriented understanding of the term. It is understood as a role model and sometimes also interpreted as a regulative ideal. However, it does not state how exactly “sustainable” societies will or should look. It does not give us a step-by-step pattern to follow, but something like a frame of what ought to be done in order to transform today’s societies, including their economies. [...

  18. The New Policy of Nordic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Mora Fernandez-Rua

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War period, the security policy of the Nordic countries was based on what Arne Olav Brundtland had called nordic balance. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of the East-West confrontation, this concept has been reformulated, among other factors, by the decision taken by Sweden and Finland torenounce their traditional policies of neutrality and their joining the European Union. In this new international context, the Nordic countries have redefined the strategies and the instruments of their security policy with a view to creating a space of multidimensionalcooperation at all levels.

  19. Estimación del valor recreativo del parque regional de Sierra Espuña a partir del método del coste de viaje zonal sin equidistancia

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano Asuar, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    La economía sostenible, también conocida como desarrollo sostenible, perdurable o sustentable, caracteriza un tipo de desarrollo socio-económico en 1987, a través del Informe Brundtland, proveniente de la Comisión Mundial de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo de Naciones Unidas. Desarrollo Sostenible podría definirse como satisfacer las necesidades de las generaciones presentes sin comprometer las posibilidades de las del futuro (Informe de la Comisión Mundial sobre el Medio Ambien...

  20. Eines de mesura, modelització i avaluació de la sostenibilitat

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Blanch, José Juan de; Sureda Carbonell, Bàrbara

    2009-01-01

    La recerca en sostenibilitat es troba molt lligada a l’evolució de la ciència de la sistèmica i la complexitat, ja que la mateixa definició de desenvolupament sostenible donada per Brundtland a l’any 1987 parla de conjugar el desenvolupament de les diferents dimensions de la sostenibilitat. De fet, parla de l’evolució d’un sistema complex i d’haver de cobrir no solament les necessitats de les generacions actuals (intrageneracional) si no, també, les necessitats de les generacions futures (i...

  1. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  2. Bienestar Social, Económico y Ambiental para las Presentes y Futuras Generaciones Social, Economic and Environmental Welfare for Present and Future Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Fernández; Mirella Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo abordar la diferencia entre desarrollo sostenible y sustentable, aclarando cual describe el desarrollo humano social, económico y ambiental, respetando al ambiente. Es un trabajo de reflexión documentada que arroja en sus hallazgos el uso del término "sustainable" en la literatura Inglesa conforme al informe Brundtland. Su traducción al castellano como sostenible, la incorrecta traducción al castellano por sustentable y el concepto Latinoamericano de los térmi...

  3. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING DESGIN STRATEGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAROLAHYPrincy

    2011-01-01

    In 1987, the Brundtland report described sustainable development as a development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable architecture can help put into practice and even encourage a sustainable way of life. It seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. This publication is designed to provide basic theoretical and practical information about sustainable design to help the reader formulate a personal approach to sustainability, and make more informed decisions with respect to sustainable architectural design.

  4. [Host factors in the regulation of the Vibrio fischeri lux operon in Escherichia coli cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhov, I V; Kotova, V Iu; Zavil'gel'skiĭ, G B

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that the chaperonin GroEL, together with GroES co-chaperonin and Lon ATP-dependent protease are involved in the regulation of expression of the Vibrio fischeri lux operon in Escherichia coli cells. The cells of E. coli groE (pF1)- bearing a plasmid with the complete V. fischeri lux regulon were weakly luminescent. The cells of E. coli lonA (pF1) displayed intense bioluminescence. The same effects also occurred in mutant E. coli strains bearing a hybrid plasmid pVFR1, where the luxR gene and the regulatory region of the V. fischeri lux operon were inserted before the Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE cassette. The V. fischeri luxR gene was cloned in the pGEX-KG vector with the formation of a hybrid gene gst-luxR. It was shown that affinity chromatography of the product of expression, the chimeric protein GST-LuxR, on a column with glutathione-agarose resulted in its copurification with the proteins GroEL and Lon. Consequently, LuxR, the transcription activator of the lux operon, forms complexes with these proteins. It is supposed that GroEL/GroES is responsible for the folding of the LuxR protein, and Lon protease degrades the LuxR protein either before its folding into an active globule or at denaturing.

  5. Non-structural proteins P17 and P33 are involved in the assembly of the internal membrane-containing virus PRD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, Jenni; Mäntynen, Sari [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Ihalainen, Teemu O. [Stem Cells in Neurological Applications Group, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere (Finland); Bamford, Jaana K.H. [Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions, Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Oksanen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.oksanen@helsinki.fi [Institute of Biotechnology and Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Biocenter 2, P.O. Box 56 (Viikinkaari 5), FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-08-15

    Bacteriophage PRD1, which has been studied intensively at the structural and functional levels, still has some gene products with unknown functions and certain aspects of the PRD1 assembly process have remained unsolved. In this study, we demonstrate that the phage-encoded non-structural proteins P17 and P33, either individually or together, complement the defect in a temperature-sensitive GroES mutant of Escherichia coli for host growth and PRD1 propagation. Confocal microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins revealed co-localisation between P33 and P17 as well as between P33 and the host chaperonin GroEL. A fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay demonstrated that the diffusion of the P33 fluorescent fusion protein was substantially slower in E. coli than theoretically calculated, presumably resulting from intermolecular interactions. Our results indicate that P33 and P17 function in procapsid assembly, possibly in association with the host chaperonin complex GroEL/GroES. - Highlights: • Two non-structural proteins of PRD1 are involved in the virus assembly. • P17 and P33 complement the defect in GroES of Escherichia coli. • P33 co-localises with GroEL and P17 in the bacterium. • Slow motion of P33 in the bacterium suggests association with cellular components.

  6. Comparison of Oncentra® Brachy IPSA and graphical optimisation techniques: a case study of HDR brachytherapy head and neck and prostate plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Michael G, E-mail: michael.jameson@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Ohanessian, Lucy [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Batumalai, Vikneswary [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of New South Wales (Australia); Patel, Virendra [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Holloway, Lois C [Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, New South Wales (Australia); South Western Sydney Clinical School, School of Medicine, University of New South Wales (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    There are a number of different dwell positions and time optimisation options available in the Oncentra® Brachy (Elekta Brachytherapy Solutions, Veenendaal, The Netherlands) brachytherapy treatment planning system. The purpose of this case study was to compare graphical (GRO) and inverse planning by simulated annealing (IPSA) optimisation techniques for interstitial head and neck (HN) and prostate plans considering dosimetry, modelled radiobiology outcome and planning time. Four retrospective brachytherapy patients were chosen for this study, two recurrent HN and two prostatic boosts. Manual GRO and IPSA plans were generated for each patient. Plans were compared using dose–volume histograms (DVH) and dose coverage metrics including; conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity number (CN). Logit and relative seriality models were used to calculate tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Approximate planning time was also recorded. There was no significant difference between GRO and IPSA in terms of dose metrics with mean CI of 1.30 and 1.57 (P > 0.05) respectively. IPSA achieved an average HN TCP of 0.32 versus 0.12 for GRO while for prostate there was no significant difference. Mean GRO planning times were greater than 75 min while average IPSA planning times were less than 10 min. Planning times for IPSA were greatly reduced compared to GRO and plans were dosimetrically similar. For this reason, IPSA makes for a useful planning tool in HN and prostate brachytherapy.

  7. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ECO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergina CHIRITESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the relationship between humankind and the environment became scientific and economic concerns of the international community since the first UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and resulted in the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, established in 1985. Report of the Commission presented in 1987 by GH Brundtland, entitled "Our Common Future" provided the first universally accepted definition of sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the opportunities of future generations to meet their own needs". Brundtland Report, 1987, was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development / Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, 1992 which established the principles of Agenda 21, which was intended to be a guide implementation of sustainable development for the 21st century, a development that was required to be applied at national, regional and local level. [1] In the context of developing new eco-economic system adopted a number of international conventions that establish detailed obligations of the States and strict implementation deadlines climate change, biodiversity conservation, protection of forests and wetlands, limiting the use of certain chemicals, access information on the state of the environment and other international legal space outlining the practical application of the principles of sustainable economic development in ecological conditions.

  8. Interpreting sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the term" sustainable development"has emerged as the principal concept in the development field. The concept emerged in the 1970s and was first promoted in the international environmental and development communities with the publication of the " world conservation strategy"(1980). It was popularized by the Brundtland report, " Our common future"(1987). The Brundtland Commission defined sustainable development as " development which meets the needs of the present, without compromising the sustainability of future generation to meet their own needs". The Earth Summit(1992) established "sustainable development" as the most important policy of the 21st century. Since then, the relationship between development and environment has been widely discussed and sustainabale development is now an important part of the vocabulary of environmental policy research and analysis. In this paper, we begin by tracing the evolution of the concept of sustainable development. Definitions of sustainable development in ecology, economics and sociology are then explored and discussed. This paper also examine the contribution that a broadly-based concept of sustainable development can make: as a goal, an attitude and as a guiding principle for integrating economic development and environmental protection.

  9. Extending the evaluation of Genia Event task toward knowledge base construction and comparison to Gene Regulation Ontology task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Kim, Jung-Jae; Han, Xu; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of the BioNLP Shared Task was held with the grand theme "knowledge base construction (KB)". The Genia Event (GE) task was re-designed and implemented in light of this theme. For its final report, the participating systems were evaluated from a perspective of annotation. To further explore the grand theme, we extended the evaluation from a perspective of KB construction. Also, the Gene Regulation Ontology (GRO) task was newly introduced in the third edition. The final evaluation of the participating systems resulted in relatively low performance. The reason was attributed to the large size and complex semantic representation of the ontology. To investigate potential benefits of resource exchange between the presumably similar tasks, we measured the overlap between the datasets of the two tasks, and tested whether the dataset for one task can be used to enhance performance on the other. We report an extended evaluation on all the participating systems in the GE task, incoporating a KB perspective. For the evaluation, the final submission of each participant was converted to RDF statements, and evaluated using 8 queries that were formulated in SPARQL. The results suggest that the evaluation may be concluded differently between the two different perspectives, annotation vs. KB. We also provide a comparison of the GE and GRO tasks by converting their datasets into each other's format. More than 90% of the GE data could be converted into the GRO task format, while only half of the GRO data could be mapped to the GE task format. The imbalance in conversion indicates that the GRO is a comprehensive extension of the GE task ontology. We further used the converted GRO data as additional training data for the GE task, which helped improve GE task participant system performance. However, the converted GE data did not help GRO task participants, due to overfitting and the ontology gap.

  10. A comparison of inverse optimization algorithms for HDR/PDR prostate brachytherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkla, Anna M; van der Laarse, Rob; Kaljouw, Emmie; Pieters, Bradley R; Koedooder, Kees; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical optimization (GrO) is a common method for high-dose-rate/pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment planning. New methods performing inverse optimization of the dose distribution have been developed over the past years. The purpose is to compare GrO and two established inverse methods, inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) and hybrid inverse treatment planning and optimization (HIPO), and one new method, enhanced geometric optimization-interactive inverse planning (EGO-IIP), in terms of speed and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. For 26 prostate cancer patients treated with a PDR brachytherapy boost, an experienced treatment planner optimized the dose distributions using four different methods: GrO, IPSA, HIPO, and EGO-IIP. Relevant DVH parameters (prostate-V100%, D90%, V150%; urethra-D(0.1cm3) and D(1.0cm3); rectum-D(0.1cm3) and D(2.0cm3); bladder-D(2.0cm3)) were evaluated and their compliance to the constraints. Treatment planning time was also recorded. All inverse methods resulted in shorter planning time (mean, 4-6.7 min), as compared with GrO (mean, 7.6 min). In terms of DVH parameters, none of the inverse methods outperformed the others. However, all inverse methods improved on compliance to the planning constraints as compared with GrO. On average, EGO-IIP and GrO resulted in highest D90%, and the IPSA plans resulted in lowest bladder D2.0cm3 and urethra D(1.0cm3). Inverse planning methods decrease planning time as compared with GrO for PDR/high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. DVH parameters are comparable for all methods. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of a mammalian glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase: Role in metabolism and signaling in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugabo, Yves; Zhao, Shangang; Seifried, Annegrit; Gezzar, Sari; Al-Mass, Anfal; Zhang, Dongwei; Lamontagne, Julien; Attane, Camille; Poursharifi, Pegah; Iglesias, José; Joly, Erik; Peyot, Marie-Line; Gohla, Antje; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Prentki, Marc

    2016-01-26

    Obesity, and the associated disturbed glycerolipid/fatty acid (GL/FA) cycle, contribute to insulin resistance, islet β-cell failure, and type 2 diabetes. Flux through the GL/FA cycle is regulated by the availability of glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P) and fatty acyl-CoA. We describe here a mammalian Gro3P phosphatase (G3PP), which was not known to exist in mammalian cells, that can directly hydrolyze Gro3P to glycerol. We identified that mammalian phosphoglycolate phosphatase, with an uncertain function, acts in fact as a G3PP. We found that G3PP, by controlling Gro3P levels, regulates glycolysis and glucose oxidation, cellular redox and ATP production, gluconeogenesis, glycerolipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation in pancreatic islet β-cells and hepatocytes, and that glucose stimulated insulin secretion and the response to metabolic stress, e.g., glucolipotoxicity, in β-cells. In vivo overexpression of G3PP in rat liver lowers body weight gain and hepatic glucose production from glycerol and elevates plasma HDL levels. G3PP is expressed at various levels in different tissues, and its expression varies according to the nutritional state in some tissues. As Gro3P lies at the crossroads of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, control of its availability by G3PP adds a key level of metabolic regulation in mammalian cells, and G3PP offers a potential target for type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders.

  12. Translocation boost protein-folding efficiency of double-barreled chaperonins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzza, Ivan; van der Vies, Saskia M; Frenkel, Daan

    2006-05-15

    Incorrect folding of proteins in living cells may lead to malfunctioning of the cell machinery. To prevent such cellular disasters from happening, all cells contain molecular chaperones that assist nonnative proteins in folding into the correct native structure. One of the most studied chaperone complexes is the GroEL-GroES complex. The GroEL part has a "double-barrel" structure, which consists of two cylindrical chambers joined at the bottom in a symmetrical fashion. The hydrophobic rim of one of the GroEL chambers captures nonnative proteins. The GroES part acts as a lid that temporarily closes the filled chamber during the folding process. Several capture-folding-release cycles are required before the nonnative protein reaches its native state. Here we report molecular simulations that suggest that translocation of the nonnative protein through the equatorial plane of the complex boosts the efficiency of the chaperonin action. If the target protein is correctly folded after translocation, it is released. However, if it is still nonnative, it is likely to remain trapped in the second chamber, which then closes to start a reverse translocation process. This shuttling back and forth continues until the protein is correctly folded. Our model provides a natural explanation for the prevalence of double-barreled chaperonins. Moreover, we argue that internal folding is both more efficient and safer than a scenario where partially refolded proteins escape from the complex before being recaptured.

  13. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie

    2015-12-01

    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led.

  14. Reseña Libro; DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO EN NEUROLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Bausela Herreras

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fragmento....Diagnóstico y tratamiento en neurología es un manual que surge para dar respuesta a las diferentes cuestiones que se plantean los investigadores, clínicos, docentes y alumnado afines a la especialidad médica neurológica.El Dr. Brusth, director del departamento de Neurología del Hospital Central de Harlem (Nueva York ha contado con la colaboración de diferentes especialistas a lo largo de los treinta seis capítulos de los que consta este manual procedentes de diversas instituciones de Estado Unidos (Nueva York, California y Arizona.

  15. Racial identity through autobiography : re-covering the past/shaping the future

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mourelo, Belén

    1999-01-01

    En el presente ensayo se examina la tradición autobiográfica afro-americana. Las narrativas de esclavos establecieron la forma y contenido de los escritos afro-americanos mediante una serie de caracteristicas que condujeron a la expresión de identidad racial. Estas características, tras un período de crisis literaria coincidente con el cambio de siglo, fueron recuperadas y potenciadas de distintas formas por un grupo de artistas que formaron parte de lo que ha venido en denominarse "Harlem...

  16. ¿As the ethnographer writes?. A look towards Bourgois's methodology from the idea of ethnographic authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Furfaro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the methodological proposal that Philippe Bourgois presents in his book In search of respect. Selling crack in El Barrio, reflecting on the way in which builds its conceptual categories and the structure of the book, based on the observations made and the experiences and opinions of the people of East Harlem. On this tour, we will review the theoretical perspectives that the author puts into play, as well as the items that he uses in the construction of the stories, to finally reflect on the idea of authority ethnographic present in the work of the American anthropologist.

  17. An anthropologist in unexpected places: An Interview with Philippe Bourgois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called "primitive" tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype.

  18. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    of Indians raided the asistencia (Bancroft 1886-1890 Vol. IV). The San Gabriel Mission’s asistencia was part of the Agua Caliente Rancho, granted to...Antonio Lugo and his sons in 1842 (Bancroft 1886-1890 Vol. IV). The Harlem Springs area was included in the Agua Caliente Rancho, so named because of...prime agricultural soils would occur. Vm-5 A I It F R C -0 Au - I III , t IIt V L . . . .. . * h: 13 Ps I’ dRa Eal 4 4- -4j Im wm~ AF PLN #4 IINT A I

  19. Chaperonin function depends on structure and disorder in co-chaperonin mobile loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, S J; Steede, N K; Garaudy, A M; Maskos, K; Viitanen, P V

    1999-01-01

    Co-chaperonins from diverse organisms exhibit mobile loops which fold into a beta hairpin conformation upon binding to the chaperonin. GroES, Gp31, and human Hsp10 mobile loops exhibit a preference for the beta hairpin conformation in the free co-chaperonins, and the conformational dynamics of the human Hsp10 mobile loop appear to be restricted by nascent hairpin formation. Backbone conformational entropy must weigh against binding of co-chaperonins to chaperonins, and thus the conformational preferences of the loops may strongly influence chaperonin-binding affinity. Indeed, subtle mutations in the loops change GroEL-binding affinity and cause defects in chaperonin function, and these defects can be suppressed by mutations in GroEL which compensate for the changes in affinity. The fact that high-affinity co-chaperonin binding impairs chaperonin function has implications for the mechanism of chaperonin-assisted protein folding.

  20. The phylogenetic position of Anaplasma bovis and inferences on the phylogeny of the genus Anaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Sashika, Mariko; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the complete citrate synthase (gltA) and heat-shock protein (groEL) gene sequences of Anaplasma bovis and to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anaplasma. Multiple alignments from single and concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA, gltA and groEL genes of the genus Anaplasma were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Percent identities of A. bovis nucleotide sequences were found highest with A. phagocytophilum in gltA (65.4%) and groEL (79.8%). Single gene phylogenetic tree results assumed similar phylogenetic positions within the genus Anaplasma, except for A. bovis. However, consensus and concatenated sequence phylogenetic trees showed similar results, revealing 2 subgroups within the genus.

  1. Instaliacija "Nusipuošimas"

    OpenAIRE

    Pociūtė, Gintarė

    2013-01-01

    Visuomenėje vyraujantys grožio standartai virsta mėginimu tiražuoti moterų išorę. Mane supa grožis, mano šeimos moterys taip auklėtos, joms tai svarbu. Svarbu ir man, nes siekiu pripažinimo ir slepiuosi. Visada slėpdavausi, užsidengdama kitų žmonių istorijomis, išgyvendama panašius jausmus. Atėjo laikas save apnuoginti. Plaukai man - vienas pagrindinių moteriškumo simbolių ir akcentų. Netekusi jų, netenku dalies savęs. Veidas tampa neatpažįstamas. Tai istorija ne apie ligą, tačiau grožio sie...

  2. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...... receptor was highly selective for GRO peptides, with IL-8 being 10,000-fold less potent. The constitutive stimulating activity of ORF-74 on phosphatidylinositol turnover was not influenced by, for example, IL-8 binding. In contrast, GRO peptides acted as potent agonists in stimulating ORF-74 signaling......, whereas IP-10 and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha surprisingly acted as inverse agonists. These peptides had similar pharmacological properties with regard to enhancing or inhibiting, respectively, the stimulatory effect of ORF-74 on NIH-3T3 cell proliferation. Construction of a high affinity zinc...

  3. Expression, modulation and signalling of IL-17 receptor in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlen, A; Thiele, K; Riemann, D; Langner, J

    2002-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been characterized as a proinflammatory cytokine produced by CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells. Overproduction of IL-17 was detected in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to patients with osteoarthritis. In contrast to the restricted expression of IL-17, the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R/CDw217) is expressed ubiquitously. Using a real-time RT-PCR assay, we detected similar absolute levels of IL-17R mRNA expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (SFC) from patients with RA (mean 9 pg/microg total RNA; ranged from 0.1 pg to 96 pg IL-17R mRNA/microg total RNA) compared to synoviocytes of non-RA patients. Analysis of the IL-17R surface expression confirmed the results obtained for IL-17R mRNA expression. Exposure of SFC to IL-17 led to a mRNA induction of CXC chemokines IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta. An anti-IL-17 antibody blocked these effects of IL-17. The MAPK p38 appears necessary for the regulation of IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta expression as shown by inhibition with SB203580. The inhibitors genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and calphostin C (inhibitor of protein kinase C) reduced significantly the IL-17-stimulated mRNA expression of IL-8, GRO-alpha and GRO-beta in SFC, whereas PD98059 (inhibitor of MEK-1/2) was without effect. Pharmacological drugs used in therapy of RA, such as cyclosporin and methotrexate, induced a fourfold increase of IL-17R mRNA expression and augmented the IL-17-stimulated IL-8 expression. Our results support the hypothesis that IL-17/IL-17R may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RA contributing to an unbalanced production of cytokines as well as participating in connective tissue remodelling.

  4. Improved 1, 2, 4-butanetriol production from an engineered Escherichia coli by co-expression of different chaperone proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; He, Shuying; Zong, Hong; Song, Jian; Chen, Wen; Zhuge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    1, 2, 4-Butanetriol (BT) is a high-value non-natural chemical and has important applications in polymers, medical production and military industry. In the constructed BT biosynthesis pathway from xylose in Escherichia coli, the xylose dehydrogenase (Xdh) and the benzoylformate decarboxylase (MdlC) are heterologous enzymes and the activity of MdlC is the key limiting factor for BT production. In this study, six chaperone protein systems were introduced into the engineered E. coli harboring the recombinant BT pathway. The chaperone GroES-GroEL was beneficial to Xdh activity but had a negative effect on MdlC activity and BT titer. The plasmid pTf16 containing the tig gene (trigger factor) was beneficial to Xdh and MdlC activities and improved the BT titer from 0.42 to 0.56 g/l from 20 g/l xylose. However, co-expression of trigger factor and GroES-GroEL simultaneously reduced the activity of MdlC and had no effect on the BT production. The plasmid pKJE7 harboring dnaK-dnaJ-grpE showed significant negative effects on these enzyme activities and cell growth, leading to completely restrained the BT production. Similarly, co-expression of DnaKJ-GrpPE and GroES-GroEL simultaneously reduced Xdh and MdlC activities and decreased the BT titer by 45.2 %. The BT production of the engineered E. coli harboring pTf16 was further improved to the highest level at 1.01 g/l under pH control (pH 7). This work showed the potential application of chaperone proteins in microorganism engineering to get high production of target compounds as an effective and valuable tool.

  5. Developing principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement for "gentle" remediation approaches: the European context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, A B; Bardos, R P; Church, A; Puschenreiter, M; Friesl-Hanl, W; Müller, I; Neu, S; Mench, M; Witters, N; Vangronsveld, J

    2013-11-15

    Gentle Remediation Options (GRO) are risk management strategies or techniques for contaminated sites that result in no gross reduction in soil functionality (or a net gain) as well as risk management. Intelligently applied GROs can provide: (a) rapid risk management via pathway control, through containment and stabilisation, coupled with a longer term removal or immobilisation/isolation of the contaminant source term; and (b) a range of additional economic (e.g. biomass generation), social (e.g. leisure and recreation) and environmental (e.g. CO2 sequestration) benefits. In order for these benefits to be optimised or indeed realised, effective stakeholder engagement is required. This paper reviews current sector practice in stakeholder engagement and its importance when implementing GRO and other remediation options. From this, knowledge gaps are identified, and strategies to promote more effective stakeholder engagement during GRO application are outlined. Further work is required on integrating stakeholder engagement strategies into decision support systems and tools for GRO (to raise the profile of the benefits of effective stakeholder engagement and participation, particularly with sector professionals), and developing criteria for the identification of different stakeholder profiles/categories. Demonstrator sites can make a significant contribution to stakeholder engagement via providing evidence on the effectiveness of GRO under varying site contexts and conditions. Effective and sustained engagement strategies however will be required to ensure that site risk is effectively managed over the longer-term, and that full potential benefits of GRO (e.g. CO2 sequestration, economic returns from biomass generation and "leverage" of marginal land, amenity and educational value, ecosystem services) are realised and communicated to stakeholders.

  6. Wielcy tego świata w twórczości poetyckiej Wisławy Szymborskiej

    OpenAIRE

    Dworakowska, Dominika

    2005-01-01

    Dieser Artikel zeigt die „großen Leute” in dichterischem Schaffen von Wisława Szymborska, ln den Kreis der Betrachtung zieht die Autorin vom Referat die Integration des polonistischen Wissen mit der Musik, der Malerei und der Philosophie. Die Verfasserin vom Artikel betonte auch, daß diese Integration in gleichzeitiger Oberschule die große Role spielt. Zadanie pt. „Digitalizacja i udostępnienie w Cyfrowym Repozytorium Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego kolekcji czasopism naukowych wydawanych ...

  7. OMX - a novel high speed and high resolution microscope and its application to nuclear and chromosomal structure analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde ein neuartiges 3D Fluoreszenz Mikroskop, OMX gennant, entworfen und gebaut. Ein umfassender Design-Neuansatz erlaubt es den neuen Anforderungen der aktuellen Biologie bezüglich erhöhter Auflösung in Zeit und Raum Rechnung zu tragen. Mit Ausnahme vom Auflegen des Objektträgers sind alle Aspekte des Mikroskops Computer-gesteuert. Einen Großteil der Software floß in ein neues, eigenständiges Open-Source Projekt ein. Es erlaubt die Verarbeitung sehr großer, ...

  8. Mollusken im Auengrünland des Biosphärenreservates Mittelelbe vor und nach dem extremen Sommerhochwasser 2002

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Hochwasserereignisse sind von besonderer Bedeutung, da sie die Auenlandschaft räumlich und zeitlich strukturieren und so eine große Vielfalt an Habitaten schaffen. Mollusken sind von großem Artenreichtum, der in den mitteleuropäischen Flussauen am höchsten ist. Sie sind relativ leicht zu determinieren und besitzen zudem eine geringe Mobilität und dementsprechend kleine Minimalareale. Darüber hinaus sind Ökologie und Habitatansprüche der meisten Arten gut bekannt. Dadurch eignen sich Mollusken...

  9. Improving cellular robustness and butanol titers of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824 by introducing heat shock proteins from an extremophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhengping; Zhang, Yanan; Luo, Sheng; Suo, Yukai; Zhang, Shaozhi; Wang, Jufang

    2017-06-20

    In recent years, increasing concerns over environment, energy and climate have renewed interest in biotechnological production of butanol. However, growth inhibition by fermentation products and inhibitory components from raw biomass has hindered the development of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Improving the cellular robustness of Clostridium acetobutylicum is of great importance for efficient ABE production. In this study, we attempted to improve the robustness and butanol titers of C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 by overexpressing GroESL and DnaK from the extremely radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R12 and from C. acetobutylicum ATCC824 itself. Three recombinant strains were obtained and designated 824(dnaK R12), 824(groESL R12) and 824(groESL824). These three recombinants were found to have significantly improved tolerances to stresses including butanol, furfural, oxidation and acid. Meanwhile, the butanol titers increased to 13.0g/L, 11.2g/L and 10.7g/L, which were 49.4%, 28.7% and 23.0% higher than that from the wild-type strain (8.7g/L), respectively. For 824(dnaK R12), the production of acetic and butyric acids decreased by 97.1% (1.4g/L vs. 0.04g/L) and 100% (0.3g/L vs. 0g/L), respectively, compared with the wild-type strain. Overexpressing GroESL and DnaK from D. wulumuqiensis R12 also resulted in better growth and ABE production than the wild-type strain on fermentation in the presence of 2.5g/L furfural. Strain 824(groESL R12) was superior to 824(groESL 824) in diverse types of stress-tolerance and butanol titer, indicating that GroESL from the extremophilic bacterium could perform its function more efficiently in the heterologous host than native GroESL. Our study provides evidence that extremophilic bacteria can be excellent resources for engineering C. acetobutylicum to improve its robustness and butanol titer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  11. Die „Neue Ökonomie“ des industriellen Kapitalismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Als die Industrialisierung um 1840 in den meisten deutschen Regionen begann, arbeiteten in Aachen bereits mehr als die Hälfte aller Beschäftigten in großen Fabriken. Dampfmaschinen und rauchende Schornsteine prägten das Bild der Stadt. Wie kam es dazu? Welche Veränderungen brachte die Industriewi......Als die Industrialisierung um 1840 in den meisten deutschen Regionen begann, arbeiteten in Aachen bereits mehr als die Hälfte aller Beschäftigten in großen Fabriken. Dampfmaschinen und rauchende Schornsteine prägten das Bild der Stadt. Wie kam es dazu? Welche Veränderungen brachte die...

  12. Einleitung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther-Klaus, Ellen

    Deutschland hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten den internationalen Ruf erworben, auf dem Gebiet der Technologie führend zu sein. Große, weitreichende Erfindungen sind in Deutschland gemacht worden. Viele Nobelpreise gehen nach Deutschland: Robert Bosch, Nikolaus Otto und Konrad Zuse gehören genauso zu den großen Erfindern, wie Melitta Bentz und Emmy Noether. 85 % aller Nobelpreise, die seit 1901 nach Deutschland gingen, sind in den Kategorien Chemie, Physik und Medizin vergeben worden. Allein im Jahr 2007 wurden in Deutschland fast 50.000 Patente angemeldet.

  13. Gamma ray observatory productivity showcase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. L.; Molgaard, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Program has been proclaimed to be the showcase productivity program for NASA and TRW. Among the multiple disciplines of a large-scale program, there is opportunity and need for improved efficiency, effectiveness, and reduction in the cost of doing business. The efforts and tools that will or have been implemented to achieve this end are described. Since the GRO Program is mainly an engineering program with the build of one satellite, the primary emphasis is placed on improving the efficiency and quality of management and engineering.

  14. Rezension zu: İpek Çalışlar: Mrs. Atatürk. Berlin: Orlanda Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Benöhr-Laqueur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Die 2006 erschienene Biographie über Latife Uşşaki, die geschiedene Ehefrau Mustafa Kemal Atatürks, erregte in der Türkei große Aufmerksamkeit. Das hochgelobte Buch rekonstruierte anhand zahlreicher Fakten die Ehe zweier starker Persönlichkeiten, die nach kurzer Zeit zerbrach. Die stark gekürzte deutsche Übersetzung ist sowohl aufgrund diverser formeller als auch inhaltlicher Defizite nur mit großen Einschränkungen zu empfehlen.

  15. The human settlements and the philosophy of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cañizares Ruiz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article, he has as principal purpose propose a reflection on the human accessions in the world and the sustainable development. Taking the Conference of Estocolmo (1972 of United Nations as a point of item, there is realized a review of the principal events and of the institutional documentation that they have favored the sensitization towards all the questions related to the environment, especially in urban areas. There lends special attention to the Report Brundtland in which there appears the concept of “sustainable development”, to the I Cumbre of the Earth celebrated in Rio de Janeiro (1992 in which the principal international agreements are reached and, In the european frame, to the I European Conference of Sustainable Cities celebrated in Aalborg (1996 in which the Letter of Aalborg is approved. As a result progressively settles what is now called the "philosophy of sustainability" both in science and in institutional and citizens themselves.

  16. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    .g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e...... to the automotive sector in Wales. Specifically, the paper evaluates the "Accelerates" programme initiated by the Welsh Development Agency and elaborates on how and to what extent the Accelerate programme supports the development of a sustainable automotive industry cluster. The Accelerate programme was set up...

  17. Looking for sustainable solutions in salmon aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bailey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development poses highly complex issues for those who attempt to implement it. Using the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development as a vantage point, this article discusses the issues posed by the production of one kind of food, farmed Atlantic salmon, as a means of illustrating the complexity, interconnectedness and high-data requirements involved in assessing whether a given industry is sustainable. These issues are explored using the three commonly accepted aspects of sustainability – its environmental, social and economic aspects – and the dilemmas posed by the need to make the trade-offs necessary among these. It concludes by arguing that decisions of this complexity require complex and multiple decision-making structures and suggests four that are essential for the task.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1801

  18. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. Normatively, (a) parts of the 1987 Brundtland report and (b) Danish experiences with regulated markets and innovations (Hvelplund 1995) are discussed and supplemented by (c) a critique of EU energy policies, especially the continued support of nuclear industry......  Analytically, (a) Barry Commoner's theses of 1976 on the connections between energy, environmental and economic crises are discussed from thermo-dynamical inefficiencies through sector analyses to barriers of energy reform, actualized by (b) the contribution of Sterling 2002 reminding upon...... by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...

  19. Energy Prediction versus Energy Performance of Green Buildings in Malaysia. Comparison of Predicted and Operational Measurement of GBI Certified Green Office in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward from the sustainability agenda of Brundtland in 1987 and the increasing demand for energy efficient buildings, the building industry has taken steps in meeting the challenge of reducing its environmental impact. Initiatives such as ‘green’ or ‘sustainable’ design have been at the forefront of architecture, while green assessment tools have been used to predict the energy performance of building during its operational phase. However, there is still a significant hap between predicted or simulated energy measurements compared to actual operational energy consumption, or is more commonly referred as the ‘performance gap’. This paper tries to bridge this gap by comparing measured operational energy consumption of a Green Building Index (GBI certified office building in Kuala Lumpur, with its predicted energy rating qualification.

  20. Reflexiones sobre el desarrollo sustentable

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarella Quinhôes, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    El texto focaliza el concepto de 'desarrollo sustentable', tal como es presentado en el informe de la Comisión Brundtland ante las Naciones Unidas. Tiene por objeto la discusión del concepto en relación con su validez como nuevo paradigma teórico, que supone una nueva comprensión del proceso de desarrollo regional en los países más pobres. Para llegar al concepto en sí, parte de la revisión histórica de las principales teorías del desarrollo. El curso que vincula un punto al otro pasa tanto p...

  1. Sustainable Tourism in Practice: Promoting or Perverting the Quest for a Sustainable Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Aall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has achieved the status of being the superior goal in Norwegian government tourism policy, and is attaining much attention in the international scientific and political discourse on tourism. However, have policies on sustainable tourism and related concepts actually managed to make tourism more sustainable? This article seeks to address this question by first presenting the history of sustainable tourism and related concepts, and specifically analyzing how the triple bottom line approach has influenced the prevailing understanding of the concept of sustainable tourism. The article concludes by claiming that prevailing EU as well as Norwegian national policies aiming to make tourism more sustainable most likely will result in “sustaining tourism” more than actually making tourism more sustainable. The article uses Norway—the “home of the Brundtland report”—as an illustrative case for the discussion.

  2. DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL À LUZ DA TEORIA DA JUSTIÇA COMO EQUIDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Neto, Sebastião Domingues

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação dedica-se ao exame teórico do desenvolvimento sustentável à luz da teoria da justiça como equidade, de John Rawls. O problema de pesquisa tem caráter teórico e reside na análise do desenvolvimento sustentável (precipuamente resultante do Relatório Brundtland), destacado em seu aspecto social e implicações político-jurídicas e jusfilosóficas, à luz da teoria da justiça como equidade, investigando-se, em eixo que relaciona teoria da justiça, justiça social e l...

  3. On sustainable development and sustainability: conceptualization and review / Sobre el desarrollo sostenible y la sostenibilidad: conceptualización y crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván López Pardo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than three decades, and with particular intensity in the 80’s, starts a process with no precedent on the global reflection driven by United Nations, and followed by the European Union, to address the issue of the planet’s sustainability and sustainable development as one of the great challenges that the XXI century face. The publication of the Brundtland Report (WCED, 1987 represents a milestone in the process offering a definition of sustainable development until today reference in the debate. In this article we review the positions and arguments for and those that are critical of this definition, to shed light on a concept in continuous state of definition at the same time pose the questions to be resolved in a debate no at all concluded.

  4. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  5. A evolução do debate socioambiental no Brasil: Legislação, etnoconservação e racionalidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Fürstenau-Togashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International scene influenced by landmark events of Stockholm-1972 and Brundtland report-1987 influenced the writing of the constitution of Brazil in 1988. The work presents the evolution of socio-environmentalism discussion in Brazil, from its sprouting to present day. A critical analysis is offered at different speeches involving the problem, highlighting a critique to the capitalist model of development leading to a process of both environment and human being degradation. Traditional and indigenous populations with their own ways of life and their ethnic knowledge derived from specific relations involving environment and production are not being respected. To solve social movements claiming for environmental justice it is necessary to open territory management to this minority and reverse appropriation of the natural patrimony by dominant groups.

  6. Développement durable… question de sens !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Michel-Guillou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plus d’une trentaine d’année, le concept de développement durable a progressivement intégré notre quotidien. Son émergence est notamment marquée par le rapport Brundtland (1987 qui le popularise en le définissant comme un mode de développement qui répond aux besoins du présent sans compromettre la capacité des générations futures à répondre aux leurs. Dès lors, la classe politique et les médias entre autres, se sont appropriés cette expression devenue un leitmotiv, empreinte d’une cer...

  7. Sustainable development: a mission for social work? A normative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jef Peeters

    2012-06-01

    De huidige sociaal-ecologische crisis vraagt om een transitie naar een duurzame samenleving, en die raakt aan alle aspecten van ons leven. Daarom moet ook het sociaal werk nadenken over de betekenis van duurzame ontwikkeling voor zijn praktijk. Tot nu toe bleef het bewustzijn van ecologische grenzen grotendeels buiten het aandachtsveld van het sociaal werk. Nochtans is het steeds maar groeiende verband tussen veel sociale en ecologische problemen de centrale focus van het concept duurzame ontwikkeling. Dit artikel argumenteert hoe het sociaal werk op grond van zijn eigen missie kan aansluiten bij een proces van duurzame ontwikkeling. Daartoe wordt het normatieve kader van de Brundtland-visie op duurzame ontwikkeling vergeleken met de missie van het sociaal werk die besloten ligt in zijn internationale definitie. Die analyse maakt het mogelijk om enkele voorwaarden te formuleren voor een bijdrage van het sociaal werk aan een duurzaamheidstransitie.

  8. Parlez-vous développement durable ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available La notion de « développement durable » est apparue dans la suite de réflexions sur l’« éco-développement » d’Ignacy Sachs et dans le sillage du rapport Brundtland (1987. Elle répond au projet de politiser le débat sur la nature, en faisant preuve de lucidité sur les questions environnementales mais en les reliant à de grandes questions politiques dans la perspective de créer des espaces de débat pour l’action publique. Cela se produit dans un contexte où les ...

  9. A Review of "The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Goldemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about sustainable development are not a recent phenomenon. Societal problem-solving efforts within this realm have focused on concrete problems such as the preservation of fisheries, forests and national reserves. 'The Politics of Sustainability' has been discussed extensively in  literature, particularly after the publication of the Brundtland Commission's 'Our Common Future' report in 1987 [1] emphasizing inter-generational responsibilities involving economic, environmental and social aspects. Among other areas, the authors of the report highlighted the challenge of global climate change resulting from, amongst other things, unsustainable patterns of consumption. 'The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives', edited by Dieter Birnhacher and May Thorseth, brings  a new angle into the discussion of the politics of sustainable development: ethical considerations.

  10. Sustainability: A Crucial Quest for Humanity - Welcome to a New Open Access Journal for a Growing Multidisciplinary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability, although often hard to define precisely, is a rapidly growing area of study that is becoming increasingly applied in diverse areas. The definition put forth in 1983 by the World Commission on Environment and Development, informally known as the Brundtland Commission, captures many aspects of the topic. That commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Other attempts have been made to define what we mean when we refer to sustainability or strive to achieve it as an objective. Despite the differences in definitions, a key theme that emerges is that sustainability is a concept that needs to be incorporated in many if not all of the activities that people undertake. [...

  11. Lectures hétérodoxes du développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dès l’origine, notamment le milieu des années 1980 si l’on convient de voir dans le rapport Brundtland le point de départ de l’aventure, le développement durable se caractérise par la pluralité des interprétations et des approches. Qu’il s’agisse des représentations d’acteurs ou de travaux davantage académiques, cette problématique a suscité une très large diversité. Concernant les représentations d’acteurs, les jalons essentiels que constituent les « grands textes » institutionnels (rapport ...

  12. ENERGÍA Y MEDIOAMBIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Gómez Celso Antonio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo plantea algunos aspectos de la problemática ambiental originada por el consumo de los combustibles derivados del petróleo tipo gasolina y ACPM, a nivel mundial y nacional, lo mismo que la solución planteada por el gobierno nacional para reemplazar el ACPM con agrodiesel, lo que dista mucho de ser la solución a los problemas ambientales, como se ha venido promulgando especialmente desde las entidades oficiales. El análisis se realiza teniendo en cuenta el concepto de desarrollo sostenible introducido por la Comisión Brundtland en 1983, donde se habla de la sostenibilidad social, ambiental y económica como los tres pilares del desarrollo.

  13. Stabilizing Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitan Andersen, Kirsti

    The publication of the Brundtland Report in 1987 put the topic of sustainable development on the political and corporate agenda. Defining sustainable development as “a development that meets the needs of the future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs......” (WCED, 1987, p. 43), the Report also put a positive spin on the issue of sustainability by upholding capitalist beliefs in the possibility of infinite growth in a world of finite resources. While growth has delivered benefits, however, it has done so unequally and unsustainably. This thesis focuses...... on the textile and fashion industry, one of the world’s most polluting industries and an industry to some degree notorious for leading the ‘race to the bottom’ in global labour standards. Despite being faced with increasing demands to practise sustainability, most textile and fashion companies continue to fail...

  14. Applying sustainability theory to transport infrastructure assessment using a multiplicative ahp decision support model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryn, Marie Ridley; Cornet, Yannick; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    to sustainability based on the nested model is therefore presented seeking to provide an alternative approach to sustainable transportation assessment, namely the SUSTAIN Decision Support System (DSS) model. This model is based on a review of basic notions of sustainability presented by the Brundtland Commission......It is generally expected that the three dimensions of the economy, society and the environment must be included in any measurable sustainability pathway. However, these do not provide much guidance as to how to prioritize impacts within and between the dimensions. A conceptualized approach...... report, which is used to validate the nested model of sustainability for countries operating under the paradox of affluence. This provides a theoretical rationale for prioritising longer-term ecological integrity over shorter-term economic concerns, in line with the stronger conceptualisation...

  15. Economic Growth and the Environment - or the Extinction of the GDP-dinosaur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1997-01-01

    to develop different terms and to manoeuvre in the direction of other goals than growth in the GDP. The argument will be set out on two levels. First, the arguments of especially the World Bank will be considered directly on their own terms. Second, the conventional use of concepts will be questioned......, and as a consequence, it has been questioned whether an ever-increasing GDP is compatible with overall environmental improvement. The prevailing answer is clearly affirmative, and the adherents of this position can refer to very influential sources. First of all, the Brundtland report from 1987 states that economic...... growth in industrial countries is necessary both to combat environmental problems and to improve the conditions of life in developing countries. Since then, some of the main international economic organizations have dealt with the question. Examples are the OECD report "The State of the Environment" from...

  16. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on sustainable development. Subsequently, this article will propose (I a more workable definition of sustainable development than the one (the Brundtland definition which is currently used, and (II a framework of application for sustainable development. This framework of application (which will have the form of a sustainability impact assessment provides practical guidance for policy-makers, politicians, NGOs and businesses when dealing with sustainable development in their day-to-day work.

  17. Immunochemical approach to indoor aeroallergen quantitation with a new volumetric air sampler: studies with mite, roach, cat, mouse, and guinea pig antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.C.; Agarwal, M.K.; Reed, C.E.

    1985-11-01

    We describe a new high-volume air sampler for determining antigen concentrations in homes and illustrate its use for quantitating airborne house dust mite, cat, cockroach, mouse, and guinea pig antigens. The concentration of house dust-mite antigen was similar from houses in Rochester, Minn. and tenement apartments in Harlem, N. Y., but cockroach and mouse urinary proteins were present only in Harlem. The amount of cat or guinea pig antigen varied as expected with the number of pets in the home. In calm air the airborne concentration of mite and cat antigen was similar throughout the house but increased greatly in a bedroom when bedding was changed. In calm air most of the cat and mite antigens were associated with respirable particles less than 5 microns mean aerodynamic mass diameter, but in air sampled after the bedding was changed, more cat antigen was found in particles greater than 5 microns. The apparatus and technique described can provide objective data concerning the magnitude and the relative distribution and duration of suspended particles of defined sizes, which contain allergen activity.

  18. Declining seroprevalence in a very large HIV epidemic: injecting drug users in New York City, 1991 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, D C; Perlis, T; Friedman, S R; Deren, S; Chapman, T; Sotheran, J L; Tortu, S; Beardsley, M; Paone, D; Torian, L V; Beatrice, S T; DeBernardo, E; Monterroso, E; Marmor, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed recent trends in HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users in New York City. METHODS: We analyzed temporal trends in HIV seroprevalence from 1991 through 1996 in 5 studies of injecting drug users recruited from a detoxification program, a methadone maintenance program, research storefronts in the Lower East Side and Harlem areas, and a citywide network of sexually transmitted disease clinics. A total of 11,334 serum samples were tested. RESULTS: From 1991 through 1996, HIV seroprevalence declined substantially among subjects in all 5 studies: from 53% to 36% in the detoxification program, from 45% to 29% in the methadone program, from 44% to 22% at the Lower East Side storefront, from 48% to 21% at the Harlem storefront, and from 30% to 21% in the sexually transmitted disease clinics (all P < .002 by chi 2 tests for trend). CONCLUSIONS: The reductions in HIV seroprevalence seen among injecting drug users in New York City from 1991 through 1996 indicate a new phase in this large HIV epidemic. Potential explanatory factors include the loss of HIV-seropositive individuals through disability and death and lower rates of risk behavior leading to low HIV incidence. PMID:9842377

  19. Prácticas Participativas y Capital Social. Una perspectiva desde el Plan Maestro de Intervención Urbana de la ZOCM (Participatory Practices and Social Capital. A View from the Urban Intervention Master Plan for ZOCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Alcaraz Zubeldia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Desde la Comisión de Brundtland la sustentabilidad surge como un concepto en el cual lo social cobra gran importancia para promover el desarrollo sostenible en las naciones, asumiendo que la pobreza y la degradación medioambiental son aspectos relacionados que constituyen la pérdida de oportunidades y recursos, haciendo un llamado para el cambio de la política pública de cada gobierno , y es a partir de entonces cuando a través de la llamada “democratización de la vida pública”, los diferentes actores sociales trabajan de manera conjunta con cada gobierno, a fin de mejorar su ámbito socioeconómico. Los cuales han reclamado su participación directa en asuntos concernientes a su ámbito socioeconómico, sin embargo, hasta el momento no se ha evaluado el enorme potencial que el capital humano, relacional y estructural pude ofrecer para fortalecer las prácticas participativas como un nuevo escenario de lo colectivo y eje articulador de una nueva esfera política. Abstract Since the Brundtland Commission, sustainability has emerged as a concept in which the social becomes very important to promote sustainable development in nations, assuming that poverty and environmental degradation are related aspects in the loss of opportunities and resources and calling for a change in public policy of each government. Is thereafter when through the ‘democratization of public life’, the different social actors work together with each government to improve their socio-economic level. these social actors have claimed direct involvement in matters concerning their socioeconomic level, however, so far has not been assessed the enormous potential that the human, relational and structural capital could provide to strengthen participatory practices as a new collective scenery and driving force of a new political sphere.

  20. Sustainable development: A HUD perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldfarb, E.

    1994-12-31

    Sustainable development is the current term now being used to describe the environmental movement. The term`s popularity can be traced to publication of Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission). Sustainable development means exactly what is implied; development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission). It is another way of conveying the basic premise of {open_quotes}Spaceship Earth{close_quotes}; that our species has been given this planet to live on and we must carefully balance resource utilization if we want to endure more than a few generations, because this is all we`ve got. It is a natural evolution of the conservation and environmental movements into a format that recognizes that environmental issues cannot be viewed in isolation, but must be evaluated in a context of economic development (Powledge). Sustainable development is thus a broad term that encompasses many elements, depending upon the context. Such elements can include: 1 energy, 2 economic development, 3 pollution prevention, 4 biodiversity, 5 historic preservation, 6 social equity, and 7 recycling and solid waste disposal. One of the cornerstones of sustainable development is energy policy, since energy use is perhaps the most defining element of contemporary civilization. In the energy discipline, sustainability can best be paraphrased as living off one`s income as opposed to depleting ones capital. In other words, using solar, wind and other renewables rather than fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are limited and will eventually be depleted, therefore they cannot be considered sustainable. Another element embraced by sustainable development is biodiversity. The biodiversity movement is most sharply distinguished from traditional conservationism for its commitment to the principle of preserving and managing entire ecosystems.

  1. Reclaiming the definition of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Paul; Everard, Mark; Santillo, David; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception two decades ago, the concept of sustainable development has suffered from a proliferation of definitions, such that it has increasingly come to mean many things to many different people. This has limited its credibility, called into question its practical application and the significance of associated achievements and, overall, limited the progress in environmental and social developments which it was designed to underpin. This viewpoint article is intended to re-open the concept of sustainable development for discussion 20 years on from the Brundtland Report, in the context of the current state of the world, our growing understanding of ecosystems and their response to stressors and the parallel increase in recognition of inherent limitations to that understanding. Following a brief review of the diverse manner in which the concept has developed over time, we present the case for application of a series of simple conditions for sustainability, originally developed by The Natural Step in the early 90s, which nevertheless still provide a sound basis on which progress towards sustainable development could be monitored. The paper also highlights the unavoidable links between sustainability and ethics, including those in the sensitive fields of population and quality of life. Overall we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'. The vision encapsulated in the Brundtland Report was ground-breaking. If, however, true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public

  2. Detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in clinical specimens using an internally controlled real-time PCR assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Anneke M C; Rossen, John W A

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD), usually presenting itself as a -self-limiting lymphadenopathy. In this chapter an internally controlled Taqman probe-based real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene of Bartonella spp. is described. This assay allows for the rapid,

  3. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  4. Heritability of cortisol response to confinement stress in European sea bass dicentrarchus labrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volckaert, F.A.M.; Hellemans, B.; Batargias, C.; Louro, B.; Massault, C.; Houdt, Van J.K.J.; Haley, C.; Koning, de D.J.; Canario, A.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In fish, the most studied production traits in terms of heritability are body weight or growth, stress or disease resistance, while heritability of cortisol levels, widely used as a measure of response to stress, is less studied. In this study, we have estimated heritabilities of two gro

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2844 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2844 gb|AAI20749.1| Growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAI20775.1| Gro...wth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] AAI20749.1 1e-114 53% ...

  6. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific gro...

  7. Active Vision for Humanoid Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    Human perception is an active process. By altering its viewpoint rather than passively observing surroundings and by operating on sequences of images rather than on a single frame, the human visual system has the ability to explore the most relevant information based on knowledge, therefore when gro

  8. Monitoring the activity variations of galactic X-ray sources with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.

    1995-01-01

    sources the observation periods extended over more than 100 days. A number of X-ray transients with durations between one and five days were discovered, and, additionally two long duration X-ray transients (GRS 1915+10 and GRO J0422+32) were active and could be monitored. Towards the end of the mission...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-06-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-06-0057 gb|AAI20749.1| Growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAI20775.1| Gro...wth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] AAI20749.1 0.0 100% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-04-0139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0139 gb|AAI20749.1| Growth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAI20775.1| Gro...wth hormone releasing hormone receptor [Mus musculus] AAI20749.1 0.0 85% ...

  11. Environ: E00843 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00843 Coffee Coffea Beverage of Rubiaceae (madder family) Coffea seed roasted, gro...und, and extracted with hot water or cold water CYP1A2 inhibitor [HSA:1544] (Coffee contains Caffeine [DR:D00528] that inhibits CYP1A2.) ...

  12. Molecular cloning of porcine chemokine CXC motif ligand 2 (CXCL2) and mapping to the SSC8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy is accompanied by inflammatory responses with leukocytosis and increased levels of cytokines and chemokines. Human trophoblast cells secrete chemokine CXC motif ligand 1 (CXCL1)/Gro-a and other chemotactic proteins, while monocytes co-cultured with trophoblast cells...

  13. Kuidas õppida säilitama vanu tõuge? / Silvia Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Silvia, 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Norra teadlase Gro Bjırnstadti doktoritööst "Genetic Diversity of Norwegian Horses with Emphasis on Native Breeds" (Norra hobusetõugude geneetiline mitmekesisus rõhuasetusega kohalikel tõugudel). Ettekanne konverentsil "Milleks ja kuidas säilitada põliseid hobusetõuge?" Penijõel 15. novembril 2003. aastal

  14. The effects of infant orthopaedics on speech and language development in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konst, Emmy Maria

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation into the effects of infant orthopaedics (IO) on speech and language development in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). The study was performed within the framework of the three-centre prospective randomised clinical trial 'Dutchcleft'. Two gro

  15. Response of strawberry cvs. Ventana and Camarosa to salinity and specific ion composition of irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry is considered to be one of the most salt sensitive of all crops. Strawberries grown in southern and central California are located primarily in the coastal valleys. There is recent interest in developing production in inland valleys, due to their potential for early market production. Gro...

  16. Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness and Return-on-Investment of a Mindfulness-Based Worksite Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Wier, M.F. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment analysis comparing a mindfulness-based worksite intervention to usual practice. Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven governmental research institute employees were randomized to the intervention or control gro

  17. the effect of milk supplementation on the development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    produce lactic acid varies depending on the strain and conditions for growth. ... The milk industries are often faced with the problem of variation of milk compost io11. ... milk wilh yeast extracts on lhe gro"'th and acidification of lactic bacteria.

  18. Sie lebt! Zur Verbraucherforschung im deutschsprachigen Raum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehler, Andreas; Reisch, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    in der Zukunft) führt mit großem Abstand der Themenbereich „Nachhaltigkeit/Ressourcenschonung/nachhaltiger, ökologisch-sozialer Konsum“ an (62 %). Insbesondere bei „Finanzdienstleistungen“, den „Märkten der sozialen Sicherung“ und dem „Datenschutz“ geben deutlich mehr Forscher eine Dringlichkeit an als...

  19. Der Shakeout im Industrielebenszyklus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croonenbroeck, Carsten; Grimpe, Christoph; Stadtmann, Georg

    In vormals aufstrebenden Branchen wie z. B. der Solarindustrie kommt es plötzlich zu einem massiven Austritt selbst großer Marktteilnehmer. Warum? Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie mit mikroökonomischen Überlegungen argumentiert werden kann, um die Anzahl an Unternehmen in einem Markt zu bestimmen. Es wi...

  20. Wortbildungsangaben als Hilfe für den Zugriff auf andere Datentypen und als Hilfe bei kommunikativen und kognitiven Informationsbedürfnissen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    "Grundsätzlich können unendlich umfangreiche Mengen" von Daten eingespeist werden, schreiben Ulrike Haß und Ulrich Schmitz in der Einleitung zum Themaheft "Lexikographie im Internet" (Lexicographica 26, 2010). Das ist zwar nicht korrekt, da man zwar enorm große Mengen in einer lexikographischen D...