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Sample records for gris nai anticoincidence

  1. Anticoincidence scintillation counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    This anticoincidence scintillation counter will be mounted in a hydrogen target vessel to be used in a measurement of the .beta. parameter in the .LAMBDA0. decay. The geometry of the counter optimizes light collection in the central part where a scintillation disk of variable thickness can be fitted.

  2. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  3. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  4. El suicido de Grisóstomo

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Zimic

    1993-01-01

    El episodio amoroso de Grisóstomo y Marcela del Quijote (P Parte, capitulos XII-XIV) ha inspirado ya muchas interpretaciones, algunas muy interesantes, otras desvariadas, a veces tan acaloradamente opuestas que ban herido vanidades académicas y provocado insultos, humillaciones personates y hasta pundonorosos alardes de nobleza de linaje y de ortodoxia católica. Indudablemente, en el episodio hay problemas controversiales, delicados y formulados de modo muy sutil, lo que se traduce en un text...

  5. El suicido de Grisóstomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zimic

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available El episodio amoroso de Grisóstomo y Marcela del Quijote (P Parte, capitulos XII-XIV ha inspirado ya muchas interpretaciones, algunas muy interesantes, otras desvariadas, a veces tan acaloradamente opuestas que ban herido vanidades académicas y provocado insultos, humillaciones personates y hasta pundonorosos alardes de nobleza de linaje y de ortodoxia católica. Indudablemente, en el episodio hay problemas controversiales, delicados y formulados de modo muy sutil, lo que se traduce en un texto muy complejo aun para el lector mejor preparado.

  6. Development of anticoincidence system for “Signal” experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, A. E.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Galavanov, A. V.; Grachev, V. M.; Novikov, A. S.; Petrenko, D. V.; Vlasik, K. F.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.

    2017-01-01

    An information about development of an anticoincidence system for charge particle rejection in “Signal” experiment on a board of “Interhelioprobe” spacecraft are presented. A construction of a detector and components of scientific equipment are described. Initial tests of the scintillation detector, silicon photomultipliers and future plans of developing are discussed..

  7. The ZEPLIN-III Anti-Coincidence Veto Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, D Yu; Barnes, E J; Belov, V A; Burenkov, A A; Chepel, V; Currie, A; Edwards, B; Francis, V; Ghag, C; Hollingsworth, A; Horn, M; Kalmus, G E; Kobyakin, A S; Kovalenko, A G; Lebedenko, V N; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lüscher, R; Lyons, K; Majewski, P; Murphy, A St J; Neves, F; Paling, S M; da Cunha, J Pinto; Preece, R; Quenby, J J; Reichhart, L; Scovell, P R; Solovov, V N; Smith, N J T; Smith, P F; Stekhanov, V N; Sumner, T J; Taylor, R; Thorne, C; Walker, R J

    2010-01-01

    The design, optimisation and construction of an anti-coincidence veto detector to complement the ZEPLIN-III direct dark matter search instrument is described. One tonne of plastic scintillator is arranged into 52 bars individually read out by photomultipliers and coupled to a gadolinium-loaded passive polypropylene shield. Particular attention has been paid to radiological content. The overall aim has been to achieve a veto detector of low threshold and high efficiency without the creation of additional background in ZEPLIN-III, all at a reasonable cost. Extensive experimental measurements of the components have been made, including radioactivity levels and performance characteristics. These have been used to inform a complete end-to-end Monte Carlo simulation that has then been used to calculate the expected performance of the new instrument, both operating alone and as an anti-coincidence detector for ZEPLIN-III. The veto device will be capable of rejecting over 65% of coincident nuclear recoil events from ...

  8. La literatura gris y los e-print

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Soria Ramírez

    2003-01-01

    El sello de la comunicación científica ha sido históricamente presentar los resultados de la investigación en una publicación arbitrada; no obstante, la investigación se puede comunicar en muchas otras formas o canales paralelos, como conferencias, informes técnicos o corpus documental que integra la llamada literatura gris. Recientemente, gracias a los avances de las tecnologías de información y comunicación y aunado al inherente interés de los investigadores de difundir sus ideas, con el de...

  9. Standardization of (106)Ru/Rh by live-timed anticoincidence counting and gamma emission determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C J; Rezende, E A; Poledna, R; Tauhata, L; Iwahara, A; Lopes, R T

    2017-04-01

    The absolute activity standardization measurement system of radionuclide by live-timed anticoincidence counting was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the effects of some correction factors on the determination of activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the laboratory, for example, the corrections of dead time and resolution. With the live-timed anticoincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this study was to standardize the (106)Ru activity, determine gamma emission probabilities by spectrometric method for some energies, and estimate measurement uncertainties.

  10. L'applicazione delle norme GRIS in CDS-ISIS TECA

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrizzi, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In 1996 the GRIS, Gruppo di ricerca sull’indicizzazione per soggetto (Research Group on Subject Indexing), proposed a method for pre-coordinated subject indexing, based on logical principles for the sintax of subject strings and for the construction of the controlled vocabulary; the Nuovo soggettario, a new indexing language that will be presented by the Biblioteca nazionale centrale di Firenze in January 2007, is structured according to GRIS method. This case study concerning TECA, an applic...

  11. Development of a TES-Based Anti-Coincidence Detector for Future X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Catherine N.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microcalorimeters onboard future x-ray observatories require an anticoincidence detector to remove environmental backgrounds. In order to most effectively integrate this anti-coincidence detector with the main microcalorimeter array, both instruments should use similar read-out technology. The detectors used in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) use a phonon measurement technique that is well suited for an anti-coincidence detector with a microcalorimeter array using SQUID readout. This technique works by using a transition-edge sensor (TES) connected to superconducting collection fins to measure the athermal phonon signal produced when an event occurs in the substrate crystal. Energy from the event propagates through the crystal to the superconducting collection fins, creating quasiparticles, which are then trapped as they enter the TES where they produce a signal. We are currently developing a prototype anti-coincidence detector for future x-ray missions and have recently fabricated test devices with Mo/Au TESs and Al collection fins. We present results from the first tests of these devices which indicate a proof of concept that quasiparticle trapping is occurring in these materials.

  12. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...

  13. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  14. Use of the microcrystalline limestone as building material: the "GrisPulpis"case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García del Cura, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Gris Pulpis is a Jurassic microcrystalline limestone found in the Maestrazgo Area of the Iberian Mountain Range (province of Castellón, Spain. This paper reports the results of a detailed study of the mineralogical, pelrographic and chromatic characteristics, as well as the durability, of this stone, classified as a commercial marble for its polish ability. The study determined the relationship between the structural characteristics of the stone, with a proliferation of stylolites and veins, and its physical properties. Its flexura I strength was found to be greater than would normally be expected in a structure with such a dense web of stylolites and veins. This is due to the structural and mineralogical properties of these stylolites, characterised by an extremely wavy design, scant mineral infillings and, occasionally, subsequent cementation. The characteristics of the porous media of homogeneous microcrystalline limestones such as Gris Pulpis largely explain the durability of this stone when exposed to freeze-thaw cycles and salt crystallisation. These arc the properties that make Gris Pulpis limestone, quarried in the Spanish Region of Valencia, a valuable building material for both architectural and civil engineering applications

    En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades físicas y la durabilidad de una caliza microcristalina.El Gris Pulpis es una caliza microcristalina del Jurásico de la Cordillera Ibérica (Maestrazgo, cuyas características mineralógicas, petrográficas, cromáticas y alterabilidad se determinan detalladamente. Su aptitud para el pulido hace que sea un mármol comercial. Se establece la influencia de sus características estructurales (estilolitos, vénulas... en sus propiedades físicas. Su resistencia a flexión supera los valores que cabría esperar en función de la estructura de esta roca que, a veces, presenta abundantes estilolitos y vénulas. Esto es debido a las características estructurales y

  15. Neutron detection by large NaI crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagno, A.; Gervino, G.

    2016-07-01

    In present days new neutron detection methods are under developed due to the global shortage of 3He and the toxicity of BF3. Neutrons can be indirectly detected by high-energy photons. The performance of a cylindrical NaI crystal, 4 in. diameter and 8 in. length as an indirect neutron detector has been investigated. Measurements were performed with 252Cf source with bare and shielded NaI detector. With a proper converter and moderator structure for the NaI detector, the detection efficiencies and the minimum detectable activities are improved, making the method very interesting for security applications. The indirect detection of neutrons by photons has several advantages. First, this method can in principle be suited by any gamma spectrometer with only slight modifications that do not compromise with its gamma spectrometry measurements. Second, fission neutron sources and neutron generators can be discriminated thanks to their different gamma energy spectra, a discrimination easily done by a NaI spectrometer.

  16. Luminescence and radiation resistance of undoped NaI crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiran, N., E-mail: shiran@isc.kharkov.com; Boiaryntseva, I.; Gektin, A.; Gridin, S.; Shlyakhturov, V.; Vasuykov, S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The performance of NaI scintillators depends on luminescence properties. • A criterion of crystals’ purity level is radiation colorability at room temperature. • The traces of the most dangerous impurities were detected. • Crucial role in efficiency of pure NaI scintillator play the crystal perfection. - Abstract: Undoped NaI single crystal is an excellent scintillator at low temperature. However, scintillation parameters of different quality crystals vary in a wide range, significantly exceeding measurement error. Experimental data demonstrate the features of luminescence, radiation induced coloration, and afterglow dependence on the quality of nominally pure crystals. It is found that defects level that allows to elucidate artefacts introduced by traces of harmful impurities corresponds to 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} that significantly overhead accuracy of chemical and absorption analysis. It is shown that special raw material treatment before and during the single crystal growth allows to reach NaI purity level that avoids impurities influence to the basic luminescence data.

  17. Neutron detection by large NaI crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavagno, A., E-mail: andrea.lavagno@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy); Gervino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    In present days new neutron detection methods are under developed due to the global shortage of {sup 3}He and the toxicity of BF{sub 3}. Neutrons can be indirectly detected by high-energy photons. The performance of a cylindrical NaI crystal, 4 in. diameter and 8 in. length as an indirect neutron detector has been investigated. Measurements were performed with {sup 252}Cf source with bare and shielded NaI detector. With a proper converter and moderator structure for the NaI detector, the detection efficiencies and the minimum detectable activities are improved, making the method very interesting for security applications. The indirect detection of neutrons by photons has several advantages. First, this method can in principle be suited by any gamma spectrometer with only slight modifications that do not compromise with its gamma spectrometry measurements. Second, fission neutron sources and neutron generators can be discriminated thanks to their different gamma energy spectra, a discrimination easily done by a NaI spectrometer.

  18. Estado del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 (Mammalia: Canidae en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vivar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se sustenta la presencia del zorro gris Lycalopex griseus (Gray, 1837 en la costa sur del Perú en base a información morfológica externa y craneal. Esta especie es de similar tamaño a L. sechurae (Thomas, 1900 pero diferenciable en una mayor longitud del hocico y menor amplitud del cráneo; esta diferencia es respaldada en un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Se sugiere que la población del zorro gris en el Perú podría constituir una subespecie nueva de L. griseus por encontrarse más al norte de su distribución tradicionalmente conocida y separada de otras subespecies por el Desierto de Atacama en el norte de Chile, notable barrera biogeográfica.

  19. INTEGRAL Spectrometer SPI's GRB detection capabilities. GRBs detected inside SPI's FoV and with the anticoincidence system ACS

    OpenAIRE

    von Kienlin, A.; Beckmann, V.; Rau, A.; Arend, N.; Bennett, K.; McBreen, B.; Connell, P.; Deluit, S.; Hanlon, L.; Kippen, M.; Lichti, G. G.; Moran, L.; Preece, R.; Roques, J. -P.; Schoenfelder, V.

    2003-01-01

    The spectrometer SPI, one of the two main instruments of the INTEGRAL spacecraft, offers significant gamma-ray burst detection capabilities. In its 35 deg (full width) field of view SPI is able to localise gamma-ray bursts at a mean rate of ~ 0.8/month. With its large anticoincidence shield of 512 kg of BGO crystals SPI is able to detect gamma-ray bursts quasi omni-directionally with a very high sensitivity. Burst alerts of the anticoincidence shield are distributed by the INTEGRAL Burst Aler...

  20. NaiKun proposes major offshore wind capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-01-15

    In November 2008, NaiKun Wind Energy Group Inc. announced its proposal to build Canada's first offshore wind energy project. The first phase of the 396 MW project will address pricing, delivery dates and transmission routing and connection options. The proposal includes an option to connect Haida Gwaii in the Queen Charlotte Islands to British Columbia's main electricity grid via NaiKun's generation facility. A total of 110 wind turbine generators will be installed at the project site in the Hecate Strait by 2014, thereby ending the island's dependence on diesel generators. NaiKun has signed a memorandum of understanding with Siemens Canada Limited's Power Transmission and Distribution Division for the transmission components of the project. The region has the potential to become one of the most efficient and high-producing wind project locations in the world. As part of its objective for self-sufficiency, BC Hydro's Clean Power Calls seeks 5,000 gigawatt hours of clean renewable energy per year by 2016. The application for an environmental assessment certificate for the project will be submitted in early 2009. 1 fig.

  1. Absolute standardization of {sup 106}Ru by anti-coincidence method; Padronizacao absoluta do {sup 106}Ru pelo metodo de anticoincidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Tahuata, L., E-mail: eduarda.rezende@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ/LNMRI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes; Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graducacao em Engenharia (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The system of absolute standardization activity of radionuclide by anti-coincidence counting and live-time techniques was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the impacts of some influence factors in the determination of the activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the lab, for example, the measurement time. With the anti-coincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased, in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this work is the standardization of {sup 106}Ru by the method of counting anti-coincidence and estimate its measurement uncertainties. (author)

  2. Performance of the Anti-Coincidence Detector on the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard; Charles, E.; /SLAC; Hartman, R.C.; /NASA, Goddard; Moiseev, A.A.; /NASA, Goddard; Ormes, J.F.; /NASA, Goddard /Denver U.

    2007-10-22

    The Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), the outermost detector layer in the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT), is designed to detect and veto incident cosmic ray charged particles, which outnumber cosmic gamma rays by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The challenge in ACD design is that it must have high (0.9997) detection efficiency for singly-charged relativistic particles, but must also have a low probability for self-veto of high-energy gammas by backsplash radiation from interactions in the LAT calorimeter. Simulations and tests demonstrate that the ACD meets its design requirements. The performance of the ACD has remained stable through stand-alone environmental testing, shipment across the U.S., installation onto the LAT, shipment back across the U.S., LAT environmental testing, and shipment to Arizona. As part of the fully-assembled GLAST observatory, the ACD is being readied for final testing before launch.

  3. A DSP-based multichannel analyzer for simultaneous acquisition of coincidence and anticoincidence spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, S.H. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)], E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca; Chin, K.; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Chettle, D.R. [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    A digital signal processor (DSP) based multichannel analyzer (MCA) has been developed for simultaneous acquisition of coincidence and anticoincidence {gamma}-ray spectra. The shaped pulse from the spectroscopy amplifier is digitized by a flash analog-to-digital converter and then processed by a DSP. The coincidence mode operation is implemented by an external gate signal from a coincidence module. Fundamental performance was tested using NaI(Tl) detectors and compared with that of a standard NIM module. The new MCA is currently used for in vivo neutron activation analysis. Further development is in preparation toward full digital processing, which is free from the remaining analog component, that is the spectroscopy amplifier.

  4. The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) Front Anti-Coincidence Counter (FACC) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqian

    The searching for proton decay (PDK) is going on current Water Cherenkov (WCh) detectors such as Super-Kamiokande. However, PDK-like backgrounds produced by the neutrino interactions will limit the sensitivity of the detectors. The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) is going to measure the neutron yield of neutrino interactions in gadolinium-loaded water by the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) with known characteristics. In this thesis, neutrino, neutrino oscillations, Dirac neutrino and Majorana neutrino and neutrino interactions are introduced. ANNIE experiment is also introduced. And two modes of proton decays are discussed. The ANNIE experiment requires detection of the neutrons produced by the BNB interactions with water. However, dirt muons produced by the interaction of the BNB with the rock and dirt upstream of the ANNIE hall will cause a correlated background. Therefore, the Front Anti-Coincidence Counter (FACC) was built to measure the rock muons. This thesis details the design, installation, and commissioning of the ANNIE FACC.

  5. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  6. Acceleration of the GrIS mass loss as observed by GRACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has previously been analysed in a variety of ways, including altimetry, gravimetry and mass budget calculations, establishing a continuing decrease in the ice mass, with a number of studies finding acceleration in the mass loss. Here, we examine...... this acceleration and its statistical significance, using different sets of processed gravimetric data from the GRACE mission. Using an OLS model that takes annual and subannual variation into account, we compare three different GRACE solutions, determining the spatial variability of the acceleration and confidence...

  7. La Section d´Or y Juan Gris: Un camino hacia un cubismo espiritual

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El artista de origen madrileño Juan Gris tuvo la oportunidad de ser testigo directo de la gestación del cubismo a raíz de su estancia en 1906 en la capital francesa. A partir de aquí, comienza a relacionarse con distintos pintores y críticos vanguardistas, que le ofertarán nuevas posibilidades aperturistas para su posterior involucración cubista. El año 1912 marca su definitiva integración bajo la estela pictórica del cubismo sintético, destacando igualmente su relación con el g...

  8. Opto-mechanical design of an image slicer for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Reyes, N.; Esteves, M. A.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Salaun, Y.; López, R. L.; Gracia, F.; Estrada Herrera, P.; Grivel, C.; Vaz Cedillo, J. J.; Collados, M.

    2016-07-01

    An image slicer has been proposed for the Integral Field Spectrograph [1] of the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) [2] The image slicer for EST is called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) [3] and it is a telecentric system with diffraction limited optical quality offering the possibility to obtain high resolution Integral Field Solar Spectroscopy or Spectro-polarimetry by coupling a polarimeter after the generated slit (or slits). Considering the technical complexity of the proposed Integral Field Unit (IFU), a prototype has been designed for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR telescope at Teide Observatory (Tenerife), composed by the optical elements of the image slicer itself, a scanning system (to cover a larger field of view with sequential adjacent measurements) and an appropriate re-imaging system. All these subsystems are placed in a bench, specially designed to facilitate their alignment, integration and verification, and their easy installation in front of the spectrograph. This communication describes the opto-mechanical solution adopted to upgrade GRIS while ensuring repeatability between the observational modes, IFU and long-slit. Results from several tests which have been performed to validate the opto-mechanical prototypes are also presented.

  9. Tratamiento Híbrido de agua residual gris doméstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El reúso del agua residual gris doméstica es una práctica que también puede aplicarse en nuestro país. Este reúso ayudaria a reducir los costos de consumo de agua potable que actualmente poseen las personas de estratos medio y bajo en el país. Este estudio aplica un concepto nuevo de sistema de tratamiento híbrido para descontaminar el agua y poderla reusar para riego de jardines o para llenar el tanque de los inodoros en una vivienda. Un tratamiento de agua residual gris doméstica híbrido plantea la consecución de remociones totales de materia orgánica, sólidos suspendidos totales, coliformes fecales del 93 %, 92 % y 99,2 %, respectivamente. Este tipo de tratamiento puede tener un valor agregado al disminuir las descargas de aguas servidas a través del sistema de alcantarillado sanitario, con el abaratamiento de la infraestructura para los organismos seccionales del país.

  10. Nai Kun wind farm environmental impact assessment study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, S.; Shum, M.; Embley, E. [Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Uniterre Resources Ltd., ABB New Ventures and ABB Inc. propose the Nai Kun Wind Farm project, and the firm Pottinger Gaherty Environmental Consultants LTD. (PGL) was commissioned to conduct an environmental impact assessment for the project. A description of the studies considered as a requirement for the environmental impacts assessment of the project is included in this draft report. Before proceeding with the detailed studies, it was decided to present this draft report to the stakeholders and regulatory authorities to obtain feedback and a review. Nowadays in electricity markets, wind energy is becoming a differentiated and highly valued product. The Nai Kun Wind Farm project, as proposed, would entail the development, construction and operation of a 700 megawatt (MW) wind generation facility located off the northeast coast of Graham Island (Haida Gwaii) in Hecate Strait in British Columbia. It is expected that the project will generate greenhouse gas emission reduction credits. The information about the site and the project, as was known on May 24, 2002, was used for the preparation of this draft report. The present document includes an introduction in Chapter 1, followed by background information in Chapter 2. The Environmental impact assessment framework was reviewed in Chapter 3, and the public consultation plan was described in Chapter 4. The environmental impact assessment designs are discussed in Chapter 5 and a schedule for environmental studies provided in Chapter 6. The next steps are detailed in Chapter 7 of the document. 10 refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  11. NaI detector nonlinearity for PGNAA applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, R P

    1999-01-01

    The nonlinearity of a 6''x6'' NaI detector used for PGNAA has been measured. The prompt gamma-rays from pure element samples mixed with graphite were used for this determination in the range from 1.712 to 10.829 MeV and gamma-rays from radioisotope sources were used in the range from 0.356 to 1.333 MeV. A surprising result is that the pulse height per unit absorbed energy is slightly higher from single escape as opposed to full energy peaks. One explanation for this is that the light production efficiency for positrons may be different than that for electrons. By interpolation a value for the coincidence spectral full energy peak exhibited by NaI detectors that are neutron activated is obtained. The value reported is 6.885 MeV which is slightly higher than the cross section weighted value of 6.834 MeV. (The reported S sub N values for I and Na are 6.826 and 6.959 MeV, respectively.)

  12. A high-resolution, multi-parameter, β-γ coincidence, μ-γ anticoincidence system for radioxenon measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroettner, T.; Schraick, I.; Furch, T.; Kindl, P.

    2010-09-01

    A high-resolution β-γ coincidence measurement system has been developed by combining a high-purity broad energy germanium and a silicon surface barrier detector. The system is intended for calibration of reference spikes and re-measurement of CTBT samples, by detection of coincident β-γ or conversion electron and X-ray radiation of the four radioxenon isotopes 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe. The use of a high-resolution, list-mode, multi-parameter data acquisition system allows off-line setup and optimization of the (anti)coincidence. A 166mHo β-γ source has been produced and validated for energy calibration and system check. The β-γ coincidence has been further enhanced by a cosmic muon veto based on six plastic scintillation detectors. The μ-γ anticoincidence has been implemented using a 50 ns resolution real-time clock for time spectroscopy. This method has been verified by running conventional TAC-ADC (combined time-amplitude and analog-digital converter) based time spectroscopy in parallel. The whole measurement system has been characterized, by measuring various radioxenon spikes and backgrounds with and without (anti)coincidence. Peak efficiencies and minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the main radioxenon isotopes have been determined. Application of μ-γ anticoincidence reduced the MDA by about a factor of two for all four radioxenon isotopes. Complementary adoption of β-γ coincidence further reduced the MDA for the metastable isotopes by more than an order of magnitude. The MDA for 135Xe reaches about 6 mBq after 1 day of measurement. For 131mXe, 133Xe and 133mXe a MDA of about 2 mBq is obtained after one week measurement.

  13. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: a program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Laurenza, M.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.; Fiorini, M.; Molendi, S.; Uslenghi, M.; Mineo, T.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two on-board instruments is the X-IFU (X-ray Integral Field Unit): it is a TES-based kilo-pixels order array able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background which is induced by primary protons of both solar and Cosmic Rays origin, and secondary electrons. The studies performed by Geant4 simulations depict a scenario where it is mandatory the use of reduction techniques that combine an active anticoincidence detector and a passive electron shielding to reduce the background expected in L2 orbit down to the goal level of 0.005 cts/cm2/s/keV, so enabling the characterization of faint or diffuse sources (e.g. WHIM or Galaxy cluster outskirts). From the detector point of view this is possible by adopting a Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) placed within a proper optimized environment surrounding the X-IFU TES array. It is a 4-pixels detector made of wide area Silicon absorbers sensed by Ir TESes, and put at a distance < 1 mm below the TES-array. On October 2015 the X-IFU Phase A program has been kicked-off, and about the CryoAC is at present foreseen on early 2017 the delivery of the DM1 (Demonstration Model 1) to the FPA development team for integration, which is made of 1 pixel "bridgessuspended" that will address the final design of the CryoAC. Both the background studies and the detector development work is on-going to provide confident results about the expected residual background at the TES-array level, and the single pixel design to produce a detector for testing activity on 2016/2017. Here we will provide an overview of the CryoAC program, discussing some details about the background assessment having impact on the CryoAC design, the last single pixel characterization

  14. In vitro zygotic embryo culture of Pinus peuce Gris.: Optimization of culture conditions affecting germination and early seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojičić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a protocol for the germination and early seedling growth of Pinus peuce Gris. using zygotic embryo culture. In order to overcome seed dormancy and optimize organogenesis, the effect of nutritional, plant growth regulatory and physical factors on in vitro germination and growth of isolated mature zygotic embryos of P. peuce were investigated.

  15. Yeasts present during spontaneous fermentation of Lake Erie Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Riesling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Harry; Lindmark, Donald G; Zeman, Kathleen E; Gerlosky, Wes

    2003-01-01

    The composition of wine yeast populations, present during spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Riesling from the Lake Erie Region was studied. A combination of biochemical and molecular techniques was used to identify non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeast isolates. The biochemical techniques included analysis of yeast isolates by sugar fermentation and carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Molecular techniques involved ribotyping of a highly variable segment in the 26S rRNA gene using DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified DNA. The results show that of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, several related species of Hanseniaspora, were the most abundant yeasts present during early stages of fermentation. Later in fermentation S. cerevisiae dominated, and based on biochemical analyses consisted of a heterogeneous group of genotypes. There were no major differences in yeast populations among the three types of juice analyzed.

  16. MuSICa at GRIS: a prototype image slicer for EST at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    This communication presents a prototype image slicer for the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) designed for the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope (GRIS). The design of this integral field unit has been called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera). It is a telecentric system developed specifically for the integral field, high resolution spectrograph of EST and presents multi-slit capability, reorganizing a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec^{2} into 8 slits, each one of them with 200 arcsec length × 0.05 arcsec width. It minimizes the number of optical components needed to fulfil this multi-slit capability, three arrays of mirrors: slicer, collimator and camera mirror arrays (the first one flat and the other two spherical). The symmetry of the layout makes it possible to overlap the pupil images associated to each part of the sliced entrance field of view. A mask with only one circular aperture is placed at the pupil position. This symmetric characteristic offers some advantages: facilitates the manufacturing process, the alignment and reduces the costs. In addition, it is compatible with two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric, offering a great versatility. The optical quality of the system is diffraction-limited. The prototype will improve the performances of GRIS at GREGOR and is part of the feasibility study of the integral field unit for the spectrographs of EST. Although MuSICa has been designed as a solar image slicer, its concept can also be applied to night-time astronomical instruments (Collados et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7733, 77330H; Collados et al. 2012, AN, 333, 901; Calcines et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7735, 77351X)

  17. Combate del moho gris (Botrytis cinerea de la fresa mediante Gliocladium roseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N\\u00E9stor Chaves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En la zona de Poasito de Alajuela, se evaluó la acción del antagonista Gliocladium roseum, en forma individual y en conjunto con los fungicidas empleados en la finca, para el combate de Botrytis cinerea en fresa; comparándose los resultados contra los obtenidos con el manejo comercial. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones y se hicieron aplicaciones semanales del antagonista (a una concentración ³ 107 conidios ml-1 durante un período aproximado de 4 meses (julio-octubre del 2000. Se evaluó la incidencia de moho gris en condiciones de campo y poscosecha, así como el efecto de los fungicidas aplicados sobre la germinación de los conidios del antagonista, mediante una prueba in vitro. Se obtuvo un combate más efectivo de la enfermedad en condiciones de campo al emplear el biocontrolador sólo o en conjunto con los fungicidas, con respecto al manejo comercial que se hace de la misma. En poscosecha, el desempeño del antagonista fue estadísticamente igual al del combate químico. Estos resultados muestran que los fungicidas aplicados no afectan considerablemente al antagonista, lo que se corroboró con la prueba in vitro. Al emplear G. roseum para el combate de B. cinerea no sólo se logra combatir efectivamente a este, sino también el resto de los patógenos (Colletotrichum, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus,Alternaria, Fusarium, Verticillium y Penicillium, ya que el porcentaje de frutas sanas es mayor al integrar la acción del antagonista al manejo de enfermedades de la finca. Sin embargo, estas diferencias no son estadísticamente significativas. Por lo anterior se concluye que G. roseum constituye una posible alternativa de manejo integrado del moho gris en fresa.

  18. An anticoincidence-shielded gamma-ray spectrometer for analysis of low level environmental radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jong In; Choi, Yun Ho; Kwak, Seung Im; Hwang, Han-Yull; Chung, Kun-Ho; Choi, Geun Sik; Park, Doo-Won; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-05-01

    We developed an ultralow-level background gamma-ray spectrometer, using active and passive shield devices at the same time. Cosmic-ray-induced background is suppressed by means of active shield devices consisting of plastic scintillating plates of 50mm thick and anti-coincidence electronic system. The observed background rate was 0.34 s(-1) (=0.12s(-1) per 100 cm(3) Ge volume) for energy regions between 50 and 3000 ke V. The detection efficiency curve for 10(3)ml Marinelli beaker samples is obtained over all the energy regions. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by measuring the activity of 137Cs in powdered milk sample prepared without taking any chemical procedure. The MDA for 137Cs is estimated to be (17+/-1.7)mBq at a confidence level of 95% and it is about a factor of 10 lower than the MDA obtained from the previous cryostat assembly with 10-cm thick lead shielding.

  19. Visibilidad de la literatura gris científica a través de repositorios. Breve estudio sobre las tesis doctorales en GREDOS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito; Merlo Vega, José Antonio; Francisco José GARCÍA PEÑALVO

    2015-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta es un breve estudio de caso que pretende encontrar respuesta a preguntas sobre la visibilidad, usabilidad e impacto de las tesis doctorales depositadas en repositorios de acceso abierto. Las tesis doctorales consideradas como ?literatura gris? por no estar publicadas por los canales de publicación tradicionales ¿dejan de ser literatura gris al ser difundidas en acceso abierto? ¿En qué proporción aumentan la visibilidad de esta literatura gris científica los repo...

  20. XIA NAI, AN EARLY PIONEER IN THE FIELD OF EGYPTOLOGY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Xia Nai (1910-1985) was a prominent Chinese archaeologist of substantial scholarly achievement. He is generally regarded as the leader of archaeological matters of the People's Republic of China, and one of the important founders of modern Chinese archaeology. His great academic achievements gave him high prestige in academic circles both at home and abroad. Xia Nai was born on 7 February 1910, in Wenzhou, Zhejian province and died on 19 June 1985 in Beijing. In modern China, Xia Nai was a pioneer...

  1. Características de la microestructura del hierro fundido gris tixoconformado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo López Nadal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y produjo una aleación de hierro fundido gris (Fe-2,6%wtC 1,5%wtSi específica para procesamiento semisólido, la cual fue sometida a ensayos de tixoconformación a 1 160 ºC y 1 180 ºC, con tiempos de permanencia de 0, 30, 60 y 90 s, con el fin de analizar los cambios microestructurales provocados a la aleación por el tixoconformado. Se encontró que para los tiempos de permanencia utilizados el comportamiento de las fuerzas requeridas para el proceso, en especial para 1 180 ºC, no fue significativo. El procesamiento semisólido cambia el tipo de grafito “A” a tipo “B” (o “E”, pero no afecta el espacio interdendrítico entre láminas de grafito. El incremento de la fracción líquida disminuye las fuerzas requeridas por el proceso de tixoconformación.

  2. K/Th/U in photomultiplier tubes and improved low-level NaI detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsson, Pall

    2003-06-01

    The study presented here is the first step in a program aimed at reducing significantly the background count rate of NaI scintillation units. We have investigated: (1) the residual background of a large well type NaI detector, i.e., when shielded with 10 cm of lead and operated deep underground, (2) low concentrations of primordial radioactivity in glass used for photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and (3) the activity in whole tubes. The residual background of the NaI units is dominated by gamma radiation from potassium, thorium and uranium in the PMT, which severely limits their sensitivity. Activity in tubes made of new high purity glass was close to the detection level. The prospects of a new generation of low-level NaI detectors with these tubes are discussed.

  3. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA: the progress towards the final pixel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, Claudio; Piro, Luigi; Cea, Donatella; Colasanti, Luca; Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Gatti, Flavio; Bagliani, Daniela; Biasotti, Michele; Corsini, Dario; Pizzigoni, Giulio; Torrioli, Guido; Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Perinati, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    "The Hot and Energetic Universe" is the scientific theme approved by the ESA SPC for a Large mission to be flown in the next ESA slot (2028th) timeframe. ATHENA is a space mission proposal tailored on this scientific theme. It will be the first X-ray mission able to perform the so-called "Integral field spectroscopy", by coupling a high-resolution spectrometer, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), to a high performance optics so providing detailed images of its field of view (5' in diameter) with an angular resolution of 5" and fine energy-spectra (2.5eV@E<7keV). The X-IFU is a kilo-pixel array based on TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters providing high resolution spectroscopy in the 0.2-12 keV range. Some goals is the detection of faint and diffuse sources as Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) or galaxies outskirts. To reach its challenging scientific aims, it is necessary to shield efficiently the X-IFU instrument against background induced by external particles: the goal is 0.005 cts/cm^2/s/keV. This scientific requirement can be met by using an active Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) detector placed very close to X-IFU (~ 1 mm below). This is shown by our GEANT4 simulation of the expected background at L2 orbit. The CryoAC is a TES based detector as the X-IFU sharing with it thermal and mechanical interfaces, so increasing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the payload. It is a 2x2 array of microcalorimeter detectors made by Silicon absorber (each of about 80 mm^2 and 300 μm thick) and sensed by an Ir TES. This choice shows that it is possible to operate such a detector in the so-called athermal regime which gives a response faster than the X-IFU (< 30 μs), and low energy threshold (above few keV). Our consortium has developed and tested several samples, some of these also featured by the presence of Al-fins to efficiently collect the athermal phonons, and increased x-ray absorber area (up to 1 cm^2). Here the results of deep test

  4. Role of gambogic acid and NaI131 in A549/DDP cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Wang, Huan; Han, Shuhua; Liu, Lu; Xie, Yan; Chen, Daozhen; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to platinum in tumor tissue is a considerable barrier against effective lung cancer treatment. Radionuclide therapy is the primary adjuvant treatment, however, the toxic side effects limit its dosage in the clinical setting. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether an NaI131 radiosensitizer could help reduce the toxic side effects of radionuclide therapy. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine whether NaI131 can inhibit platinum resistance in A549/DDP cells, which are cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells, and whether gambogic acid (GA) is an effective NaI131 radiosensitizer. Cell proliferation following drug intervention was analyzed using MTT and isobolographic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. In addition, the mechanisms of drug intervention were analyzed by measuring the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gP), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) and P53 using western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. According to isobolographic analysis, a low concentration of NaI131 combined with GA had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of A549/DDP cell proliferation, which was consistent with an increased rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bax, and the downregulation of P-gP, P53 and Bcl-2 observed demonstrated the potential mechanism(s) of NaI131 and GA intervention. NaI131 may induce apoptosis in A549/DDP cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins. A low concentration combination of NaI131 and GA was able to significantly inhibit A549/DDP cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. Thus, the two drugs appear to have a synergistic effect on apoptosis of A549/DDP cells. PMID:28123519

  5. Slow [Na+]i dynamics impacts arrhythmogenesis and spiral wave reentry in cardiac myocyte ionic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Accumulation of intracellular Na+ is gaining recognition as an important regulator of cardiac myocyte electrophysiology. The intracellular Na+ concentration can be an important determinant of the cardiac action potential duration, can modulate the tissue-level conduction of excitation waves, and can alter vulnerability to arrhythmias. Mathematical models of cardiac electrophysiology often incorporate a dynamic intracellular Na+ concentration, which changes much more slowly than the remaining variables. We investigated the dependence of several arrhythmogenesis-related factors on [Na+]i in a mathematical model of the human atrial action potential. In cell simulations, we found that [Na+]i accumulation stabilizes the action potential duration to variations in several conductances and that the slow dynamics of [Na+]i impacts bifurcations to pro-arrhythmic afterdepolarizations, causing intermittency between different rhythms. In long-lasting tissue simulations of spiral wave reentry, [Na+]i becomes spatially heterogeneous with a decreased area around the spiral wave rotation center. This heterogeneous region forms a functional anchor, resulting in diminished meandering of the spiral wave. Our findings suggest that slow, physiological, rate-dependent variations in [Na+]i may play complex roles in cellular and tissue-level cardiac dynamics.

  6. Monte Carlo based approach to the LS–NaI 4πβ–γ anticoincidence extrapolation and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R

    2016-03-01

    The 4πβ–γ anticoincidence method is used for the primary standardization of β−, β+, electron capture (EC), α, and mixed-mode radionuclides. Efficiency extrapolation using one or more γ ray coincidence gates is typically carried out by a low-order polynomial fit. The approach presented here is to use a Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation of the detector system to analyze the efficiency extrapolation. New code was developed to account for detector resolution, direct γ ray interaction with the PMT, and implementation of experimental β-decay shape factors. The simulation was tuned to 57Co and 60Co data, then tested with 99mTc data, and used in measurements of 18F, 129I, and 124I. The analysis method described here offers a more realistic activity value and uncertainty than those indicated from a least-squares fit alone.

  7. A search for double-electron capture in 74Se using coincidence/anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jeskovsky, M; Kovacik, A; Povinec, P P; Puppe, P; Stanicek, J; Sykora, I; Simkovic, F; Thies, J H

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of single, coincidence and anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry methods has been carried out with the aim to search for double-electron capture in 74Se. This process is unique, because there is probability for transition to the 2+ excited state in 74Ge (1204 keV), and de-excitation through two gamma-quanta cascade with energies of 595.9 keV and 608.4 keV. Long-term measurements with anticosmic shielded HPGe spectrometer and the coincidence HPGe-NaI(Tl) spectrometer did not show any evidence for the double-electron capture in 74Se. The best limit for the half-life of the double electron capture in 74Se (both for the neutrinoless and two neutrino processes) was estimated to be >1.5x10E19 years.

  8. Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag : En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Niklas; Moberg, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: ”Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag – En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer” Seminariedatum: Måndagen 25 Februari 2008 Ämne/kurs: Företagsekonomi C-uppsats, 15 p Författare: Niklas Nyberg, Sofia Moberg Handledare: Margareta Paulsson Nyckelord: GRI, Hållbarhetsredovisning, redovisning, svenska företag Bakgrund: De senaste åren har kraven på svenska företag ökat, och intressenter efterfrågar nu information angående produktion, underleverantörer m.m. Att visa att de ta...

  9. Range of Medium and High Energy Protons and Alpha Particles in NaI Scintillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Kabadayi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have calculated the range of proton and alpha particle in NaI scintillator which is a commonly used substance in scintillation detector manufacturing. The stopping power of proton and alpha particle in NaI is calculated first by using the theoretical treatment of Montenegro et al.[1]. The range calculation has been performed by using a technique that we developed in the earlier works[2,3]. We compared the results with Monte Carlo simulation program SRIM2003 and PRAL[4]. The obtained results are in satisfactory agreement with the literature."

  10. Solar gamma-ray and neutron registration capabilities of the GRIS instrument onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Yurov, Vitaly; Glyanenko, Alexander; Kotov, Yury; Lupar, Evgeny; Faradzhaev, Rodion

    2016-07-01

    GRIS (Gamma and Roentgen radiation of the Sun) is a prospective hard X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer of solar flares with the energy range from 50 keV to 200 MeV. It is also designed for registration of high energy neutron fluxes (>30 MeV). The apparatus will be mounted on an oriented platform outside the Russian Orbital Segment of the International Space Station. The instrument includes two detector heads: a low energy spectrometer (LES) based on a fast scintillator with relatively high energy resolution 3.5-4.5% at 662 keV (LaBr _{3}(Ce) or CeBr _{3}) and size of ø7.62×7.62 cm, and a high energy spectrometer (HES) based on ø12×15 cm CsI(Tl) scintillator. Thanks to n/γ discrimination capability of CsI(Tl) crystals, the HES spectrometer is also intended for neutron registration. To estimate GRIS instrument registration capabilities, simulation of the HES neutron and gamma registration channels response to background radiation and to solar flares of different magnitude and spectral compositions was performed. Expected spectral and n/γ discrimination performances based on measurements with detectors prototypes are represented.

  11. Manganese(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes of naphthylazoimidazoles: X-ray structures of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(X) 2 (β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D.; Chand, B. G.; Wu, J. S.; Lu, T.-H.; Sinha, C.

    2007-10-01

    Manganese(II)-naphthylazoimidazole complexes using N3- and NCS - as counter ions are characterized as Mn(β-NaiR) 2(X) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-alkyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -). The ligands are unsymmetric N(imidazole), N(azo) chelating agents. The microanalytical, spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis), magnetic (bulk moment and EPR) and electrochemical data establish the structure and composition of the complexes. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(N 3) 2 and Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(NCS) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole) have confirmed the three dimensional structure of the complexes. Cyclic voltammetry exhibits high potential Mn(III)/Mn(II) couple along with azo reductions. The EPR spectra show usual pattern.

  12. First Detection of NaI D lines in High-Redshift Damped Lyman-alpha Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Gässler, W; Hayano, Y; Iye, M; Kamata, Y; Kanzawa, T; Kobayashi, N; Minowa, Y; Nedachi, K; Oya, S; Pyo, T S; Saint-Jacques, D; Takami, H; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tokunaga, A; Tsujimoto, T; Churchill, Christopher W.; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Hayano, Yutaka; Iye, Masanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Kanzawa, Tomio; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Minowa, Yosuke; Nedachi, Ko; Oya, Shin; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Takami, Hideki; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Alan; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    A Near-infrared (1.18-1.35 micron) high-resolution spectrum of the gravitationally-lensed QSO APM 08279+5255 was obtained with the IRCS mounted on the Subaru Telescope using the AO system. We detected strong NaI D 5891,5897 doublet absorption in high-redshift DLAs at z=1.062 and 1.181, confirming the presence of NaI, which was first reported for the rest-frame UV NaI 3303.3,3303.9 doublet by Petitjean et al. This is the first detection of NaI D absorption in a high-redshift (z>1) DLA. In addition, we detected a new NaI component in the z=1.062 DLA and four new components in the z=1.181 DLA. Using an empirical relationship between NaI and HI column density, we found that all "components" have large HI column density, so that each component is classified as DLA absorption. We also detected strong NaI D absorption associated with a MgII system at z=1.173. Because no other metal absorption lines were detected in this system at the velocity of the NaI absorption in previously reported optical spectra (observed 3.6...

  13. Análisis de las Propiedades Integrativas de las Neuronas de la Región Ventral de la Sustancia Gris Periacueductal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Romero, Diego

    2016-01-01

    La sustancia gris central periacueductal (SGC) se localiza entre el romboencéfalo y el diencéfalo. Sus neuronas, de un tamaño relativamente pequeño, están densamente empaquetadas rodeando al acueducto mesencefálico. En los roedores, la SGC comienza caudalmente por delante del locus coeruleus donde el acueducto de Silvio se abre al cuarto ventrículo. Rostralmente se extiende hasta la comisura posterior donde se mezcla con la sustancia gris aso...

  14. How to reliably detect molecular clusters and nucleation mode particles with Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna E.; Mirme, Sander; Mirme, Aadu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-08-01

    To understand the very first steps of atmospheric particle formation and growth processes, information on the size where the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation occurs, is crucially needed. The current understanding of the concentrations and dynamics of charged and neutral clusters and particles is based on theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This paper gives a standard operation procedure (SOP) for Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) measurements and data processing. With the NAIS data, we have improved the scientific understanding by (1) direct detection of freshly formed atmospheric clusters and particles, (2) linking experimental observations and theoretical framework to understand the formation and growth mechanisms of aerosol particles, and (3) parameterizing formation and growth mechanisms for atmospheric models. The SOP provides tools to harmonize the world-wide measurements of small clusters and nucleation mode particles and to verify consistent results measured by the NAIS users. The work is based on discussions and interactions between the NAIS users and the NAIS manufacturer.

  15. Kolm perioodi Eesti Naisüliõpilaste Seltsi elus 1911-1986 / Salme Pruuden

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruuden, Salme, 1896-1993

    1990-01-01

    Kuigi asutatud 1911. aastal, ei saanud selts tsaarivõimudelt ametlikku luba ning tegutseda tuli Noor-Eesti naisüliõpilaste osakonnana. Iseseisvusaeg viis ENÜS-i suuremate üliõpilasorganisatsioonide hulka. Paguluse ajal oli sihiks võitlus ümberrahvustumise vastu

  16. Regional water quality management for the Dong Nai River Basin, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayman, W M; Day, H J; Luken, R

    2003-01-01

    A three-year study that started solely as an industrial pollution reduction effort in Dong Nai Province of Vietnam expanded into an ongoing regional river basin water quality management effort. The project was a cooperative effort between the United Nations (UNDP and UNIDO) and the Federal and Provincial governments in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach was used to assess the impacts and strategies for reducing industrial, municipal and agricultural pollution to the water, air and land. The strategy was based upon use of knowledge in four subject areas, economics, ecology, technology and institutions, integrated within a framework for regional environmental quality management, sometimes called Areawide Environmental Quality Management (AEQM). Dong Nal Province encompasses a major developing area immediately north of Ho Chi Minh City. The land area chosen for the AEQM study is the 1,400 square kilometre region in and around Bien Hoa that drains into the Dong Nai River. The Dong Nai River serves many purposes including navigation, fisheries and a water supply for both the Province and Ho Chi Minh City. Extensive industrial and residential development was underway and was projected to increase in the coming decade. A strategy for the control of pollution from liquid, gaseous and solid wastes for the period 1998 to 2010 in Dong Nai Province was developed.

  17. Standardization of (166m)Ho and 243Am/239Np by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C J; Loureiro, J S; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; Moreira, D S; Iwahara, A; Tauhata, L; da Silva, R L; Lopes, R T

    2012-09-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI)/Brazil acquired (166m)Ho and (243)Am/(239)Np solutions from commercial suppliers in order to realize primary standardization and therefore reducing the associated uncertainties. The method used in the standardization was the live-timed 4πβ(LS)-γ(ΝaI(Tl)) anticoincidence counting. The live-timed anticoincidence system is operated since 2006 in LNMRI and is composed of two MTR2 modules donated by Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB)/France. The data acquisition system uses a homemade LabView program and an Excel file for calculus. These systems have been used for primary standardization at LNMRI for many radionuclides and recently took part in the (124)Sb and (177)Lu International Key Comparisons with good performance.

  18. Suprimento vascular arterial do timo em aves (Gallus gallus domesticus) da linhagem Master Gris Cou Plumé

    OpenAIRE

    Martha de Oliveira Bravo; André Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto Vianna; Silva, Frederico Ozanam Carneiro e; Renato Souto Severino; Sérgio Salazar Drummond; Marcelo Ismar Silva Santana

    2009-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p171 Para ampliar as informações sobre a morfologia comparativa, foram estudados, em aves (Gallus gallus domesticus) da linhagem Master Gris Cou Plumé, dados sobre o número de lobos tímicos, as origens, o número e a forma de distribuição das artérias que promoveram o suprimento sanguíneo deste órgão. Foram utilizadas 30 aves, 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, de aproximadamente seis semanas de idade, doadas, após morte natural, por criatórios do Distrito ...

  19. GRIS detection of Al-26 1809 keV line emission from the Galactic center region as a broad line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Juan E.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Bartlett, Lyle M.; Gehrels, Neil; Leventhal, Marvin; Parsons, Ann; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Tueller, Jack

    1997-01-01

    The gamma ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS) was used to observe the 1809 keV emission from the Galactic center region. The observed line is broader than the instrument resolution. The measured intrinsic width is 5.4 +/- 1.4 keV full width half medium, which is more than three times the maximum Doppler broadening expected due to Galactic rotation. The detection of such a wide feature, suggesting a high dispersion velocity has implications for the origin of Galactic Al-26. It suggests a supernova explosion origin or a Wolf-Rayet stellar wind origin of Al-26. The fact that the Al-26 has not come to rest after 10(exp 6) years presents a challenge to the current understanding of the Al-26 production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  20. Service data acquisition and onboard control for “GRIS-BD” unit in “GRIS” space experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyanenko, A. S.; Lupar, E. E.; Trofimov, Yu A.; Faradzhaev, R. M.; Yurov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    Problems of onboard space scientific devices control, collecting auxiliary service information about working capacity, conditions of experiment carrying out and preliminary data processing for real time calibration and stabilizing of operational parameters are actual for any space devices. In this paper we describe and discuss service data acquisition and onboard control for “GRIS-BD” unit in “GRIS” space experiment onboard ISS. This system provides temperature measurements in different equipment parts (in power supplies, on scintillation crystals for energy ranges correction, etc.), precision thresholds measurements in discrimination circuits, status different switching on/off (in real time), precision control detector parameters by high-voltage regulation, fine thresholds changing (analog regulation), different switching on/off (in real time), statistical analysis of data flows and change of operation modes of the device.

  1. The design, implementation, and performance of the Atro-H SXS calorimeter array and anti-coincidence detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chervenak, James A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Porter, F. S.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Zhao, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistorbearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  2. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  3. Exploring the capabilities of the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the INTEGRAL spectrometer to study solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Gasén, Rosa; Tatischeff, Vincent; Vilmer, Nicole; Hamadache, Clarisse; Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    INTEGRAL is a hard X-ray/gamma-ray observatory for astrophysics (ESA) covering photon energies from 15 keV to 10 MeV. It was launched in 2002 and since then the BGO detectors of the Anti-Coincidence shield (ACS) of the SPI spectrometer have detected many hard X-ray (HXR) bursts from the Sun, producing lightcurves at photon energies above ~ 100 keV. The spacecraft has a highly elliptical orbit, providing a long uninterrupted observing time (about 90% of the orbital period) with nearly constant background due to the reduction of the crossing time of the Earth's radiation belts. However, due to technical constraints, INTEGRAL cannot point to the Sun and high-energy solar photons are always detected in non-standard observation conditions. To make the data useful for solar studies, we have undertaken a major effort to specify the observing conditions through Monte-Carlo simulations of the response of ACS for several selected flares. We check the performance of the model employed for the Monte-Carlo simulations usi...

  4. Gamma-ray bursts observed by the INTEGRAL-SPI anticoincidence shield: A study of individual pulses and temporal variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, F.; Borgonovo, L.; Larsson, S.

    2003-01-01

    self-similar in shape. There is also a weak tendency for the pulses with steep power-law decays to be more asymmetric. Third, the variability of the complex light-curves is studied by analyzing their power-density-spectra (PDS) and their RMS variability. The averaged PDS, of the whole sample......We study a set of 28 GRB light-curves detected between 15 December 2002 and 9 June 2003 by the anti-coincidence shield of the spectrometer (SPI) of INTEGRAL. During this period it has detected 50 bursts, that have been confirmed by other instruments, with a time resolution of 50 ms. First, we...... derive the basic characteristics of the bursts: various duration measures, the count peak flux and the count fluence. Second, a sub-sample of 11 bursts with 12 individual, well-separated pulses is studied. We fit the pulse shape with a model by Kocevski et al. (2003) and find that the pulses are quite...

  5. Characterization of a Prototype TES-Based Anti-coincidence Detector for Use with Future X-ray Calorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Yoon, W. S.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. J.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; Porst, J.-P.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Sultana, M.

    2016-07-01

    For future X-ray observatories utilizing transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, an anti-coincidence detector (anti-co) is required to discriminate X-ray (˜ 0.1-10 keV) signals from non-X-ray background events, such as ionizing particles. We have developed a prototype anti-co that utilizes TESs, which will be compatible with the TES focal-plane arrays planned for future X-ray observatories. This anti-co is based upon the cryogenic dark matter search II detector design. It is a silicon wafer covered with superconducting collection fins and TES microcalorimeters. Minimum ionizing particles deposit energy while passing through the silicon. The athermal phonons produced by these events are absorbed in the superconducting fins, breaking Cooper pairs. The resulting quasiparticles diffuse along the superconducting fin, producing a signal when they reach the TES. By determining a correlation between detections in the anti-co and the X-ray detector one can identify and flag these background events. We have fabricated and tested a single-channel prototype anti-co device on a 1.5 × 1.9 cm^2 chip. We have measured the signals in this device from photons of several energies between 1.5 and 60 keV, as well as laboratory background events, demonstrating a threshold ˜ 100 times lower than is needed to detect minimum ionizing particles.

  6. The COSINUS project - perspectives of a NaI scintillating calorimeter for dark matter search

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Gironi, L; Gotti, C; Pessina, G; Gütlein, A; Maino, M; Nagorny, S S; Pagnanini, L; Petricca, F; Pirro, S; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Schäffner, K; Schieck, J; Seidel, W

    2016-01-01

    The R&D project COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) aims to develop a cryogenic scintillating calorimeter using NaI as target crystal for direct darkmatter search. Dark matter particles interacting with the detector material generate both a phonon signal and scintillation light. While the phonon signal provides a precise determination of the deposited energy, the simultaneously measured scintillation light allows for a particle identification on an event-by-event basis, a powerful tool to study material-dependent interactions, and to suppress backgrounds. Using the same target material as the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration, the COSINUS technique may offer a unique possibility to investigate and contribute information to the presently controversial situation in the dark matter sector. We report on the dedicated design planned for the NaI proof-of-principle detector and the objectives of using this detection technique in the light of direct dark matter detec...

  7. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  8. Measurement of neutron detection efficiencies in NaI using the Crystal Ball detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Koetke, D.D. E-mail: donald.koetke@valpo.edu; Allgower, C.; Bekrenev, V.; Benslama, K.; Berger, E.; Briscoe, W.J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J.R.; Craig, K.; Gibson, A.; Grosnick, D.; Huber, G.M.; Isenhower, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Knecht, N.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Kycia, T.; Lolos, G.J.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D.M.; Manweiler, R.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Peterson, R.J.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Pulver, M.; Ramirez, A.F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Slaus, I.; Spinka, H.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H.M.; Supek, I.; Thoms, J.; Tippens, W.B

    2001-04-21

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball (CB) detector obtained from a study of {pi}{sup -}p{yields}{pi} degree sign n reactions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. A companion GEANT-based Monte Carlo study has been done to simulate these reactions in the CB, and a comparison with the data is provided.

  9. A new measurement of the neutron detection efficiency for the NaI Crystal Ball detector

    CERN Document Server

    Martemianov, M; Demissie, B T; Marinides, Z; Akondi, C S; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Beck, R; Borisov, N; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Cherepnya, S; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Downie, E J; Dieterle, M; Bondy, M I Ferretti; Filkov, L V; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Glowa, D; Gradl, W; Gurevich, G; Hornidge, D; Huber, G M; Kaeser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Krusche, B; Lazarev, A; Linturi, J M; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Manley, D M; Martel, P P; Middleton, D G; Miskimen, R; Mushkarenkov, A; Neganov, A; Neiser, A; Oberle, M; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S; Ron, G; Rostomyan, T; Sarty, A; Schott, D M; Schumann, S; Sokhoyan, V; Steffen, O; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, Th; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Usov, Yu A; Wagner, S; Watts, D P; Wettig, J; Werthmuller, D; Witthauer, L; Wolfes, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball detector obtained from a study of single p0 photoproduction on deuterium using the tagged photon beam at the Mainz Microtron. The results were obtained up to a neutron energy of 400 MeV. They are compared to previous measurements made more than 15 years ago at the pion beam at the BNL AGS.

  10. Measurement of neutron detection efficiencies in NaI using the Crystal Ball detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Koetke, D. D.; Allgower, C.; Bekrenev, V.; Benslama, K.; Berger, E.; Briscoe, W. J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J. R.; Craig, K.; Gibson, A.; Grosnick, D.; Huber, G. M.; Isenhower, D.; Kasprzyk, T.; Knecht, N.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Kycia, T.; Lolos, G. J.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; Marusic, A.; McDonald, S.; Nefkens, B. M. K.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Peterson, R. J.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Pulver, M.; Ramirez, A. F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Slaus, I.; Spinka, H.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H. M.; Supek, I.; Thoms, J.; Tippens, W. B.

    2001-04-01

    We report on a measurement of the neutron detection efficiency in NaI crystals in the Crystal Ball (CB) detector obtained from a study of π-p→ π°n reactions at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. A companion GEANT-based Monte Carlo study has been done to simulate these reactions in the CB, and a comparison with the data is provided.

  11. Characterisation of corona-generated ions used in a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Manninen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We characterized size and chemical composition of ions generated by a corona-needle charger of a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS by using a high resolution differential mobility analyzer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Our study is crucial to verify the role of corona-generated ions in the particle size spectra measured with the NAIS, in which a corona charger is used to charge aerosol particles down to the size range overlapping with the size of generated ions. The size and concentration of ions produced by the corona discharging process depend both on corona voltage and on properties and composition of carrier gas. Negative ions were <1.6 nm (0.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 in mobility in all tested gas mixtures (nitrogen, air with variable mixing ratios of water vapour, whereas positive ions were <1.7 nm (0.7 cm2 V−1 s−1. Electrical filtering of the corona-generated ions and not removing all charged particles plays an important role in determining the lowest detection limit. Based on our experiments, the lowest detection limit for the NAIS in the particle mode is between 2 and 3 nm.

  12. Characterisation of corona-generated ions used in a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Manninen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized size and chemical composition of ions generated by a corona-needle charger of a Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS by using a high resolution differential mobility analyzer and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Our study is crucial to verify the role of corona-generated ions in the particle size spectra measured with the NAIS, in which a corona charger is used to charge aerosol particles down to the size range overlapping with the size of generated ions. The size and concentration of ions produced by the corona discharging process depend both on corona voltage and on properties and composition of carrier gas. Negative ions were <1.6 nm (0.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 in mobility in all tested gas mixtures (nitrogen, air with variable mixing ratios of water vapour, whereas positive ions were <1.7 nm (0.7 cm2 V−1 s−1. Electrical filtering of the corona generated ions and not removing all charged particles plays an important role in determining the lowest detection limit. Based on our experiments, the lowest detection limit for the NAIS in the particle mode is between 2 and 3 nm.

  13. The lantibiotic NAI-107 binds to bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors and impairs membrane functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Daniela; Müller, Anna; Schneider, Tanja; Kohl, Bastian; Wenzel, Michaela; Bandow, Julia Elisabeth; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Donadio, Stefano; Wimmer, Reinhard; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2014-04-25

    The lantibiotic NAI-107 is active against Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. To identify the molecular basis of its potency, we studied the mode of action in a series of whole cell and in vitro assays and analyzed structural features by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The lantibiotic efficiently interfered with late stages of cell wall biosynthesis and induced accumulation of the soluble peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid-pentapeptide (UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide) in the cytoplasm. Using membrane preparations and a complete cascade of purified, recombinant late stage peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzymes (MraY, MurG, FemX, PBP2) and their respective purified substrates, we showed that NAI-107 forms complexes with bactoprenol-pyrophosphate-coupled precursors of the bacterial cell wall. Titration experiments indicate that first a 1:1 stoichiometric complex occurs, which then transforms into a 2:1 (peptide: lipid II) complex, when excess peptide is added. Furthermore, lipid II and related molecules obviously could not serve as anchor molecules for the formation of defined and stable nisin-like pores, however, slow membrane depolarization was observed after NAI-107 treatment, which could contribute to killing of the bacterial cell.

  14. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaja, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Backman, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manninen, H. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wimmer, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is an instrument that measures aerosol particle and ion number size distributions in the mobility diameter range of 0.8 to 42 nm, corresponding to electrical mobility range between 3.2 and 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1. New particle formation (NPF) events were detected using the NAIS at the T3 field site during IOP1 and IOP2. Secondary NPF is a globally important source of aerosol number. To fully explain atmospheric NPF and subsequent growth, we need to directly measure the initial steps of the formation processes in different environments, including rain forest. Particle formation characteristics, such as formation and growth rates, were used as indicators of the relevant processes and participating compounds in the initial formation. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we estimated the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation.

  15. The quick and ultrasensitive determination of K in NaI using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2017-04-01

    A highly sensitive, novel and quick assay method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of K in NaI powders and NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals for use in ultralow background applications. The determination of K (viz. 40K), as well as Th and U and their daughters, is important in ultralow background detector materials to ensure incorporation of materials of sufficiently high radiopurity. Through the use of improved instrumentation, cool plasma operating conditions, and meticulously clean sample preparations, detection limits of 11 fg natK∙g-1 (or 341 pBq 40K∙kg-1) was attained for K in pure water. Detection limits in the sample matrix (i.e., NaI) were 0.529 ng natK∙g NaI-1 (or 16.4 Bq 40K∙kg NaI -1). A number of different precursor NaI powder samples and NaI(Tl) scintillator crystals were assayed for their K content. Determinations ranged from 0.757 – 31.4 ng natK∙g NaI-1. This method allows for the screening of materials to unprecedented levels in a fraction of the time compared to gamma counting techniques, providing a useful method for a more effective screening tool of K in ultralow background detector materials.

  16. Monitoring of garbage with a 5 x 5 NaI (Tl) detector; Monitoreo de basura con un detector de NaI (Tl) de 5 x 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.; Angeles C, A

    1991-12-15

    So far in that is carried out the first reload of nuclear fuel in the LVC, the monitoring of garbage has been carried out using monitors trade mark Eberline model RM 14. The procedure consists in manually monitoring each object and to separate of the considered 'clean' garbage the objects considered as contaminated, which register greater or equal counts to 100 cpm. This way to process was adequate under normal operation conditions, but not in the operation rhythm that implies a bigger maintenance since the time required for monitoring from 5 to 10 kg. of garbage is of the order of 0.5 hours and the production rhythm of this it ends up being a lot but high. Due to this necessity it was thought about the problem of looking by a more efficient monitoring method. In this work a method that uses a detector of NaI (Tl) of 5 x 5 inches is discussed. (Author)

  17. Background model for a NaI (Tl) detector devoted to dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.

    2012-09-01

    NaI (Tl) is a well known high light yield scintillator. Very large crystals can be grown to be used in a wide range of applications. In particular, such large crystals are very good-performing detectors in the search for dark matter, where they have been used for a long time and reported first evidence of the presence of an annual modulation in the detection rate, compatible with that expected for a dark matter signal. In the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) dark matter search project, a large and long effort has been carried out in order to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals. In this paper we present in detail our background model for a 9.6 kg NaI (Tl) detector taking data at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC): most of the contaminations contributing to the background have been precisely identified and quantified by different complementary techniques such as HPGe spectrometry, discrimination of alpha particles vs. beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) and coincidence techniques; then, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using Geant4 package have been carried out for the different contributions. Only a few assumptions are required in order to explain most of the measured background at high energy, supporting the goodness of the proposed model for the present ANAIS prototype whose background is dominated by 40K bulk contamination. At low energy, some non-explained background components are still present and additional work is required to improve background understanding, but some plausible background sources contributing in this range have been studied in this work. Prospects of achievable backgrounds, at low and high energy, for the ANAIS-upgraded detectors, relying on the proposed background model conveniently scaled, are also presented.

  18. Marine radioactive field monitoring sensor based on NaI (Tl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G. X.; Wei, Z. Q.; Liu, D. Y.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2017-08-01

    There are many deficiencies in traditional laboratory means, which make it difficult to meet the real-time monitoring requirements of nuclear radiation on marine field. In this paper, a radioactive monitoring sensor for marine field was proposed, which is based on NaI (Tl) scintillation crystal, while energy calibration and resolution calibration are conducted by employing a standard radioactive source, and curve fitting is conducted by employing MATLAB. Through the test under seawater in Qingdao wharf, the results are in good agreement with the laboratory test results.

  19. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  20. Comunicación vocal de dos grupos de Tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en Mariquita, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda-C. Luz Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio del repertorio vocal y su significado, de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en San Sebastián de Mariquita, departamento del Tolima. Uno de los grupos habita una zona urbana, la casa de la Fundación Segunda Expedición Botánica (Funbotánica y el otro se encuentra en el Bosque del Municipio (José Celestino Mutis. Se identificaron 27 tipos de sonidos, de los cuales se registraron 21 en el grupo Funbotánica y 13 en el grupo Bosque. Se caracterizaron cada una de las señales y en particular se hizo énfasis en la asociación entre las vocalizaciones y los patrones de comportamiento que exhibe la especie. Los titíes emitieron señales específicas en contextos como alimentación, alarma, amenaza y establecimiento de contacto con individuos que se encuentran fuera de vista (señales de llamada. Igualmente, se encontró relación entre las señales y algunos mensajes no conductuales (sexo, edad y posición jerárquica; esto demuestra que las vocalizaciones brindan gran cantidad de información sobre la identidad del emisor, acontecimientos en el ambiente y conductas específicas de los individuos. No se logró establecer diferencias estadísticas entre las señales emitidas en cada grupo, sin embargo, los titíes produjeron vocalizaciones similares en los dos ambientes, con algunas variaciones en frecuencia y duración; aspectos que podrían estar influenciados por las características propias del hábitat.

  1. LIBERACIÓN Y SEGUIMIENTO DE DOS GRUPOS DE TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE TOLIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentes de decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados durante aproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrollo y recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos al medio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberación en un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellas para iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizó un estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentales derivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevó a cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación de los individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientos relacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interacciones sociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación, los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento, lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraron variaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre las dos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con su objetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  2. NExSS/NAI Joint ExoPAG SAG 16 Report on Remote Biosignatures for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Nancy Y.; Parenteau, Mary Nicole; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    Future exoplanet observations will soon focus on the search for life beyond the Solar System. Exoplanet biosignatures to be sought are those with global, potentially detectable, impacts on a planet. Biosignatures occur in an environmental context in which geological, atmospheric, and stellar processes and interactions may work to enhance, suppress or mimic these biosignatures. Thus biosignature scienceis inherently interdisciplinary. Its advance is necessary to inform the design of the next flagship missions that will obtain spectra of habitable extrasolar planets. The NExSS NAI Joint Exoplanet Biosignatures Workshop Without Walls brought together the astrobiology, exoplanet, and mission concept communities to review, discuss, debate, and advance the science of remote detection of planetary biosignatures. The multi-meeting workshop began in June 2016, and was a process that engaged a broad range of experts across the interdisciplinary reaches of NASA's Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) program, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI), NASAs Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), and international partners, such as the European Astrobiology Network Association (EANA) and Japans Earth Life Science Institute (ELSI). These groups spanned expertise in astronomy, planetary science, Earth sciences, heliophysics, biology, instrument mission development, and engineering.

  3. Thyroid screening of members of the public for iodine isotopes with portable NaI detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John G., E-mail: john@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the case of an accident in a nuclear power plant with radionuclide releases to the environment, members of the public with possible internal contamination with radioactive isotopes of iodine should be screened to identify cases where a more detailed evaluation and medical follow-up is necessary. Screening of large numbers of the public can be performed with a quick measuring protocol using hand held unshielded NaI based detectors giving results in cps. The screening geometry was simulated using the Monte Carlo code Visual Monte Carlo. The results show that for a geometry with the NaI detector near the skin in front of the thyroid, the interference of the gamma radiation coming from other radionuclides released in the accident either deposited in the lung or in the whole body is sufficiently low to allow thyroid screening criteria to be established. The screening criteria were developed using 5, 10 and 15 year old hybrid phantoms and for the adult male based on the ICRP reference voxel phantom. (author)

  4. Resolving Galactic Feedback and Gas Accretion in NaI Absorption with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kate; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Current models of galaxy formation require that the buildup of galactic stellar mass proceeds at a rate much slower than the rate at which gas is accreted onto dark matter halos. The implementation of winds in these models, however, has been primarily via ad hoc prescriptions, as the relationship between outflow morphology and kinematics and star formation activity is not well understood. In addition, empirical evidence for the inflow of gas onto star-forming galaxies has remained elusive. To address these issues, we analyze absorption line profiles for the NaI λλ5890, 5896 transition in spatially-resolved spectroscopy of nearby galaxies observed in the MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. We identify outflows of cool (T~102 K) gas via the blueshift of the absorption lines. Initial results suggest that in systems in which outflows are detected, the equivalent width of the flow varies significantly over the surface of the galaxy, revealing a changing flow covering fraction/velocity within individual objects. We also measure the incidence of redshifted NaI absorption in this sample for constraints on the frequency and cross section of cool gas accretion. This analysis offers unique insight into the morphology, surface density, and velocity of cool inflow and outflow around nearby galaxies. Accurate estimates of these quantities are fundamental to understanding the role of gas flows in regulating galaxy growth.

  5. Structural and ionic conductivity behavior in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymer films complexed with sodium iodide (NaI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, N. Sandhya; Sannappa, J.; Demappa, T.; Mahadevaiah

    2013-02-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte films based on Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) complexed with Sodium Iodide (NaI) were prepared using solution cast method. The dissolution of the salt into the polymer host and the micro structural properties of pure and NaI complexed HPMC polymer electrolyte films were confirmed by X - Ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD results revealed that the amorphous domains of HPMC polymer matrix was increased with increase in the NaI salt concentration. The degree of crystallanity and crystallite size is high for pure HPMC samples. Direct current (dc) conductivity was measured in the temperature range of 313-383k. Temperature dependence of dc electrical conductivity and activation energy regions data indicated the dominance of ion type charge transport in these polymer electrolyte films.

  6. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  7. Soldadura de fundición dúctil con fundición gris y aporte de varilla de níquel al 98% procedimiento TIG

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO RODRÍGUEZ, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Welding two different types of commercial foundries by TIG and application of various heat treatments after the welds for mechanical properties and resistance. [ES] Soldadura de dos tipos diferentes de fundiciones comerciales por procedimiento TIG y aplicación de distintos tratamientos térmicos una vez realizadas las soldaduras para obtener las características mecánicas y resistentes. Moreno Rodríguez, R. (2016). Soldadura de fundición dúctil con fundición gris y aporte de varilla...

  8. Drapeaux Gris (Grey Flags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Arrivé

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Today it is images, a thickening web of images, amounting to a magic circle through which the citizens of this age have passed, never to return. What a time you chose to be born ! (... The question, then, is how to paint one’s subjectivity in the codes of culture ?Grey Flags, texte de Seth Price, (Communiqué de presse et titre de l’expositionJeux de pistes pour un art « sans drapeau »Si dans les années soixante les Flags de Jasper Johns problématisaient les catégories artistiques en détourn...

  9. Standardization of {sup 153}Sm using anti-coincidence method; Padronizacao do {sup 153}Sm pelo metodo de anti-coincidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Poledna, Roberto; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Oliveira, Antonio E. de; Gomes, Regio S.; Veras, Eduardo V. de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de, E-mail: adilson@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 153}Sm was standardized at the Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation to provide traceability for measurements in nuclear medicine services and manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. {sup 153}Sm decays by emission β-γ to {sup 153}Eu, the gamma rays of higher-intensity are 69.7 keV (4.7%) and 103.2 keV (29.2%). The standardization was made by anticoincidence and CIEMAT/NIST methods with uncertainties combined (0.4% and 0.3%) and (0.5% and 0.4%), respectively. The difference between the standardized activities was 0.15%. The uncertainties are consistent with other publications. (author)

  10. The COSINUS project: perspectives of a NaI scintillating calorimeter for dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angloher, G.; Hauff, D.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Reindl, F.; Seidel, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Pessina, G. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Gironi, L. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Guetlein, A.; Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Nagorny, S.S.; Pagnanini, L. [GSSI-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Schaeffner, K. [GSSI-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    The R and D project COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) aims to develop a cryogenic scintillating calorimeter using an undoped NaI-crystal as target for direct dark matter search. Dark matter particles interacting with the detector material generate both a phonon signal and scintillation light. While the phonon signal provides a precise determination of the deposited energy, the simultaneously measured scintillation light allows for particle identification on an event-by-event basis, a powerful tool to study material-dependent interactions, and to suppress backgrounds. Using the same target material as the DAMA/LIBRA collaboration, the COSINUS technique may offer a unique possibility to investigate and contribute information to the presently controversial situation in the dark matter sector. We report on the dedicated design planned for the NaI proof-of-principle detector and the objectives of using this detection technique in the light of direct dark matter detection. (orig.)

  11. Multiple high-temperature transitions driven by dynamical structures in NaI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M. E.; Jeffries, J. R.; Lee, H.; Butch, N. P.; Zabalegui, A.; Abernathy, D. L.

    2014-06-01

    Multiple, consecutive high-temperature transitions in NaI involving dynamical order and/or localization in the energy-momentum spectrum but not in the average crystal structure are revealed by lattice dynamics, x-ray lattice spacing, and heat-capacity measurements. Distinctive energy-momentum patterns and lattice distortions indicate dynamical structures forming within randomly stacked planes, rather than the isolated point-defect-like intrinsic localized modes predicted. Transition entropies are accounted for by vibrational entropy changes, and the transition enthalpies are explained by the strain energy of forming stacking-fault-like planar distortions deduced from x-ray-diffraction peak shifts. The vibrational entropy of the dynamical structures stabilizes surrounding elastic distortions.

  12. Area Specific Stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Byström, Sören;

    By the Area Specific Stripping (ASS) method for NaI gamma detectors it is possible in a simple way obtain the parameters (stripping factors) that are needed for being able to discern between natural radioactivity signals and signals from manmade radioactivity and radiation anomalies in general....... The method has earlier been tested only for a few sets of Danish AGS and CGS data. 1. One of the goals of the project has been to investigate to which extent is it possible to use the ASS method for a number of different sets of gamma spectra recorded by different teams with different types of equipment...... in different environments. 2. Another goal of the project has been to investigate why (earlier) one sometimes got oddly-looking ASS parameters that worked correctly when seen from a mathematical point of view but seemingly had no physical meaning. 3. It was also a goal that the successful parts of the ASS...

  13. Vera Poska-Grünthal - Eesti riigimehe tütar ja naisõiguslane / Kairi Ilison

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilison, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    Riigivanema ja poliitiku Jaan Poska tütrest Vera Poska-Grünthalist (1898-1986), kes oli tuntud ajakirjanik ja naisõiguslane. Põgenes Teise maailmasõja ajal Rootsi ja asutas seal 1952. aastal ajakirja "Triinu", mis lõpetas ilmumise Torontos 1995. aastal, olles Eesti naiste ühendaja vabas maailmas

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosio, M.; Gallo, G.; Pozzi, R.;

    2014-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA...

  15. Vera Poska-Grünthal - Eesti riigimehe tütar ja naisõiguslane / Kairi Ilison

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilison, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    Riigivanema ja poliitiku Jaan Poska tütrest Vera Poska-Grünthalist (1898-1986), kes oli tuntud ajakirjanik ja naisõiguslane. Põgenes Teise maailmasõja ajal Rootsi ja asutas seal 1952. aastal ajakirja "Triinu", mis lõpetas ilmumise Torontos 1995. aastal, olles Eesti naiste ühendaja vabas maailmas

  16. Evaluation of moderately cooled pure NaI as a scintillator for position-sensitive PET detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wear, J.A.; Karp, J.S.; Haigh, A.T.; Freifelder, R. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-06-01

    A new evaluation of pure NaI has been performed to determine if moderate cooling would lead to better performance than that of existing, activated NaI(Tl) position-sensitive detectors, particularly at high countrates. Using a freezer, an initial effort was performed to cool the crystal assembly to {minus}90 C (183 K). At this temperature, pure NaI has a decay constant of 35 nsec, a light output which is about 20% that of room temperature NaI(Tl), and an energy resolution of 15%. For the PET applications the signal of room temperature (25 C) NaI(Tl) is normally pulse clipped, reducing the light output to 40% of the unclipped signal and yielding an energy resolution of 10.5%. Since the long decay of NaI(Tl) causes it to suffer more significantly than pure NaI from pre-pulse pileup, the difference in energy resolution between the two crystals at high countrates will be reduced. Also, a significantly shorter trigger deadtime with pure NaI will lead to a reduction in coincidence deadtime losses in PET. Computer simulations of large-area crystals operating at high countrates have been performed to quantify their trigger deadtime behavior and position resolution as a function of light output and pulse decay time. Having gained experience with the practical issues of cooling large crystals, measurements of position resolution have been performed with a NaI bar detector of similar geometry to the NaI(Tl) detectors in use in the PENN-PET scanner.

  17. NaI 探测器搜寻γ源定位准直器模拟设计%The Simulation Design of a Positioning Collimator to Locate the Gamma Radiation Source with NaI Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军文; 左国平; 周剑良; 刘茹佳; 罗文; 陈颖; 霍彬彬

    2015-01-01

    为尽快搜寻丢失的γ放射源,模拟设计了用NaI探测器确定γ源方位的铅准直定位装置。设计针对铅准直NaI探测器,运用MCNP软件模拟定位γ源。模拟结果表明,设计的铅准直NaI探测器能够识别γ射线的方向,且角度分辨率高,放射源模拟定位的偏差小,在多个放射源形成的辐射场中能对各个放射源进行定位。%In order to find the missing gamma radioactive source as soon as possible, a NaI detector which is used as the lead collimator positioning device is simulated and designed to locate the gamma radiation source.In this study, MCNP software was used to simulate the lead collimation of NaI detector to determine the position of gamma radiation source.The analog results showed that the designed lead collimation of NaI detector can identi-fy the direction of gamma radiation with a high angular resolution and a low positioning deviation in simulation. In addition, the lead collimation NaI detector can get the positioning of each radiation source in a radiation field produced by a plurality of radiation sources.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on some chemicals using an NaI (Tl) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, R. R.; Gaikwad, D. K.; Pawar, P. P.; Rode, M. N.

    2016-05-01

    The present work was carried out to find out the gamma ray shielding properties and to study the effects using an NaI (Tl) detector using radioactive sources 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 54Mn, 60Co and 22Na at energies 122, 356, 511, 662, 840, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV, for some chemicals, namely, sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3), benzoic acid (C7H6O2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) (C2H4O), potassium nitrate (KNO3), naphthalene (C10H8). Mass attenuation coefficient (µm) values obtained from the experiment were used to determine the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff), atomic cross-sections (σt) and electronic cross-sections (σe); it will be observed from the present work that the variation in the obtained values is only due to the increase or decrease in the gamma ray energy and the chemical composition of the sample. It was seen that the calculated and obtained values showed good agreement. The investigated data are useful in the electronic industry, plastic industry, building materials and agriculture fields. From the present work it was found that the PVA could be used as a better gamma shielding material.

  19. The Thyroid Na+/I- Symporter: Molecular Characterization and Genomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Alotaibi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodide (I- is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, and the iodide concentrating mechanism of the thyroid gland is essential for the synthesis of these hormones. In addition, differential uptake of iodine isotopes (radioiodine is a key modality for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. The sodium dependent iodide transport activity of the thyroid gland is mainly attributed to the functional expression of the Na+/I- Symporter (NIS localized at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes. In this paper, we review and summarize current data on molecular characterization, on structure and function of NIS protein, as well as on the transcriptional regulation of NIS encoding gene in the thyroid gland. We also propose that a better and more precise understanding of NIS gene regulation at the molecular level in both healthy and malignant thyroid cells may lead to the identification of small molecule candidates. These could then be translated into clinical practice for better induction and more effective modulation of radioiodine uptake in dedifferentiated thyroid cancer cells and in their distant metastatic lesions.

  20. Dietary I(-) absorption: expression and regulation of the Na(+)/I(-) symporter in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Juan Pablo; Carrasco, Nancy; Masini-Repiso, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for the normal development, growth, and functional maturation of several tissues, including the central nervous system. Iodine is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones, the only iodine-containing molecules in vertebrates. Dietary iodide (I(-)) absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is the first step in I(-) metabolism, as the diet is the only source of I(-) for land-dwelling vertebrates. The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS), an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein located in the brush border of enterocytes, constitutes a central component of the I(-) absorption system in the small intestine. In this chapter, we review the most recent research on structure/function relations in NIS and the protein's I(-) transport mechanism and stoichiometry, with a special focus on the tissue distribution and hormonal regulation of NIS, as well as the role of NIS in mediating I(-) homeostasis. We further discuss recent findings concerning the autoregulatory effect of I(-) on I(-) metabolism in enterocytes: high intracellular I(-) concentrations in enterocytes decrease NIS-mediated uptake of I(-) through a complex array of posttranscriptional mechanisms, e.g., downregulation of NIS expression at the plasma membrane, increased NIS protein degradation, and reduction of NIS mRNA stability leading to decreased NIS mRNA levels. Since the molecular identification of NIS, great progress has been made not only in understanding the role of NIS in I(-) homeostasis but also in developing protocols for NIS-mediated imaging and treatment of various diseases.

  1. Next generation molten NaI batteries for grid scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Eccleston, Alexis; Lamb, Joshua; Read, Andrew C.; Robins, Matthew; Meaders, Thomas; Ingersoll, David; Clem, Paul G.; Bhavaraju, Sai; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2017-08-01

    Robust, safe, and reliable grid-scale energy storage continues to be a priority for improved energy surety, expanded integration of renewable energy, and greater system agility required to meet modern dynamic and evolving electrical energy demands. We describe here a new sodium-based battery based on a molten sodium anode, a sodium iodide/aluminum chloride (NaI/AlCl3) cathode, and a high conductivity NaSICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) ceramic separator. This NaI battery operates at intermediate temperatures (120-180 °C) and boasts an energy density of >150 Wh kg-1. The energy-dense NaI-AlCl3 ionic liquid catholyte avoids lifetime-limiting plating and intercalation reactions, and the use of earth-abundant elements minimizes materials costs and eliminates economic uncertainties associated with lithium metal. Moreover, the inherent safety of this system under internal mechanical failure is characterized by negligible heat or gas production and benign reaction products (Al, NaCl). Scalability in design is exemplified through evolution from 0.85 to 10 Ah (28 Wh) form factors, displaying lifetime average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.45% and energy efficiencies of 81.96% over dynamic testing lasting >3000 h. This demonstration promises a safe, cost-effective, and long-lifetime technology as an attractive candidate for grid scale storage.

  2. The Lantibiotic NAI-107 Efficiently Rescues Drosophila melanogaster from Infection with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsoska, Biljana; Cruz, João C. S.; Donadio, Stefano; Jenssen, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a cost-effective in vivo model to evaluate the efficacy of novel antibacterial peptides and peptoids for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A panel of peptides with known antibacterial activity in vitro and/or in vivo was tested in Drosophila. Although most peptides and peptoids that were effective in vitro failed to rescue lethal effects of S. aureus infections in vivo, we found that two lantibiotics, nisin and NAI-107, rescued adult flies from fatal infections. Furthermore, NAI-107 rescued mortality of infection with the MRSA strain USA300 with an efficacy equivalent to that of vancomycin, a widely applied antibiotic for the treatment of serious MRSA infections. These results establish Drosophila as a useful model for in vivo drug evaluation of antibacterial peptides. PMID:27381394

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of the Microbispora sp. Strain ATCC-PTA-5024, Producing the Lantibiotic NAI-107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosio, Margherita; Gallo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Roberta; Serina, Stefania; Monciardini, Paolo; Bera, Agnieska; Stegmann, Evi; Weber, Tilmann

    2014-01-23

    We report the draft genome sequence of Microbispora sp. strain ATCC-PTA-5024, a soil isolate that produces NAI-107, a new lantibiotic with the potential to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. The draft genome of strain Microbispora sp. ATCC-PTA-5024 consists of 8,543,819 bp, with a 71.2% G+C content and 7,860 protein-coding genes.

  4. Design and implementation of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors output signal generator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors pre amplifier onboard the Hard X ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of adjacent signals content negative exponential distribution statistically.

  5. Quiet-Sun imaging asymmetries in NaI D1 compared with other strong Fraunhofer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, R J; van der Voort, L H M Rouppe; de Wijn, A G; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V

    2011-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy of the solar atmosphere using the NaI D1 line yields marked asymmetry between the blue and red line wings: sampling a quiet-Sun area in the blue wing displays reversed granulation, whereas sampling in the red wing displays normal granulation. The MgI b2 line of comparable strength does not show this asymmetry, nor does the stronger CaII 8542 line. We demonstrate the phenomenon with near-simultaneous spectral images in NaI D1, MgI b2, and CaII 8542 from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. We then explain it with line-formation insights from classical 1D modeling and with a 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulation combined with NLTE spectral line synthesis that permits detailed comparison with the observations in a common format. The cause of the imaging asymmetry is the combination of correlations between intensity and Dopplershift modulation in granular overshoot and the sensitivity to these of the steep profile flanks of the NaI D1 line. The MgI b2 line has similar core formation but much wider ...

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation ofin situ Gamma-Spectra Recorded by NaI (Tl) Detector in the Marine Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yiming; ZHANG Yingying; WU Ning; WU Bingwei; LIU Yan; CAO Xuan; WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    To develop a NaI (Tl) detector for in situ radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment and enhance the confidence of the probability of the gamma-spectrum analysis, Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle ( MNCP ) code were performed to provide the response spectra of some interested radionuclides and the background spectra originating from the natural radionuclides in seawater recorded by a NaI (Tl) detector. A newly developed 75mm×75mm NaI (Tl) detector was calibrated using four reference radioactive sources137Cs,60Co,40K and54Mn in the laboratory before the field measurements in seawater. A simulation model was established for the detector immersed in seawater. The simulated spectra were all broadened with Gaussian pulses to reflect the statistical fluctuations and electrical noise in the real measurement. The simulated spectra show that the single-energy photons into the detector are mostly scattering low-energy photons and the high background in the low energy region mainly originates from the Compton effect of the high energyγ-rays of natural radionuclides in seawater. The simulated background spectrum was compared with the experimental one recorded in field measurement and they seem to be in good agreement. The simulation method and spectra can be used for the accurate analysis of the filed measurement results of low concentration radioactivity in seawater.

  7. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence Detector for the ATHENA X-IFU: Design Aspects by Geant4 Simulation and Preliminary Characterization of the New Single Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-08-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two planned focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), which will be able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV by means of a kilo-pixel array of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, coupled to a high-quality X-ray optics. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particle background, induced by primary protons of both solar and cosmic rays' origin and secondary electrons. A Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) TES-based detector, located sensed by Iridium TESs. We currently achieve a TRL = 3-4 at the single-pixel level. We have designed and developed two further prototypes in order to reach TRL = 4. The design of the CryoAC has been also optimized using the Geant4 simulation tool. Here we will describe some results from the Geant4 simulations performed to optimize the design and preliminary test results from the first of the two detectors, 1 cm2 area, made of 65 Ir TESs.

  8. Porosity calculations using a C/O logging tool with boron-lined NaI detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, Walid A., E-mail: Walid.Metwally@GNF.co [Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF) 3901 Castle Hayne Road, M/C A-55 Wilmington, NC 28401 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work, a boron lining is added to a NaI detector assembly to study the possibility of combining both the C/O tool and the thermal neutron porosity tool in one tool, both of which are commonly used tools in oil well logging. The combined tool proposed in this paper was modeled with the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code. The simulation results show a good porosity sensitivity (especially to low porosity values). The results also show a great reduction in the neutron flux incident on the detectors and consequently the reduction of detector activation by thermal neutrons.

  9. Porosity calculations using a C/O logging tool with boron-lined NaI detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, Walid A

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a boron lining is added to a NaI detector assembly to study the possibility of combining both the C/O tool and the thermal neutron porosity tool in one tool, both of which are commonly used tools in oil well logging. The combined tool proposed in this paper was modeled with the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code. The simulation results show a good porosity sensitivity (especially to low porosity values). The results also show a great reduction in the neutron flux incident on the detectors and consequently the reduction of detector activation by thermal neutrons.

  10. Molecular dynamics of polarizable point dipole models for molten NaI. Comparison with first principles simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trullàs J.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of molten NaI at 995 K have been carried out using polarizable ion models based on rigid ion pair potentials to which the anion induced dipole polarization is added. The polarization is added in such a way that point dipoles are induced on the anions by both local electric field and deformation short-range damping interactions that oppose the electrically induced dipole moments. The structure and self-diffusion results are compared with those obtained by Galamba and Costa Cabral using first principles Hellmann-Feynman molecular dynamics simulations and using classical molecular dynamics of a shell model which allows only the iodide polarization

  11. Elucidating the molecular physiology of lantibiotic NAI-107 production in Microbispora ATCC-PTA-5024

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Renzone, Giovanni; Palazzotto, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    , regulatory cascades and primary metabolism shift-down trigger the accumulation of protein components involved in nitrogen and phosphate metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis/maturation, lipid metabolism, osmotic stress response, multi-drug resistance, and NAI-107 transport. The stimulating role on physiological...... differentiation of a TetR-like regulator, originally identified in this study, was confirmed by the construction of an over-expressing strain. Finally, the possible role of cellular response to membrane stability alterations and of multi-drug resistance ABC transporters as additional self-resistance mechanisms...

  12. NaiKun Offshore Wind Energy Project environmental assessment certificate[In the matter of the Environmental Assessment Act S.B.C. 2002, c 43 and in the matter of an application for an Environmental Assessment Certificate by NaiKun Wind Development Inc. for the NaiKun Offshore Wind Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    NaiKun Wind Development Inc. has proposed to build a 396 MW wind turbine array to connect Haida Gwaii in the Queen Charlotte Islands to British Columbia's main electricity grid via NaiKun's generation facility. The project involves the installation of 67 to 110 wind turbine generators at the project site. The project also includes an underwater cable and overland transmission line connecting to BC Hydro's grid. An environmental assessment (EA) was undertaken by British Columbia's Environmental Assessment Office (EAO) to evaluate the potential effects on marine physical environment; land use; marine aquatic ecology; visual resources; marine mammals; radio communications; marine birds; navigation; terrestrial ecology; archaeological and heritage resources; employment and economy; and public health. The EAO also assessed relevant issues raised by First Nations during the course of the EA. Upon considering the results of the EA, the BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources granted an EA certificate to NaiKun Wind Development Inc. for its proposed offshore wind energy project. The EA certificate contains many conditions that the proponent must implement throughout various stages of the project. Key commitments include undertaking a joint research project with the local crab fishery; determining the movement of sediment relative to beaches and navigation in the area; implementing an adaptive management plan for marine birds; and implementing a monitoring plan to identify any unforeseen impacts to values and recreational use of Naikoon Provincial Park. Before the project can proceed, the proponent will require provincial licenses, leases and other approvals, as well as necessary federal approvals. tabs.

  13. UN MODELO DE GESTIÓN DE LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DE AGUA CON LÓGICA DIFUSA GRIS PARA EL RÍO ABURRÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Carvajal Serna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de lógica difusa gris para la gestión de la calidad y cantidad del agua en el río Aburrá, el cual permite tener en cuenta la incertidumbre de los parámetros ambientales, que por lo general hacen que la toma de decisiones para las autoridades ambientales presente conflictos con los descargadores o contaminadores de los cuerpos de agua. La aplicación del modelo se hizo a una campaña del río Aburrá tomando como datos el caudal, el oxígeno disuelto y la demanda bioquímica de oxígeno. El modelo toma los aportes de las quebradas como los puntos de contaminación de los descargadores. Este modelo implica una optimización de acuerdo con los objetivos de la autoridad ambiental y los descargadores. El modelo se desarrolló en Matlab. Como conclusión se muestra el potencial del modelo para la gestión del agua del río y para alcanzar las metas planteadas por la autoridad ambiental.

  14. The nature and impact of chronic stressors on refugee children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Murray, Laura K; Puffer, Eve S; Larsen, Jillian; Bolton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugee camps are replete with risk factors for mental health problems among children, including poverty, disruption of family structure, family violence and food insecurity. This study, focused on refugee children from Burma, in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp in Thailand, sought to identify the particular risks children are exposed to in this context, and the impacts on their mental health and psychosocial well-being. This study employed two qualitative methods--free list interviews and key informant interviews--to identify the main problems impacting children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp and to explore the causes of these problems and their impact on children's well-being. Respondents in free list interviews identified a number of problems that impact children in this context, including fighting between adults, alcohol use by adults and children, and child abuse and neglect. Across the issues, the causes included economic and social conditions associated with living in the camp and changes in family structures. Children are chronically exposed to stressors during their growth and development in the camp environment. Policies and interventions in areas of protracted displacement in camp-based settings should work to address these stressors and their impacts at community, household and individual levels.

  15. The Cryogenic Anti-Coincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: pulse analysis of the AC-S7 single pixel prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Argan, A.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU): it is a TES based kilo-pixel order array able to provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background expected at L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the background level and enable the mission science goals, a Cryogenic Anticoincidence (CryoAC) detector is placed sensed by Ir:Au TESes. The CryoAC development schedule foresees by Q1 2017 the delivery of a Demonstration Model (DM) to the X-IFU FPA development team. The DM is a single-pixel detector that will address the final design of the CryoAC. It will verify some representative requirements at single-pixel level, especially the detector operation at 50 mK thermal bath and the threshold energy at 20 keV. To reach the final DM design we have developed and tested the AC-S7 prototype, with 1 cm2 absorber area sensed by 65 Ir TESes. Here we will discuss the pulse analysis of this detector, which has been illuminated by the 60 keV line from a 241Am source. First, we will present the analysis performed to investigate pulses timings and spectrum, and to disentangle the athermal component of the pulses from the thermal one. Furthermore, we will show the application to our dataset of an alternative method of pulse processing, based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This kind of analysis allow us to recover better energy spectra than achievable with traditional methods, improving the evaluation of the detector threshold energy, a fundamental parameter characterizing

  16. Liberación y seguimiento de dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus en el departamento de Tolima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio fue realizado con dos grupos de tití gris (Saguinus leucopus, procedentesde decomisos y entregas voluntarias. Los animales fueron rehabilitados duranteaproximadamente un año en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el fin de estimular el desarrolloy recuperación de las habilidades necesarias para su sobrevivencia al ser devueltos almedio ambiente natural. Se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberaciónen un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellaspara iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio. Durante este tiempo se realizóun estudio etológico, con el propósito de determinar las posibles variaciones comportamentalesderivadas del cambio en el entorno. Los animales fueron liberados y se llevóa cabo el seguimiento visual para evaluar el proceso de rehabilitación y la adaptación delos individuos al nuevo hábitat. Se observó una variación en la presentación de comportamientosrelacionados con actividades de desplazamiento, descanso e interaccionessociales en comparación con estudios realizados en cautiverio. Después de la liberación,los animales fueron vistos en sitios próximos a las jaulas de acostumbramiento,lo cual podría indicar que establecieron sus territorios en estas áreas; no se registraronvariaciones significativas en la conformación de los grupos ni enfrentamientos entre lasdos tropas. Estas observaciones indicarían que el proceso de liberación cumplió con suobjetivo, y puede considerarse exitoso.

  17. [Radiation screening test for commercial food products and foodstuffs for food services using NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Masaru; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Kihara, Akiko; Tsutake, Toyoshige; Mitsui, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Screening tests were carried out for radioactive cesium in foods using a NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter. The screening level was set at 250 Bq/kg, and specimens exceeding this level were scheduled to be sent to an external testing organization, which would conduct further tests using a germanium semiconductor detector. Some specimens that did not reach the screening level were also sent to the same organization. Foodstuffs used in commercial food products circulated in Chiba city were targeted, along with food services provided to schools and day care centers. In all, 495 specimens were tested; however, no specimens exceeded the screening level. The results of verification tests confirmed that no specimen exceeded the tentative regulatory limit.

  18. Influence of Water Temperature and Salinity on PH During Dry Season in Lower Dong Nai River System, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Dang Quoc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the gvSIG 2.2.0 software, IDW interpolation method, river and stream network data, and 36 sampling sites to build the maps of three monitored parameters such as pH, water temperature, and salinity in the Lower Dong Nai River system (2009-2010 in dry season. Based on an analysis of these maps and statistical assessment by using the R software, the correlations between pH, temperature, and salinity are clarified. The results show that the pH and temperature values have a tendency to decrease, whereas the salinity tends to increase annually. The pH value has good and significant correlations with the water temperature and salinity in both simple and multiple linear regression models. The results aim to provide a scientific reference for further research on the water environment in this area.

  19. Relative contributions of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+/HCO3- cotransport to ischemic Na-i(+) overload in isolated rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Hove, M; Nederhoff, MGJ; Van Echteld, CJA

    2005-01-01

    The Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) and/or the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter (NBC) were blocked during ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)), intracellular pH (pH(i)), and energy-related phosphates were measured by using simultaneous Na-23 and P-31 NMR spectroscopy. Hearts wer

  20. Spatially Extended NaI D Resonant Emission and Absorption in the Galactic Wind of the Nearby Infrared-Luminous Quasar F05189-2524

    CERN Document Server

    Rupke, David

    2014-01-01

    Emission from metal resonant lines has recently emerged as a potentially powerful probe of the structure of galactic winds at low and high redshift. In this work, we present only the second example of spatially resolved observations of NaI D emission from a galactic wind in a nearby galaxy (and the first 3D observations at any redshift). F05189-2524, a nearby (z=0.043) ultra luminous infrared galaxy powered by a quasar, was observed with the integral field unit on the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini North. NaI D absorption in the system traces dusty filaments on the near side of an extended, AGN-driven galactic wind (with projected velocities up to 2000 km/s). These filaments (A_V < 4) and N(H) < 10^22 cm^-2) simultaneously obscure the stellar continuum and NaI D emission lines. The NaI D emission lines serve as a complementary probe of the wind; they are strongest in regions of low foreground obscuration and extend up to the limits of the field of view (galactocentric radii of 4 kpc)....

  1. Phospholemman-mediated activation of Na/K-ATPase limits [Na]i and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation in mouse ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despa, Sanda; Tucker, Amy L; Bers, Donald M

    2008-04-08

    Cardiac Na/K-ATPase (NKA) regulates intracellular Na ([Na](i)), which in turn affects intracellular Ca and thus contractility via Na/Ca exchange. Recent evidence shows that phosphorylation of the NKA-associated small transmembrane protein phospholemman (PLM) mediates beta-adrenergic-induced NKA stimulation. Here, we tested whether PLM phosphorylation during beta-adrenergic activation limits the rise in [Na](i), Ca transient amplitude, and triggered arrhythmias in mouse ventricular myocytes. In myocytes from wild-type (WT) mice, [Na](i) increased on field stimulation at 2 Hz from 11.1+/-1.8 mmol/L to a plateau of 15.2+/-1.5 mmol/L. Isoproterenol induced a decrease in [Na](i) to 12.0+/-1.2 mmol/L. In PLM knockout (PLM-KO) mice in which beta-adrenergic stimulation does not activate NKA, [Na](i) also increased at 2 Hz (from 10.4+/-1.2 to 17.0+/-1.5 mmol/L) but was unaltered by isoproterenol. The PLM-mediated decrease in [Na](i) in WT mice could limit the isoproterenol-induced inotropic state. Indeed, the isoproterenol-induced increase in the amplitude of Ca transients was significantly smaller in the WT mice (5.2+/-0.4- versus 7.1+/-0.5-fold in PLM-KO mice). This also was the case for the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca content, which increased by 1.27+/-0.09-fold in WT mice versus 1.53+/-0.09-fold in PLM-KO mice. The higher sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca content in PLM-KO versus WT mice was associated with an increased propensity for spontaneous Ca transients and contractions in PLM-KO mice. These data suggest that PLM phosphorylation and NKA stimulation are an integral part of the sympathetic fight-or-flight response, tempering the rise in [Na](i) and cellular Ca loading and perhaps limiting Ca overload-induced arrhythmias.

  2. Visibilidad e impacto de la literatura gris científica en repositorios institucionales de acceso abierto. Estudio de caso bibliométrico del repositorio Gredos de la Universidad de Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar los beneficios del acceso abierto como modelo de comunicación científica para la literatura gris científica en general y para las tesis doctorales electrónicas en particular. El trabajo de investigación que se presenta pretende dar respuesta a la pregunta sobre la visibilidad, usabilidad e impacto de las tesis doctorales depositadas en repositorios de acceso abierto, a través de un estudio de caso bibliométrico del repositorio Gredo...

  3. Visibilidad e impacto de la literatura gris científica en repositorios institucionales de acceso abierto. Estudio de caso bibliométrico del repositorio Gredos de la Universidad de Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es demostrar los beneficios del acceso abierto como modelo de comunicación científica para la literatura gris científica en general y para las tesis doctorales electrónicas en particular. El trabajo de investigación que se presenta pretende dar respuesta a la pregunta sobre la visibilidad, usabilidad e impacto de las tesis doctorales depositadas en repositorios de acceso abierto, a través de un estudio de caso bibliométrico del repositorio Gredo...

  4. BERRYA ROXB. and CARPODIPTERA GRIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a. j. g. h. kostermans

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available In his monographic treatment of Tiliaceae, Burret {in Notizbl. bot.Gart. Berlin 9: 607. 1926 pointed out the close affinity of Berrya andCarpodiptera, the former represented in Asia and the Pacific area, thelatter from Africa and America.

  5. Materias primas vs materia gris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos y los combustibles, en la última década, sobre pasaron el límite de la demanda; la causa no es sólo la evolución demográfica, ni el cambio climático, también es el efecto de las emergentes y poderosas economías asiáticas, especialmente la China, que está aumentando la exigencia energética y consume más y mejores alimentos; 500 millones de ciudadanos chinos están en capacidad de requerirlos y de viajar por el mundo como turistas.

  6. [Training professionals for delivering ingreated health care to the aged: the interdisciplinary experience of NAI - UNATI/UERJ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Motta, Luciana Branco; Caldas, Célia Pereira; de Assis, Mônica

    2008-01-01

    The training of professionals in the field of healthcare for the aged is one of the priorities of the national policy for the aged in Brazil due to the accelerated aging of the population. The Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso (NAI), a unit of the Open University of the Third Age/UERJ (UNATI/UERJ) develops an educational program in this field, based on practical care delivery with emphasis to inter-disciplinarity and teamwork. The program includes different training levels and modalities: Residency, Specialization, Professional Practice and Graduation. The program includes an introductory course in gerontology and geriatrics common to all areas, and specific theoretical-practical qualification coordinated by the professional staff from the respective areas. The practical activities occur in different sceneries: long term care institutions, health promotion educational settings, outpatient facilities and the university hospital. Interdisciplinary thinking and acting is a continuous exercise, and the team should be open to innovative strategies. The experience is a contribution to the increasing social demand for qualified professionals committed with the principles of the Unified Health System and integrated health care.

  7. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization of Radiation Sources on UF Campus Using a Large Volume NaI Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jesse A.; Gardiner, Hannah E.; Jordan, Kelly A.; Baciak, James E.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental radiation surveys are important for applications such as safety and regulations. This is especially true for areas exposed to emissions from nuclear reactors, such as the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR). At the University of Florida, surveys are performed using the RSX-1 NaI detector, developed by Radiation Solutions Inc. The detector uses incoming gamma rays and an Advanced Digital Spectrometer module to produce a linear energy spectrum. These spectra can then be analyzed in real time with a personal computer using the built in software, RadAssist. We report on radiation levels around the University of Florida campus using two mobile detection platforms, car-borne and cart-borne. The car-borne surveys provide a larger, broader map of campus radiation levels. On the other hand, cart-borne surveys provide a more detailed radiation map because of its ability to reach places on campus cars cannot go. Throughout the survey data, there are consistent radon decay product energy peaks in addition to other sources such as medical I-131 found in a large crowd of people. Finally, we investigate further applications of this mobile detection platform, such as tracking the Ar-41 plume emitted from the UFTR and detection of potential environmental hazards.

  8. Radiative transfer modeling of the enigmatic scattering polarization in the solar NaI D1 line

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca; Degl'Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of NaI, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polariza...

  9. Investigation of sodalites for conditioning halide salts (NaCl and NaI): Comparison of two synthesis routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardez, Isabelle; Campayo, Lionel; Rigaud, Danielle; Chartier, Myriam; Calvet, Aurelie [CEA, Laboratoire d' Etudes des Materiaux Ceramiques pour le Conditionnement, Site de Marcoule, Batiment 208, B.P. 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Sodalites with the general formula Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}X{sub 2} (where X = Cl or I) were investigated for ceramic conditioning of halide salts (NaCl and NaI). Because of the tendency of halides to volatilize at high temperature, two synthesis routes were tested to optimize the halide content in the sodalite phase. The first is based on heating at high temperature of a [nepheline NaAlSiO{sub 4} + salt] mixture prepared by a dry process. The second, performed at low temperature, consists of the reaction in aqueous media between kaolinite (Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the salt. The present study compares these two syntheses and examines differences between chloro-sodalite and iodo-sodalite based on X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The next step will consist in sintering the resulting powder samples to obtain dense ceramics. (authors)

  10. CARIOTIPO DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus MEDIANTE BANDAS R-REPLICATIVAS KARYOTYPE OF TITÍ GREY (Saguinus leucopus THROUGH R-REPLICATIVE BANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Posada Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Colombia es considerado un país megabiodiverso, ostentando varias especies endémicas como Saguinus leucopus. El Tití gris, como es vulgarmente llamado, habita bosques tropicales, es omnívoro y de hábitos diurnos, y se destaca como dispersor de semillas. Morfológicamente se caracteriza por su reducido tamaño, pelaje café y dorso plateado. Se organiza en grupos familiares formados por la pareja y su descendencia, con una hembra dominante, la cual es la única que cría. Debido a factores fundamentalmente de origen antrópico, se encuentra catalogada como especies en peligro de extinción por la UICN y está registrado en el apéndice I del CITES. Aun cuando se han realizados estudios sobre su biología básica, son pocos los reporte sobre la evaluación citogenética y ninguno sobre cariotipo con bandas R-Replicativa. En esta investigación se realizó el cariotipo y el idiograma, con bandas R-Replicativas, mediante la incorporación de 5'-bromo-2'-deoxiuridina (BrdU en sangre periférica estimulada con fitohemaglutinina de S. leucopus. Los resultados mostraron un cariotipo 2n = 46, con un número fundamental (NF de 76. Los cromosomas se organizaron en cinco grupos de acuerdo con su forma y tamaño. El grupo A, es conformado por 3 pares de cromosomas grandes submetacéntricos; el grupo B, por 5 pares de cromosomas de tamaño medio metacéntricos o submetacéntricos; el grupo C, por 6 pares acrocéntricos y el grupo D, por 8 pares subtelocéntricos y el par sexual XX/XY. El cromosoma "X" es de tamaño medio submetacéntrico y el "Y" es metacéntrico, y de los más pequeños del genoma. Finalmente, se propone un idiograma con bandas R- Replicativa con base en mitosis en estadio III de replicación.Abstract. Colombia is considered a mega-biodiverse country, boasting several endemic species such as Saguinus leucopus. The Marmoset gray, as is commonly called, inhabits tropical forests, is omnivorous and diurnal, and stands as seed

  11. Assessment of the Na/I symporter as a reporter gene to visualize oncolytic adenovirus propagation in peritoneal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merron, Andrew; McNeish, Iain A. [Queen Mary' s School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Institute of Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Baril, Patrick; Tran, Lucile; Vassaux, Georges [CHU Hotel Dieu, INSERM, Nantes (France); CHU de Nantes, Institut des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Nantes (France); Martin-Duque, Pilar [Instituto Aragones de Ciencias de la Salud, Zaragoza (Spain); Vieja, Antonio de la [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Madrid (Spain); Briat, Arnaud [INSERM U877, Grenoble (France); Harrington, Kevin J. [Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    In vivo imaging of the spread of oncolytic viruses using the Na/I symporter (NIS) has been proposed. Here, we assessed whether the presence of NIS in the viral genome affects the therapeutic efficacy of the oncolytic adenovirus dl922-947 following intraperitoneal administration, in a mouse model of peritoneal ovarian carcinoma. We generated AdAM7, a dl922-947 oncolytic adenovirus encoding the NIS coding sequence. Iodide uptake, NIS expression, infectivity and cell-killing activity of AdAM7, as well as that of relevant controls, were determined in vitro. In vivo, the propagation of this virus in the peritoneal cavity of tumour-bearing mice was determined using SPECT/CT imaging and its therapeutic efficacy was evaluated. In vitro infection of ovarian carcinoma IGROV-1 cells with ADAM7 led to functional expression of NIS. However, the insertion of NIS into the viral genome resulted in a loss of efficacy of the virus in terms of replication and cytotoxicity. In vivo, on SPECT/CT imaging AdAM7 was only detectable in the peritoneal cavity of animals bearing peritoneal ovarian tumours for up to 5 days after intraperitoneal administration. Therapeutic experiments in vivo demonstrated that AdAM7 is as potent as its NIS-negative counterpart. This study demonstrated that despite the detrimental effect observed in vitro, insertion of the reporter gene NIS in an oncolytic adenovirus did not affect its therapeutic efficacy in vivo. We conclude that NIS is a highly relevant reporter gene to monitor the fate of oncolytic adenovectors in live subjects. (orig.)

  12. Trypsinization severely perturbs radioiodide transport via membrane Na/I symporter proteolysis: implications for reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jkhope.jung@sbri.co.kr; Paik, Jin-Young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, You La; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Jaetae [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Han [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: khnm.lee@samsung.com

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: Cell preparation procedures injurious to Na/I symporters (NIS) could deter their usefulness for reporter gene assays and in vivo cell imaging. In this study, we investigated the effects of cell collection by trypsinization on radioiodide transport and in vivo cell imaging results. Methods: The influence of trypsinization procedures on {sup 125}I transport was evaluated using Huh-7/NIS hepatoma cells. The effects of graded concentrations of trypsin and EDTA were assessed on Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS lung cancer cells. Trypsin-induced NIS proteolysis was investigated by immunoblots of plasma membrane prepared from adenovirus-infected mouse liver tissue. {sup 99m}Tc-O{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy was performed in Balb/C nude mice at 1 and 4 h following administration of Huh-7/NIS cells collected with and without trypsin. Results: {sup 125}I Transport ability of Huh-7/NIS cells was severely impaired within minutes of standard trypsinization and further deteriorated up to 24 h after termination of treatment. This perturbation was caused by trypsin, which dose- and time-dependently induced substantial reductions of {sup 125}I uptake in Huh-7/NIS and A431/NIS cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant dose- and time-dependent losses of membrane NIS protein by trypsin. NIS proteolysis was completely blocked by soybean trypsin inhibitor, and partial protection was offered by the substrates iodide and perchlorate. On {sup 99m}Tc-O{sub 4}{sup -} scintigraphy of mice, cells prepared by trypsinization were poorly visualized, whereas those collected with a nonenzymatic method showed significantly better uptake and contrast. Conclusion: Trypsinization leads to serious perturbations in iodide accumulating capacity through tryptic degradation of membrane NIS protein. Hence, NIS-based reporter assays and in vivo cell imaging studies may benefit from better-optimized cell cultivation and harvesting procedures.

  13. Main results of the standardization through anti-coincident from the Brazilian Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations - LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ in the last 8 years; Principais resultados da padronizacao por anti-coincidencia do LNMRI nos ultimos 8 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos J. da, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The LNMRI implemented in 2006 a system of time keeping in anticoincidence live in this time and dead time extensible today 18 radionuclides were standardized. To store the results of these primary standardization the LNMRI/IRD reference with ionization chamber were calibrated with these standards. In this work will be discussed the main operational difficulties and components of uncertainty and the main results. (author)

  14. Molecular orientation via a dynamically induced pulse-train: Wave packet dynamics of NaI in a static electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquetand, P.; Materny, A.; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2004-01-01

    We regard the rovibrational wave packet dynamics of NaI in a static electric field after femtosecond excitation to its first electronically excited state. The following quasibound nuclear wave packet motion is accompanied by a bonding situation changing from covalent to ionic. At times when...... the charge separation is present, i.e., when the bond-length is large, a strong dipole moment exists and rotational excitation takes place. Upon bond contraction, the then covalently bound molecule does not experience the external field. This scenario repeats itself periodically. Thus, the vibrational...

  15. El PRT-La Verdad entre los trabajadores de la carne de Berisso: La agrupación El Activista de la Carne y la Lista Gris [1967-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Carlos Hernán Castillo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a research about the working class and students struggles and the strategies of the left parties in La Plata city and Gran La Plata between 1966 and 1973. This work is focused on the study of the political activity of the PRT-La Verdad during this period. At the beginning of 1968 the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores -PRT split in two fractions. The fraction led by Nahuel Moreno -named PRT-La Verdad [PRT- The Truth]- was the largest of the two in La Plata y Gran La Plata. In this area the PRT had many members among the students and in the workers movement. This article studies the political activity of the PRT, and the PRT-LV after the split- in the Sindicato de Obreros y Empleados de la Industria de la Carne y Afines de Berisso [Meat Processing Plants Workers Union], between 1967 and 1972 at the Swift and Armour meat processing plants. During the period analyzed in the article, the members and supporters of the PRT-LV were organized in a rank and file union group named El Activista de la Carne - Lista Gris [The Activist-Gray List]. The sources of this research are the bulletins and leaflets edited by El Activista de la Carne. We also consulted the files of DIPBA as well as the bibliography on the subject

  16. Using van Hove singularities of the two-phonon density of states to investigate the intrinsically localized vibrations of NaI crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Benjamin; Riseborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically Localized Modes (ILMs) have purportedly been observed in NaI but only for wave-vectors, q at the corner of the 3-D Brillouin Zone. It has been suggested that, for high-symmetry q vectors, several van Hove singularities may converge at one frequency producing a large peak in the two-phonon density of state and giving rise to ILMs with these q values. We fit the experimentally determined acoustic and the optic phonon modes using a nearest neighbor and a next-nearest neighbor force constant. We find that the two-phonon density of states, for fixed q exhibits non-divergent van Hove singularities. The frequencies of these features are found to vary as q is varied. We intend to search for q values at which the two-phonon density of states is enhanced and then examine whether the anharmonic interactions can bind the two-phonon excitations to produce a quantized ILM.

  17. Gamma spectrum unfolding for a NaI monitor of radioactivity in aquatic systems: Experimental evaluations of the minimal detectable activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bare, J., E-mail: bare@isib.be [Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles, rue Royale, 150, Brussels BE1000 (Belgium); Tondeur, F. [Institut Superieur Industriel de Bruxelles, rue Royale, 150, Brussels BE1000 (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the minimal detectable activity achievable by unfolding the gamma spectra of a NaI monitor. An aquatic monitor initially developed by the Institut des Radio-Elements (IRE) is used for the application. Unfolding of the spectra is performed with GRAVEL, a UMG package code, on the basis of a response matrix obtained with MCNP5.1.40. Experimental data have been measured at IRE, in a 20 m{sup 3} seawater tank, for known activities of {sup 137}Cs mixed with other gamma emitters ({sup 40}K, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 113}Sn and {sup 139}Ce). Deconvolution allows one to reduce the MDA of {sup 137}Cs by an order of magnitude.

  18. Formation of the colloidal particles of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers neutralized with either Na(I) or Ba(II) in ThF/water (1/99) mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Yu, Jeong-A; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2008-10-01

    The sizes of colloidal particles in THF/water (1/99 v/v) of the sulfonated polystyrene copolymers containing 2.1, 5.1 and 9.4 mol% of either acidic or ionic repeat units were determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. It was observed that for the acid copolymer containing 2.1 mol% of acidic units the size of the particle and size distribution decreased significantly as the solution concentration decreased from 2.0 x 10(-4) to 5.0 x 10(-6) g/mL. However, when the content of acidic units increased to 5.1 and 9.4 mol%, the size of the particles and size distribution increased slightly with decreasing solution concentrations. It was also found that the neutralization of the acid group with Na(I) induced the slow increase in the diameter of colloidal particles of the ionomers with decreasing solution concentration, and that the size of the colloids decreased with increasing ion contents. Thus, it was suggested that the former and latter findings could be understood using the polyelectrolyte effect and charge density concepts, respectively. For the ionomers neutralized with Ba(II), it was found that the size of the single colloidal particles was similar to that of the Na(I) ionomer. However, the aggregates of the colloids were not easily separated by the ultrasonication. Thus, it was speculated that the Ba(II) cations placed inside the aggregates of hydrophobic environment acted as the links between colloidal particles.

  19. 柰李细菌性黑斑病菌侵染过程研究%INFECTION PROCESS OF Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni ON NAI PLUM (Prunus salicina var. cordata )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴良英; 高必达

    2001-01-01

    @@ The bacterial spot on Nai plum caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is an important disease in Hu nan Province, causing a considerable yield loss. Studies were carried out on this disease, such as field investiga tion on occurrence and development and integrated control. In this paper we report the fine structure study of the diseased tissues.

  20. Improving the performance of 241Am-Be for PGNAA applications using a proper shielding for neutron source and the NaI detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeh Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gamma ray spectrum resolution from a 241Am-Be source-based prompt gamma ray activation analysis set-up has been observed to increase in the energy region of interest with enclosing the NaI detector in a proper neutron and gamma ray shield. We have investigated the tact that the peak resolution of prompt gamma rays in the region of interest from the set-up depends on the source activity to the great extent, size and kind of the detector and the geometry of the detector shield. In order to see the role of a detector shield, five kinds of the detector shield were used and finally the proper kind was introduced. Since the detector shield has an important contribution in the reduction of the undesirable and high rate gamma rays coming to the gamma ray detector, a good design of a proper shield enables the elimination of the unwanted events, such as a pulse pile-up. By improving the shielding design, discrete and distinguishable photoelectric peaks in the energy region of interest have been observed in the spectrum of prompt gamma rays.

  1. "Argumentation, textual criticism, poetry and prose"--From Yao Nai creation practice angle%浅论“义理、考据、词章”--从姚鼐创作实践的角度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠

    2014-01-01

    姚鼐是桐城派的代表人物,也是清代文坛极具影响力的文学家,他提出的“义理、考据、词章”说成为桐城派创作理论的核心思想,而姚鼐也一直在文学创作的实践中履行着这一文学思想。本文试从他的诗词、散文等不同类型作品的写作中探讨其文学特质,以发掘姚鼐如何在创作中践行其写作精神的。%Yao Nai is representative of Tongcheng School of Qing Dynasty, is the most influential literary writer, he puts forward the"argumentation, textual criticism, poetry and prose"become the core idea of Tongcheng School of creation theory, and Yao Nai has also been in the practice of literary creation in using literary thoughts. This paper tries to explore the characteristics of his poetry, prose literature from different types of writing, in order to explore how to practice the spirit of Yao Nai writing in the creation.

  2. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords.) (2016): A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-01-01

    Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragi...

  3. Establecimiento y Evaluación de una Dieta para Monos Tití Gris (Saguinus leucopus, Günter, 1876) y Estudio del Comportamiento Alimentario en Cautiverio en la Fundación Zoológico Santacruz (Colombia - Sur América)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Gómez; Iván Lozano; Andrés Jaramillo; Andrés Arias

    2006-01-01

    Una de las especies de primates menos conocidas es el tití gris (Saguinus leucopus), debido principalmente a su limitada distribución geográfica y escaso volumen de publicaciones sobre sus características biológicas o de manejo adecuado en cautiverio. A través del estudio realizado en los aspectos médicos, nutricionales y comportamentales, se pretende realizar un aporte importante al conocimiento del manejo técnico de la especie en cautiverio y así promover su conservación ex situ. La especie...

  4. ERKÜ Esinduskogu aastakoosolek õnnestus / Gris Livieri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Livieri, Gris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Rahvuskomitee Ühendriikides Esinduskogu koosolekust 2. mail 2009, kus kõneldi Eesti julgeolekust, Ülemaailmse Eesti Kesknõukogu tegevusest, Ühendatud Balti Ameerika Komitee lähenevast konverentsist ja ERKÜ tegevusest ning arutati põhjalikult ERKÜ 2009. a. tegevuse plaane

  5. Los weblogs : ¿son literatura gris?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Felipe, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, along with the scientific magazines this "dark" literature has been vehicle of diffusion of science. The concept of gray Literature is analized and the conclusion is that the theoreticians do not agree in the limits of gray literature. The new forms of communication through Internet allow the exchange of information almost in real time; this is the greater revolution in relation with the past. Through the distribution lists, news, weblogs, etc., can be made an analysis and inte...

  6. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  7. Free energetics of carbon nanotube association in aqueous inorganic NaI salt solutions: Temperature effects using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association using graphical processing unit-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion, and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intratube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and

  8. Semiclassical modelling of finite-pulse effects on non-adiabatic photodynamics via initial condition filtering: The predissociation of NaI as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Mesa, Aliezer [Departmento de Física Teórica, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    Femtosecond-laser pulse driven non-adiabatic spectroscopy and dynamics in molecular and condensed phase systems continue to be a challenge for theoretical modelling. One of the main obstacles is the “curse of dimensionality” encountered in non-adiabatic, exact wavepacket propagation. A possible route towards treating complex molecular systems is via semiclassical surface-hopping schemes, in particular if they account not only for non-adiabatic post-excitation dynamics but also for the initial optical excitation. One such approach, based on initial condition filtering, will be put forward in what follows. As a simple test case which can be compared with exact wavepacket dynamics, we investigate the influence of the different parameters determining the shape of a laser pulse (e.g., its finite width and a possible chirp) on the predissociation dynamics of a NaI molecule, upon photoexcitation of the A(0{sup +}) state. The finite-pulse effects are mapped into the initial conditions for semiclassical surface-hopping simulations. The simulated surface-hopping diabatic populations are in qualitative agreement with the quantum mechanical results, especially concerning the subpicosend photoinduced dynamics, the main deviations being the relative delay of the non-adiabatic transitions in the semiclassical picture. Likewise, these differences in the time-dependent electronic populations calculated via the semiclassical and the quantum methods are found to have a mild influence on the overall probability density distribution. As a result, the branching ratios between the bound and the dissociative reaction channels and the time-evolution of the molecular wavepacket predicted by the semiclassical method agree with those computed using quantum wavepacket propagation. Implications for more challenging molecular systems are given.

  9. Applicability of a portable CdTe and NaI (Tl) spectrometer for activity measure; Aplicabilidade de um espectrometro portatil de CdTe e NaI (Tl) para a medida da atividade de Cesio-137 ({sup 137}Cs) e Berilio-7 ({sup 7}Be)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi

    2005-02-15

    In this work it was studied the application of an in situ gamma spectrometer (ROVER) of Amptek Inc., composed by a Cadmium Telluride detector (CdTe) of 3 mm x 3 mm x 1 mm and a 30 mm x 30 mm Sodium Iodide detector doped with Thallium [NaI (Tl)). The radioactive sources used were type pastille, sealed in aluminum and polyethylene, of {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, 3 sources of {sup 137}Cs and soil samples contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. It was performed a factorial planning 2{sup 3} to optimize the in situ spectrometry system. This way it was determined that the best temperature for CdTe crystal operation is -22, deg C, with Shaping Time of 3 {mu}S and Rise Time Discrimination (RTD) with value 3. With the help of the certified radioactive sources, we determined the efficiency curve of the two detectors. The CdTe detector was positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and also at 4.15 cm. The NaI (Tl) detector was also positioned at the standard distance of 1 meter of the sources and at 2.8 cm. Measures were performed to determine the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) for both detectors. For the pastille type sources, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for the CdTe detector at 4.15 cm, analyzing the energy line of 32 keV, was 6 kBq and at 1 meter of the {sup 137}Cs source, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the MDA was 67 kBq. For soil samples, CdTe detector at 4.15 cm presented a MDA of 693 kBq.kg-l for the line of 32 keV, and for the soil sample {sup 7}Be content the MDA found was 2867 Bq.kg{sup -1} at 4.15 cm. For the NaI (Tl) detector, analyzing the line of 661.65 keV, the {sup 137}Cs MDA for pastille type source at 1 meter of distance was 7 kBq, and for soil sample at 2.8 cm the measured {sup 137}Cs MDA was 71 Bq.kg{sup -1}. For the soil sample {sup 7}Be content, at 2.8 cm of the Nal (Tl) detector, the obtained MDA was 91 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Due to the minimum detectable activities found for the two detectors, we concluded that the employed in situ gamma

  10. Tang-Nai-Kang alleviates pre-diabetes and metabolic disorders and induces a gene expression switch toward fatty acid oxidation in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyi Li

    Full Text Available Increased energy intake and reduced physical activity can lead to obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Transcriptional modulation of metabolic networks has become a focus of current drug discovery research into the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders associated with energy surplus and obesity. Tang-Nai-Kang (TNK, a mixture of five herbal plant extracts, has been shown to improve abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with pre-diabetes. Here, we report the metabolic phenotype of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp rats treated with TNK. Pre-diabetic SHR/cp rats were randomly divided into control, TNK low-dose (1.67 g/kg and TNK high-dose (3.24 g/kg groups. After high-dose treatment for 2 weeks, the serum triglycerides and free fatty acids in SHR/cp rats were markedly reduced compared to controls. After 3 weeks of administration, the high dose of TNK significantly reduced the body weight and fat mass of SHR/cp rats without affecting food consumption. Serum fasting glucose and insulin levels in the TNK-treated groups decreased after 6 weeks of treatment. Furthermore, TNK-treated rats exhibited obvious improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The improved glucose metabolism may be caused by the substantial reduction in serum lipids and body weight observed in SHR/cp rats starting at 3 weeks of TNK treatment. The mRNA expression of NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 and genes related to fatty acid oxidation was markedly up-regulated in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue after TNK treatment. Furthermore, TNK promoted the deacetylation of two well-established SIRT1 targets, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α and forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1, and induced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC in different tissues. These observations suggested that TNK may be an alternative treatment for pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome by inducing a gene expression switch

  11. A Study on the Poetic Style of NaiXian, a Qarluq Poet in Yuan Dynasty%元代葛罗禄族诗人延贤诗风考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸣

    2012-01-01

    NaiXian is a Qarluq poet in the later Yuan dynasty. His poems can be devided into four styles: clear and magnificent, bright and beautiful, sober and elegance, straight and agitative. The first style is derived from the influence of the poetry in flourishing Tang dynasty, especially Libai's Gexing. The second style is related to NaiXian's experience in the south of Yangzi River. The later two styles are derived from the influence of the great masters of poem in Tang and Song dynasties, such as Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Huang Tingjian and LuYou, etc. Moreover, the nationality and folk subject matter in NaiXian's poems are also helpful to construct the two preceding styles.%元代后期葛罗禄族诗人廷贤的诗风可分为清雄峻拔、明丽清逸、沉郁典雅、亢直激越等四种类型,其清雄峻拔的诗风源自盛唐诗歌尤其是李白歌行的影响,明丽清逸的诗风与超贤的江南经历有关,其沉郁典雅与亢直激越的诗风主要受唐宋诗歌诸大家如杜甫、白居易、黄庭坚、陆游等人的影响。此外,趣贤诗中的民族性与民间性的题材,也有助于其清雄峻拔和明丽清逸风格的形成。

  12. Research on Physico-chemical Composition of "Nai-zha" and Processing Technology of Casein from Yaks Milk%牦牛"奶渣"理化成分及干酪素生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进波; 孙昊; 孙烨琪; 吕俊梅; 黄艾祥

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the physico-chemical composition of “Nai-zha”(which was made by congealing, depositing and pressing of Yak milk after extracted fat, the samples were collected from the shangri-la area) were analyzed, and the processing technology of yak casein from“Nai-zha” was studied by orthogonal experiment.The results indicted that the physico-chemical composition of the fresh” Nai-zha” as: protein (19.64%);fat (2.40%); moisture (74.40%); ash (1.1%); calcium (0.47%); phosphorus (0.17%); acidity (540T); pH (3.66).The best technical parameters of casein products from fresh “Nai-zha” were that the centrifugal defatted speed (4 000r/min); centrifugal time(5min); drying for 10h (60℃) and the casein yield 34.18%.The optimal technical parameters of casein products from dry“Nai-zha”were that the centrifugal defatted speed (5 000r/min); centrifugal time(5min); drying time for 15h (60℃), and the casein yield 83.40%.The products of Yak casein met the standard of Industrial Casein (QB/T 3780-1999).%本文对采自香格里拉地区的牦牛"奶渣"(是提取乳脂肪后的牦牛乳成分经压榨而成)鲜样、发酵样、干样进行理化分析,并对鲜、干"奶渣"加工干酪素的工艺进行了研究.结果表明,香格里拉鲜"奶渣"蛋白质含量为19.64%,脂肪为2.40%,水分为74.40%,灰分为1.1%,钙为0.47%,磷为0.17%,酸度为54°T,pH值为3.66.通过正交试验筛选出以鲜"奶渣"生产干酪素的最佳工艺参数为离心脱脂转速为4 000r/min、离心5min、干燥10h(60℃),干酪素成品率34.18%;筛选出以干"奶渣"生产干酪素的最佳工艺参数离心脱脂转速为5 000r/min、离心时间为5min、干燥时间为15h(60℃),成品率达83.40%.经测定成品符合QB/T 3780-1999工业干酪素的要求.

  13. Monte Carlo Simulation and Optimization Design For NaI Detector Energy Response%MC 模拟碘化钠探测器能量响应及其优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁波; 杨奎

    2015-01-01

    碘化钠探测器对不同能量的γ射线存在不同的能量响应,为了使其测量γ辐射剂量的准确度达到要求,需要对碘化钠探测器进行能响补偿。本项目利用MCNP软件,模拟尺寸为Φ30 mm ×20 mm的碘化钠晶体在不同铅屏蔽体模型下的能量响应;通过比较不同模型下能量响应的标准偏差,选出最佳铅屏蔽体的形状和尺寸。模拟得出铅屏蔽体的尺寸在4 mm厚度,小孔半径r为6.7 mm(暴露面积20%)时,碘化钠晶体的能量响应最好。通过实验验证,理论数据与实验数据基本一致。%NaI detector has different energy responses to different gamma rays,To accurately measure the dose of gamma radiation, energy response of NaI detector needs to be compensated.The project utilizes the software of MCNP to simulate the NaI crystal′s ( size:Φ30 mm ×20 mm) energy responses under lead shield with different shapes and sizes.By comparing the standard deviations of different lead models, we select the lead shield with the fittest shape and size.According to the result of the simulation, NaI detector has best energy response while lead shield of thickness is 4 mm, hole of radius is 6.7 mm (20%exposure area) .Through experiment, theo-retical data were consistent with the experimental data.

  14. Carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin: Accurate detection of primary with (68)Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide positron emission tomography/computed tomography enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-04-01

    (68)Ga-labelled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI3-Octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTANOC) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an excellent modality in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary of neuroendocrine origin. Most of the primary lesions are located in mid gut region where the lesions have poor resolution due to undistended and overlapping intestinal loops and motility-related artifacts. Although PET/CT enteroclysis, enterography and colonography have been described with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT enterography with(68)Ga-DOTANOC has not been described in the literature. Here, we present a case where(68)Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT enterography was useful in identifying the primary neuroendocrine tumor lesion in small intestine with accurate delineation.

  15. Efficiency calibration for a NaI scintillation detector based on Monte-Carlo pro cess and preliminary measurements of bremsstrahlung%基于蒙特卡罗方法的NaI探测器效率刻度及其测量轫致辐射实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建微; 王乃彦

    2014-01-01

    In order to better apply the NaI scintillation spectrometer to bremsstrahlung measurements, the energy response function of a NaI detector spectrometer system is studied by using 137Cs and 60Co sources based on Monte Carlo N particle transport code (MCNP) process. Simulated and measured almighty peak efficiency are in good agreement. An energy response matrix (ERM) is obtained by simulating photons with a certain energy incident on the NaI crystal in MCNP process, through deconvoluting the detected spectrum of NaI using the ERM, and the results of the deconvolution accord well with those from the original spectrum. Furthermore, the NaI detector is used to preliminarily detect its response to bremsstrahlung generated by high intensity electrons bombarding a target of 1.5 mm thickness.%为了将NaI探测器更好地应用到轫致辐射谱测量工作中,对一套NaI探测器做了研究:利用137 Cs,60 Co等同位素γ源,结合蒙特卡罗方法,得到全能峰效率的模拟值与实验测量值符合得较好;利用蒙特卡罗N粒子编码模拟NaI对不同能量光子的响应,得到了该探测器对光子的能量响应,并将获得的能量响应用于轫致辐射的解谱工作,解谱结果与原始谱符合得很好;将该探测器应用到强流电子束打靶轫致辐射测量实验中,对轫致辐射在NaI探测器中的响应做了初步测量。

  16. Results and code predictions for ABCOVE (aerosol behavior code validation and evaluation) aerosol code validation with low concentration NaOH and NaI aerosol: CSTF test AB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-10-01

    A program for aerosol behavior validation and evaluation (ABCOVE) has been developed in accordance with the LMFBR Safety Program Plan. The ABCOVE program is a cooperative effort between the USDOE, the USNRC, and their contractor organizations currently involved in aerosol code development, testing or application. The third large-scale test in the ABCOVE program, AB7, was performed in the 850-m/sup 3/ CSTF vessel with a two-species test aerosol. The test conditions involved the release of a simulated fission product aerosol, NaI, into the containment atmosphere after the end of a small sodium pool fire. Four organizations made pretest predictions of aerosol behavior using five computer codes. Two of the codes (QUICKM and CONTAIN) were discrete, multiple species codes, while three (HAA-3, HAA-4, and HAARM-3) were log-normal codes which assume uniform coagglomeration of different aerosol species. Detailed test results are presented and compared with the code predictions for eight key aerosol behavior parameters. 11 refs., 44 figs., 35 tabs.

  17. Riita Oittinen, Blanca-Ana Roig Rechou (coords. (2016: A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres. München: Iudicium Verlag; 327 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pregelj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los temas considerados tabú o difíciles llevan ganando terreno en la literatura infantil y juvenil desde los años noventa. También la crítica literaria, sobre todo los investigadores y los estudiosos de la literatura infantil y juvenil, ha percibido el fenómeno que se viene desarrollando sistemáticamente desde el inicio del siglo XXI. El monográfico A Grey Background in Children‘s literature: Death, Shipwreck, War, and Disasters - Literatura infantil y juvenil con fondo gris: muerte, naufragios, guerras y desastres es un buen ejemplo del intento de abarcar lo inabarcable, pues presta atención investigadora a un fenómeno simultáneo a sí mismo, lo que dificulta su trabajo. En primer lugar, porque a falta de distancia temporal, el corpus de los textos es incontrolable. Otra de las dificultades del trabajo con ‚la materia viva‘ es una posible falta de distanciamiento y dejarse influir por los autores, las editoriales, el mercado, etc. Todo esto hace que la reflexión crítica sea todavía más ardua, no obstante, también más necesaria, ya que requiere más valentía, conceptos críticos todavía más claros y una visión panorámica sobre un terreno difícilmente abarcable.

  18. 内观认知与综合干预疗法治疗酒依赖症复饮患者的对比研究%Comparison of efficacy of comprehensive intervention therapy and NaiKan cognitive therapy in treatment of alcohol dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱菊

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare and study efficacy of comprehensive intervention based on repeated cue-exposure therapy and NaiKan cognitive therapy in treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods:60 patients with alcohol dependence were selected and di-videdinto comprehensive intervention group ( n=32 ) and NaiKan cognitive therapy group ( n=28 ) . The comprehensive intervention group was given the comprehensive intervention based on repeated cue-exposure, while the NaiKan cognitive therapy group received the NaiKan cognitive therapy. The efficacies of the two groups were compared. Results:After the treatment, the scores of obsessive com-pulsive drinking scale(OCDS)in both groups were significantly improved (P0. 05). Conclusions: Comprehensive interven-tion based on repeated cue-exposure therapy and NaiKan cognitive therapy may perform the similar value in the treatment of alcohol de-pendence with no significant differences.%目的::对内观认知和以反复线索暴露为基础的综合干预疗法治疗酒依赖症复饮患者的疗效进行对比研究。方法:以60例酒依赖症复饮患者为研究对象分为综合干预组与内观认知组。在进行常规治疗基础上,综合干预组患者32例,采取以反复线索暴露为基础的综合干预治疗;内观认知组患者28例,采用内观认知疗法进行治疗。比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果:治疗后,两组患者的强制性饮酒问卷评分均明显改善(P0.05)。结论:内观认知疗法与以反复线索暴露为基础的综合干预疗法可以有效提高酒依赖症复饮患者的疗效,且无明显差异。

  19. Developement of Large Volume NaI (Tl) Digital Carborne γSpectrometer%大体积NaI(Tl)数字式车载γ能谱仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾国强; 杨剑; 魏世龙; 张开琪; 葛良全; 严磊

    2016-01-01

    The carborneγspectrometer is mainly used in the areas of radionuclide activi‐ty measurement ,searching for radioactive sources and nuclear pollution detection ,and the digital pulse processing technology is an effective way to improve the sensitivity and rapid response of carborne γ spectrometer .T he system of digital carborne γspectrome‐ter was developed to support 1‐5 4 L large volume NaI (Tl) crystals in this paper .The system used digital pulse processing nuclear technology to obtain multiple independent NaI (Tl) spectra ,and transmittes spectrum data to the military computer via WiFi ,fast Ethernet ,RS232 .This system achieves the functions of nuclide identification ,digital mapping ,color spectrum display ,ROI monitoring and data playback .The results show that the system using digital technology can enhance the energy resolution of carborne γspectrometer ,identification ability of low‐energy ray and energy nonlinearity ,and has a more stable and accurate digital spectrum stabilization effect .The system is stable and reliable ,and can be used for radiation resource exploration ,fast nuclear accident emer‐gency ,nuclear contamination monitoring ,and radiation source search .%车载γ能谱仪主要应用于区域放射性核素活度测量、放射源搜索及核污染检测,而数字化技术是提高车载γ能谱仪灵敏度与快速响应的有效方法。本文研制了可支持1~5个4 L大体积NaI(Tl)的数字式车载γ能谱仪系统。该系统采用数字核脉冲处理技术独立获取多个NaI(Tl)晶体的能谱,并通过无线WiFi、快速以太网、RS232等3种方式发送谱线数据给军用计算机。本系统在计算机上实现了实时核素识别、数字成图、色差能谱显示、RO I监控、数据回放等功能。结果表明,本系统采用数字技术后提升了车载γ能谱仪的能量分辨率、低能射线识别度和能量线性度,且具备更加稳定精确的数字稳谱效果。

  20. Improved Stability of Mercuric Iodide Detectors for Anticoincidence Shields Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize guard ring electrode structures and a new film growth technique to create improved polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors for background...

  1. Mujeres malditas pintadas de gris : el arte de Romaine Brooks

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano de Haro, Amparo

    1994-01-01

    A pesar de su morbosa elegancia y fatídica sensualidad, los retratos de Romaine Brooks, grises como la nostalgia, son aceptados y considerados dignos de atención crítica desde hace muy poco tiempo. Romaine Brooks,norteamericana nacida en Roma en 1874, cuyas pinturas gozaron de una gran popularidad en el París de principios de siglo XX, fue prácticamente olvidada a partir de los años treinta. La donación de buena parte de su obra al Museo Nacional de Washington a fines de los...

  2. Mujeres malditas pintadas de gris : el arte de Romaine Brooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Serrano de Haro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de su morbosa elegancia y fatídica sensualidad, los retratos de Romaine Brooks, grises como la nostalgia, son aceptados y considerados dignos de atención crítica desde hace muy poco tiempo. Romaine Brooks,norteamericana nacida en Roma en 1874, cuyas pinturas gozaron de una gran popularidad en el París de principios de siglo XX, fue prácticamente olvidada a partir de los años treinta. La donación de buena parte de su obra al Museo Nacional de Washington a fines de los años 60 y la exposición antológica de su obra en 1971 (un año después de su muerte, iniciaron lo que sería un proceso de recuperación de su figura y su pintura.

  3. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes,R; V Beltrán; M Cantín; Engelke, W

    2012-01-01

    La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI) o nervio lingual, ri...

  4. Geochemical characteristics of formation water and hydrocarbon preservation of Jiufotang Formation in Nai 1 block of Naiman sag, Kailu Basin%开鲁盆地奈曼凹陷奈1区块九佛堂组地层水地球化学特征与油气保存条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴齐; 陈践发; 程锐; 刘武生; 李西得; 易超; 张字龙; 朱鹏飞; 郭望

    2015-01-01

    基于实际测试资料,统计分析奈曼凹陷奈1区块九佛堂组21口井地层水的水型、矿化度及特征系数在平面及纵向上的变化特征,并探讨研究区地层水地球化学特征与油气的保存及分布关系。结果表明:该区地层水是以阴阳离子分别为HCO3-和( Na++K+)为主的NaHCO3型水,地层水矿化度低;研究区地层水矿化度主要受控于断层的分布,靠近断层的油气井中地层水矿化度明显较远离断层的油气井中的高,主要是由于该区深部的高矿化度地层水经断层及其他运移通道运移至浅层,并与浅层地层水混合所致;地层水化学组分及离子特征系数随深度的变化表现为稳定型、正相关型和负相关型3种变化类型;纵向上,地层水的Cl-浓度、r( Cl-))/r( Mg2+)及r( Ca2+))/r( Mg2+)都随埋深的增加而增大,而HCO3-浓度及r( Na+))/r( Cl-)均随埋深的增加而减小,表明奈1区块九佛堂组地层水现今总体上处于封闭的流体动力环境,有利于油气的聚集与保存;平面上,靠近凹陷中心的奈1块油气井中地层水 r (Na+))/r(Cl-)及 r(SO42-)×100)/r(Cl-)明显较奈3块及其以西地区偏低,而 r(Cl-))/r(Mg2+)及 r(Ca2+))/r ( Mg2+)明显偏高,表明奈1块地层封闭条件好,更有利于油气藏的形成与保存;研究区断层有效沟通了烃源层与储集层,为浅层次生油气藏的形成提供了必要条件;靠近凹陷中心的奈1块是该区油气勘探的重要领域,且主干断裂和浅层分支断裂发育带是浅层次生油气藏勘探的重要区域。%On the basis of a large number of test data, the plane and vertical variations of formation water type, salinity and characteristic coefficient in 21 wells of Jiufotang Formation in Nai 1 block, Naiman sag were analyzed statistically. Mean-while, the relationship between geochemical characteristic of formation water and conservation of oil and gas was investigated

  5. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  6. Methodology for calibration of detector of NaI (TI)) 3 ' X 3 ' for in vivo measurements of patients with hyperthyroidism undergoing to radioiodotherapy; Metodologia para calibracao de detector de NaI(TI) ) 3'X3' para medicoes in vivo em pacientes portadores de hipertireoidismo submetidos a radioiodoterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Carlaine B.; Lacerda, Isabelle V.B.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: carlaine.carvalho@gmail.com, E-mail: bellelacerda@hotmail.com, E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the methodology for calibration of the detection system to be used in determining the therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I required to release desired absorbed dose in the thyroid gland . This step is critical to the development of a protocol for individualized doses. The system consists of a detector of NaI (Tl ) 3'x3' coupled to software Genie 2000. We used the calibration sources of {sup 60}Co , {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba. We obtained the straight calibration system, with sources {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Subsequently , the detector was calibrated using a thyroid phantom-neck designed and produced by the IRD / CNEN with known activity of {sup 133}Ba standard solution containing 18.7 kBq (on 09/24/12) evenly distributed. He was also calibrated with other thyroid- neck phantom model 3108 manufactured by Searle Radigraphics Ind., containing a liquid source of {sup 131}I ( 7.7 MBq ). Five measurements were performed during 5 minutes for three different distances detector-simulator and calculated the corresponding calibration factors . The values of the calibration factors found for the simulator made by IRD and Searle Radigraphics Ind. for the distances 20, 25 and 30 cm were 0.35 , 0.24, 0.18, 0.15 , 0.11, 0, 09 , respectively. With the detection system properly calibrated and the calibration factors established, the technique is suitable for the evaluation of diagnostic activities of {sup 131}I incorporated by hyperthyroid patients. (author)

  7. Dėl keleto retų vietovardžių kilmės (Greikónys, Grìkapėdis, Plasapnỹkai, Pušė́nai, Silgiónys, Tauliùkai, Vaĩsodžiai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Palionis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ZUR ENSTEHUNG EINIGER SELTENER ORTSNAMEN (Greikónys, Grìkapėdis, Plasapnỹkai, Pušė́nai, Silgiónys, Tauliùkai, VaĩsodžiaiZusammenfassungIm vorliegenden Artikel werden sieben seltene Dorfnamen aus dem südlitauischen Gebiet behandelt. Die Analyse der Entstehung dieser Ortsnamen stützt sich vorwiegend auf das handschriftliche Material der Tauf- und Trauungsurkunden der zweiten Hälfte des 17. und der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jhs der Gemeinde Punià, die gegenwärtig dem Bezirks Alytùs angehört.Greikónys, die ältere Form ist bereits 1659 in einer Taufurkunde verzeichnet (de Gireykancow; das scheint eine Ableitung von dem Familiennamen *Gireika zu sein. Dieser Name läßt sich mit dem Verb gìrti ‘rühmen, loben’ in Verbindung setzen: *gireika- einer, der eine besondere Neigung sich zu rühmen aufweist, Prahlhans ist.Grìkapėdis ist, ohne Zweifel, ebenfalls anthroponymischen Ursprungs, da der Familienname Grìkpėdis im nordwestlichen Teil von Žemaitija vorkommt. Die Bedeutung der Komponenten dieses zusammengesetzten Familiennamens (grìkas ‘Buchweizen’ + pė́das ‘die Getreidegarbe’ zeigt eine metaphorische Basis der Entstehung des Kompositums. Die gegenwärtige Singularform ist wahrscheinlich eine spätere Bildung: in den Taufurkunden der zweiten Hälfte des 17. Jhs findet man Pluralformen (de Grikopedziow, de Grikiepedzow.Plasapnỹkai, änlich wie Greikonys und Grikapėdis, läßt ebenfalls einen anthroponymischen Ursprung vermuten, obwohl dies nicht so augenscheinlich ist. Dieser Ortsname konnte vom Familiennamen *Plasapnỹkas entstanden sein: *Plasapnỹkas < *plasa +  *upinykas, d. h. ‘ein an dem Fluß Plasãupė Wohnender’. Das erste Glied dieser kontrahierter Zusammensetzung könnte man auf eine Form des Verbs plàsti ‘breiter werden’ zurückführen.Pušė́nai kommt in der zweiten Hälfte des 17. und der ersten Hälfte des 18. Jhs als Puišėnai (de Puyszany vor. Diese ältere Form weist

  8. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  9. Remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con asistencia endoscópica: Nota técnica de un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico para prevenir lesiones del NAI y formación de defectos óseos Removal of mandibular third molars with endoscopic approach: Technical note of a new surgical procedure to avoid IAN damage and bone defect formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fuentes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La variada posición anatómica de los terceros molares mandibulares presenta importantes desafíos asociados a su profundidad y grado de inclinación. Las complicaciones más habituales del procedimiento quirúrgico convencional de extracción se relacionan con la extensa osteotomía y poca visualización del sitio quirúrgico, que pueden generar consecuencias post-quirúrgicas como inflamación, dolor, trismus, lesiones reversibles e irreversibles del nervio alveolar inferior (NAI o nervio lingual, riesgo de fractura y formación de defectos periodontales del segundo molar. La implementación de soportes rígidos en la óptica endoscópica ha permitido utilizar esta tecnología para realizar abordajes mínimamente invasivos para remover terceros molares mediante accesos flapless con una mínima osteotomía de la zona oclusal, conservando la pared bucal y lingual a través de la visualización directa y magnificada del sitio quirúrgico, adaptable a los movimientos del paciente durante la intervención. En este reporte se presenta un nuevo procedimiento quirúrgico mínimamente invasivo a través de asistencia endoscópica para la conservación ósea en la remoción de terceros molares mandibulares con riesgo de lesión del nervio alveolar inferior.Anatomic variability of the position of mandibular third molars represents significant challenges associated with its depth and angulation. The most common complications of conventional surgical procedure are related to extensive osteotomy and poor visualization, which can cause postsurgical effects such as inflammation, pain, trismus, reversible and irreversible lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN or lingual nerve, fracture risk and formation of a deep periodontal defect on the distal aspect of the second molar. The implementation of rigid endoscopy in optics has allowed to use this technology via a minimally invasive approach to remove third molars by a minimally occlusal flapless ostectomy

  10. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil and oil-source analysis in Nai 1 block for Naiman depression, Kailu Basin%开鲁盆地奈曼凹陷奈1区块原油地球化学特征及油源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴齐; 陈践发; 张晨; 郭望; 师生宝

    2012-01-01

    Based on systematic analysis of group compositions, saturated hydrocarbon GC-MS for source rocks and crude oil in Nai 1 block, the geochemical characteristics and oil-source correlation were studied. The follwing are the characteristics of crude oil and lower Jiufotang formation source rocks; The distribution of alkane is complete, possessing double peaks which are nC23 and C17 respectively. Content of phytane is obviously higher than pristane w( Pr)/w( Ph)= 0. 36-0. 53. For sterane series, the content of regular sterane, distributing in the shape of " V" , is also obviously higher than the counterpart of preg-nane and rearranged sterane. Besides, the value of the parameters of C29,W(20S)/W(20S+20R) and w( ββ)/w(αα+ββ) are respectively 0. 27-0. 49 and 0. 23-0. 39. The terpane series is characterized by major part of CMHopane, relatively higher conLent of tncyclic diterpane and gammacerane but lower content of rearranged sterane, w(Ts) Nai 1 block is mainly from lower Jiufotang formation in Lower Cretaceous.%对奈曼凹陷奈1区块源岩与原油的族组分、饱和烃GC-MS特征进行系统分析,研究奈曼凹陷奈1区块源岩与原油的地球化学特征,并且进行油源对比分析.结果表明:原油与九下段源岩的正构烷烃分布完整,峰形呈双峰态,主峰碳为nC23,次主峰碳为C17,具有明显的植烷优势,w(Pr)/w( Ph)分布在0.36 ~0.53;甾烷以规则甾烷为主,孕甾烷、升孕甾烷、重排甾烷含量偏低,规则甾烷呈“V”型分布,C29甾烷w(20S

  11. Design and applications of an anticoincidence shielded low background gamma-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    1997-03-01

    A low background gamma-ray spectrometer has been constructed for measuring artificial and natural radioative isotopes. The design of the spectrometer, its properties and the application to the determination of natural radioactivity of dental ceramics are described. (orig.)

  12. Tratamiento Híbrido de agua residual gris doméstica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pablo Paredes; Marcial Calero Amores; Victor Peña; Lindthon Iparreño

    2013-01-01

    .... Este estudio aplica un concepto nuevo de sistema de tratamiento híbrido para descontaminar el agua y poderla reusar para riego de jardines o para llenar el tanque de los inodoros en una vivienda...

  13. El sinsentido de hablar de literatura gris en la época 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Méndez, Francisco-Javier; López-Carreño, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    The rapid progress that ICTs have introduced to our field is not always accompanied by updates of the theoretical bases that sometimes are in danger of becoming obsolete and useless. An example of this problem is the concept of “grey literature”, which remains practically unchanged in the textbooks and study manuals written in Spanish. This has not been the case at an international level, where various international conferences have been organized to update this discipline. While the attempt ...

  14. Sæt en mager gris på gaflen - og tab dig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerno, Gudrun Lau

    2005-01-01

    Så forjættende lyder budskabet fra Institut for Human Ernæring på KVL – Den Kgl. Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Et forskningsforsøg har påvist at ved et stort indtag af animalsk protein især fra svinekød, kan vi tabe os syv til otte kilo på seks måneder. Overlæge, lektor Søren Toubro har nogle bud...

  15. Consideraciones sobre la cerámica gris a torno de Montemolín (Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián MANCEBO DÁVALOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Realizada ya la sistematización de las formas cerámicas grises de Montemolin, restaban por estudiar los fragmentos correspondientes a sus fondos cerámicos. Su estudio tipológico y el de sus motivos decorativos, componen el objetivo de este trabajo, en un afán de lograr el mejor conocimiento de los poblados orientalizantes del Bajo Guadalquivir.ABSTRACT: Once we've classified the Montemolin grey ceramic forms, we must study the fragments belonging to their ceramic backgrounds. The study of their typology and decoration is the purpose of reaching a better knowledge about the Orientalizing Settlement of the Low Guadalquivir.

  16. Liberacion y seguimiento de dos grupos de titi gris en el departamento de Tolima

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leal, A; Granados, J.L; Zerda, E; Brieva, C

    2010-01-01

    ... ser devueltos al medio ambiente natural. se construyeron dos jaulas como plataformas de liberacion en un bosque en el departamento del Tolima, y los animales fueron alojados en ellas para iniciar su proceso de acostumbramiento al medio...

  17. L’ombra de l’eunuc o el gris del clarobscur: representació terrorista i condicionants morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L’ombra de l’eunuc, by Jaume Cabré (1996, presents the inner conflict of a former terrorist during Franco’s regime, and the consequences that the unsuccessful armed struggle has in his later life. The context surrounding the writing of the book is one of discredit to the concept of armed struggle as seen in democratic Spain and, in particular, in Catalonia. In contrast with that view, the author proposes a representation of the terrorist based on the individual, at a time when terrorism was a means to fight against a totalitarian governmentality, so that it consequently became partially legitimised. This recontextualization permits a re-evaluation of the violence taboo and the weakening of the Otherness barrier, thus disrupting the simplified and stereotyped perceptions of the menace and the threatened by using perspective and characterisation.

  18. EFECTO DEL RECUBRIMIENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMILLAS DE TRES ESPECIES EN EL CONSUMO POR ARDILLA GRIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Chávez-León; Claudia Méndez Espinoza

    2013-01-01

    Un factor que limita el éxito de la dispersión de semillas con fines de reforestación es su consumo por la fauna silvestre, por lo que se ha propuesto el recubrimiento o peletizado con productos químicos como repelente a los consumidores. Para determinar su efecto en ardillas grises (Sciurus aureogaster), se les ofrecieron semillas recubiertas de Pinus ayacahuite, P. cembroides y Enterolobium cyclocarpum en pruebas pareadas realizadas en el Vivero de Coyoacán, D. F. Se evaluaron tres tratamie...

  19. Theoretical Investigation of Femtosecond-Resolved Photoelectron Spectrum of NaI Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-Fang; ZHAI Hong-Sheng; GAO Ya-Li; LIU Rui-Qiong

    2008-01-01

    The time-resolved photoelectron spectra (TRPES) of Ned molecules are calculated by using the time-dependent wave packet method. Two different potential energy curves (adiabatic and diabatic) are adopted in the simulation. The third peak of the photoelectron spectra presented in the adiabatic calculation is induced by the reflection of the wave packet. The oscillating of the wave packet onto the diabatic energy curve is a decreasing process. The comparison of the photoelectron spectra between the two different calculations (adiabatic and diabatic) is presented.

  20. Automatic Estimation of Peak Regions in Gamma-Ray Spectra Measured by NaI Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; XU Ao-Ao; Ma Tao

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to estimate the width of peak regions for the background elimination of gamma ray spectrum. The synthetic and experimental data are used to test this method. With the estimated peak regions using the proposed method in the whole spectra, we find that the approach is simple and effective enough for the background elimination cooperating with the statistics-sensitive nonlinear iterative peak-clipping method.

  1. Real-time control of electronic motion: Application to NaI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1998-01-01

    I corresponding to electron transfer between Na and I. The electronic motion is introduced via nuclear motion, more specifically, through nonadiabatic curve crossing and the electronic motion is here on the same time scale as the nuclear motion. We show that the branching ratio between the channels Na + I and Na......+ + I- depends on the electron distribution (i.e., where the electron "sits") prior to the time where the bond is broken by a subpicosecond half-cycle unipolar electromagnetic pulse. Thus we control, in real time, which nucleus one of the valence electrons will follow after the bond is broken. (C) 1998...

  2. The NaI D resonance lines in main-sequence late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rodrigo F.; Cincunegui, Carolina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-07-01

    We study the sodium D lines (D1: 5895.92Å D2: 5889.95Å) in late-type dwarf stars. The stars have spectral types between F6 and M5.5 (B - V between 0.457 and 1.807) and metallicity between [Fe/H] = -0.82 and 0.6. We obtained medium-resolution echelle spectra using the 2.15-m telescope at the Argentinian observatory Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO). The observations have been performed periodically since 1999. The spectra were calibrated in wavelength and in flux. A definition of the pseudo-continuum level is found for all our observations. We also define a continuum level for calibration purposes. The equivalent width of the D lines is computed in detail for all our spectra and related to the colour index (B - V) of the stars. When possible, we perform a careful comparison with previous studies. Finally, we construct a spectral index (R'D) as the ratio between the flux in the D lines and the bolometric flux. We find that, once corrected for the photospheric contribution, this index can be used as a chromospheric activity indicator in stars with a high level of activity. Additionally, we find that combining some of our results, we obtain a method to calibrate in flux stars of unknown colour.

  3. A simulation-based study of the neutron backgrounds for NaI dark matter experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    Among the direct search experiments for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter, the DAMA experiment observed an annual modulation signal interpreted as WIMP interactions with a significance of 9.2$\\sigma$. Recently, Jonathan Davis claimed that the DAMA modulation may be interpreted on the basis of the neutron scattering events induced by the muons and neutrinos together. We tried to simulate the neutron backgrounds at the Gran Sasso and Yangyang laboratory with and without the polyethylene shielding to quantify the effects of the ambient neutrons on the direct detection experiments based on the crystals.

  4. Experiences With Area Specific Spectrum Stripping of Nai(Tl) Gamma Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Processing of airborne and carborne gamma-ray spectra (AGS and CGS) often includes the stripping (elimination) of the signals from natural radioactivity. Hereby the net result becomes the signals from manmade radioactivity or other radiation anomalies. The parameters needed for spectrum ...

  5. Structure and stability of Li(I) and Na(I) - Carboxylate, sulfate and phosphate complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remko, Milan; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    DFT was used to investigate molecular structure and metal affinity of the systems CH3CO2M (1), CH3-O-SO3M (2), CH3-NH-SO3M (3), (CH3-O-PO3M)(-) (4) CH3-O-PO3M2 (5), CH3-O-(CH3)PO2M (6), and 1,4-DiOMe IdoA-2SM(2) (7; S-2(o) conformation) (M = Li+ and Na+), respectively. Interaction enthalpies, entrop

  6. Design and response function of NaI detectors of Aragats complex installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, K.; Daryan, A.; Kozliner, L.; Hovsepyan, G.; Reimers, A.

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, a network of five thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) detectors was installed on Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) and was included into ASEC detectors system. Along with monitoring of different species of secondary cosmic rays, ASEC detectors register several thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs). NaI(Tl) detector integration in the ASEC detector system is of great importance for the study of thunderstorm phenomena for the reason that NaI(Tl) detectors have a higher efficiency of gamma rays detection compared with plastic ones. In this article, the design and characteristics of NaI(Tl) detectors are described. Simulations of detector response are performed. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed good agreement between simulations and experimentally observed distributions for analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels (codes) of NaI(Tl) detectors at two depths of the atmosphere, thus, indicating the correctness of the detector's response determination. A procedure for reconstruction of gamma energy spectrum was developed and approximation of the energy spectrum of recorded TGE event was carried out by a power function under the assumption that the recorded fluxes consist mainly of gamma quanta.

  7. NaI Measurements of Plutonium & Other Sources with the INL Coin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-06

    This report is a presentation for the NEOD training course at SNL. Its purpose is to summarize the effects of the INL coin on gamma ray spectra for 60Co, 137Cs, and plutonium. Spectra recorded with and without the INL Coin illustrate how transmission plays a role in the dose-ratio factors written on the coin.

  8. Measuring radioactivity level in various types of rice using NaI (Tl detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith A. Najam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of long- lived gamma emitting radionuclides in rice consumed in Nineveh Province (IRAQ were performed. The study targeted the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K .The rice samples originated from seven different countries. NaI(Tl detector was used to measure the radionuclides level. The radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 51.15 to 109.26 Bq/kg,13.67 to 71.97 Bq/kg and 231.87 to 691.71Bq/kg. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, radium equivalent activity, gamma absorbed dose rate, internal and external hazard indices , gamma index and finally alpha index have been calculated . Hence rice consumption in Nineveh province (IRAQ is radiologically safe for the presence of the investigated radionuclides.

  9. En el corazón de la zona gris. Una lectura etnográfica de los campos de Auschwitz (Paz Moreno Feliu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis del Castillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Más de medio siglo después, puede sorprender que aún queden cuestiones por tratar acerca del Holocausto. Evidentemente, tenemos la necesidad de recordar el pasado para aprender a construir el presente. Pero además, cabe señalar que hasta hace algo más de una década en España no existía ninguna “cultura del Holocausto”, ni voluntad política y social alguna de memoria con respecto a aquel periodo de la historia europea. Recién acabada la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las noticias sobre los horrores ocurridos en los campos de concentración apenas traspasaron los Pirineos.

  10. CARACTERÍSTICAS SEMINALES DEL TITÍ GRIS (Saguinus leucopus BAJO CONDICIONES DE CAUTIVERIO, OBTENIDAS POR ESTIMULACIÓN VIBRATORIA DEL PENE (EVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Poches

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de la técnica de estimulación vibratoria del pene (evP para obtener semen en quince especímenes de S. leucopus bajo condiciones de cautiverio, en cuatro diferentes sitios en Colombia. adicionalmente, se estandarizó la técnica evP y se deter-minaron algunas características seminales (color, viscosidad, volumen, pH, motilidad, morfología, viabilidad, concentración y morfometría espermática. se empleó clorhidrato de ketamina a dosis entre 5 y 10 mg/kg i.M. para la sedación previa al muestreo a fin de disminuir el estrés de la captura y del procedimiento, ya que los especímenes no estaban acostumbrados o entrenados para procesos de obtención de muestras biológicas. en el uso de la técnica se logró un 52,6% de éxito en la combinación de 90 Hz de vibración y 1 mm de amplitud; el tiempo de eyaculación promedio fue de 12:35±6:42 minutos; el pH, 7,5±0,26; el volumen, 24±18,82 μl; la motilidad masal fue de 3,7/5,0±0,5; la motilidad individual progresiva, 97,1±45,4%; la concentración espermática fue de 87.617±21.327 x 104 spz/μl; la normalidad fue del 69,3±11,06% y la viabilidad del 93,7±4,9%. Las características seminales fueron similares a las reportadas en otras es-pecies de callitríchidos y obtenidas por la misma técnica. se empleó satisfactoriamente el diluyente Talp-Hepes y el cual no afectó las características antes descritas. La evP es un método innovador, replicable, viable y seguro para la obtención de semen en S. leucopus y a otros callitríchidos bajo sedación con ketamina en condiciones de cautiverio.

  11. Experiencias en Cuba de la producción de piezas fundidas de fundición gris esferoidal (FGE, un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mondelo García

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo expone alternativas posibles de acceder a fabricar fundiciones grises esferoidales(FGE, así como conocimientos, experiencias y métodos empleados en su producción en Cuba,contando por lo tanto con un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades tecnológicas enexplotación. Se dan materiales básicos utilizados en los procesos de obtención de la FGE, locual incluye el proceso de recarburación de estas aleaciones ferrosas, más las operaciones denodulización e inoculación, junto a los controles bases en sus operaciones fundamentales, parafabricar piezas con la calidad y certificación requeridas. Se tienen resultados experimentalesproductivos de estas fundiciones nodulares, con marcas de diversas estructuras, propiedadesmecánicas y composiciones. Se valora además resultados de la sustitución de piezas deaceros por FGE con posibilidades de obtener, por tratamiento térmico los hierrosaustemperados (ADI y elementos económicos comparativos de la factibilidad de fabricación dela fundición sintética en piezas FGE con chatarras de aceros básicamente y recarburantesnacionales de carbón vegetal, como variante alternativa.

  12. Ice loss from GrIS glaciers feeding Nuup Kangerlua (Godthåbsfjord), southwest Greenland: 1985–2008–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motyka, Roman; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Fahnestock, Mark

    Based on drainage divides, we have identified eight separate glaciers that feed Nuup Kangerlua (Godsthåbfjord): three are marine-terminating and five land-terminating. To assess the amount of ice lost from these glaciers during recent decades, we analyzed 1985 aerial photos acquired by the Danish...

  13. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae as a cause of death in gray tilapia fry Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae in the dry Pacific of Costa Rica. Centrocestus formosanus is a zoonotic trematode from Asia and has been mainly associated as cause of death of cultured fish. To identify pathogen trematode species in tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus and to determine mollusks hosting these parasites, freshwater mollusks were collected from tilapia cultured ponds and experimental infections were carried out with tilapia fries and different mollusk species. A total of 907 freshwater mollusks were obtained from tilapia ponds and were identified to species level, four gastropods and one bivalve were determined: Melania tuberculata, Melanoides turricula, Pomacea flagellata, Haitia cubensis and Anodontiles luteola. For the first time, the presence of M. turricula and H. cubensis are reported in Costa Rica. Seven morphotypes of cercariae (Xifiodiocercaria, Equinostoma, Oftalmocercaria, Parapleurolofocercus, Cistocerca, Furcocercaria and Leptocercaria parasitizing all five species of mollusks were found, all of distome type. Experimental exposure of tilapia fry to M. tuberculata demonstrated that the parapleurolofocercus morphotype found in the mollusk is in accordance with the finding of C. formosanus in tilapia fry. An abundance and mean intensity of 1018-1027 digeneans per gill in each exposed fish was determined. Centrocestus formosanus is reported for the first time in Costa Rica, for which the primary and secondary intermediate hosts were also determined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1453-1465. Epub 2010 December 01.

  14. Centrocestus formosanus (Opisthorchiida: Heterophyidae como causa de muerte de alevines de tilapia gris Oreochromis niloticus (Perciforme: Cichlidae en el Pacífico seco de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Arguedas Cortés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus es un parásito trematodo zoonótico originario de Asia asociado con muertes de peces principalmente de cultivo. 907 moluscos provenientes de estanques sembrados con tilapias, seleccionados uno por provincia fueron identificados al nivel taxonómico especifico. Se identificaron cuatro gastrópodos y un bivalvo: M. tuberculata, M. turricula, P. flagellata, H. cubensis y A. luteola. Se reporta, por primera vez, la presencia de dos especies de moluscos en Costa Rica. Se identificaron siete morfotipos de cercarias parasitando las cinco especies de moluscos encontradas. En la segunda exposición experimental se demostró que el morfotipo parapleurolofocercus encontrado en M. tuberculata concuerda con el hallazgo de C. formosanus en alevines de tilapia, después del examen clínico, anatomopatológico y parasitológico realizado a los alevines expuestos. Las metacercarias fueron extraídas del quiste utilizando microagujas y micropinzas lavadas en solución salina fisiológica (0.65%, fijadas en formol caliente al 4% y después esquematizadas con una cámara clara adaptada a un microscopio fotónico, estimándose una abundancia e intensidad media de 1018-1027 digeneos por branquia en cada pez parasitado, determinándose así el hospedador intermediario primario y secundario del parásito. En el presente trabajo se reporta por primera vez Centrocestus formosanus en Costa Rica.

  15. Experiencias en Cuba de la producción de piezas fundidas de fundición gris esferoidal (FGE), un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    El trabajo expone alternativas posibles de acceder a fabricar fundiciones grises esferoidales(FGE), así como conocimientos, experiencias y métodos empleados en su producción en Cuba,contando por lo tanto con un material de elevadas cualidades y propiedades tecnológicas enexplotación. Se dan materiales básicos utilizados en los procesos de obtención de la FGE, locual incluye el proceso de recarburación de estas aleaciones ferrosas, más las operaciones denodulización e inoculación, junto a los ...

  16. Optimización mediante técnicas de teoría gris de la combustión de biomasa en un drop furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Arce Fariña, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    El creciente desarrollo que ha experimentado el mercado de la biomasa conlleva que la investigación (I+D) se enfoque en la selección de las condiciones óptimas de combustión de los biocombustibles. La complejidad del proceso de combustión de biomasa, en el que existen parámetros divergentes, hace necesario el uso de métodos de análisis avanzados. Así, en esta investigación se propone un nuevo método multi-objetivo de selección de condiciones óptimas de combustión, basado en la combinación del...

  17. Heuristic approach for peak regions estimation in gamma-ray spectra measured by a NaI detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; YOU Zhong; XU Ao-Ao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic approach based on Slavic's peak searching method has been employed to estimate the width of peak regions for background removing. Synthetic and experimental data are used to test this method. With the estimated peak regions using the proposed method in the whole spectrum, we find it is simple and effective enough to be used together with the Statistics-sensitive Nonlinear Iterative Peak-Clipping method.

  18. A Freedom-seeking Stranger - An Interpretation of Santosh in Nai-paul’s OneOutofMan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xiu-yan

    2016-01-01

    The immigrant Santosh, the protagonist in Naipaul’s OneOutofMany, features strong loneliness and freedom-seek-ing desire. Psychoanalytical criticism is employed to interpret the inner world of the character Santosh based on close reading of the text. This would help readers deepen their understanding of Naipaul’s works and enhance the concerns about the psychic world of urban migrants.

  19. Numerical analysis of tulip flame formation in a closed vessel. Yoki nai tulip kaen keisei no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadowaki, S.; Ota, Y.; Terada, K. (Nagoya Inst. of Tech., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-08-25

    The flame formation of the premixed flame propagating in a closed vessel varies considerably during the time from the start of its combustion to the end. In case where the length of the vessel is long in comparison with its width, the tulip flame formation is formed. In this article, in order to investigate the mechanism of tulip flame formation by means of numerical analysis, the unsteady motions of two-dimensional reactive flows were calculated using the explicit MacCormack scheme. The flame formation of every predetermined time propagating in the vessel was obtained and it was shown that the above formation changed from the semi-elliptic formation through the flat formation to the tulip formation. The tulip flame formation could be simulated fairly realistically by the calculation using the heat-insulating wall condition as the boundary condition, but the clear tulip flame formation could not be simulated by the calculation using the condition of a slippery wall or of the constant wall temperature. For the tulip flame formation, it was necessary to ignite the air-fuel mixture locally, but not flatly. Since the initial semi-elliptic flame reached the side wall of the vessel, the heating speed of the flame decreased and a dent was formed in the center of the flame. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  20. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    OpenAIRE

    小峰, 由美子

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  1. Cross-language perceptual similarity predicts categorial discrimination of American vowels by naïve Japanese listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Hisagi, Miwako; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Kubo, Rieko

    2011-10-01

    Current speech perception models propose that relative perceptual difficulties with non-native segmental contrasts can be predicted from cross-language phonetic similarities. Japanese (J) listeners performed a categorical discrimination task in which nine contrasts (six adjacent height pairs, three front/back pairs) involving eight American (AE) vowels [iː, ɪ, ε, æː, ɑː, ʌ, ʊ, uː] in /hVbə/ disyllables were tested. The listeners also completed a perceptual assimilation task (categorization as J vowels with category goodness ratings). Perceptual assimilation patterns (quantified as categorization overlap scores) were highly predictive of discrimination accuracy (r(s)=0.93). Results suggested that J listeners used both spectral and temporal information in discriminating vowel contrasts.

  2. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken.

  3. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    OpenAIRE

    小峰, 由美子

    2014-01-01

    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  4. Visualization of gas displacement and temperature distribution in the pulse tube; Parusukan nai deno ryutai no kyodo kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.

    1999-11-10

    It is important that measures and visualizes displacement and temperature distribution of the fluid to which vibrate in pulse service area of pulse tube refrigerating machine in order to attempt understanding and performance improvement of the refrigeration principle. Then, example of light measurement method of the fluid displacement using the sphere which the transfer possibly installed in pulse service area and measurement method of temperature distribution using the plane laser Rayleigh scattering method and each measuring result is outlined in this lecture. (NEDO)

  5. To heat sound Stirling engine practical application without the moving part; Kodobu no nai netsuonkyo sutaringu enjin jutsuyoka e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-05

    Scott of U.S.A. loss Alamos national laboratory which realized the principle of Stirling engine devised in the nineteenth century without the moving part The engine of N Backhaus et al. achieved the 30% efficiency which is equal to existing internal combustion engine. This heat sound Stirling engine is the hollow steel pipe structure of the form in which the handle of the ellipse system was attached to the grip of the butt of the baseball of the length as 4 meters, and there are multiple heat exchanger in the handle division, and 30 bar helium gas is being enclosed. This gas will pass through the thermodynamic cycle which is similar to Stirling cycle, when helium gas flows in handle division which completed temperature gradient, and when heat exchanger of high temperature and bass transmits a heat from the outside. The acoustic wave which arose this time resonates in the duct, and the region that it becomes 80 Hz standing wave and is low-pressure with the high pressure is completed, and the work is repeatedly produced on the gas in the form of the acoustic vibration in respect of compression and expansion in high pressure division and low pressure locality. It will be used in this engine is high-efficient, and can applying as a maintenance-free refrigerating machine, and making the associated gas burnt in the futility in oil field in the severe environment at present to be the fuel, liquefying this gas. And, it will become the influential technology which prevents the global warming with the application to all energy production. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Understanding the ion dynamics and relaxation behavior from impedance spectroscopy of NaI doped Zwitterionic polymer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manindra; Tiwari, Tuhina; Chauhan, Jagdish Kumar; Srivastava, Neelam

    2014-12-01

    The ion dynamics and relaxation behavior of a novel polymer electrolyte system is studied by presenting impedance spectroscopy data in a different formalism. The prepared system has conductivity of the order of 10-3 Scm-1 at 303 K, and the RH % = 55. Depressed Nyquist plots and broadened M˝ curves (as a function of ω) indicated the distribution of the relaxation time, which is further confirmed by the fractional value of the Kohlrausch-William-Watts (KWW) function (β ˜ 0.75). The hopping and caged movement of the ions are observed in the experimental frequency range (˜MHz), which is confirmed by the conductivity and dielectric representations. The scaling of the conductivity data, with reference to salt concentration and temperature, are successfully observed by fitting the conductivity data exclusively in the Jonscher Power Law (JPL) region. An inverse relation between τcon and σ indicated a strong correlation between the ion and polymer segment motion. An additional high frequency relaxation phenomenon is observed at 50% of the salt concentration, which is correlated with the self-diffusion of the ion and proposed that such phenomenon is observed when ions have multiplet forming tendency.

  7. Photoelasticity analysis of thermal stresses in the plastic ICs. Hikari danseiho ni yoru IC package nai oryoku no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Shibuya, Y. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-20

    Recent highly integrated semiconductors have tendencies of being finer patterns and larger silicon chip area. Plastic packages excellent in productivity have been proved to be highly reliable in moisture resistance due to improved sealing resin and have become the main part of IC packages. However, in such devices featuring larger chip area and finer circuit pattern as large capacity memories, the problem of internal stress due to sealing resin contraction has been highlighted as a new problem. In this study, a photoelasticity which is a relatively simple method is employed to evaluate stress within sealing resin, and the review on effects of stress on the interior of sealing resin and chip are reported. Further, the effect of a buffer coat formed on the chip to reduce the stress on a silicon chip, and the effect of package shape on the thermal stress has been examined by means of photoelasticity, and the result is also shown. 10 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Determination of the 121Te gamma emission probabilities associated with the production process of radiopharmaceutical NaI[123I

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, M. T. F.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J. U.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Lopes, R. T.; Silva, R. L.; Cagido, A. C. F.

    2016-07-01

    The 123I is widely used in radiodiagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine. According to Pharmacopoeia care should be taken during its production process, since radionuclidic impurities may be generated. The 121Te is an impurity that arises during the 123I production and determining their gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) is important in order to obtain more information about its decay. Activities were also obtained by absolute standardization using the sum-peak method and these values were compared to the efficiency curve method.

  9. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    CERN Document Server

    Amare, J; Cuesta, C; Garcia, E; Martinez, M; Olivan, M A; Ortigoza, Y; de Solorzano, A Ortiz; Puimedon, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A; Villar, P

    2016-01-01

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5-kg NaI(Tl) detectors produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from 210Pb, 40K, 22Na and 3H are the most relevant. Those from 40K and 22Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV), while that from 210Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and 3H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during...

  10. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Olivan, M.A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.; Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Cuesta, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Martinez, M. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) scintillators produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, {sup 22}Na and {sup 3}H are the most relevant. Those from {sup 40}K and {sup 22}Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), while that from {sup 210}Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and {sup 3}H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/(keV kg day) in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/(keV kg day) by using a LSV. (orig.)

  11. Fission-product energy release for times following thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U between 2 and 14000 seconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; Emery, J.F.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.; Weaver, H.

    1977-10-01

    Fission-product decay energy-releases rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 ..mu..g were irradiated for 1 to 100 sec by use of the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 seconds. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub ..gamma../) vs E/sub ..gamma../ and N(E/sub beta/) vs E/sub ..beta../. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained by using a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of modest resolution. These were integrated over E/sub ..gamma../ and E/sub ..beta../ to provide total yield and energy integrals as a function of time after fission. Results are low compared to the present 1973 ANS Decay-heat standard. A complete description of the experimental apparatus and data-reduction techniques is presented. The final integral data are given in tabular and graphical form and are compared with published data. 41 figures, 13 tables.

  12. Profesores franquistas, antifranquistas y en la "zona gris". La guerra ideológica que vivieron los profesores de Segunda Enseñanza en el País Valenciano (1936-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez Tarín, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    El objeto de estudio en la presente tesis se ha centrado en analizar si realmente fue el franquismo el régimen dictatorial que desarrolló una política represiva de mayor envergadura en la Segunda Enseñanza en comparación con las otras dos dictaduras del sur de Europa: Portugal e Italia. La limpieza política de docentes en España no fue un hecho aislado y excepcional, el mismo combate ideológico, ya se venía fraguando en Europa desde la Primera Guerra Mundial entre antiilustrados e ilustrad...

  13. La tliteratura gris como medio de comunicación científica: algunos resultados teóricos y empíricos de la investigación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Guitard, Alfredo

    1985-01-01

    Es reseña de: Graue Literatur als Medium wissenschaftlicher Kommunikation: Einige theoretische und empiriscke E~gebnissed er Wissenschaftsforschung (64 rej) / Artus, H.M. "Nachr. f. Dokum". 35,3,139-146 (1984)

  14. Efecto de la estimulación de la substancia gris periacueductal y área septal sobre los niveles plasmáticos de endorfinas en un modelo de dolor central por deaferentización. Estudio experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Badía, Pedro

    1982-01-01

    La neurocirugía funcional tiene como objetivo recobrar el equilibrio entre los mecanismos inhibidores y facilitadores de las funciones cerebrales, que se hallan alterados en los estados de hiper o hipo funcionalismo. El equilibrio puede ser restablecido mediante la lesión o estimulación de vías o centros nerviosos, dependiendo del origen del trastorno. Este puede ser vascular, tumoral, degenerativo o infeccioso, y puede o no requerir tratamiento específico .

  15. Influencia de la temperatura y el tiempo en la tixoconformación del hierro fundido gris hipoeutéctico//Influence of temperature and time in the thixoformability of gray cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo López-Nadal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia la influencia de la temperatura y del tiempo de permanencia en la microestructura, dureza y porosidad del material tixoconformado. Se diseñó usando el software Thermocal una aleación de hierro fundido hipoeutéctico para obtener 40 y 50% de fase sólida en estado semisólido.La aleación fue producida de forma convencional en moldes de arena. Las muestras fueron calentadas al estado semisólido a 1160 y 1180oC, y mantenidas a estas temperaturas por 0, 30, 90 y 120s. Después fueron comprimidas en una prensa excéntrica equipada con placas paralelas. Los ensayos revelaron queel procesamiento semisólido cambia en el material el tipo de grafito de “A” a “B” (o “E”, pero no afecta el espacio interdendrítico entre láminas de grafito. La dureza del material tixoconformado aumenta con respecto a la materia prima, mientras la porosidad tiende a disminuir al aumentar la temperatura y eltiempo de permanencia.Palabras claves: tixoconformación, materiales semisólidos, aleaciones ferrosas, evolución de la morfología, microestructura.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is study the influence of temperature and held times in the microstructure evolution, hardness and porosity of the thixoformed material. An alloy of hypoeutectic cast iron was design using the software Thermocal to obtain 40 50% of solid phase in semisolid state. The alloy was produce by conventionalcasting in sand molds. The samples were heated to the semi-solid state at 1160 and 1180oC and held at these temperatures for 0, 30, 90 and 120s. The tests were carried out in eccentric press equipped whit two parallel platen. Tests reveal that the thixoforming operations change the graphite type from “A” to “B” (or“E”, but not affect the interdendritic arm spacing between graphite lamellae. The hardness of the thixoformed material showed an increase compared to designed alloy. The porosity analysis reveal a tendency to decrease whit the increase of temperature and holding time related with the original raw material.Key words: thixoforming, semisolid materials, ferrous alloys, morphology evolution, microstructure.

  16. 增糖方法对灰比诺葡萄酒质量的影响%Effects of Different Sugar Addition Methods on the Quality of Pinot Gris Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继峰; Bill KREMER

    2007-01-01

    对4种调整糖度方法对葡萄酒质量的影响进行了比较,采用的葡萄品种为灰比诺,可溶性固形物为19.5°Brix,通过不同的调整糖度措施使可溶性目形物提高2.5°Brix,达到22°Brix.4种调整糖度方法分别为:直接往葡萄汁中加入蔗糖;往葡萄汁中加入68°Brix浓缩葡萄汁;冷冻除冰使葡萄汁浓缩和借助反渗透机器浓缩葡萄汁.结果表明,在调整糖度幅度为2.5°Brix的情况下,不同调整糖度方法对葡萄酒的质量影响不大.

  17. Attenuation of a non-parallel beam of gamma radiation by thick shielding—application to the determination of the 235U enrichment with NaI detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortreau, Patricia; Berndt, Reinhard

    2005-09-01

    The traditional method used to determine the Uranium enrichment by nondestructive analysis is based on the "enrichment meter principle" [1]. It involves measuring the intensity of the 186 keV net peak area of 235U in "quasi-infinite" samples. A prominent factor, which affects the peak intensity, is the presence of gamma absorbing material (e.g., container wall, detector cover) between the sample and the detector. Its effect is taken into consideration in a commonly called "wall thickness" correction factor. Often calculated on the basis of approximations, its performance is adequate for small attenuation factors applicable to the case of narrow beams. However these approximations do not lead to precise results when wide non-parallel beams are attenuated through thick container walls. This paper is dedicated to the calculation by numerical integration of the geometrical correction factor ( Kwtc) which describes the effective mean path length of the radiation through the absorbing layer. This factor was calculated as a function of various measurement parameters (types and dimensions of the detector, of the collimator and of the shielding) for the most commonly used collimator shapes and detectors. Both coherent scattering (Rayleigh) and incoherent scattering (Compton) are taken into account for the calculation of the radiation interaction within the detector.

  18. On-dimensional numerical simulation of a compression wave induced by a train entering a tunnel; Tunnel nai asshukuha no ichijigen suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, R.; Higashino, F. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology; Fujii, K. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-25

    One-dimensional unsteady Euler equations are solved for the investigation of the flow field induced by a train entering a tunnel. The effect of the moving train is included in the basic equations as an area change in time. The equations are discretized by the finite difference method, and the calculations are performed for trains with various speeds, cross-sectional areas and nose area gradients. Effects of these parameters on the strength of a compression wave and the maximum pressure gradient are studied. Computed strength of the compression wave shows good agreement with the theoretical 1-D analysis and the axisymmetric numerical simulation. The one-dimensional flow model is validated through the comparison of computed pressure gradient with multidimensional numerical simulations. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Area specific stripping of lower energy windows for AGS and CGS NaI systems[Airborne Gamma Spectrometry; Carbone Gamma Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsbech, U.; Aage, H.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Bystroem, S.; Wedmark, M. [Geological Survey of Sweden (Sweden); Thorshaug, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Agency (Norway); Bargholz, K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (Denmark)

    2005-05-01

    The report describes the results from a NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research) project aiming at examining the possibilities for extracting stripping factors for Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) data and Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) data directly from the recorded set of data, i.e. without having to calibrate the detector systems on beforehand. The project 'NKS project ASSb' has been carried out between 1 August 2004 and 31 March 2005 by a research group composed of persons from Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA), Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The AGS and CGS data sets used for the project were recorded by SGU, DEMA, NGU (Geological Survey of Norway), and SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Institute). Most of the project effort has been directed towards analysing AGS and CGS data with point source signals recorded at the Barents Rescue 2001 LIVEX exercise at Boden in Sweden. Possibilities and limitations for the method have been identified. (au)

  20. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Raman microspectroscopic study of effects of Na(I) and Mg(II) ions on low pH induced DNA structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, C.M.; Segers-Nolten, G.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a confocal Raman microspectrometer is used to investigate the influence of Na+ and Mg2+ ions on the DNA structural changes induced by low pH. Measurements are carried out on calf thymus DNA at neutral pH (7) and pH 3 in the presence of low and high concentrations of Na+ and Mg2+ ions, r

  2. Wiat Kiao nai prathet thai kap khwamsamphan thai-wiatnam (Viet Kieu in Thailand in Thai-Vietnamese Relationship, Thanyathip Sripana et Trinh Dieu Thin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baffie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Historiquement les Vietnamiens de Thaïlande sont établis principalement dans trois parties du royaume. Dans l’Est du pays, et surtout dans la province de Chanthaburi, ce sont les descendants de réfugiés catholiques fuyant les répressions des empereurs vietnamiens. Ils sont connus par les archives missionnaires, mais les études universitaires font défaut.Le second lieu d’émigration est Bangkok. Ceux anciennement installés dans le quartier chinois de Yaowarat ont été assimilés à la population c...

  3. Coupled simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet and climate change up to A.D. 2300

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Ziemen, F.; Rodehacke, C.B.; Greve, R.; Van den Broeke, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations indicate a high sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to climate change. We examine the coupling between the GrIS surface mass balance, elevation, and dynamical flow with one of the few coupled GrIS and atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Bidirectional coupling f

  4. Model experiment of swirl effect in bottomless immersion nozzle on molten steel flow in slab CC mold; Slag CC igatanai ryudoni oyobosu sokonashi shinseki nozzle nai deno senkai ryudo koka ni kansuru mizu model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, S.; Takagi, S. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The characteristics of molten steel jet flowing out from the Immersion nozzle in the continuous casting mold control the flow pattern in the mold thereby strongly influencing the quality and productivity of the cast steel slabs. We proposed a new method to establish a reasonable flow pattern in the mold by imparting a swirling motion to the flow in the immersion nozzle without the bottom. The following results were obtained from a water model study. (1) A quite stable swirling flow being established in the immersion nozzle without the bottom when the swirling velocity exceeded a critical value of 0.8 m/s, under this condition there existed no separation on the inner wall of the immersion nozzle. (2) When the swirling velocity was higher than 0.8 m/s, the fluid on the symmetry plane of the immersion nozzle moved along the curved inner wall of the nozzle. Accordingly, the outlet-flow was directed outwards as well as downwards, while a weak upward flow, i.e., inflow was observed around the vertical nozzle axis near the outlet of the nozzle. As a whole, the fluid flow near the guide plane of the nozzle was directed downwards. (3) The fluctuation of the surface flow, i.e., the flow on the meniscus of the mold was strongly suppressed due to the appearance of the S-shaped flow pattern in the transverse sections. As a result, swirl motions around the immersion nozzle were also suppressed. In addition, both the fluctuations of the mean velocity components and the turbulence components of the flow in the mold became very small, being preferable conditions for continuous casting. (author)

  5. Experiment for detecting metallic-bars in concrete using new 1.5 GHz antenna; Shingata no 1.5 GHz antena wo mochiita konkureto nai no tekkin tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakabayashi, Yuko; Toshioka, Tetsuma; Goebuchi, Toru [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    In recent years, maintenance was increasingly needed with the aging of the concrete structures. It has been paid attention to the underground radar detection as a non-destructive detection methods in order to confirm the bar arrangement situation inside concrete. However, in the metallic bar detection using the common underground radar, it was difficult to identify the metallic bar position and concrete cover thickness when an interval of metallic bars was dense or arrangement of metallic bars was overlapped, in a case of which the metallic bars were buried in extremely shallow areas such as metallic bar concrete wall. In the application experiments of this time, it was confirmed by using the new and high frequency antenna with central frequency of 1.5 GHz that the metallic bar position and concrete cover thickness could be identified which position and concrete cover thickness were difficultly identified by the common methods by the underground radar detection in arrangement of metallic bars. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Buddhizmus a médiában. Az amerikai, brit és az angol nyelvű kínai újságok értelmezési keretei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sükösd, Miklós Áron

    2017-01-01

    , there are major differences between as well as within countries. In the Western press, the subject of meditation-centered Western Buddhism enters the media. In Hong Kong, the press emphasizes the everyday, practical issues of traditional Buddhism. Beijing’s party press relates Buddhism to Chinese national......How does international media represent Buddhism? This paper provides a quantitative framing analysis of American, British and Chinese (English language) newspapers between 2001 and 2013. Although the most frequently used frames (cultural, religious, political) are the same in all three countries...... identity and represents an official propaganda line regarding Chinese and Tibetan Buddhism. The logic of religion conflicts media logic as religious concepts and practices do not fit newspaper sections and media frames. The frames used by journalists brake down into parts and decontextualize religious...

  7. The Design and Clinical Study of Rotary Self-locking Intramedullary Nai l%旋入式自锁髓内钉的研制及临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊鹰; 赵峰; 熊竞明; 常敏; 李军民; 合钊业; 张武

    2001-01-01

    目的 为临床治疗长骨干骨折提供快捷、有效的治疗方法。设计一种组合式髓内钉--旋入式自锁髓内钉(旋入钉),方法 旋入钉是以旋转进钉、髓内填充式纵向交锁为设计特点的髓内固定系统,其结构由主钉和锁针组成,1994年6月至2000年6月已应用该钉治疗长骨干骨折共98例、104侧骨折。采用闭合复位固定36例,占36%;6个月以上随访64例。结果 骨折全部愈合,平均愈合时间16周,半年内骨折愈合率95%,畸形愈合2%,感染2%,功能恢复优良率94.6%,无继发骨折短缩分离和金属断裂发生。结论 旋入钉具备轴向加压、抗短缩、抗分离和抗扭转的功能,其结构简单,手术操作简便、创伤小,疗效可靠,具有广泛的适应证及临床应用前景,尤其是手术可以不需X线设备。%Objective To design a new type of rotary self -lockingintramedullary nail (RSIN) systems for the treatment of fracture of the femur, tibia and humerus.Methods RSIN is composed of am ain nail and a locking pin. There are screw threads on the ends of the main nail, the main nail is rotated into medullary canal by the screw thread. The locking pin is inserted into canal through a trough on the main nail and branch on distal medullary, the distal branch and proximal fin of the pin chock and fill in the medullary to form longitudinal inter locking (self-locking) fixation. From 6. 1994 to 6.2000,98 cases of fractu res were treated with RSIN. Thirty six of 98 cases were treated in closed nailing (36%),64 were followed-up over half a year. Results All of fractures healed up, the time for fracture union was average 16 weeks, 95% healed up within 6 months, 2% deformity union, 2% infection . Evaluated according to the criteria of Klemm, the total excellent and good rate was 94.6%. There were no broken nail and axial shortening or division displacements.Conclusion RSIN is a system of design for wide spread indication, it is stable enough to resist shortening division or rotation of fracture segments. The intramedullary longitudinal-locking is easy to operate, and X- ray guidence is not neccessory during the p rocudure.

  8. Three dimensional flow analysis in a radial turbine rotor. 2nd Report. Flow field near tip clearance and turbine efficiency; Radial turbine nai nagare no sanjigen suchi kaiseki. 2. Yokutan sukima kinbo no nagare to turbine koritsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshiki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1999-08-25

    Three dimensional viscous flow analysis was performed in a radial turbine rotor. Tip clearance area was filled with another computational grid and multi-block analysis code was adopted. Clearance height was changed from 0 mm to 1 mm to investigate its influence to leakage flow and turbine efficiency. The results showed that flow field near tip clearance was mainly decided by relation between scraping flow and leakage jet. Leakage mass flow increased greatly at the latter half of rotor passage. Turbine efficiency tended to improve as tip clearance became small. Especially good improvement was found between 0.5 mm and 0.25 mm. It may be cause that scraping flow was dominant at the middle of rotor passage. (author)

  9. Three-dimensional analysis of internal flow characteristics in the injection nozzle tip of direct-injection diesel engines; Sanjigen suchi kaiseki ni yoru DI diesel kikan no nenryo funsha nozzle nai ryudo tokusei no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, H.; Matsui, Y.; Kimura, S. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of direct-injection diesel engines, it is essential to optimize the fuel injection equipment closely related to combustion and emission characteristics. In this study, three-dimensional computation has been applied to investigate the effects of the injection nozzle specifications (e.g., sac volume, round shape at the inlet of the nozzle hole) and needle tip deviation on internal flow characteristics. The computational results revealed that the effects of the nozzle specifications and needle tip deviation with a smaller needle lift on internal flow characteristics and a general approach to optimize the injection nozzle specifications were obtained. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 迁徘阿尔瓦罗·席匝的桃罗耐修道院改造设计%A Brief Analysis of the Reform Design of TaoLuoNai Monastery by Arewolo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军苗

    2009-01-01

    @@ 阿尔瓦罗·席匝(Alvaro JoaquimMelo Siza Vieira),1933年出生在葡萄牙波尔图旁的马托新豪斯(Matosinhos1949-1955),就读于波尔图高等艺术学院并毕业.1976年,任教于波尔图建筑学院及多所名校.其早期的设计,由于政治原因建筑作品只集中在葡萄牙北部,直到1974年四月革命之后,几个著名的建筑作品先后问世(泊阿·诺瓦饭店Leca Da Palmeira、市政游泳馆等),声名远播到国外,从这个时期开始,大规格的设计被定制:如重新建造的Chiado,是里斯本于1988年毁于大火的废墟区;波尔图建筑学院,卡立辛当代艺术中心,葡萄牙展览馆,斯图巴尔学院,阿维罗大学图书馆,马克·德·卡纳维斯教区教堂,斯拉尔瓦博物馆的基础建设等.

  11. Flow structure in a can-type model gas turbine combustor. 1st report. ; Flow field in a primary zone. Kangata gas turbine nensho ki nai no nagare kozo. dai ippo. ; Mizu model jikken ni yoru nagare moyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Y.; Hosokawa, S. (Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan). Graduate School); Nakajima, T. (Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-03-25

    Recirculating vortex is composed of a strong swirl flow from the swirler and a jet flow from the liner wall, and plays the roles of fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame stabilization. Optimum recirculating vortex for the load range is desired to be formed to decrease NO {sub x} production. The flow structure of the recirculating vortex in the primary zone and the flow near the combustor inlet measured using developed 2 types of small fiber LDV {prime} s are reported. The recirculating vortex formed in the primary zone becomes less with the increase in the momentum ratio, and moves to upstream and liner wall side. In addition, the velocity in the direction of swirl is accelerated. The liner jet is bent to the swirling direction when it comes out of the exit, and has a large velocity in the swirling direction. A toroidal vortex with a strong velocity in the swirling direction is formed near the center of the combustor. This blockades the flow from the swirler. The recirculating vortex has its effect as far as up to the upstream of the combustor inlet. 13 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Compound list: griseofulvin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available griseofulvin GF 00043 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/gris...eofulvin.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/gris...eofulvin.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/gris...jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/griseofulvin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  13. Los componentes de la luminosidad subjetiva

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    1987-01-01

    Estimaciones de la luminosidad se utilizan para comprobar teorías perceptuales acerca del fenómeno del color gris (color ceniza). Los resultados del experimento descrito en este artículo indican que las estimaciones de luminosidad subjetiva fueron una media ponderada de los juicios automáticos separados de los componentes blanco y negro en el color gris. Las estimaciones de luminosidad no coincidieron con los juicios del color gris. La luminosidad subjetiva parece ser una va...

  14. Effective interventions in the problematic use of alcohol and other drugs/Intervenciones eficaces en consumo problematico de alcohol y otras drogas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lefio, Luis Alvaro; Villarroel, Sebastian Raul; Rebolledo, Cristian; Zamorano, Pamela; Rivas, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    ...), Cochrane Library y otras fuentes de literatura gris. Se incluyeron ensayos clinicos aleatorizados, revisiones sistematicas, y se excluyeron estudios observacionales, estudios cualitativos y articulos de baja calidad metodologica...

  15. Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy) griseofulvin (Fulvicin, Grifulvin, Gris-PEG); human growth hormone (Genotropin); insulin; lovastatin (Altocor, Mevacor); nevirapine (Viramune); oral contraceptives containing ...

  16. Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Yang; ManChun Li

    2014-01-01

    Surface melt has great impacts on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass balance and thereby has become the focus of significant GrIS research in recent years. The production, transport, and release processes of surface meltwater are the keys to understanding the poten-tial impacts of the GrIS surface melt. These hydrological processes can elucidate the following scientific questions:How much melt-water is produced atop the GrIS? What are the characteristics of the meltwater-formed supraglacial hydrological system? How does the meltwater influence the GrIS motion? The GrIS supraglacial hydrology has a number of key roles and yet continues to be poorly understood or documented. This paper summarizes the current understanding of the GrIS surface melt, emphasizing the three essential supraglacial hydrological processes:(1) meltwater production:surface melt modeling is an important approach to acquire surface melt information, and areas, depths, and volumes of supraglacial lakes extracted from remotely sensed imagery can also provide surface melt information;(2) meltwater transport:the spatial distributions of supraglacial lakes, supraglacial streams, moulins, and crevasses demonstrate the characteristics of the supraglacial hydrological system, revealing the meltwater transport process;and (3) meltwater release:the release of meltwater into the englacial and the subglacial ice sheet has important but undetermined impacts on the GrIS motion. The correlation between surface runoff and the GrIS motion speed is employed to understand these influences.

  17. Modeling of radiant heat transfers in non-grey gases using the discrete ordinate method in association with a narrow bands statistical model; Modelisation des transferts radiatifs dans des gaz non gris par la methode des ordonnees discretes associee a un modele statistique a bandes etroites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, A.B. de; Delmas, A.; Sacadura, J.F. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-12-31

    A formulation based on the use of the discrete ordinate method applied to the integral form of the radiant heat transfer equation is proposed for non-grey gases. The correlations between transmittances are neglected and no explicit wall reflexion is considered. The configuration analyzed consists in a flat layer of non-isothermal steam-nitrogen mixture. Cavity walls are grey with diffuse reflexion and emission. A narrow band statistical model is used to represent the radiative properties of the gas. The distribution of the radiative source term inside the cavity is calculated along two temperature profiles in a uniform steam concentration. Results obtained using this simplified approach are in good agreement with those found in the literature for the same temperature and concentration distributions. This preliminary study seems to indicate that the algorithm based on the integration of radiant heat transfer along the luminance path is less sensitive to de-correlation effects than formulations based on the differential form the the radiant heat transfer. Thus, a more systematic study of the influence of the neglecting of correlations on the integral approach is analyzed in this work. (J.S.) 16 refs.

  18. Motoorse võimekuse näitajad tantsuüliõpilastel / Inna Sulg, Mati Pääsuke, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapejeva ; Helena Gapeyeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Uuringust, milles Viljandi Kultuurikolledzi tantsueriala 19-22a. naisüliõpilaste motoorset võimekust võrreldi Tartu Ülikooli kehakultuuriteaduskonna liikumis- ja sporditeaduste eriala naisüliõpilaste motoorse võimekusega

  19. Laser altimetry reveals complex pattern of Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csatho, Beata M.; Schenk, Anton F.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Babonis, Gregory; Duncan, Kyle; Rezvanbehbahani, Soroush; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Simonsen, Sebastian B.; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; van Angelen, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new record of ice thickness change, reconstructed at nearly 100,000 sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from laser altimetry measurements spanning the period 1993-2012, partitioned into changes due to surface mass balance (SMB) and ice dynamics. We estimate a mean annual GrIS mass l

  20. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...

  1. Future climate warming increases Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Price, S.

    2014-01-01

    The integrated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has large interannual variability. Long-term future changes to this variability will affect GrIS dynamics, freshwater fluxes, regional oceanography, and detection of changes in ice volume trends. Here we analyze a simulated

  2. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  3. Greenland ice mass balance from GPS, GRACE and ICESat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to future sea-level rise. The GrIS has seen dramatic changes over the last two decades and mass loss has been accelerating, owing to a combination of increased runoff and discharge of ice...

  4. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models pre...

  5. A tipping point in refreezing accelerates mass loss of Greenland’s glaciers and ice caps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.P.Y.; van de Berg, W.J.; Lhermitte, S.; Wouters, B.; Machguth, Horst; Howat, I.M.; Citterio, M.; Moholdt, G.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its peripheral glaciers and ice caps (GICs) contributes about 43% to contemporary sea level rise. While patterns of GrIS mass loss are well studied, the spatial and temporal evolution of GICs mass loss and the acting processes have remained unclear. Here

  6. Reconciled freshwater flux into the Godthåbsfjord system from satellite and airborne remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René

    2015-01-01

    As the rapid reduction in ice volume of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) continues, increased melt water flux from the GrIS enters the deep Greenlandic fjords. This increased freshwater flux may change the salinity and eventually the ecology of the fjords. Here, we present a case study in which we......, from various remote-sensing data sets, estimate the freshwater flux from the GrIS into a specific fjord system, the Godthåbsfjord, in southwest Greenland. The area of the GrIS draining into Godthåbsfjord covers approximately 36,700 km2. The large areal extent and the multiple outlets from the GrIS...

  7. Student Engagement at Independent Schools: Results from the 2014 High School Survey of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Amada

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-nine NAIS member schools participated in the second year of a three-year pilot study sponsored by the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) and the NAIS Commission on Accreditation on the use of HSSSE -- the High School Survey of Student Engagement, administered by Indiana University. HSSSE is designed to investigate the…

  8. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  9. [Spatiotemporal distribution of negative air ion concentration in urban area and related affecting factors: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Jian; Zeng, Hong-Da; Chen, Guang-Shui; Zhong, Xian-Fang

    2013-06-01

    Negative air ion (NAI) concentration is an important indicator comprehensively reflecting air quality, and has significance to human beings living environment. This paper summarized the spatiotemporal distribution features of urban NAI concentration, and discussed the causes of these features based on the characteristics of the environmental factors in urban area and their effects on the physical and chemical processes of NAI. The temporal distribution of NAI concentration is mainly controlled by the periodic variation of solar radiation, while the spatial distribution of NAI concentration along the urban-rural gradient is mainly affected by the urban aerosol distribution, underlying surface characters, and urban heat island effect. The high NAI concentration in urban green area is related to the vegetation life activities and soil radiation, while the higher NAI concentration near the water environment is attributed to the water molecules that participate in the generation of NAI through a variety of ways. The other environmental factors can also affect the generation, life span, component, translocation, and distribution of NAI to some extent. To increase the urban green space and atmospheric humidity and to maintain the soil natural attributes of underlying surface could be the effective ways to increase the urban NAI concentration and improve the urban air quality.

  10. Los componentes de la luminosidad subjetiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimaciones de la luminosidad se utilizan para comprobar teorías perceptuales acerca del fenómeno del color gris (color ceniza. Los resultados del experimento descrito en este artículo indican que las estimaciones de luminosidad subjetiva fueron una media ponderada de los juicios automáticos separados de los componentes blanco y negro en el color gris. Las estimaciones de luminosidad no coincidieron con los juicios del color gris. La luminosidad subjetiva parece ser una variable de orden superior positivamente cognoscitiva. Se concluye que las interpretaciones de las pruebas de las teorías del fenómeno del color gris, basadas en las estimaciones de luminosidad subjetiva, deben ser cautelosas

  11. Increasing water vapor transport to the Greenland Ice Sheet revealed using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Kyle S.; Ramseyer, Craig A.; Rosen, Joshua J.; Mote, Thomas L.; Muthyala, Rohi

    2016-09-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass in recent decades, with an acceleration in mass loss since 2000. In this study, we apply a self-organizing map classification to integrated vapor transport data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis to determine if these GrIS mass loss trends are linked to increases in moisture transport to Greenland. We find that "moist" days (i.e., days featuring anomalously intense water vapor transport to Greenland) were significantly more common during 2000-2015 compared to 1979-1994. Furthermore, the two most intense GrIS melt seasons during the last 36 years were either preceded by a record percentage of moist winter days (2010) or occurred during a summer with a record frequency of moist days (2012). We hypothesize that moisture transport events alter the GrIS energy budget by increasing downwelling longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent energy.

  12. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... made in accordance with the General Rules of Interpretation (GRIs). GRI 1 provides that classification.... Merchandise that cannot be classified in accordance with GRI 1 is to be classified in accordance with...

  13. Generation of a new Greenland Ice Sheet Digital Elevation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Csatho, Beata M; Schenk, Anton F

    Currently available Digital Elevation Models(DEMs) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were originally derived from radar altimetry data, e.g. Bamber (Bamber et al., 2001) and later improved by photoclinometry to fill the regions between orbits (Scambos and Haran, 2002). The elevation error...... m)), a high resolution, consistent DEM of GrIS is not yet available. This is due to various problems, such as different error sources in the data and different dates of data acquisition. In order to overcome these difficulties, we generated a multi-resolution DEM of GrIS, reflecting June 2008...... in an updated DEM. Finally, all elevations were corrected using elevation changes determined by SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection), to achieve a common reference date. Airborne laser altimetry elevations are used to evaluate the accuracy of the new GrIS DEM....

  14. Comparative study between radiological measurements acquired by gamma spectrometry with crystals of NaI (Tl) and LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and those obtained with Geiger detectors; Estudio comparativo entre las medidas radiologicas adquiridas mediante espectrometria gamma con cristales de Nal(TI) y LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) y aquellas obtenidas con detectores Geiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, E.; Casanova, R.; Salvado, M.

    2013-07-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that spectrometric equipment can be used to measure dose rates. Besides, an analysis method for spectrometric data obtained in short integration periods is proposed. The method basically consists in the study of the evolution of the number of counts in certain windows or regions of interest (ROIs) in gamma spectra. The ROIs are chosen strategically for its probability of containing counts coming from characteristic gamma emissions from certain isotopes of interest. The method is useful to set early warning criteria.

  15. 日本古代の漢詩文と道教的医方書——『医心方』(房)内篇以前%Chinese-style poetry in Ancient Japan and Taoist medical books: Before Chapter B(o) Nai of I Shin P(o)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    增尾伸一郎

    2011-01-01

    唐の張文成(張鷟)『遊仙窟』は中国では早くに佚書となったが、日本では奈良時代以来、長く読み继がれてきた.『万藥集』をはじめとする古代の和歌ゃ漢詩文には、とくに男女の贈答こょる作品に『遊仙窟』と『文選』の影響が著しぃ.これらの作品では男女の性愛に関する表現は抽象的でぁり、抑制されてぃるが、平安時代中期の坂上高明『続浦島子伝記』ゃ藤原明衡『新猿(樂)記』『本朝分粋』所收の大江朝網「男女婚姻賦」、罹泰「鉄槌伝」なざになると、具体的な表現が顕著こなる.そぅした表現の典(扌夂几)となったのは、丹波康頼撰『医心方』卷28房内篇が引用する隋·唐代以前の医方書でぁる.道教的な要素をもっ房中術関係の漢籍が、典蕖寮ゃ内藥司に所属する專門の医家だけでなく、貴族ゃ官人の間にも流布してぃた樣相とその背景にっぃて考察する.

  16. Natural perovskite: (CaII0.95 (1CeIII0.011 (2NaI0.010 (4(FeIII0.022 (2TiIV0.98 (1O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. Fernandes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A natural sample of perovskite (calcium caesium sodium iron titanium oxide from the Tapira Alkaline Complex in southeastern Brazil was found by electron microprobe analysis to have the chemical formula (Ca2+0.95 (1Ce3+0.011 (2Na+0.010 (4(Fe3+0.022 (2Ti4+0.98 (1O2−3 and by IR spectroscopy to be an anhydrous mineral. Oxygen anions are arranged around Ti4+ in an almost perfect octahedron and around Ca2+ in a distorted 12-fold polyhedron.

  17. 内观疗法对社区精神分裂症康复期患者疗效对照研究%A randomized controlled study of NaiKan therapy efficacy on the convalescent schizophrenic patients in the community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红艳; 班春霞; 赵姣文; 朱敏珏; 谭大勇; 吴会敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨内观疗法对社区精神分裂症康复期患者的临床疗效。方法将112例社区精神分裂症康复期患者随机分为内观治疗组52例和对照组56例,进行9周治疗,对照组采用药物治疗,内观治疗组在此基础上联合内观治疗。在治疗前、治疗后进行阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS),症状自评量表(SCL‐90)中人际关系敏感因子和敌对因子、自知力与治疗态度问卷(ITAQ)测定。结果治疗前,2组在 PANSS总分、阳性症状量表分、阴性症状量表分、一般精神病理量表,SCL‐90人际关系敏感因子、敌对因子,ITAQ量表评分,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗后,2组患者在PANSS量表总分、阴性症状量表、一般精神病理量表,SCL‐90人际关系敏感因子评分及敌对因子评分上,差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);在 PANSS阳性症状量表分、ITAQ量表评分上,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论内观治疗有助于改善社区精神分裂症康复期患者的精神症状及人际关系,适合在社区中开展。%Objective To investigate the efficacy of Naikan therapy in patients with community convalescent schizophrenia .Methods The 112 community convalescent schizophrenic patients were randomly divided into Nai‐kan therapy group ( n=52) and control group ( n=56) ,and were treated with antipsychotic agent therapy com‐bined with Naikan therapy and antipsychotic agent therapy for 9 weeks ,respectively .Efficacy at baseline ,and the end of 9th week after the treatment were assessed respectively by positive and negative syndrome scale(PANSS) , interpersonal sensitivity factor and hostile factor of SCL‐90 of symptom checklist 90(SCL‐90)and insight and treat‐ment attitudes questionnaires (ITAQ) .Results At the baseline ,there was no significant difference in PANSS to‐tal score ,negative symptom score ,positive symptom score ,general psychopathology score ,interpersonal sensi‐tivity factor and hostile factor of SCL‐90 and ITAQ score between Naikan therapy group and control group(P>0.05) .After the treatment ,there was statistically significant difference in PANSS total score ,positive symptom score ,general psychopathology score ,interpersonal sensitivity factor and hostile factor of SCL‐90(P 0.05) .Conclusion Naikan therapy can possibly improve clinical symptoms and interpersonal relationship of patients with community conva‐lescent schizophrenia .It fits to be carried out in the community .

  18. Numerical analysis of natural convection in thermoelectrically conducting fluids in a cubic cavity under a constant magnetic field. 2nd Report. Effect of direction of magnetic field on thermal and velocity field on thermal and velocity fields; Jibaka ni okeru denji netsuryutai no rippotai cavity nai shizen tairyu kaiseki. 2. Inka jiba hoko no netsuryudoba eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, T.; Tanahashi, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1996-01-25

    In a previous paper, we investigated the natural convection in thermoelectrically conducting fluids in a cubic cavity under a magnetic field applied in the gravitational direction, and complicated fluid phenomena were clarified. Particularly in the case of mercury (Pr=0.025, Gr=3.75{times}10{sup 7}), the numerical results agreed well with the observed experimental results obtained using a thermosensitive liquid crystal sheet. In the present paper, we aim to explain the fundamental behavior of thermoelectrically conducting fluids, and numerically determine the natural convection by considering a different direction for the applied magnetic field. The direction of the applied magnetic field is chosen as either the +x, -y or +z direction (see Fig. 1). The convective inhibitory effect of the Lorentz force increases in the order of the +x, -y and +z-directions. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Numerical analysis of natural convection of thermoelectrically conducting fluids in a cubic cavity under a constant magnetic field. 3rd Report. Heat transfer enhancement effect, discrete del operator method; Jibaka ni okeru denjinetsu ryutai no rippotai cavity nai shizen tairyu kaiseki. 3. Jakujibaka no dennetsu sokushin koka, risanka nabura enzanshiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, T.; Tanahashi, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1997-06-25

    Generally speaking, the finite-element method in computational fluid dynamics is universally accepted, however computation by the CPU is time-consuming and requires large memory capacity for data storage. Therefore development of an analytical formulation to reduce the time and storage required for calculation is desired. In this paper, we propose a novel discrete del operator method in order to overcome these defects. This method is formulated using the discrete del operator as the element coefficient matrices in finite-element analysis, and low-memory and high-speed calculations are carried out. In particular, we examine whether this method is effective for the numerical analysis of natural convection of thermoelectrically conducting fluids in a cubic cavity. Moreover, we estimate the effect of heat transfer enhancement under a weak magnetic field on the Hartmann number. 13 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Numerical analysis of natural convection o thermo-electrically conducting fluids in a square cavity under a constant magnetic field. 3rd Report. ; Calculated results, frequency characteristics. GSMAC yugen yosoho ni yoru naibu hatsunetsu wo tomonau denji netsuryutai no seihokei Cavity nai shizen tairyu kaiseki. 3. ; Keisan kekka, shuhasu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y.; Tanahashi, T. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)

    1994-05-25

    An elucidation has been made on features of two magnetic field analysis schemes in analyzing natural convection in an electromagnetically heated fluid. A quantitative discussion has also been given on the cyclicity inherent to a low-Prandtl number fluid. Twin vortices in an induced magnetic field at the center of a square cavity had Lorentz force that accelerates convection acted on them. However, as the magnetic field strength increases, the twin vortices have disappeared, with only the secondary vortices remaining on four corners of the cavity where Lorentz force that suppresses convection acts on. The motion energy and the frequency characteristics of fluid magnetic cross helicity have verified quantitatively how a flow transfers from a cyclic flow to a steady flow as the magnetic field strength increases. It was indicated that the numerical residual method has superior convergence in solution of Poisson equations except for the initial stage under a weak magnetic field to the cross helicity. It was also shown that the numerical residual method has superior solution convergence from the initial stage under a strong magnetic field. Particularly for the case with large Joule heat generation, degradation in the calculation efficiency for the numerical residual method is more remarkable than in the cross helicity method. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Flow and mixing of gas in cylinder of a stratified charge engine with two intake valves. Effects of late closing valve timing and intake port configurations; Kyuki nibenshiki sojo kyuki engine no cylinder nai gas ryudo to kongo. Osotoji valve timing oyobi port keijo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenphonphanich, C.; Niwa, H.; Ennoji, H.; Iijima, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A numerical analysis of the flow and mixing of rich mixture and air inducted into the cylinder through each of the two intake ports of a stratified charge engine have been carried out. Numerical calculations were performed by finite volume method for three types of the intake port configurations: inverse V type, parallel type and V type and two types of valve timing; conventional and late closing (Miller cycle). Velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy and distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder were examined. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Numerical analysis natural convection of thermo-electrically conducting fluids in a square cavity under a uniform magnetic field. 4th Report. Stable numerical scheme for low magnetic Reynolds numbers: scheme verification; GSMAC yugen yosoho ni yoru naibu hatsunetsu wo tomonau denji netsu ryutai no seihokei cavity nai shizen tairyu kaiseki. 4. Teijiki Reynolds su de anteina kaiho: scheme no kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Y.; Tanahashi, T. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1995-07-25

    In the present paper, the natural convections of thermo-electrically conducting fluids in a square cavity under a uniform magnetic field are calculated using GSMAC-FEM in conjunction with the so-called B method. This scheme efficiently satisfies conservation laws of both mass and magnetic flux. In order to establish a stable numerical scheme at low magnetic Reynolds number problems, we introduce both the generalized trapezoidal method and the 3-level fully implicit method into the conventional numerical residual method. The numerical results obtained are in good agreement with the past numerical and experimental results. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. 从“杨乃武与小白菜案”透视晚清法律文化%Legal Culture Perspective in the Late Qing Dynasty:A Case Study on Yang Nai-wu & Bi Xiu-gu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞佳臻; 赵婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The opium war in 1840, knocking the door of the Qing Dynasty, marked China stepped towards the rule of law in a broader sense, along with the decline of the Dynasty. Meanwhile western legal culture was introduced to China by media, impacting and interacting fiercely with the ancient legal concept rooted in people’s hearts. Then the “newborn” idea was carried out and well-known by media. The culture of the late Qing era soaked the life in dribs and drabs, while the media demonstrated the legal culture from every aspect of life.%1840年的鸦片战争,叩开了大清王朝的大门。自此以后,与其说清王朝走向了衰败,不如说从更广的意义上,中国朝着法治迈进了一大步。西方的法律文化随着晚清的媒体传入中国,与自古以来根植于人们内心的法律观念激烈碰撞、相互交融,孕育出的“新生儿”随着媒体被广为人知。晚清时代的文化浸透在生活中的点点滴滴,而媒体则透过生活展现了法律文化的方方面面。

  4. Investigation of compression wave propagating in slab track tunnel of high-speed railway. 1st Report. Field test and one-dimensional numerical analysis; Kosoku tetsudo no slab kido tunnel nai wo denpasuru asshukuha no kaiseki. 1. Genchi sokutei to ichijigen suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, T.; Iida, M.; Maeda, T. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Maeno, K. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Honma, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-05-25

    An impulsive pressure wave which is called a `micro-pressure wave` or a `tunnel sonic boom` radiating from a tunnel exit is one of the important environmental problems in high-speed railways. The strength of the impulsive wave depends on the waveform of the compression wave at the tunnel exit. In this study, the distortion of the compression wave during its propagation through the tunnel is investigated by field measurement and numerical analysis. The field measurement is conducted in the concrete slab (ballastless) track tunnel of the Shinkansen. The numerical analysis is also carried out on one-dimensional compressible flow using upwind TVD scheme. It takes account of steady and unsteady wall friction and of heat transfer to the tunnel wall. Our original numerical analysis method is based on Galilei transformation of the coordinate system moving with the compression wave. The results show that the agreement of the numerical analysis and the field measurement is good. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  5. EB病毒NA1-IgA和VCA-IgA抗体与鼻咽癌的诊断和疗效的关系%Relationship between EBV NAI-IgA and VCA-IgA antibodies with diagnosis and therapeutic effect of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兆享; 张占书

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of detection of both EBV NA1 - IgA and VCA - IgA on the diagnosis and therapeutic effect of nasopharyngeal carcinoma ( NPC). Methods Samples from 124 cases of pretreatment and after treatment NPC and 173 healthy cases serum EBV antibodies NA1 - IgA and VCA -IgA were detected by enzyme -linked immnunosorbent assay (ELJSA). Results The sensitivity and accuracy for diagnosing NPC were 88.1% and 91. 2% for NA1 - IgA, 75. 8% and 84. 8% for VCA -IgA,and 97. 6% and 93. 3% for combined determination. No significant difference in the NPC patients different clinical stages (excluding the positive rates of clinical stage I) was found in serum EB-NA1 - IgA rA value and positive rates (P > 0. 05), but there was significant difference in the NPC patients different clinical stages (excluding the clinical stage IV) was found in serum EBVCA - IgA rA value and positive rates (P <0. 05). Conclusions Combined the determination of EBV NA1 - IgA and VCA -IgA could improve the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy for early NPC. The rA value and positive rates of NA1 - IgA had no relationship with therapeutic effect of NPC. There was obvious relevance of the serum EBVCA - IgA rA value and positive rates with the therapeutic effect in NPC, It may be an important mark for monitoring therapeutic effect, the course of disease and the prognosis in NPC.%目的 探讨EB病毒NA1-IgA和VCA-IgA抗体与鼻咽癌的诊断和治疗效果的相关性.方法 使用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)测定124例治疗前和治疗后鼻咽癌患者以及173例正常体检人群血清EB病毒NA1-IgA和VCA-IgA抗体.结果 单项检测时EB病毒检测的敏感性和准确性分别为:NA1-IgA 88.7%、91.2%,VCA-IgA75.8%、84.8%,两者联合检测的敏感性和准确性分别为97.6% 、93.3%.鼻咽癌患者血清EBNA1-IgA抗体rA值和阳性率在临床各期(Ⅱ期阳性率除外)治疗前后均无统计学差异(P>0.05),而鼻咽癌患者血清EBVCA-IgA抗体rA值和阳性率在临床各期(Ⅳ期除外)治疗后均比治疗前有显著下降(P<0.05).结论 两项指标联合检测可提高早期鼻咽癌诊断的敏感性和准确性.血清EB病毒NA1-IgA抗体水平和阳性率基本与治疗效果无关.VCAIgA抗体水平和阳性率与治疗呈明显的相关性,可作为鼻咽癌疗效判断以及监测病情和预后的重要指标.

  6. Multi-decadal marine- and land-terminating glacier recession in the Ammassalik region, southeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat imagery was applied to elucidate glacier fluctuations of land- and marine-terminating outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and local land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC peripheral to the GrIS in the Ammassalik region, Southeast Greenland, during the period 1972–2011. Data from 21 marine-terminating glaciers (including the glaciers Helheim, Midgaard, and Fenris, the GrIS land-terminating margin, and 35 GIC were examined and compared to observed atmospheric air temperatures, precipitation, and reconstructed ocean water temperatures (at 400 m depth in the Irminger Sea. Here, we document that net glacier recession has occurred since 1972 in the Ammassalik region for all glacier types and sizes, except for three GIC. The land-terminating GrIS and GIC reflect lower marginal and areal changes than the marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The mean annual land-terminating GrIS and GIC margin recessions were about three to five times lower than the GrIS marine-terminating recession. The marine-terminating outlet glaciers had an average net frontal retreat for 1999–2011 of 0.098 km yr−1, which was significantly higher than in previous sub-periods 1972–1986 and 1986–1999. For the marine-terminating GrIS, the annual areal recession rate has been decreasing since 1972, while increasing for the land-terminating GrIS since 1986. On average for all the observed GIC, a mean net frontal retreat for 1986–2011 of 0.010 ± 0.006 km yr−1 and a mean areal recession of around 1% per year occurred; overall for all observed GIC, a mean recession rate of 27 ± 24% occurred based on the 1986 GIC area. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area.

  7. Global Resources Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Cosentino, M. J.; Mann, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic design criteria and operating characteristics of a Global Resources Information System GRIS are defined. Researchers are compiling background material and aiding JPL personnel in this project definition phase of GRIS. A bibliography of past studies and current work on large scale information systems is compiled. The material in this bibliography will be continuously updated throughout the lifetime of this grant. Project management, systems architecture, and user applications are also discussed.

  8. Self-inhibiting growth of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langen, Peter Lang; Solgaard, Anne Munck; Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2012-01-01

    The build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from ice-free conditions is studied in an ice sheet model (ISM) driven by fields from an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) to demonstrate the importance of coupling between the two components. Experiments where the two are coupled off...... conditions cooler than those of today may be necessary for the GrIS to regrow to the present volume...

  9. Halms effekt på mavesår hos slagtesvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Herskin, Mette S.

    2015-01-01

    Tildeling af halm i stien til slagtesvin svarende til op til ca. 300 g pr. gris pr. dag fjernede ikke, men reducerede forekomsten af mavesår/-ar og gav et fastere maveindhold.......Tildeling af halm i stien til slagtesvin svarende til op til ca. 300 g pr. gris pr. dag fjernede ikke, men reducerede forekomsten af mavesår/-ar og gav et fastere maveindhold....

  10. Melting of Northern Greenland during the last interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Born

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is losing mass at an increasing rate, making it the primary contributor to global eustatic sea level rise. Large melting areas and rapid thinning at its margins has raised concerns about its stability. However, it is conceivable that these observations represent the transient adjustment of the fastest reacting parts of the ice sheet, masking slower processes that dominate the long term fate of the GrIS and its contribution to sea level rise.

    Studies of the geological past provide valuable information on the long term response of the GrIS to warm periods. We simulate the GrIS during the Eemian interglacial, a period 126 000 yr before present (126 ka with Arctic temperatures comparable to projections for the end of this century. The northeastern part of the GrIS is unstable and retreats significantly, despite moderate melt rates. Unlike the south and west, strong melting in the northeast is not compensated by high accumulation, or fast ice flow. The analogy with the present warming suggests that in coming decades, positive feedbacks could increase the rate of mass loss of the northeastern GrIS, exceeding the currently observed melting in the south.

  11. Small impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007-2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-03-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS.

  12. REPORTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF EGYPTOLOGY IN CHINAThe first Egyptologist in China was professor Xia Nai(1910-1985).In 1935,XiaNai graduated from Qinghua University in China and went to study Egyptology atUniversity College London.In 1937,he traveled to the Near East and Egypt andparticipated in the excavations in Arment(Egypt)and Tell Duweir(Palestine).In1941,Xia Nai received his PhD in Egyptian Archaeology(not officially awarded

  13. Kas Margaret Thatcher oli ikka naine? / Kadi Viik ; interv. Kalev Kesküla, Harry Liivrand, Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viik, Kadi

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalministeeriumi soolise võrdõiguslikkuse osakonna juhataja Kadi Viik korraldab rahvusvahelise konverentsi "New Masculinity Tallinn 2005" (Uus mehelikkus). Lisaks nimekiri: Eesti nais(kultuuri)juhte

  14. Kas Margaret Thatcher oli ikka naine? / Kadi Viik ; interv. Kalev Kesküla, Harry Liivrand, Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viik, Kadi

    2005-01-01

    Sotsiaalministeeriumi soolise võrdõiguslikkuse osakonna juhataja Kadi Viik korraldab rahvusvahelise konverentsi "New Masculinity Tallinn 2005" (Uus mehelikkus). Lisaks nimekiri: Eesti nais(kultuuri)juhte

  15. Experimental verification of gamma-efficiency calculations for scintillation detectors in ANGLE 4 software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thabet Abouzeid A; Dlabac Aleksandar D; Jovanovic Slobodan I; Badawi Mohamed S; Mihaljevic Nikola N; El-Khatib Ahmed M; Gouda Mona M; Abbas Mahmoud I

    2015-01-01

    ANGLE software for semiconductor detector efficiency calculations - long existing and widely accepted tool in quantitative gamma spectrometry - has been recently extended to scintillation NaI detectors...

  16. Late glacial and Holocene history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin, Nunatarssuaq, Northwestern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, L. B.; Kelly, M. A.; Axford, Y.; Bromley, G. R.; Osterberg, E. C.; Howley, J. A.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Jackson, M. S.; Lasher, G. E.; McFarlin, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Defining the late glacial and Holocene fluctuations of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) margin, particularly during periods that were as warm or warmer than present, provides a longer-term perspective on present ice margin fluctuations and informs how the GrIS may respond to future climate conditions. We focus on mapping and dating past GrIS extents in the Nunatarssuaq region of northwestern Greenland. During the summer of 2014, we conducted geomorphic mapping and collected rock samples for 10Be surface exposure dating as well as subfossil plant samples for 14C dating. We also obtained sediment cores from an ice-proximal lake. Preliminary 10Be ages of boulders deposited during deglaciation of the GrIS subsequent to the Last Glacial Maximum range from ~30-15 ka. The apparently older ages of some samples indicate the presence of 10Be inherited from prior periods of exposure. These ages suggest deglaciation occurred by ~15 ka however further data are needed to test this hypothesis. Subfossil plants exposed at the GrIS margin on shear planes date to ~ 4.6-4.8 cal. ka BP and indicate less extensive ice during middle Holocene time. Additional radiocarbon ages from in situ subfossil plants on a nunatak date to ~3.1 cal. ka BP. Geomorphic mapping of glacial landforms near Nordsø, a large proglacial lake, including grounding lines, moraines, paleo-shorelines, and deltas, indicate the existence of a higher lake level that resulted from a more extensive GrIS margin likely during Holocene time. A fresh drift limit, characterized by unweathered, lichen-free clasts approximately 30-50 m distal to the modern GrIS margin, is estimated to be late Holocene in age. 10Be dating of samples from these geomorphic features is in progress. Radiocarbon ages of subfossil plants exposed by recent retreat of the GrIS margin suggest that the GrIS was at or behind its present location at AD ~1650-1800 and ~1816-1889. Results thus far indicate that the GrIS margin in northwestern Greenland

  17. WIMPs search at OTO Cosmo Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, K.; Ichihara, K.; Koori, N.; Nakayama, S.; Shichijo, Y.; Ogawa, I.; Yoshida, S.; Ajimura, S.; Hazama, R.; Ishikawa, Y.; Itamura, M.; Kishimoto, T.; Kunitomi, G.; Matsuoka, K.; Miyawaki, H.; Shiomi, S.; Suzuki, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Umehara, S.; Ejiri, H.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Takahisa, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Yanagida, Y.

    2003-03-01

    WIMPs dark matter and double beta decays has been studied at OTO Cosmo Observatory. The observatory has great advantages of small cosmic ray flux, small neutron flux and small radon density. The recent status of WIMPs search by huge NaI (ELEGANT V), large CaF2Eu) (ELEGANT VI) and high sesitive NaI detector are reported.

  18. Mobile Schools for a Mobile World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, independent schools are embracing mobile devices--laptops, iPads or other tablets, and smartphones--to enhance teaching and learning. This article describes the results of the "NAIS 2012 Mobile Learning Survey." Among its findings were that 75 percent of NAIS-member schools currently use mobile learning devices in at…

  19. Low-level gamma-ray spectrometry for the determination of 210Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    A well High purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer with NaI(Tl) Compton anticoincidence shield recently installed at DTU Nutech and specially designed for low-level measurements was used for the 210Pb determination in environmental samples. The system is compared to standard stand-alone HPGe...

  20. Chapter 7: Primary standardization in radionuclide metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan

    2014-07-01

    The chapter 7 presents: Primary methods for radionuclide standardization; 4πβ-γ Coincidence counting method; Anticoincidence; Counting π Method; Defined Solid Angle Counting Method; Liquid scintillator counting method (CIEMAT/NIST); Sum-peak Method and LNMRI Absolute Standardization.

  1. Measurement of low radioactivity in underground laboratories by means of many-dimensional spectrometry; Messung geringer Radioaktivitaet in Untertagelaboratorien mit Hilfe mehrdimensionaler Spektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, Siegfried

    2008-01-15

    In this contribution beside the possibilities for the measurements in underground laboratories also the application of the many-dimensional spectrometry is considered, under which coincidence, anticoincidence, and time-resolving spectrometric are to be understood. Very extensively the interaction of cosmic radiation with matter is considered.

  2. Efficient microplastics extraction from sand. A cost effective methodology based on sodium iodide recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2017-02-15

    Evaluating the microplastics pollution on the shores requires overcoming the technological and economical challenge of efficient plastic extraction from sand. The recovery of dense microplastics requires the use of NaI solutions, a costly process. The aim of this study is to decrease this cost by recycling the NaI solutions and to determine the impact of NaI storage. For studying the NaI recyclability, the solution density and the salt mass have been monitored during ten life cycles. Density, pH and salt mass have been measured for 40days to assess the storage effect. The results show that NaI solutions are recyclable without any density alterations with a total loss of 35.9% after the 10cycles of use. During storage, chemical reactions may appear but are reversible. Consequently, the use of recycling methods allows for a significant cost reduction. How far the plastic extraction by dense solutions is representative is discussed.

  3. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Implications of changing scattering properties on Greenland ice sheet volume change from Cryosat-2 altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    2017-01-01

    Long-term observations of surface elevation change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is of utmost importance when assessing the state of the ice sheet. Satellite radar altimetry offers a long time series of data over the GrIS, starting with ERS-1 in 1991. ESA's Cryosat-2 mission, launched in 2010...... waveform parameters to be applicable for correcting for changes in volume scattering. The best results in the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric mode area of the GrIS are found when applying only the backscatter correction, whereas the best result in the Low Resolution Mode area is obtained by only...... applying a leading edge width correction. Using this approach to correct for the scattering properties, a volume loss of −292±38 km3 yr −1 is found for the GrIS for the time span November 2010 until November 2014. The inclusion of waveform parameter corrections and improved relocation for the GrIS, helps...

  5. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  6. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to perturbations in sea surface temperature and sea ice cover: a study with the regional climate model MAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, B.; Fettweis, X.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Erpicum, M.

    2014-10-01

    During recent summers (2007-2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favoring warmer atmospheric conditions than normal over the GrIS. Simultaneously, large anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) were observed in the North Atlantic, suggesting a possible connection. To assess the direct impact of 2007-2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim. These simulations suggest that perturbations in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not considerably impact GrIS SMB, as a result of the katabatic wind blocking effect. These offshore-directed winds prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST anomalies, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds cease. A topic for further investigation is how anomalies in SIC and SST might have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, hence favoring more frequent warm air advection towards the GrIS.

  7. Wintertime storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Koenig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred to as buried lakes. Airborne radar echograms are used to detect the buried lakes that are distributed extensively around the margin of the GrIS. The subsurface water can persist through multiple winters and is, on average, ~4.2 + 0.4 m below the surface. The few buried lakes that are visible at the surface of the GrIS have a~unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried lakes is likely insignificant compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS but the water will have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic network, ice temperature profiles and glacial dynamics. The buried lakes represent a small but year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS hydrologic system.

  8. Economic impact of a novel naloxone autoinjector on third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Richard C; Bazalo, Gary R; Thomson, Heather; Edwards, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Patient overdoses on prescription opioid analgesics in the United States continue to rise, resulting in increased emergency department and hospitalization costs. Opioid overdose is readily reversible with naloxone, a fast-acting opioid antagonist. A new naloxone autoinjector (NAI), Evzio, which does not require medical training to use, was approved by the FDA in April 2014. Payers must decide on reimbursement policies for this product. To demonstrate to payer decision makers the costs and potential medical resource cost offsets associated with the utilization of a new NAI. A deterministic model using matched controls. An Excel-based cost model was developed for a hypothetical health plan with 1 million adult members. Costs of prescription opioid overdose events for patients appropriately dispensed NAI were compared with matched controls. NAI prescriptions increased from 218 in Year 1 to 2,527 in Year 3. In Year 3, 86 NAI patients (and their matched controls) experienced opioid overdose events. For this period, fatal overdoses in the NAI cohort totaled 11.1 vs. 14.7 for the control group. In Year 3, 2.5 deaths (10.1-7.6) were avoided. NAI acquisition costs rose from $125,000 in Year 1 (PMPM = $0.01) to nearly $1.5 million in Year 3 (PMPM = $0.12).This cost was offset by medical resource savings of approximately $84,000 in Year 1, increasing to $975,000 in Year 3. The total net cost (NAI less offsets) in Year 3, when NAI uptake was assumed to plateau, was $481,000 (PMPM = $0.04). A deterministic model demonstrated that NAI acquisition costs can be offset through medical cost reductions with improved timely access to naloxone.

  9. Observations of runoff and sediment and dissolved loads from the Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2012-01-01

    Observations from 2007 to 2010 of runoff, sediment and solute delivery from a segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the proglacial landscape draining into the fjord at Kangerlussuaq are presented. The observations include at least three jökulhlaups and extreme recordings from 2010...... previously published for 2007 and 2008. The average effective erosion from the catchment was 0.28 mm (min. 0.18 and max. 0.45 mm). The erosion is larger than indicated from most other locations along the GrIS, but in the same order of magnitude as erosion in other glaciated areas at the same latitude, e.......g. Norway. The sandur in the proglacial area acts as a sediment sink for a lot of the sediments from the GrIS....

  10. Carbon dating reveals a seasonal progression in the source of particulate organic carbon exported from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, T. J.; Žárský, J. D.; Yde, J. C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Hawkings, J. R.; Tedstone, A. J.; Wadham, J. L.; Box, J. E.; Beaton, A. D.; Stibal, M.

    2017-06-01

    Surface melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) collects particulate organic carbon (POC) as it drains into subglacial environments and transports it downstream where it serves as a microbial substrate. We hypothesized that older POC is entrained by meltwaters as the subglacial drainage network expands upglacier over the summer. To test this, POC samples were collected from a meltwater river exiting the GrIS over an ablation season and 14C dated. Resulting values were compared with meltwater hydrochemistry and satellite observations of the catchment area. We found that POC ages increased from 5000 to 9000 years B.P. until peak discharge and catchment size. Afterward, significant fluctuations in POC age were observed, interpreted to result from periods of high and low subglacial hydrological pressure and sediment supply and subsequent exhaustion. These observations suggest a seasonal progression in the source of POC exported from the GrIS and provide evidence for a seasonally evolving subglacial drainage system.

  11. The state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    Firn is defined as snow that has survived a melt season and provides the link between the high-frequency variability of the atmosphere to the ”slower” reacting ice sheet.In this thesis, firn is described by a theoretical and statistical approach to accommodate the variability in observed firn...... compaction on ice sheet scales. The modeling objectives are multiple and aim at estimating the contribution from the firn to the observed volume change of the GrIS and to the diffusion of stable water isotopes. The firn modeling then provides crucial information on total mass balance of the Gr......IS and the paleo-temperature reconstructions retrieved from ice cores.The dynamical firn model developed in this thesis explains13 % of the observed volume change of the GrIS from 2003-2008, without contributing to the global sea-level rise. This emphasizes the need for well constraint firn-compaction models. Here...

  12. Sensitive response of the Greenland Ice Sheet to surface melt drainage over a soft bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougamont, M; Christoffersen, P; Hubbard, A L; Fitzpatrick, A A; Doyle, S H; Carter, S P

    2014-09-29

    The dynamic response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) depends on feedbacks between surface meltwater delivery to the subglacial environment and ice flow. Recent work has highlighted an important role of hydrological processes in regulating the ice flow, but models have so far overlooked the mechanical effect of soft basal sediment. Here we use a three-dimensional model to investigate hydrological controls on a GrIS soft-bedded region. Our results demonstrate that weakening and strengthening of subglacial sediment, associated with the seasonal delivery of surface meltwater to the bed, modulates ice flow consistent with observations. We propose that sedimentary control on ice flow is a viable alternative to existing models of evolving hydrological systems, and find a strong link between the annual flow stability, and the frequency of high meltwater discharge events. Consequently, the observed GrIS resilience to enhanced melt could be compromised if runoff variability increases further with future climate warming.

  13. Estudio de la Incertidumbre en la Programación de Actividades usando la Matriz de Estructura Dependiente Study of the Uncertainty of Task Programming using the Dependency Structure Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira D Gálvez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sobre el efecto de la incertidumbre en la programación de actividades de proyectos usando la matriz de estructura dependiente (DSM y la teoría gris. Se aplica la teoría gris para representar la incertidumbre en la estimación del tiempo de duración de proyectos, desarrollando las ecuaciones necesarias para determinar el tiempo convencional gris, el tiempo normal gris y el tiempo normal gris con superposición natural. Con base en el estudio se concluye que la aplicación de la teoría de gris a la DSM permite: i considerar la incertidumbre en la programación del proyecto; ii identificar las etapas más críticas; iii analizar el efecto de la incertidumbre de cada etapa en la duración total del proyecto; y iv comparar diferentes estrategias de programación.A study about the effect of uncertainty on the planning of project activities using the dependency structure matrix (DSM and grey theory. The grey theory is applied to represent the uncertainty in estimating project extension. As a result, the equations to determine the grey conventional time, the grey normal time and the grey normal time with natural overlap were developed. Based on the case studies it is concluded that the application of the grey theory to the DSM allows: considering the uncertainty in project planning; ii identifying the most critical stages; iii analyzing the effect of the uncertainty of each stage in the total project duration; and iv comparing different programming strategies.

  14. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1 viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future.

  15. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here...

  16. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20...... and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basinwide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted...

  17. Dèficits neuromotors en trastorns de personalitat de l'espectre esquizofrènic : Una visió neuro-anatòmica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Aquest estudi pretén aprofundir, mitjançant tècniques de neuroimatge, en la cerca de diferències volumètriques, tant en volum de substància gris com blanca, que presenten els pacients de trastorns de personalitat esquizoide i esquizotípic amb relació amb un grup control. Este estudio pretende profundizar, mediante técnicas de neuroimagen, en la búsqueda de diferencias volumétricas, tanto en volumen de sustancia gris como blanca, que presentan los pacientes de trastornos de personalidad esq...

  18. Drug: D00209 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00209 Drug Griseofulvin (JP16/USP/INN); GRE; Gris-peg (TN); Grisactin V (TN) C17H1...7ClO6 352.0714 352.7663 D00209.gif Penicillium griseofulvum [TAX:5078], Penicillium raistrickii [TAX:69783],...in Japan [BR:br08301] 6 Agents against pathologic organisms and parasites 61 Antibiotics 617 Acting mainly on mold 6172 Gris...eofulvins D00209 Griseofulvin (JP16/USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classific...ANTIFUNGALS FOR TOPICAL USE D01AA Antibiotics D01AA08 Griseofulvin D00209 Griseofulvin (JP16/USP/INN) D01B A

  19. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  20. GPS based surface displacements – a proxy for discharge and sediment transport from the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Mikkelsen, Andreas Bech

    2014-01-01

    The elastic respond of the Earth’s surface to mass changes has been measured with Global Positioning System (GPS). Mass loss as accumulated runoff and sediment transport from a 10000 km2 segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) correlated very well (R2=0.83) with GPS measured uplift. Accumulated....... Based on the entire GPS record (1996–2013), it is shown that until 2005–2006 the mass balance of this segment of the GrIS was rather stable – since then there has been an increasing loss of mass, culminating in 2012....

  1. Glutamate transporter activity promotes enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated extracellular K+ management during neuronal activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Roland; Holm, Rikke; Vilsen, Bente;

    2016-01-01

    , in addition, Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated K+ clearance could be governed by astrocytic [Na+]i. During most neuronal activity, glutamate is released in the synaptic cleft and is re-absorbed by astrocytic Na+-coupled glutamate transporters, thereby elevating [Na+]i. It thus remains unresolved whether the different Na...... constellations in Xenopus oocytes and determined their apparent Na+ affinity in intact oocytes and isolated membranes. The Na+/K+-ATPase was not fully saturated at basal astrocytic [Na+]i, irrespective of isoform constellation, although the β1 subunit conferred lower apparent Na+ affinity to the α1 and α2...

  2. Temperatures stabilization of a field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R.; Wawrowski, S.; Charland, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc., Meriden, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Enrichment measurements with sodium iodide (NaI) detectors are hampered with a number of problems related to the temperature behavior of NaI crystals and the associated electronics. This problem is of particular concern in applications requiring the use of fixed regions of interest; such applications are used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The Canberra IMCA is a new portable instrument for such applications which can use either a NaI or a Ge detector. In developing the IMCA to meet the IAEA requirements for NaI detectors, Canberra has designed a system with a new temperature stabilization method capable of maintaining the detector stability at 0.5% over a temperature range of -10 to +50{degrees}C. This paper includes a detailed description of this IMCA temperature stabilization system, as well as test results for a range of temperatures using uranium standards.

  3. Development of a kinetic model and calculation of radiation dose estimates for sodium iodide-{sup 131}I in athyroid individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.

    1997-07-01

    The treatment for some thyroid carcinomas involves surgically removing the thyroid gland and administering the radiopharmaceutical Sodium iodide-{sup 131}I (NaI). A diagnostic dose of NaI is given to the patient to determine if remnant tissue from the gland remains or larger doses are administered in order to treat the malignant tissue. Past research regarding NaI uptake and retention in euthyroid individuals (normal functioning thyroid) reveal that radioiodine concentrates mainly in the thyroid tissue and the remaining material is excreted from the body. The majority of radioiodine in athyroid (without thyroid) individuals is also eliminated from the body; however, there has been recent evidence of a long-term retention phase for individuals with no radioiodine concentrating tissue. The general purpose of this study was to develop a kinetic model and estimate the absorbed dose to athyroid individuals regarding the distribution and retention of NaI.

  4. Drug: D05328 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (TN) NaI 145.8954 149.8942 D05328.gif Diagnostic aid [thyroid function determination]; Radioactive agent Th...cting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioacti

  5. Detection and management of antiviral resistance for influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Guy

    2013-11-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are first-line agents for the treatment and prevention of influenza virus infections. As for other antivirals, the development of resistance to NAIs has become an important concern particularly in the case of A(H1N1) viruses and oseltamivir. The most frequently reported change conferring oseltamivir resistance in that viral context is the H275Y neuraminidase mutation (N1 numbering). Recent studies have shown that, in the presence of the appropriate permissive mutations, the H275Y variant can retain virulence and transmissibility in some viral backgrounds. Most oseltamivir-resistant influenza A virus infections can be managed with the use of inhaled or intravenous zanamivir, another NAI. New NAI compounds and non-neuraminidase agents as well as combination therapies are currently in clinical evaluation for the treatment for severe influenza infections. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Polymeric microring resonator based electro-optic modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This thesis will describe the design, realization and characterization of an EO polymeric MR resonator, which was fabricated in the framework of a MESA+ Strategic Research Orientation TeraHertz and an IST project NAIS.

  7. 77 FR 18791 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST Associates Information System AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION: Notice... Associates Information System (NAIS) information collection instrument(s) are completed by incoming NAs. The...

  8. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...

  9. Nonperturbative effects in deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Periwal, V

    2000-01-01

    The Cattaneo-Felder path integral form of the perturbative Kontsevich deformation quantization formula is used to explicitly demonstrate the existence of nonperturbative corrections to na\\"\\i ve deformation quantization.

  10. The construction of gender in Estonian school textbooks / Jeannine Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richards, Jeannine

    2001-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida nais- ja meessoo kujutamist inglise keele õpikus. Vaadeldavaks õpikuks on : Sotter, Ingrid ; Vahtra, Leida. English : step five. 5th print.- Tallinn : Koolibri, 1997

  11. The construction of gender in Estonian school textbooks / Jeannine Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richards, Jeannine

    2001-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille eesmärgiks oli analüüsida nais- ja meessoo kujutamist inglise keele õpikus. Vaadeldavaks õpikuks on : Sotter, Ingrid ; Vahtra, Leida. English : step five. 5th print.- Tallinn : Koolibri, 1997

  12. Sõna saavad daamid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Korporatsioon Ugala seostest teiste korporatsioonidega. Sõna võtavad Katre Luhamaa Indlast, Triinu Visnapuu Amicitiast, Siiri Salutee ja Martha Jung Eesti Naisüliõpilaste Seltsist, Karolina Antons Filiae Patriaest

  13. School-Aged Outcomes After Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Czech; Pardo, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from the Accident Vasculaire Cérébral de nouveau-né (AVCnn) Study Group, a multicenter registry in France, examined outcomes at 7 years of age in children previously identified with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS).

  14. School-Aged Outcomes After Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Theresa; Pardo, Andrea C

    2016-02-01

    Investigators from the Accident Vasculaire Cérébral de nouveau-né (AVCnn) Study Group, a multicenter registry in France, examined outcomes at 7 years of age in children previously identified with neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS).

  15. Sõna saavad daamid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Korporatsioon Ugala seostest teiste korporatsioonidega. Sõna võtavad Katre Luhamaa Indlast, Triinu Visnapuu Amicitiast, Siiri Salutee ja Martha Jung Eesti Naisüliõpilaste Seltsist, Karolina Antons Filiae Patriaest

  16. Original Article Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-11

    Aug 11, 2011 ... The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk ..... Ako-Nai AK, Torimiro SEA, Lamikanra A and. Ogunbiyi AD ... Neonatal Septicaemia in Ilorin: Bacteria Pathogens.

  17. Rwandas võtsid võimu naised / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Septembris toimunud parlamendivalimiste järel sai Aafrikas asuvast Rwandast esimene riik, kus parlamendiliikmete hulgas on rohkem naisi kui mehi. Ka parlamendi alamkoja etteotsa valiti naine - naisõiguslane ja õigusteaduste doktor Rose Mukantabana

  18. Kass olgu must või hall - peaasi, et hiiri püüab / Imbi Ernits-Kaljuste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ernits-Kaljuste, Imbi, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtlusuuringud on nais- ja meesjuhte võrreldes lisaks sarnasusele leidnud hulgaliselt erinevusi, uuringute kohaselt ei pruugi edukad keskastme naisjuhid tippjuhi kohta ihaleda. Vt. samas: Statistika; kommenteerivad: Ruth Alas, Karin Kastehein, Elo Odres

  19. 'Battered pets': features that raise suspicion of non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, H M; Thrusfield, M V

    2001-05-01

    A study of veterinarians' perceptions, and experience, of non-accidental injury (NAI) to pets was undertaken using an anonymous questionnaire distributed to a random sample of 1000 small animal practitioners in the UK. NAI was acknowledged by 91.3 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 88.2 to 93.9 per cent) of the 404 respondents who returned questionnaires, of whom 48.3 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval, 43.4 to 53.1 per cent) had either suspected or seen NAI. Four hundred and forty-eight cases were documented, predominantly in dogs (243) and cats (182). Factors either raising suspicion, or facilitating recognition, of NAI included: implication of a particular person, features of the history, referral agency involvement, behaviour of the owner and/or the animal, nature of the injuries, and socioeconomic class of owners. Additionally, sexual abuse and suspected cases of Munchausen syndrome by proxy were recorded.

  20. FERMIGTRIG - Fermi GBM Trigger Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by one or more of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO). Note that there are two Browse catalogs resulting from GBM...

  1. Enhanced detection of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes by AGILE

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Ursi, A; Gjesteland, T; Fuschino, F; Labanti, C; Galli, M; Tavani, M; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; D'Amico, F; Østgaard, N; Mereghetti, S; Campana, R; Cattaneo, P W; Bulgarelli, A; Colafrancesco, S; Dietrich, S; Longo, F; Gianotti, F; Giommi, P; Rappoldi, A; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A

    2016-01-01

    At the end of March 2015 the onboard software configuration of the AGILE satellite was modified in order to disable the veto signal of the anticoincidence shield for the minicalorimeter instrument. The motivation for such a change was the understanding that the dead time induced by the anticoincidence prevented the detection of a large fraction of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs). The configuration change was highly successful resulting in an increase of one order of magnitude in TGF detection rate. As expected, the largest fraction of the new events has short duration ($< 100 \\mathrm {\\mu s}$), and part of them has simultaneous association with lightning sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The new configuration provides the largest TGF detection rate surface density (TGFs/$\\mathrm{km^2}$/year) to date, opening prospects for improved correlation studies with lightning and atmospheric parameters on short spatial and temporal scales along the equatorial region.

  2. ATLAS-TPX: a two-layer pixel detector setup for neutron detection and radiation field characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, B.; Caicedo, I.; Leroy, C.; Pospisil, S.; Vykydal, Z.

    2016-10-01

    A two-layer pixel detector setup (ATLAS-TPX), designed for thermal and fast neutron detection and radiation field characterization is presented. It consists of two segmented silicon detectors (256 × 256 pixels, pixel pitch 55 μm, thicknesses 300 μm and 500 μm) facing each other. To enhance the neutron detection efficiency a set of converter layers is inserted in between these detectors. The pixelation and the two-layer design allow a discrimination of neutrons against γs by pattern recognition and against charged particles by using the coincidence and anticoincidence information. The neutron conversion and detection efficiencies are measured in a thermal neutron field and fast neutron fields with energies up to 600 MeV. A Geant4 simulation model is presented, which is validated against the measured detector responses. The reliability of the coincidence and anticoincidence technique is demonstrated and possible applications of the detector setup are briefly outlined.

  3. Detection limits of the NaI(Tl) shielded HPGe spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bikit, I; Krmar, M; Durcic, Z; Zikic, N; Conkic, L; Veskovic, M; Anicin, I V

    1999-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the low-level performance of a NaI(Tl) shield added to an iron shielded HPGe spectrometer are presented. Both the 'slow' and the 'fast' anticoincidence gating modes were tested, the 'slow' mode being found better suited for general low-level spectroscopy applications. In long runs the stability of the system in this mode is satisfactory. The anticoincidence action of the NaI(T1) shield lowers the integral background of the iron shielded HPGe detector in the energy range from 30 keV to 2 MeV by a factor of 6.5, and suppresses the continuum above 150 keV by a factor larger than 10.

  4. AcEST: DK951855 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|P38982|RSSA_CRIGR 40S ribosomal protein SA OS=Cricetulus gris... 260 5e-69 sp|P38980|RSSA_TRIGR 40S ribosomal protein SA OS=Tripn...eustes gra... 255 1e-67 sp|Q9Y7L8|RS0A_SCHPO 40S ribosom

  5. Response of the Atlantic Ocean circulation to Greenland Ice Sheet melting in a strongly-eddying ocean model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Maltrud, M.E.; Hecht, M.W.; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467; Kliphuis, M.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) to high-latitude freshwater input is one of the key uncertainties in the climate system. Considering the importance of the AMOC for global heat transports, and the vulnerability of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to global

  6. ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland – Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.; Ticconi, F.

    2013-01-01

    GrIS analysis stem from the radar altimeters on-board Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2. The accuracy of laser data exceeds that of radar altimetry; the Round Robin analysis has, however, proven the latter equally capable of dealing with surface topography thereby making such data applicable in SEC analyses...

  7. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D.;

    2016-01-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across...

  8. Surface elevation change of outlet glaciers in northwestern Greenland for 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaki, S.; Bjork, A. A.; Sugiyama, S.

    2015-12-01

    Ice discharge from calving glaciers has increased in the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), and this increase plays important roles in the volume change of GrIS and its contribution to sea level rise. Thinning of GrIS calving glaciers has been studied by differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived by satellite remote-sensing. Measurement period of such studies is limited by availability of satellite data, and thus surface elevation change of Greenlandic glaciers and ice caps are few for the period before the satellite era. In this study, we measured surface elevation change of marine-terminating Bowdoin and Sun Glaciers and land-terminating Tugto Glacier in northwestern Greenland (77°35'-77°56'N, 68°00'-69°45'W), using aerial photographs acquired in 1985 and recent satellite data. The aerial photographs taken by Danish National Survey were analyzed by the digital photogrammetric technique to derive DEMs with a 25 m grid mesh. We also generated DEMs on August 20, 2007 and September 4, 2010, by analyzing Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), Panchromatic remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) images. Vertical coordinates of DEMs were calibrated by comparing the elevation over a relatively flat (loss is more significant in calving glaciers as compared with land-terminating glaciers. This result suggests the importance of ice dynamics and/or ice-ocean interaction in the mass loss of GrIS.

  9. The present-day climate of Greenland : a study with a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, J.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day climate of Greenland Over the past 20 years, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has warmed. This temperature increase can be explained by an increase in downwelling longwave radiation due to a warmer overlying atmosphere. These temperature changes are strongly correlated to changes in the la

  10. Sediment plumes as a proxy for local ice-sheet runoff in Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGRATH, D.; Steffen, K.; Overeem, I.; Mernild, S. H.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Meltwater runoff is an important component of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and contributes to eustatic sea-level rise. In situ measurements of river runoff at the ∼325 outlets are nonexistent due to logistical difficulties. We develop a novel methodology using satellite observa

  11. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H

    2012-01-01

    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs selecte

  12. On the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea level change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broeke, M.R.; Enderlin, E.M.; Howat, I.M.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Noël, B.P.Y.; Jan Van De Berg, W.; Van Meijgaard, E.; Wouters, B.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the recent contribution of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) to sea level change. We use the mass budget method, which quantifies ice sheet mass balance (MB) as the difference between surface mass balance (SMB) and solid ice discharge across the grounding line (D). A comparison with independe

  13. Contemporary (1960–2012) Evolution of the Climate and Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Angelen, J. H.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Wouters, B.; Lenaerts, J. T M

    2013-01-01

    We assess the contemporary (1960–2012) surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), its individual components and trends. We use output of the high-resolution (11 km) regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2), evaluated with automatic weather stations and GRACE data. A persistent

  14. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice...

  15. Career Aspirations of Malaysian Research and Development Professionals in the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maimunah; Ramly, Efizah Sofiah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to compare the influence of self-efficacy, organizational socialization and continuous improvement (CI) practices on the career aspirations of research and development (R&D) professionals in government research institutes (GRIs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia. R&D professionals in this study…

  16. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V

    2014-06-08

    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  17. Representing Greenland ice sheet freshwater fluxes in climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, Jan T M; Le Bars, Dewi; Van Kampenhout, Leo; Vizcaino, Miren; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a long-term (1850-2200) best estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) freshwater runoff that improves spatial detail of runoff locations and temporal resolution. Ice discharge is taken from observations since 2000 and assumed constant in time. Surface meltwater runoff is retrieved from

  18. A mascon approach to assess ice sheet and glacier mass balances and their uncertainties from GRACE data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, E.J.O.; Wouters, B.; Rietbroek, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the mass changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), Ice Sheets over Antarctica, and Land glaciers and Ice Caps with a global mascon method that yields monthly mass variations at 10,242 mascons. Input for this method are level 2 data from the Gravity Recovery an

  19. Melting trends over the Greenland ice sheet (1958–2009) from spaceborne microwave data and regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Tedesco, M.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Ettema, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831913

    2011-01-01

    To study near-surface melt changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) since 1979, melt extent estimates from two regional climate models were compared with those obtained from spaceborne microwave brightness temperatures using two different remote sensing algorithms. The results from the two models

  20. Annual Greenland accumulation rates (2009–2012 from airborne Snow Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Koenig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor surface mass balance (SMB in order to improve sea-level rise predictions. Here, we quantify accumulation rates, the largest component of GrIS SMB, at a higher spatial resolution than currently available, using Snow Radar stratigraphy. We use a semi-automated method to derive annual-net accumulation rates from airborne Snow Radar data collected by NASA's Operation IceBridge from 2009 to 2012. An initial comparison of the accumulation rates from the Snow Radar and the outputs of a regional climate model (MAR shows that, in general, the radar-derived accumulation matches closely with MAR in the interior of the ice sheet but MAR estimates are high over the southeast GrIS. Comparing the radar-derived accumulation with contemporaneous ice cores reveals that the radar captures the annual and long-term mean. The radar-derived accumulation rates resolve large-scale patterns across the GrIS with uncertainties of up to 11 %, attributed mostly to uncertainty in the snow/firn density profile.

  1. Annual Greenland accumulation rates (2009-2012) from airborne Snow Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L. S.; Ivanoff, A.; Alexander, P. M.; MacGregor, J. A.; Fettweis, X.; Panzer, B.; Paden, J. D.; Forster, R. R.; Das, I.; McConnell, J.; Tedesco, M.; Leuschen, C.; Gogineni, P.

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor surface mass balance (SMB) in order to improve sea-level rise predictions. Here, we quantify accumulation rates, the largest component of GrIS SMB, at a higher spatial resolution than currently available, using Snow Radar stratigraphy. We use a semi-automated method to derive annual-net accumulation rates from airborne Snow Radar data collected by NASA's Operation IceBridge from 2009 to 2012. An initial comparison of the accumulation rates from the Snow Radar and the outputs of a regional climate model (MAR) shows that, in general, the radar-derived accumulation matches closely with MAR in the interior of the ice sheet but MAR estimates are high over the southeast GrIS. Comparing the radar-derived accumulation with contemporaneous ice cores reveals that the radar captures the annual and long-term mean. The radar-derived accumulation rates resolve large-scale patterns across the GrIS with uncertainties of up to 11 %, attributed mostly to uncertainty in the snow/firn density profile.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-1819 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1819 ref|XP_360004.2| hypothetical protein MGG_05379 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK06032.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05379 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360004.2 0.84 29% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-02-0182 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-02-0182 ref|XP_367191.2| hypothetical protein MGG_07116 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03811.1| hypothetical protein MGG_07116 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367191.2 1e-35 20% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-16-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-16-0000 ref|XP_360477.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10789 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94965.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10789 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360477.1 4e-06 43% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2222 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2222 ref|XP_367042.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10672 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ93900.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10672 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367042.1 0.14 34% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-06-0027 ref|XP_369017.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369017.2 0.003 28% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-26-0230 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-26-0230 ref|XP_361742.2| hypothetical protein MGG_04216 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ99530.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04216 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361742.2 0.041 31% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1771 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1771 ref|XP_362881.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08556 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ97065.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08556 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_362881.1 6.9 27% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-01-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-01-0119 ref|XP_369590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96535.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369590.1 0.029 27% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0029 ref|XP_360222.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05596 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK06294.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05596 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360222.1 5.6 41% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0225 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0225 ref|XP_370101.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06616 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00426.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06616 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_370101.1 2.1 27% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1309 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1309 ref|XP_362210.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04655 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05556.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04655 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_362210.1 0.91 30% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-0711 ref|XP_366726.1| hypothetical protein MGG_02802 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK01748.1| hypothetical protein MGG_02802 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366726.1 2e-07 26% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0661 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0661 ref|XP_361041.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03584 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94503.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03584 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361041.2 3.4 28% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1289 ref|XP_363526.2| hypothetical protein MGG_01452 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK04841.1| hypothetical protein MGG_01452 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_363526.2 2.5 27% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0876 ref|XP_365562.2| conserved hypothetical protein [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ98814.1| conserved hypothetical protein [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_365562.2 8e-15 35% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1552 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1552 ref|XP_360759.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03302 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03302 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360759.1 0.14 21% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-01-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-01-0047 ref|XP_369590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96535.1| hypothetical protein MGG_05874 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369590.1 0.060 24% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0383 ref|XP_361721.2| hypothetical protein MGG_04195 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ99501.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04195 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361721.2 1.4 24% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-15-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-15-0004 ref|XP_368867.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00377 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03011.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00377 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_368867.2 1.6 30% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0031 ref|XP_366069.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10289 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94136.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10289 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366069.2 1.0 27% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0935 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0935 ref|XP_364470.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09456 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94837.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09456 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364470.1 9.1 31% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0047 ref|XP_369017.2| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK03184.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00227 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369017.2 2e-06 26% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0046 ref|XP_369408.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06056 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96319.1| hypothetical protein MGG_06056 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_369408.1 2e-26 28% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-06-0041 ref|XP_364130.2| hypothetical protein MGG_08975 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05195.1| hypothetical protein MGG_08975 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364130.2 0.61 31% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-05-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-05-0055 ref|XP_361085.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03628 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94444.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03628 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_361085.2 4e-63 35% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-20-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-20-0000 ref|XP_364258.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09103 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00931.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09103 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364258.2 0.009 36% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-35-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-35-0010 ref|XP_366326.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10544 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94748.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10544 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366326.2 0.49 29% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1439 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1439 ref|XP_364531.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09395 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ98925.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09395 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364531.1 4e-09 35% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0248 ref|XP_364794.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09639 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK05898.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09639 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364794.2 2.1 45% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-02-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-02-0029 ref|XP_366265.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10484 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ96746.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10484 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_366265.1 5e-12 76% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0721 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0721 ref|XP_360709.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00241.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360709.2 0.47 36% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0662 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0662 ref|XP_364606.2| hypothetical protein MGG_09320 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94763.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09320 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364606.2 0.019 34% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1333 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1333 ref|XP_359811.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04966 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ95455.1| hypothetical protein MGG_04966 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_359811.1 1.2 33% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2901 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2901 ref|XP_368487.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00757 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK02590.1| hypothetical protein MGG_00757 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_368487.1 3.4 22% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0188 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0188 ref|XP_360837.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03380 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00095.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03380 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360837.2 0.084 25% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-1198 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-1198 ref|XP_360819.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03362 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00116.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03362 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360819.1 6.8 27% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2937 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2937 ref|XP_360709.2| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDK00241.1| hypothetical protein MGG_03252 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_360709.2 0.46 36% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-10-0019 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-10-0019 ref|XP_367068.2| hypothetical protein MGG_10698 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ94112.1| hypothetical protein MGG_10698 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_367068.2 2.8 30% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-1572 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1572 ref|XP_364376.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09221 [Magnaporthe gris...ea 70-15] gb|EDJ97982.1| hypothetical protein MGG_09221 [Magnaporthe grisea 70-15] XP_364376.1 3.5 26% ...

  1. Accelerated mass loss from Greenland ice sheet : Links to atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, Ki-Weon; Waliser, Duane E.; Lee, Choon-Ki; Tian, Baijun; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; van Angelen, Jan H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, Michiel R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    Understanding the mechanisms that drive the mass imbalance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is critical to the accurate projection of its contribution to future sea level rise. Greenland's ice mass loss has been accelerating recently. Using satellite Earth-gravity and regional climate model data,

  2. Additions to the genus Kania (Myrtaceae) in Malesia with notes on Cloezia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, Peter G.

    1982-01-01

    The genus Kania Schltr. is defined and its relationship with Metrosideros Banks ex Gaertn. and Cloezia Brongniart et Gris (= Mooria Montr.) is clarified. Two new combinations are made: Kania urdanetensis (basionym Photinia urdanetensis Elmer, transferred from Cloezia) and K. microphylla (basionym Tr

  3. Timing and origin of recent regional ice-mass loss in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasgen, Ingo; van den Broeke, Michiel; Bamber, J.L.Jonathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decade, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its surroundings have experienced record high surface temperatures (Mote, 2007; Box et al., 2010), ice sheet melt extent (Fettweis et al., 2011) and record-low summer sea-ice extent (Nghiem et al., 2007). Using three independent data sets......-off (M/R) and precipitation (P) all contribute, in a complex and regionally variable interplay, to the increasingly negative mass balance of the GrIS observed within the last decade. Interannual variability in P along the northwest and west coasts of the GrIS largely explains the apparent regional mass...... loss increase during 2002–2010, and obscures increasing M/R and D since the 1990s. In winter 2002/2003 and 2008/2009, accumulation anomalies in the east and southeast temporarily outweighed the losses by M/R and D that prevailed during 2003–2008, and after summer 2010. Overall, for all basins of the GrIS...

  4. Betydningen af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus for daglig tilvækst hos slagtesvin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Markku; Nielsen, Mai Britt Friis; Dahl, Jan

    Resultaterne af denne undersøgelse viser at: - Grise med store mængder Lawsonia i gødningen (≥106/gram gødning) har større risiko (OR=5,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med synlige tarmforandringer har større risiko (OR=13,2) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. - Grise med...... diarré har større risiko (OR=10,1) for at være en langsomt voksende gris. Derimod kunne der ikke påvises nogen sammenhæng mellem mængden af PCV2 virus, antistoffer mod PCV2 virus eller påvisning af PCV2 virus ved immunhistokemi i tarmlymfeknude og tilvæksten hos grise. Undersøgelsen er gennemført i 5...... virus og Lawsonia på DTU-Veterinærinstitutet. For hver gris blev den maksimalt målte værdi af Lawsonia og PCV2 virus mængde i gødning og antistoffer mod de to sygdomme brugt som forklarende variabel. Sammenhængen til hurtigt/langsomt voksende grise for de maksimalt målte værdier blev undersøgt ved...

  5. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model I

  6. Representing Greenland ice sheet freshwater fluxes in climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Le Bars, D.; Van Kampenhout, L.; Vizcaino, M.; Enderlin, E.M.; Van den Broeke, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a long-term (1850–2200) best estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) freshwater runoff that improves spatial detail of runoff locations and temporal resolution. Ice discharge is taken from observations since 2000 and assumed constant in time. Surface meltwater runoff is retrieved from

  7. Mergers between governmental research institutes and Universities in the Danish HE sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Kaare; Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the mergers in the Danish Higher Education (HE)-sector with a particular emphasis on the 2007 mergers involving universities and Government Research Institutes (GRIs). Furthermore, it follows the post-merger processes up to 2014/2015 at two Danish universities...

  8. Greenland uplift and regional sea level changes from ICESat observations and GIA modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spada, G.; Ruggieri, G.; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg;

    2012-01-01

    We study the implications of a recently published mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), derived from repeated surface elevation measurements from NASA’s ice cloud and land elevation satellite (ICESat) for the time period between 2003 and 2008. To characterize the effects of this new, hi...

  9. Anthropogenic contribution to the intense warming over Greenland in July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maycock, Amanda; Drinkwater, Alice; Gregoire, Lauren; Lacour, Adrien

    2017-04-01

    Increasing surface melt is a major contributor to the recent acceleration in mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). Surface melt peaked during the exceptionally warm conditions in July 2012 when virtually the entire surface of the GrIS melted, a rare event that last occurred in 1889. Here we use a large ensemble of climate model experiments to show, for the first time, that the likelihood for the maximum near-surface temperature at Summit, the highest and coldest point on the GrIS, to exceed freezing in July 2012 was significantly increased by around a factor of 3 as a result of anthropogenic warming. The likelihood of melting at Summit in 2012 may have been further enhanced by the increase in summertime atmospheric blocking over Greenland over the past 25 years, which is not reproduced by current climate models. We further show that the occurrence of Greenland blocking increases liquid cloud cover over northern Greenland, a process that enhanced melt at Summit in July 2012. This suggests a connection between the large-scale atmospheric circulation and the local surface energy budget, which is important for understanding climate extremes over the GrIS.

  10. The 1958-2009 Greenland ice sheet surface melt and the mid-tropospheric atmospheric circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Mabille, G.; Erpicum, M.; Nicolay, S.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of the mid-tropospheric circulation over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) on surface melt, as simulated by the regional climate model MAR, an automatic Circulation type classification (CTC) based on 500 hPa geopotential height from reanalyses is developed. General circula

  11. Impact of spatial resolution on the modelling of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance between 1990–2010, using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to force an ice dynamical model, the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS surface mass balance (SMB was modelled at different spatial resolutions (15–50 km for the period 1990–2010, using the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional forced by the ERA-INTERIM reanalysis. This comparison revealed that (i the inter-annual variability of the SMB components is consistent within the different spatial resolutions investigated, (ii the MAR model simulates heavier precipitation on average over the GrIS with diminishing spatial resolution, and (iii the SMB components (except precipitation can be derived from a simulation at lower resolution with an ''intelligent'' interpolation. This interpolation can also be used to approximate the SMB components over another topography/ice sheet mask of the GrIS. These results are important for the forcing of an ice dynamical model, needed to enable future projections of the GrIS contribution to sea level rise over the coming centuries.

  12. Ricardo Garibay y la Muralla China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juarez G., Delia

    2013-01-01

    ... apenas, gris y rojo, que curvea por crestas y hondonadas de cerros pelones. En cambio veo esto: la muralla hace arcos en una explanada de cemento, donde se han estacionado los coches y andan choferes, lugarenos y gente de la gira. Estamos en un valle minusculo, ojo de hondura rodeado de montanas, y por una vereda viene bajando una carreta; tira de ella ...

  13. Neuro-spect: Imaginología funcional en psiqyuiatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Ismael Mena

    2013-01-01

    Las imágenes son adquiridas con un sistema E.CAM de dos cabezales Siemens Co y los resultados son comparados con una base de datos normales para el mismo grupo etario y los resultados entonces demostrados con un escala de colores calibrada en desviaciones estándar sobre y bajo el rango normal que aparece en color gris.

  14. Representing Greenland ice sheet freshwater fluxes in climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Le Bars, D.; Van Kampenhout, L.; Vizcaino, M.; Enderlin, E.M.; Van den Broeke, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a long-term (1850–2200) best estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) freshwater runoff that improves spatial detail of runoff locations and temporal resolution. Ice discharge is taken from observations since 2000 and assumed constant in time. Surface meltwater runoff is retrieved from

  15. Nitrate addition has minimal short-term impacts on greenland ice sheet supraglacial prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Karen A; Stibal, Marek; Chrismas, Nathan; Box, Jason; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21(st) century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist. Estimated bulk and active cryoconite community cell abundance was unaltered by nitrate additions when compared to control holes using a quantitative PCR approach, and nitrate was found to have a minimal affect on the dominant 16S rRNA gene-based community composition. Together, these results indicate that sampled cryoconite communities were not nitrate limited at the time of sampling. Instead, temporal changes in biomass and community composition were more pronounced. As these in situ incubations were short (6 weeks), and the community composition across GrIS surface ice is highly variable, we suggest that further efforts should be considered to investigate the potential long-term impacts of increased nitrate across the GrIS. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Meltwater export of prokaryotic cells from the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Karen A; Stibal, Marek; Hawkings, Jon R; Mikkelsen, Andreas B; Telling, Jon; Kohler, Tyler J; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Zarsky, Jakub D; Wadham, Jemma L; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2017-02-01

    Microorganisms are flushed from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) where they may contribute towards the nutrient cycling and community compositions of downstream ecosystems. We investigate meltwater microbial assemblages as they exit the GrIS from a large outlet glacier, and as they enter a downstream river delta during the record melt year of 2012. Prokaryotic abundance, flux and community composition was studied, and factors affecting community structures were statistically considered. The mean concentration of cells exiting the ice sheet was 8.30 × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and we estimate that ∼1.02 × 10(21) cells were transported to the downstream fjord in 2012, equivalent to 30.95 Mg of carbon. Prokaryotic microbial assemblages were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. Cell concentrations and community compositions were stable throughout the sample period, and were statistically similar at both sample sites. Based on our observations, we argue that the subglacial environment is the primary source of the river-transported microbiota, and that cell export from the GrIS is dependent on discharge. We hypothesise that the release of subglacial microbiota to downstream ecosystems will increase as freshwater flux from the GrIS rises in a warming world. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Melting glaciers stimulate large summer phytoplankton blooms in southwest Greenland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Castelao, Renato M.; Luo, Hao; Rennermalm, Ósa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Mote, Thomas L.; Oliver, Hilde; Yager, Patricia L.

    2017-06-01

    Each summer, large quantities of freshwater and associated dissolved and particulate material are released from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) into local fjords where they promote local phytoplankton growth. Whether the influx of freshwater and associated micronutrients in glacial meltwater is able to stimulate phytoplankton growth beyond the fjords is disputed, however. Here we show that the arrival of freshwater discharge from outlet glaciers from both southeast and southwest GrIS coincides with large-scale blooms in the Labrador Sea that extend over 300 km from the coast during summer. This summer bloom develops about a week after the arrival of glacial meltwater in early July and persists until the input of glacial meltwater slows in August or September, accounting for 40% of annual net primary production for the area. In view of the absence of a significant change in the depth of the mixed layer associated with the arrival of glacial meltwater to the Labrador Sea, we suggest that the increase in phytoplankton biomass and productivity in summer is likely driven by a greater nutrient supply (most likely iron). Our results highlight that the ecological impact of meltwater from the GrIS likely extends far beyond the boundaries of the local fjords, encompassing much of the eastern Labrador Sea. Such impacts may increase if melting of the GrIS accelerates as predicted.

  18. Sediment plumes as a proxy for local ice-sheet runoff in Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGRATH, D.; Steffen, K.; Overeem, I.; Mernild, S. H.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Meltwater runoff is an important component of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and contributes to eustatic sea-level rise. In situ measurements of river runoff at the ∼325 outlets are nonexistent due to logistical difficulties. We develop a novel methodology using satellite

  19. Representing Greenland ice sheet freshwater fluxes in climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, Jan T M; Le Bars, Dewi; Van Kampenhout, Leo; Vizcaino, Miren; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a long-term (1850-2200) best estimate of Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) freshwater runoff that improves spatial detail of runoff locations and temporal resolution. Ice discharge is taken from observations since 2000 and assumed constant in time. Surface meltwater runoff is retrieved from

  20. A tipping point in refreezing accelerates mass loss of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, B; van de Berg, W J; Lhermitte, S; Wouters, B; Machguth, H; Howat, I; Citterio, M; Moholdt, G; Lenaerts, J T M; van den Broeke, M R

    2017-03-31

    Melting of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its peripheral glaciers and ice caps (GICs) contributes about 43% to contemporary sea level rise. While patterns of GrIS mass loss are well studied, the spatial and temporal evolution of GICs mass loss and the acting processes have remained unclear. Here we use a novel, 1 km surface mass balance product, evaluated against in situ and remote sensing data, to identify 1997 (±5 years) as a tipping point for GICs mass balance. That year marks the onset of a rapid deterioration in the capacity of the GICs firn to refreeze meltwater. Consequently, GICs runoff increases 65% faster than meltwater production, tripling the post-1997 mass loss to 36±16 Gt(-1), or ∼14% of the Greenland total. In sharp contrast, the extensive inland firn of the GrIS retains most of its refreezing capacity for now, buffering 22% of the increased meltwater production. This underlines the very different response of the GICs and GrIS to atmospheric warming.

  1. A tipping point in refreezing accelerates mass loss of Greenland's glaciers and ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, B.; van de Berg, W. J.; Lhermitte, S.; Wouters, B.; Machguth, H.; Howat, I.; Citterio, M.; Moholdt, G.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    Melting of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its peripheral glaciers and ice caps (GICs) contributes about 43% to contemporary sea level rise. While patterns of GrIS mass loss are well studied, the spatial and temporal evolution of GICs mass loss and the acting processes have remained unclear. Here we use a novel, 1 km surface mass balance product, evaluated against in situ and remote sensing data, to identify 1997 (+/-5 years) as a tipping point for GICs mass balance. That year marks the onset of a rapid deterioration in the capacity of the GICs firn to refreeze meltwater. Consequently, GICs runoff increases 65% faster than meltwater production, tripling the post-1997 mass loss to 36+/-16 Gt-1, or ~14% of the Greenland total. In sharp contrast, the extensive inland firn of the GrIS retains most of its refreezing capacity for now, buffering 22% of the increased meltwater production. This underlines the very different response of the GICs and GrIS to atmospheric warming.

  2. Antimicrobial action of essential oil vapours and negative air ions against Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A K; Malik, A

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of essential oil (in liquid as well as in vapour phase) and negative air ions (NAI) against Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combined effect of NAI with essential oil vapour was also investigated to determine kill time and morphological changes in bacterial cells. The MIC of Cymbopogon citratus (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha arvensis (0.567 mg/ml), Mentha piperita (1.125 mg/ml) and Eucalyptus globulus (2.25 mg/ml) was studied via the agar dilution method. To estimate the antibacterial activity of essential oils in the vapour phase, agar plates inoculated with P. fluorescens were incubated with various concentrations of each essential oil vapour and zone of inhibition was recorded. Further, in order to assess the kill time, P. fluorescens inoculated agar plates were exposed to selected bactericidal essential oil vapour and NAI, separately, in an air-tight chamber. A continuous decrease in bacterial count was observed over time. A significant enhancement in the bactericidal action was observed by exposure to the combination of essential oil vapour and NAI as compared to their individual action. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the alteration in morphology of P. fluorescens cells after exposure to C. citratus oil vapour, NAI, and combination of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. Maximum morphological deformation was found due to the combined effect of C. citratus oil vapour and NAI. This study demonstrates that the use of essential oils in the vapour phase is more advantageous than the liquid phase. Further the antibacterial effect of the essential oil vapours can be significantly enhanced by the addition of NAI. The work described here offers a novel and efficient approach for control of bacterial contamination that could be applied for food stabilization practices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poly[μ2-aqua-(μ3-2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonatosodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. M. Al-Dajani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na(C6H3Cl2O3S(H2O]n, the NaI ion is pentacoordinated by three dichlorobenzenesulfonate anions and two water molecules, forming a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The NaI ions are bridged by the sulfonate groups and the water molecules, leading to a polymeric layer structure parallel to the bc plane in which O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed.

  4. AcEST: DK956492 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IKRGQL 188 >tr|Q9PTC2|Q9PTC2_NOTAT Phospholipase A2 inhibitor alpha subunit isoform NAI-3A OS=Note...holipase A2 inhibitor alpha chain iii OS=Notechis scutatus PE=2 SV=1 Length = 202 Score = 35.0 bits (79), Ex...inhibitor alpha subunit isoform NAI-1A OS=Notechis ater PE=2 SV=1 Length = 202 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expec

  5. Exploring the chemical space of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapat Anuwongcharoen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fight against the emergence of mutant influenza strains has led to the screening of an increasing number of compounds for inhibitory activity against influenza neuraminidase. This study explores the chemical space of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs, which provides an opportunity to obtain further molecular insights regarding the underlying basis of their bioactivity. In particular, a large set of 347 and 175 NAIs against influenza A and B, respectively, was compiled from the literature. Molecular and quantum chemical descriptors were obtained from low-energy conformational structures geometrically optimized at the PM6 level. The bioactivities of NAIs were classified as active or inactive according to their half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 value in which IC50 < 1µM and ≥ 10µM were defined as active and inactive compounds, respectively. Interpretable decision rules were derived from a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR model established using a set of substructure descriptors via decision tree analysis. Univariate analysis, feature importance analysis from decision tree modeling and molecular scaffold analysis were performed on both data sets for discriminating important structural features amongst active and inactive NAIs. Good predictive performance was achieved as deduced from accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient values in excess of 81% and 0.58, respectively, for both influenza A and B NAIs. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed to investigate the binding modes and their moiety preferences of active NAIs against both influenza A and B neuraminidases. Moreover, novel NAIs with robust binding fitness towards influenza A and B neuraminidase were generated via combinatorial library enumeration and their binding fitness was on par or better than FDA-approved drugs. The results from this study are anticipated to be beneficial for guiding the rational drug design of novel NAIs for treating influenza

  6. Effects of glial glutamate transporter inhibitors on intracellular Na+ in mouse astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, J Y; Shimamoto, K; Magistretti, P J

    2001-03-02

    The effects of inhibitors of the glial Na+/glutamate co-transporter on the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+](i)) were investigated in mouse cortical astrocytes. [Na+](i) was monitored by fluorescence microscopy on single astrocytes using the Na+-sensitive probe sodium-binding benzofuran isophtalate. Application of the competitive inhibitors threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA) and trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (t-PDC) resulted in robust and reversible increases in [Na+](i) that were comparable in shape to the response to glutamate but about twice lower in amplitude. As previously observed with glutamate, the amplitude of the [Na+](i) response to these compounds was concentration-dependent with EC(50) values of 11.1 microM (THA) and 7.6 microM (t-PDC), as was the initial rate of [Na+](i) rise (EC(50) values of 14.8 microM for THA and 11.5 microM for t-PDC). Both compounds diminished the response to subsequent glutamate applications, possibly because of an inhibitory effect of the intracellularly-accumulated compounds. In comparison, the newly-developed compound threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) alone did not cause any significant alteration of [Na+](i) up to a concentration of 500 microM . TBOA inhibited the [Na+](i) response evoked by 200 microM glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 114 and 63 microM, as measured on the amplitude and the initial rate, respectively. The maximum inhibition of glutamate-evoked [Na+](i) increase by TBOA was approximately 70%. The residual response persisted in the presence of a non-NMDA receptor antagonist or the inhibitor of the GLT-1 glutamate transporters, dihydrokainate (DHK). In view of the complete reversibility of its effects, TBOA represents a very useful pharmacological tool for studies of glutamate transporters.

  7. Standardization of {sup 57}Co using different methods of LNMRI; Padronizacao do {sup 57}Co por diferentes metodos do LNMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: eduarda.rezende@ifrj.edu.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graducacao em Engenharia (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ/LNMRI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    2015-07-01

    The activity of a {sup 57}Co solution was determined using four LNMRI different measurement methods. The solution was standardized by live-timed anti-coincidence method and sum-peak method. The efficiency curve and standard-sample comparison methods were also used in this comparison. The results and their measurement uncertainties demonstrating the equivalence of these methods. As an additional contribution, the gamma emission probabilities of {sup 57}Co were also determined. (author)

  8. Primary standardization of a {sup 177}Lu solution; Padronizacao primaria de uma solucao de {sup 177}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre, E-mail: eduarda@ird.gov.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica (CEFET), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose to make available reliable standards of {sup 177}Lu to the users and producers, a radionuclide solution was standardized using the primary methods of coincidence 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)) and of 4{pi}{beta}(LS)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)). The results presented a convergence in the range of evaluated uncertainties. The standard uncertainties were of the 0.50 and 0.74% for the anticoincidence and coincidence respectively

  9. Measurement of Total Reaction Cross-sections with Heavy Ions at the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the measurement of heavy ion total reaction cross-sections in the energy range 40-86 MeV/A with the anti-coincidence beam attenuation technique. A system of 19 @DE scintillation detectors together with a time-of-flight measurement is used for detection of the residual beam. The results will complete measurements at the Grenoble cyclotron and post accelerator over the energy range 10-40 MeV/A.

  10. Greenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patrick M.; Tedesco, Marco; Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Luthcke, Scott B.; Fettweis, Xavier; Larour, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. At these scales, processes responsible for mass change are less well understood and modeled, and could potentially play an important role in future GrIS mass change. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the January 2003-December 2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of -178.9 ± 4.4 and -239.4 ± 7.7 Gt yr-1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet-wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, some areas exhibit significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or processes not accounted for by models related

  11. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modeling in a 131-year perspective, 1950-2080

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hiemstra, Christopher [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Christensen, Jens [DANISH METEOROLOGICAL INS.

    2009-01-01

    Fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass-balance (SMB) and freshwater influx to the surrounding oceans closely follow climate fluctuations and are of considerable importance to the global eustatic sea level rise. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate variations in the GrIS melt extent, surface water balance components, changes in SMB, and freshwater influx to the ocean. The simulations are based on the IPCC scenario AlB modeled by the HIRHAM4 RCM (using boundary conditions from ECHAM5 AOGCM) from 1950 through 2080. In-situ meteorological station (GC-Net and WMO DMI) observations from inside and outside the GrIS were used to validate and correct RCM output data before it was used as input for SnowModel. Satellite observations and independent SMB studies were used to validate the SnowModel output and confirm the model's robustness. We simulated a {approx}90% increase in end-of-summer surface melt extent (0.483 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2}) from 1950 to 2080, and a melt index (above 2,000-m elevation) increase of 138% (1.96 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} x days). The greatest difference in melt extent occured in the southern part of the GrIS, and the greatest changes in the number of melt days was seen in the eastern part of the GrIS ({approx}50-70%) and was lowest in the west ({approx}20-30%). The rate of SMB loss, largely tied to changes in ablation processes, lead to an enhanced average loss of 331 km{sup 3} from 1950 to 2080, an average 5MB level of -99 km{sup 3} for the period 2070-2080. GrIS surface freshwater runoff yielded an eustatic rise in sea level from 0.8 {+-} 0.1 (1950-1959) to 1.9 {+-} 0.1 mm (2070-2080) sea level equivalent (SLE) y{sup -1}. The accumulated GrIS freshwater runoff contribution from surface melting equaled 160 mm SLE from 1950 through 2080.

  12. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENGAGEN; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Mcgrath, Daniel [UNIV OF COLORADO; Yde, Jacob [UNIV OF AARHUS

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  13. Exploring the functional diversity of the supraglacial environment: Microbial degradation of the pesticide 2,4-D on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, M.; Bælum, J.; Holben, W. E.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) harbours a diverse community of heterotrophic microorganisms. Organic compounds of anthropogenic origin, including pesticides, are deposited on the GrIS; however, the fate of these compounds in the ice is currently unknown. In this study we determine the potential of the microbial community from the surface of the GrIS to mineralise the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). It is one of the most easily degraded compounds among the phenoxyacetic acid pesticides, and the ability to mineralise 2,4-D has been found to be widespread in microbial communities around the globe. Functional genes involved in the degradation pathway have also been characterised. Thus, 2,4-D represents a very suitable model compound to use in order to gain an insight into pollutant degradation dynamics in the rapidly changing Arctic region. We collected surface ice cores on the GrIS and incubated them for up to 529 days in microcosms simulating in situ conditions. We measured mineralisation of side-chain- and ring-labelled 14C-2,4-D in the samples and performed quantitative PCR targeting the tfdA gene, encoding an enzyme catalysing the first step in the degradation pathway of 2,4-D, in the DNA extracted from the ice after the experiments. We show that the microbial community on the surface of the GrIS is of low diversity, but contains microbes capable of degrading 2,4-D. The low diversity of the community and the similarity of the detected clones to those from other icy environment clones suggest that the bacterial community on the GrIS is selected from a pool of propagules deposited on the surface of the ice sheet, based on the level of adaptation to the conditions in the surface ice. The 2,4-D degraders are likely present in very low numbers, and they can mineralise 2,4-D at a rate of up to 1 nmol per m2 per day, equivalent to ~26 ng C m-2 d-1. We contend that the surface of the GrIS should not be considered to be a mere reservoir of

  14. GABA uptake into astrocytes is not associated with significant metabolic cost: implications for brain imaging of inhibitory transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Jean-Yves; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2003-10-14

    Synaptically released glutamate has been identified as a signal coupling excitatory neuronal activity to increased glucose utilization. The proposed mechanism of this coupling involves glutamate uptake into astrocytes resulting in increased intracellular Na+ (Nai+) and activation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Increased metabolic demand linked to disruption of Nai+ homeostasis activates glucose uptake and glycolysis in astrocytes. Here, we have examined whether a similar neurometabolic coupling could operate for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), also taken up by Na+-dependent transporters into astrocytes. Thus, we have compared the Nai+ response to GABA and glutamate in mouse astrocytes by microspectrofluorimetry. The Nai+ response to GABA consisted of a rapid rise of 4-6 mM followed by a plateau that did not, however, significantly activate the pump. Indeed, the GABA transporter-evoked Na+ influxes are transient in nature, almost totally shutting off within approximately 30 sec of GABA application. The metabolic consequences of the GABA-induced Nai+ response were evaluated by monitoring cellular ATP changes indirectly in single cells and measuring 2-deoxyglucose uptake in astrocyte populations. Both approaches showed that, whereas glutamate induced a robust metabolic response in astrocytes (decreased ATP levels and glucose uptake stimulation), GABA did not cause any measurable metabolic response, consistent with the Nai+ measurements. Results indicate that GABA does not couple inhibitory neuronal activity with glucose utilization, as does glutamate for excitatory neurotransmission, and suggest that GABA-mediated synaptic transmission does not contribute directly to brain imaging signals based on deoxyglucose.

  15. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  16. Design of a hybrid gas proportional counter with CdTe guard counters for sup 1 sup 4 C dating system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Hinamoto, N; Nakazawa, M; Yoshida, K

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays uniform, low-cost and large-size compound semiconductor detectors are available up to several square centimeters. We are trying to combine this technology with conventional gas detectors to upgrade an anticoincidence type proportional counter, Oeschger-type thin wall counter of 2.2 l, used for a sup 1 sup 4 C dating facility at the University of Tokyo. In order to increase the ratio of the signal to the background for smaller quantity of samples less than 1 g, an effective approach is to minimize the detector volume at higher gas pressure. However, the anticoincidence function suffers from such a small volume. Therefore we designed a new active wall gas counter of 0.13 l counting volume using CdTe compound semiconductor detectors as the wall of the gas proportional counter to perform anticoincidence. Simulation study showed that at noise thresholds less than 70 keV, the wall counters can reject above 99.8% of events arising from outer gamma rays. Measured noise levels of CdTe detectors were smaller t...

  17. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENHAGEN; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  18. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  19. Atmospheric Drivers of Greenland Surface Melt Revealed by Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioduszewski, J. R.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A.; Tedesco, M.; Noble, E. U.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent acceleration in surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has occurred concurrently with a rapidly warming Arctic and has been connected to persistent, anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns over Greenland. To identify synoptic setups favoring enhanced GrIS surface melt and their decadal changes, we develop a summer Arctic synoptic climatology by employing self-organizing maps. These are applied to daily 500 hPa geopotential height fields obtained from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis, 1979-2014. Particular circulation regimes are related to meteorological conditions and GrIS surface melt estimated with outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional. Our results demonstrate that the largest positive melt anomalies occur in concert with positive height anomalies near Greenland associated with wind, temperature, and humidity patterns indicative of strong meridional transport of heat and moisture. We find an increased frequency in a 500 hPa ridge over Greenland coinciding with a 63% increase in GrIS melt between the 1979-1988 and 2005-2014 periods, with 75.0% of surface melt changes attributed to thermodynamics, 17% to dynamics, and 8.0% to a combination. We also confirm that the 2007-2012 time period has the largest dynamic forcing relative of any period but also demonstrate that increased surface energy fluxes, temperature, and moisture separate from dynamic changes contributed more to melt even during this period. This implies that GrIS surface melt is likely to continue to increase in response to an ever warmer future Arctic, regardless of future atmospheric circulation patterns.

  20. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Kjaer, K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, S. A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Larsen, N. K.; Long, A. J.; Woodroffe, S.; Milne, G. A.; Wahr, J. M.; Geruo, A.; Bamber, J. L.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here, we adopt a novel geometric approach to determine the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) mass loss of the GrIS. We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded between 1978 and 1987 to map morphological features such as trim lines (boundary between freshly eroded and non-eroded bedrock) and end moraines marking the ice extent of the LIA, which thereby enables us to obtain vertical point-based differences associated with changes in ice extent. These point measurements are combined with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2002-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent of the LIA to 2010 derived for three intervals, LIAmax (1900) - 1978/87, 1978/87 - 2002, and 2002 - 2010. Results suggest that despite highly spatially- and temporally variable post-LIA mass loss, the total mass loss and thus the contribution from the GrIS to global SLR has accelerated significantly during the 20th Century.

  1. Impact of fine debris on ice melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rachel; Linighan, James; Cumming, Alex M. J.

    2017-04-01

    Losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have increased sharply in recent years, due to accelerated glacier discharge and increased surface melting. In 2012, 99% of the Greenland ice sheet experienced melt, which was exceptional on centennial timescales, but is expected to occur frequently in the future, as climate warms. Ice albedo is a primary control on melt rates and remotely sensed data shows that the GrIS has darkened substantial in recent decades, due to both inorganic and biological material. This has been particularly marked in south- and central-west Greenland and can lead to the development of positive feedbacks. Consequently, it is important to understand the relationship between melt and surface albedo on the GrIS. Here we use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field data to assess the impact of fine debris on melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland. Our field data demonstrate that areas with a greater percentage coverage of fine, largely inorganic debris experienced higher melt rates than in areas with a sparse coverage. However, the relationship between melt and debris cover was highly spatially variable. Furthermore, the debris cover evolved substantially over time and we saw marked changes over a period of a few days. Using ASTER imagery, we show that the spatial extent of debris has expanded markedly in this section of the GrIS during the last decade, which could substantially accelerate melting. However, the complex and variable relationship between debris cover and melt rates highlights the need for further research, in order to accurately forecast its impact on GrIS melt rates.

  2. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  3. Comparative Usability Study of a Novel Auto-Injector and an Intranasal System for Naloxone Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Evan T; Edwards, Eric S; Davis, Erin; Mulcare, Maureen; Wiklund, Michael; Kelley, Glen

    2015-06-01

    The standard of care for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression associated with opioid overdose is injectable naloxone. This study compared the usability of two naloxone delivery devices, a naloxone auto-injector (NAI) and a naloxone intranasal delivery system (NXN), in the administration of naloxone during a simulated opioid overdose emergency. NAI (EVZIO (®) ; kaleo, Inc., Richmond, VA, USA) is a Food and Drug Administration approved single-use pre-filled auto-injector containing 0.4 mg of naloxone. Study participants were randomly assigned to administer naloxone using NAI and NXN, sequentially. The primary endpoint was successful administration of a simulated dose of naloxone into a mannequin during a simulated opioid emergency, both before and after receiving training. Secondary endpoints included using the NAI or NXN in accordance with the instructions-for-use and the comparative measurement of successful completion time of administration for both NAI and NXN. A total of 42 healthy participants aged 18-65 years were enrolled in the study. The proportion of participants able to successfully administer a simulated dose of naloxone was significantly greater for NAI compared to NXN both before (90.5% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and after (100% vs. 57.1%, respectively, P < 0.0001) participant training. The proportion of participants able to administer a simulated dose of naloxone in accordance with the instructions-for-use was also significantly greater for NAI compared to NXN before (85.7% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and after (100% vs. 0.0%, respectively, P < 0.0001) participant training. The average time to task completion for administration attempt before training was 0.9 ± 0.25 min for NAI versus 6.0 ± 4.76 min for NXN and after training was 0.5 ± 0.15 min for NAI versus 2.0 ± 2.15 min for NXN. Laypersons experienced substantially greater success administering a simulated dose of naloxone, both before and

  4. Inhibitory effects of (2S, 3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA) on the astrocytic sodium responses to glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Luigi; Chatton, Jean-Yves

    2010-02-26

    Astrocytes are responsible for the majority of the clearance of extracellular glutamate released during neuronal activity. dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) is extensively used as inhibitor of glutamate transport activity, but suffers from relatively low affinity for the transporter. Here, we characterized the effects of (2S, 3S)-3-[3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoylamino]benzyloxy]aspartate (TFB-TBOA), a recently developed inhibitor of the glutamate transporter on mouse cortical astrocytes in primary culture. The glial Na(+)-glutamate transport system is very efficient and its activation by glutamate causes rapid intracellular Na(+) concentration (Na(+)(i)) changes that enable real time monitoring of transporter activity. Na(+)(i) was monitored by fluorescence microscopy in single astrocytes using the fluorescent Na(+)-sensitive probe sodium-binding benzofuran isophtalate. When applied alone, TFB-TBOA, at a concentration of 1 microM, caused small alterations of Na(+)(i). TFB-TBOA inhibited the Na(+)(i) response evoked by 200 microM glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) value of 43+/-9 nM, as measured on the amplitude of the Na(+)(i) response. The maximum inhibition of glutamate-evoked Na(+)(i) increase by TFB-TBOA was >80%, but was only partly reversible. The residual response persisted in the presence of the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist CNQX. TFB-TBOA also efficiently inhibited Na(+)(i) elevations caused by the application of d-aspartate, a transporter substrate that does not activate non-NMDA ionotropic receptors. TFB-TBOA was found not to influence the membrane properties of cultured cortical neurons recorded in whole-cell patch clamp. Thus, TFB-TBOA, with its high potency and its apparent lack of neuronal effects, appears to be one of the most useful pharmacological tools available so far for studying glial glutamate transporters.

  5. A quantitative analysis of L-glutamate-regulated Na+ dynamics in mouse cortical astrocytes: implications for cellular bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, J Y; Marquet, P; Magistretti, P J

    2000-11-01

    The mode of Na+ entry and the dynamics of intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) changes consecutive to the application of the neurotransmitter glutamate were investigated in mouse cortical astrocytes in primary culture by video fluorescence microscopy. An elevation of [Na+]i was evoked by glutamate, whose amplitude and initial rate were concentration dependent. The glutamate-evoked Na+ increase was primarily due to Na+-glutamate cotransport, as inhibition of non-NMDA ionotropic receptors by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxiline-2,3-dione (CNQX) only weakly diminished the response and D-aspartate, a substrate of the glutamate transporter, produced [Na+]i elevations similar to those evoked by glutamate. Non-NMDA receptor activation could nevertheless be demonstrated by preventing receptor desensitization using cyclothiazide. Thus, in normal conditions non-NMDA receptors do not contribute significantly to the glutamate-evoked Na+ response. The rate of Na+ influx decreased during glutamate application, with kinetics that correlate well with the increase in [Na+]i and which depend on the extracellular concentration of glutamate. A tight coupling between Na+ entry and Na+/K+ ATPase activity was revealed by the massive [Na+]i increase evoked by glutamate when pump activity was inhibited by ouabain. During prolonged glutamate application, [Na+]i remains elevated at a new steady-state where Na+ influx through the transporter matches Na+ extrusion through the Na+/K+ ATPase. A mathematical model of the dynamics of [Na+]i homeostasis is presented which precisely defines the critical role of Na+ influx kinetics in the establishment of the elevated steady state and its consequences on the cellular bioenergetics. Indeed, extracellular glutamate concentrations of 10 microM already markedly increase the energetic demands of the astrocytes.

  6. Evidence synthesis and decision modelling to support complex decisions: stockpiling neuraminidase inhibitors for pandemic influenza usage [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel I. Watson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The stockpiling of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI antivirals as a defence against pandemic influenza is a significant public health policy decision that must be made despite a lack of conclusive evidence from randomised controlled trials regarding the effectiveness of NAIs on important clinical end points such as mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether NAIs should be stockpiled for treatment of pandemic influenza on the basis of current evidence. Methods: A decision model for stockpiling was designed. Data on previous pandemic influenza epidemiology was combined with data on the effectiveness of NAIs in reducing mortality obtained from a recent individual participant meta-analysis using observational data. Evidence synthesis techniques and a bias modelling method for observational data were used to incorporate the evidence into the model. The stockpiling decision was modelled for adults (≥16 years old and the United Kingdom was used as an example. The main outcome was the expected net benefits of stockpiling in monetary terms. Health benefits were estimated from deaths averted through stockpiling. Results: After adjusting for biases in the estimated effectiveness of NAIs, the expected net benefit of stockpiling in the baseline analysis was £444 million, assuming a willingness to pay of £20,000/QALY ($31,000/QALY. The decision would therefore be to stockpile NAIs. There was a greater probability that the stockpile would not be utilised than utilised. However, the rare but catastrophic losses from a severe pandemic justified the decision to stockpile. Conclusions: Taking into account the available epidemiological data and evidence of effectiveness of NAIs in reducing mortality, including potential biases, a decision maker should stockpile anti-influenza medication in keeping with the postulated decision rule.

  7. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ((Na+)i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for (Na+)i. Five rat RBC specimens had (Na+)i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing (6,6-2H2)glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in (Na+)i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in (Na+)i in the two groups of patients. The (Na+)i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the (Na+)i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism.

  8. Characterizing Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance via assimilation of spaceborne surface temperature, albedo, and passive microwave data into a physically-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, M.; Bateni, S.; Margulis, S. A.; Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its significant impact on sea level rise and Arctic climate. Accurate estimates of space-time maps of surface mass balance (SMB) components including precipitation, runoff, and evaporation over the GrIS would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent unprecedented changes (e.g., increase in melt amount and duration, thickening of ice sheet interior, and thinning at the margins) and forecasting its changes in the future. In situ measurement of the SMB components across the GrIS is difficult and costly, and thus there are only a limited number of sparse measurements. Remote sensing retrievals are capable of providing some estimates of SMB terms and/or SMB indicators (i.e. melt onset), but generally provide an incomplete picture of the SMB. Additional efforts have focused on the use of regional climate models coupled to surface models in an effort to obtain spatially and temporally continuous estimates of the SMB. However, these estimates are prone to model errors and are generally unconstrained by the remote sensing record. To overcome these uncertainties and consequently improve estimates of the GrIS SMB, an ensemble data assimilation approach is developed for characterizing the SMB and its uncertainty. The EnBS consists of two steps: forecast and update. In the forecast step, an unconditional estimate of SMB using the MAR regional climate model and an ensemble implementation of the CROCUS snow is obtained that includes appropriate uncertainty in key SMB forcings. In the update step, the estimate is conditioned on remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST), albedo, and passive microwave (1.4, 6.9, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz) measurements to provide a posterior estimate of the GrIS SMB components. The end result is an estimate that benefits from the regional atmospheric and snow models, but is also constrained by remote sensing data streams. The assimilation approach is tested for

  9. Annual Greenland accumulation derived from airborne radar and comparisons to modeled and in situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Ivanoff, A.; Alexander, P. M.; MacGregor, J. A.; Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mass loss across the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated in recent decades and recently a fundamental change in the nature of this mass loss has begun. The dominant GrIS mass-loss process has switched from ice dynamics to surface mass balance (SMB) processes, including melt generation and runoff. This recent shift further emphasizes the need to monitor and constrain SMB, which, across most of the GrIS, is dominated by accumulation. High resolution, near-surface radar data have shown good fidelity at mapping spatial patterns of accumulation to validate model outputs. To better constrain accumulation over the GrIS, we derive annual accumulation rates using NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) Snow Radar data collected from 2009 through 2012. Accumulation is calculated using the radar-determined depth to an annual layer and the local snow/firn density profile. Up to 30 years of annual stratigraphy is observed in the interior of the ice sheet, near Summit Station, while only the past year is detectable in the ablation zone around the perimeter of the ice sheet. Annual layering is traced using a semi-automatic algorithm and mapped across large areas (tens of thousands of line kilometers). A combined measured and modeled density profile is used to convert the annual stratigraphy into accumulation. Modeled density profiles from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) model are shown to be less than half of in situ observations in the top 1 m of snow/firn and are, therefore, replaced with in situ measurements. Using a compilation of in situ measurements, the mean GrIS snow/firn density is found to be ~340 +/- 40 kg/m3 in the top 1 m. Error in the snow density profile represents the largest error in the radar-derived accumulation. The pattern of radar-derived accumulation rate compares well with MAR estimates, although the latter has a mean bias of 4.6 cm water equivalent, a root mean square error of 16.8 cm water equivalent and a correlation coefficient of 0.6 across

  10. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  11. Greenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs and ice sheet models (ISMs to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites for the 2003–2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM. In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of −179 and −240 Gt yr−1 respectively in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, there are significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or unaccounted-for processes related to ice dynamics or hydrology may lead to the observed differences. This highlights the need for further evaluation of modelled processes at regional and seasonal scales, and further study of ice sheet

  12. Mass loss from the southern half of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Vinther, Bo; Andresen, Camilla S.; Long, Antony J.; Woodroffe, Sarah A.; Steen Hansen, Eric; Olsen, Jesper

    2013-04-01

    The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice sheet (GrIS) on the 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to immense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest SLR of 15-20 cm computing the input constituents is of great concern - in particular for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge founded in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here, we show a novel geometric approach to determine the post-Little Ice Age (LIA) mass loss of the southern GrIS. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS south of 71N since retreat commence from the maximum extent of the LIA to 2010. The mass loss estimates are derived for three intervals, LIAmax (1900) - 1981/85 (1), 1981/85 - 2002 (2), and 2002 - 2010 (3). We use high quality aerial stereo photogrammetric imagery recorded in 1981 and 1985 to map morphological features such as trim lines (boundary between freshly eroded and non-eroded bedrock) and end moraines marking the ice extent of the LIA, which thereby enables us to obtain vertical difference associated with former ice extent. We combine these with contemporary ice surface differences derived using NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) from 2002-2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. Using our novel approach we find mass loss rates for the above periods (1) to (3) of 53 Gt/yr, 46 Gt/yr, and 109 Gt/yr, respectively. In southeast GrIS we find substantial and extensive mass loss reaching the ice divide while in southwestern GrIS mass loss is less and mainly associated with marine outlet glaciers. Furthermore, post-LIA mass loss is found to be highly variable, even

  13. Chaotropic Etching for Fabricating Microwells for Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Nobuhiro; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Yuzo; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Ikuro; Yasuda, Kenji

    Formation of simple neuronal networks in vitro is one of the promising methods to study biological information processing. Agarose microchambers have several advantages to form and maintain simple network structures. Here, in this work, a novel method for fabricating microwells in an agarose-layer is reported. Chaotropic effects of sodium iodide (NaI) is applied for etching agarose films. A conventional glass micropipette filled with NaI solution was aligned and a small amount of NaI was ejected to surface of the film. The agarose was denatured by the soaked NaI. The denatured agarose was washed out by distilled water. The size of the well was determined by the quantity of ejected NaI solution and its diffusion time. Conditions for fabricating wells of 100 to 600 μm diameters were established. Multiple wells up to 100 were formed on a single surface sequentially by programmed movement of the microscope stage. Rat hippocampal neurons were successfully cultured in the wells. Combining this method with microelectrode-array substrates will enable us of recording neuronal activity from simple neuronal networks as well as co-culture systems of heterogeneous tissues.

  14. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended.

  15. HaidaLink : a clean energy solution for Haida Gwaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M. [NaiKun Wind Development Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    NaiKun Wind Energy Group has worked in partnership with First Nations and the wind power industry to meet the energy needs of remote communities in British Columbia. NaiKun developed North America's first offshore wind project. This presentation introduced NaiKun's proposed HaidaLink Project connecting Haida Gwaii to the BC electricity grid via an underwater cable. Approximately 100 turbines in the Hecate Strait currently provide 320 MW of wind energy. NaiKun has contributed to the objectives of Haida Gwaii which include the preservation and stewardship of Haida Gwaii; develop employment potential; provide income for the community; manage new resource development; and, replace diesel generation. Currently, there are 3 generating stations on Haida Gwaii, notably 2 diesel and 1 hydro. In 2006, the load was 52 GWh. The northern and southern grids are not connected. Greenhouse gas emissions are 26,000 tonnes per year and economic growth is impeded by the poor reliability and quality of power. The community is in support of displacing diesel generation. The first phase of NaiKun's HaidaLink project involves the installation of a 50 km, 70 kV cable to connect Haida Gwaii with the BC grid. The $54 million project depends on approval and participation of BC Hydro and the British Columbia Utilities Commission, and is contingent upon completion of an environmental impact assessment. figs.

  16. A Cytoplasmic Protein Ssl3829 Is Important for NDH-1 Hydrophilic Arm Assembly in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhuo; Gao, Fudan; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhao, Jiaohong; Ogawa, Teruo; Ma, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Despite significant progress in clarifying the subunit compositions and functions of the multiple NDH-1 complexes in cyanobacteria, the assembly factors and their roles in assembling these NDH-1 complexes remain elusive. Two mutants sensitive to high light for growth and impaired in NDH-1-dependent cyclic electron transport around photosystem I were isolated from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 transformed with a transposon-tagged library. Both mutants were tagged in the ssl3829 gene encoding an unknown protein, which shares significant similarity with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CHLORORESPIRATORY REDUCTION7. The ssl3829 product was localized in the cytoplasm and associates with an NDH-1 hydrophilic arm assembly intermediate (NAI) of about 300 kD (NAI300) and an NdhI maturation factor, Slr1097. Upon deletion of Ssl3829, the NAI300 complex was no longer visible on gels, thereby impeding the assembly of the NDH-1 hydrophilic arm. The deletion also abolished Slr1097 and consequently reduced the amount of mature NdhI in the cytoplasm, which repressed the dynamic assembly process of the NDH-1 hydrophilic arm because mature NdhI was essential to stabilize all functional NAIs. Therefore, Ssl3829 plays an important role in the assembly of the NDH-1 hydrophilic arm by accumulating the NAI300 complex and Slr1097 protein in the cytoplasm.

  17. [Negative air ions generated by plants upon pulsed electric field stimulation applied to soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-ye; Deng, Chuan-yuan; Yang, Zhi-jian; Weng, Hai-yong; Zhu, Tie-jun-rong; Zheng, Jin-gui

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigated the capacity of plants (Schlumbergera truncata, Aloe vera var. chinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Schlumbergera bridgesii, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii, Aspidistra elatior, Cymbidium kanran, Echinocactus grusonii, Agave americana var. marginata, Asparagus setaceus) to generate negative air ions (NAI) under pulsed electric field stimulation. The results showed that single plant generated low amounts of NAI in natural condition. The capacity of C. comosum and G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii generated most NAI among the above ten species, with a daily average of 43 ion · cm(-3). The least one was A. americana var. marginata with the value of 19 ion · cm(-3). When proper pulsed electric field stimulation was applied to soil, the NAI of ten plant species were greatly improved. The effect of pulsed electric field u3 (average voltage over the pulse period was 2.0 x 10(4) V, pulse frequency was 1 Hz, and pulse duration was 50 ms) was the greatest. The mean NAI concentration of C. kanran was the highest 1454967 ion · cm(-3), which was 48498.9 times as much as that in natural condition. The lowest one was S. truncata with the value of 34567 ion · cm(-3), which was 843.1 times as much as that in natural condition. The capacity of the same plants to generate negative air ion varied extremely under different intensity pulsed electric fields.

  18. The Greenland Ice Sheet at the peak of warming during the previous Interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rybak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Last Interglacial (LIG or the Eemian between ca. 130 and 115 kyr BP is probably the best analogue for future climate warming for which increasingly better proxy data are becoming available. The volume of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS during this period is of particular interest to better assess how much and how fast sea-level can rise in a future Earth undergoing gradual climatic warming. Sea-level during the LIG is inferred to have been up to 9 meter higher than today, but contribution of the GrIS into this rise remains unclear. Various ice-sheet modeling studies have come up with a very broad range of the LIG volume loss by the GrIS to between 60 cm and 6 m of equivalent sea-level rise. This wide range is explained by the sensitivity of GrIS models to the imposed climatic conditions and to poor knowledge of the LIG climate itself in terms of the magnitude and precise timing of the maximum warming, as well as in terms of spatial and annual patterns. To partially circumvent these uncertainties we made use of the newest temperature record over the Central Greenland reconstructed from the isotopic composition of the recently obtained NEEM ice core containing undisturbed LIG segment to build the climatic forcing of the model. The NEEM record unequivocally indicates times of the start and of the end of the LIG warming in Greenland as well as the duration of the warmest time period within the Eemian. Using a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet model, we produced an ensemble of possible LIG configurations by varying only four key parameters for temperature, precipitation rate, surface melting magnitude and melting pattern within realistic bounds. The outcome of a series of the numerical experiments is a variety of glaciologically consistent GrIS geometries corresponding to a wide range of possible «climates». To constrain the ensemble of GrIS geometries, we used data inferred from 5 Greenland ice cores such as the presence or absence of

  19. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...... and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge...... and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs...

  20. Modelling the behavior of the Jakobshavn glacier since the end of the Little Ice Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Khroulev, Constantine; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas;

    2014-01-01

    Current model estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are almost entirely based on coarse grids (>10km) and constrained by climate models that span from 60s to present. To improve the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance beyond decadal...... timescale is required. Here, we use a continuous 171 year reconstruction (since the end of the Little Ice Age) by J.E. Box of the Greenland Ice Sheet climatic surface mass balance and its sub-components to study the interaction between climate and the cryosphere originating in changes in the surface mass...... balance and dynamics of the GrIS over the last 171 years. Throughout our study, we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) capabilities. The initialization of the ice sheet is performed on a 5 km grid using paleo climatic forcing (-125 ka to present) based on a positive degree day (PDD) model...

  1. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messerli, Alexandra

    Recent studies have likened the seasonal observations of ice flow at the marginal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to those found on smaller alpine and valley counterparts. These similarities highlight the need for further small scale studies of seasonal evolution in the hydrological...... and dynamic structure of valley glaciers, to aid interpretation of observations from the margins of the GrIS. This thesis aims to collate a large suit of glacio-hydrological data from the outlet glacier Engabreen, Norway, in order to better understand the role the subglacial drainage configuration has...... on surface velocities recorded at the site. The Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL) under Engabreen, augmented by additional subglacial pressure and hydrological measurements, provides a invaluable observations for detailed process-oriented studies. However, the lack of complementary surface velocity data...

  2. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    The main focus of this thesis is on geodetic methods of estimating mass change of the GrIS, mainly through photogrammetric processing of historical aerial photographs, which are used to produce a Greenland-wide digital elevation model for the years 1978-1987. Photogrammetric stereo-models are also...... by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... and after its 1963/1964 surge. Combined with field-surveyed geodetic control and a digital map of landforms, DEMs of Difference are produced and analysed on a landform and landsystems level. Large volumes of sediment was mobilized during the surge, of which the subglacial environment accounts for two...

  3. Subglacial water drainage, storage, and piracy beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Hubbard, A. L.; Doyle, S. H.; As, D.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Fitzpatrick, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Meltwater drainage across the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is well constrained by measurements and modeling, yet despite its critical role, knowledge of its transit through the subglacial environment remains limited. Here we present a subglacial hydrological analysis of a land-terminating sector of the GrIS at unprecedented resolution that predicts the routing of surface-derived meltwater once it has entered the basal drainage system. Our analysis indicates the probable existence of small subglacial lakes that remain undetectable by methods using surface elevation change or radar techniques. Furthermore, the analysis suggests transient behavior with rapid switching of subglacial drainage between competing catchments driven by seasonal changes in the basal water pressure. Our findings provide a cautionary note that should be considered in studies that attempt to relate and infer future response from surface temperature, melt, and runoff from point measurements and/or modeling with measurements of proglacial discharge and ice dynamics.

  4. Greenland Ice sheet mass balance from satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bevis, M. G.; Wahr, J. M.

    and therefore significantly improve the estimate of the total volume change. Furthermore, we divide the GrIS into six major drainage basins and provide volume loss estimates during 2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012 for each basin and separate between melt induced and dynamic ice loss. In order to separate...... dynamic ice loss from melt processes, we use SMB values from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) and SMB values from a positive degree day runoff retention model (Janssens & Huybrechts 2000, Hanna et al. 2011 JGR, updated for this study). Our results show increasing SMB ice loss over the last......Ice loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is dominated by loss in the marginal areas. Dynamic induced ice loss and its associated ice surface lowering is often largest close to the glacier calving front and may vary from rates of tens of meters per years to a few meters per year over relatively...

  5. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: Archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E.A.A.; Blicher, M.E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthabsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (delta O-18(w)) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records......Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We...

  6. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, Martin E.; Mortensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records......Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models...... these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate...

  7. Response of the North Atlantic dynamic sea level and circulation to Greenland meltwater and climate change in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Oleg A.; Yang, Duo; Myers, Paul G.

    2016-12-01

    The response of the North Atlantic dynamic sea surface height (SSH) and ocean circulation to Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) meltwater fluxes is investigated using a high-resolution model. The model is forced with either present-day-like or projected warmer climate conditions. In general, the impact of meltwater on the North Atlantic SSH and ocean circulation depends on the surface climate. In the two major regions of deep water formation, the Labrador Sea and the Nordic Seas, the basin-mean SSH increases with the increase of the GrIS meltwater flux. This SSH increase correlates with the decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, while in the Labrador Sea the warming forcing and GrIS meltwater input lead to sea level rise, in the Nordic Seas these two forcings have an opposite influence on the convective mixing and basin-mean SSH (relative to the global mean). The warming leads to less sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas, which favours stronger surface heat loss and deep mixing, lowering the SSH and generally increasing the transport of the East Greenland Current. In the Labrador Sea, the increased SSH and weaker deep convection are reflected in the decreased transport of the Labrador Current (LC), which closes the subpolar gyre in the west. Among the two major components of the LC transport, the thermohaline and bottom transports, the former is less sensitive to the GrIS meltwater fluxes under the warmer climate. The SSH difference across the LC, which is a component of the bottom velocity, correlates with the long-term mean AMOC rate.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: turkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=NS ...

  9. Fantasías de nubes al viento: primera ronda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León de Greiff

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available Oiga entonces, óye, oíd palabras sin sentido conocido: Las otras son tan huecas si sonoras (dice mi risa como tambor de feria (añejo símil de Perogrullo "profundas", "salomónicas" (torna a decir Mi Risa o Mi Sonrisa. -Tan profundas que no se toca fondo- (símil vetusto asaz, no nada gris, mas sí del buen Monsieur de la Palice...

  10. Determinantes sociales de la salud y el trabajo informal

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Vélez Álvarez; María del Pilar Escobar Potes; María Eugenia Pico Merchán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir elementos teóricos sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud en la población trabajadora informal y condiciones sociales, modos de vida y repercusiones en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Estrategia de búsqueda: Búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos especializadas (Ovid, Proquest, Hinary, Medline, LILACS, Literatura gris). Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras claves: condiciones sociales, factores socioeconómicos, fuerza de trabajo, empleo; de igual forma se retoman texto...

  11. Probing deep photospheric layers of the quiet Sun with high magnetic sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Doerr, H.-P.; Martínez González, M. J.; Riethmüller, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Franz, M.; Feller, A.; Kuckein, C.; Schmidt, W.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Pastor Yabar, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Volkmer, R.; Staude, J.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.; Kneer, F.; Waldmann, T.; Borrero, J. M.; Sobotka, M.; Verma, M.; Louis, R. E.; Rezaei, R.; Soltau, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Sigwarth, M.; Schmidt, D.; Kiess, C.; Nicklas, H.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Investigations of the magnetism of the quiet Sun are hindered by extremely weak polarization signals in Fraunhofer spectral lines. Photon noise, straylight, and the systematically different sensitivity of the Zeeman effect to longitudinal and transversal magnetic fields result in controversial results in terms of the strength and angular distribution of the magnetic field vector. Aims: The information content of Stokes measurements close to the diffraction limit of the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope is analyzed. We took the effects of spatial straylight and photon noise into account. Methods: Highly sensitive full Stokes measurements of a quiet-Sun region at disk center in the deep photospheric Fe i lines in the 1.56 μm region were obtained with the infrared spectropolarimeter GRIS at the GREGOR telescope. Noise statistics and Stokes V asymmetries were analyzed and compared to a similar data set of the Hinode spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP). Simple diagnostics based directly on the shape and strength of the profiles were applied to the GRIS data. We made use of the magnetic line ratio technique, which was tested against realistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations (MURaM). Results: About 80% of the GRIS spectra of a very quiet solar region show polarimetric signals above a 3σ level. Area and amplitude asymmetries agree well with small-scale surface dynamo-magneto hydrodynamic simulations. The magnetic line ratio analysis reveals ubiquitous magnetic regions in the ten to hundred Gauss range with some concentrations of kilo-Gauss fields. Conclusions: The GRIS spectropolarimetric data at a spatial resolution of ≈0.̋4 are so far unique in the combination of high spatial resolution scans and high magnetic field sensitivity. Nevertheless, the unavoidable effect of spatial straylight and the resulting dilution of the weak Stokes profiles means that inversion techniques still bear a high risk of misinterpretating the data.

  12. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  13. Il Nuovo soggettario in Aleph 500

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrizzi, Andrea; Baldi, Paolo; Fama, Marianovella; Sabini, Luciana

    2008-01-01

    This document illustrates a project for the adaptation of the ALEPH 500 software to the characteristics of the subject indexing language of "Nuovo soggettario", in respect of the international formats Unimarc/Authorities and Unimarc/Bibliographic. The base unit of the indexing language of "Nuovo soggettario", structured according to the method of GRIS (Gruppo di ricerca sull'indicizzazione per soggetto, Research Group on Subject Indexing), is the indexing term, either representing a concept o...

  14. Regional Greenland accumulation variability from Operation IceBridge airborne accumulation radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gabriel; Osterberg, Erich; Hawley, Robert; Whitmore, Brian; Marshall, Hans Peter; Box, Jason

    2017-03-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in a warming climate is of critical interest to scientists and the general public in the context of future sea-level rise. An improved understanding of temporal and spatial variability of snow accumulation will reduce uncertainties in GrIS mass balance models and improve projections of Greenland's contribution to sea-level rise, currently estimated at 0.089 ± 0.03 m by 2100. Here we analyze 25 NASA Operation IceBridge accumulation radar flights totaling > 17 700 km from 2013 to 2014 to determine snow accumulation in the GrIS dry snow and percolation zones over the past 100-300 years. IceBridge accumulation rates are calculated and used to validate accumulation rates from three regional climate models. Averaged over all 25 flights, the RMS difference between the models and IceBridge accumulation is between 0.023 ± 0.019 and 0.043 ± 0.029 m w.e. a-1, although each model shows significantly larger differences from IceBridge accumulation on a regional basis. In the southeast region, for example, the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MARv3.5.2) overestimates by an average of 20.89 ± 6.75 % across the drainage basin. Our results indicate that these regional differences between model and IceBridge accumulation are large enough to significantly alter GrIS surface mass balance estimates. Empirical orthogonal function analysis suggests that the first two principal components account for 33 and 19 % of the variance, and correlate with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), respectively. Regions that disagree strongest with climate models are those in which we have the fewest IceBridge data points, requiring additional in situ measurements to verify model uncertainties.

  15. Concepts for a global resources information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Urena, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Global Resources Information System (GRIS) is to establish an effective and efficient information management system to meet the data access requirements of NASA and NASA-related scientists conducting large-scale, multi-disciplinary, multi-mission scientific investigations. Using standard interfaces and operating guidelines, diverse data systems can be integrated to provide the capabilities to access and process multiple geographically dispersed data sets and to develop the necessary procedures and algorithms to derive global resource information.

  16. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post-Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Bamber, Jonathan L; Wahr, John; Willis, Michael; Kjær, Kurt H; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Csatho, Beata; Fleming, Kevin; Bjørk, Anders A; Aschwanden, Andy; Knudsen, Per; Munneke, Peter Kuipers

    2016-09-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year.

  17. Microbial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Bælum, Jacob; Holben, William E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jensen, Anders; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2012-08-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) receives organic carbon (OC) of anthropogenic origin, including pesticides, from the atmosphere and/or local sources, and the fate of these compounds in the ice is currently unknown. The ability of supraglacial heterotrophic microbes to mineralize different types of OC is likely a significant factor determining the fate of anthropogenic OC on the ice sheet. Here we determine the potential of the microbial community from the surface of the GrIS to mineralize the widely used herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Surface ice cores were collected and incubated for up to 529 days in microcosms simulating in situ conditions. Mineralization of side chain- and ring-labeled [(14)C]2,4-D was measured in the samples, and quantitative PCR targeting the tfdA genes in total DNA extracted from the ice after the experiment was performed. We show that the supraglacial microbial community on the GrIS contains microbes that are capable of degrading 2,4-D and that they are likely present in very low numbers. They can mineralize 2,4-D at a rate of up to 1 nmol per m(2) per day, equivalent to ∼26 ng C m(-2) day(-1). Thus, the GrIS should not be considered a mere reservoir of all atmospheric contaminants, as it is likely that some deposited compounds will be removed from the system via biodegradation processes before their potential release due to the accelerated melting of the ice sheet.

  18. Modelling heterogeneous meltwater percolation on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has experienced an increase of surface meltwater production over the last decades, with the latest record set in the summer of 2012. For current and future ice sheet mass balance assessments, it is important to quantify what part of this meltwater reaches the ocean and contributes to sea level change. Meltwater produced at the surface has several options: it can infiltrate the local firn pack, where it is either stored temporarily or refrozen, or it can run off along the surface or via en-glacial drainage systems. In this study, we focus on the first; more specifically, in which manner meltwater percolates the firn column. Over the past years, GrIS research has shown that meltwater does not infiltrate the firn pack homogeneously (i.e. matrix flow), but that inhomogeneities in horizontal firn layers causes preferential flow paths for meltwater (i.e. piping). Although this process has been observed and studied on a few isolated sites, it has never been examined on the entire GrIS. To do so, we use the firn model IMAU-FDM with new parameterizations for preferential flow, impermeable ice lenses and sub-surface runoff. At the surface, IMAU-FDM is forced with realistic climate data from the regional climate model RACMO2.3. The model results are evaluated with temperatures and density measurements from firn cores across the GrIS. By allowing for heterogeneous meltwater percolation, the model is able to store heat and mass much deeper in the firn column. This is, however, in part counteracted by the inclusion of impermeability of ice lenses, which causes part of the meltwater to run off horizontally.

  19. A literatura informal ainda é cinza?

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Puntel Mostafa,; Marisa Terra

    2013-01-01

    La comunicación científica está en medio de una revolución tecnológica que la transforma. A partir de un análisis de las relaciones interdependientes entre canales de comunicación y los contenidos que estos vehiculizan, se revisan los conceptos "literatura gris", "canales formales e informales" y "colegio invisible".

  20. A literatura informal ainda é cinza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Puntel Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación científica está en medio de una revolución tecnológica que la transforma. A partir de un análisis de las relaciones interdependientes entre canales de comunicación y los contenidos que estos vehiculizan, se revisan los conceptos "literatura gris", "canales formales e informales" y "colegio invisible".

  1. Determination of Wine Aroma Compounds by Head Space “In Tube Extraction” Technique and Gas Chromatography (HS-ITEX-GC/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa Vârva; Sonia Socaci; Anca Fărcaş; Liana Salanţă; Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu; Elena Mudura; Maria Tofană

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of vintage on the aroma compounds of white wine Episcopal from vineyard Ciumbrud, located in central Transylvania, by a non-destructive head space in tube extraction technique in tandem with GC-MS. The samples selected for analysis come from three consecutive years (2009, 2010 and 2011) from Episcopal assortment, a high quality wine obtained by blending three types of wine varieties: Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Pinot Gris. The results reflect the compos...

  2. Geodetic measurements reveal similarities between post–Last Glacial Maximum and present-day mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A.; Sasgen, Ingo; Bevis, Michael; van Dam, Tonie; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Wahr, John; Willis, Michael; Kjær, Kurt H.; Wouters, Bert; Helm, Veit; Csatho, Beata; Fleming, Kevin; Bjørk, Anders A.; Aschwanden, Andy; Knudsen, Per; Munneke, Peter Kuipers

    2016-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the millennial-scale mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to global sea-level rise remain challenging because of sparse in situ observations in key regions. Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the ongoing response of the solid Earth to ice and ocean load changes occurring since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; ~21 thousand years ago) and may be used to constrain the GrIS deglaciation history. We use data from the Greenland Global Positioning System network to directly measure GIA and estimate basin-wide mass changes since the LGM. Unpredicted, large GIA uplift rates of +12 mm/year are found in southeast Greenland. These rates are due to low upper mantle viscosity in the region, from when Greenland passed over the Iceland hot spot about 40 million years ago. This region of concentrated soft rheology has a profound influence on reconstructing the deglaciation history of Greenland. We reevaluate the evolution of the GrIS since LGM and obtain a loss of 1.5-m sea-level equivalent from the northwest and southeast. These same sectors are dominating modern mass loss. We suggest that the present destabilization of these marine-based sectors may increase sea level for centuries to come. Our new deglaciation history and GIA uplift estimates suggest that studies that use the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite mission to infer present-day changes in the GrIS may have erroneously corrected for GIA and underestimated the mass loss by about 20 gigatons/year. PMID:27679819

  3. Proteomic and metabolic traits of grape exocarp to explain different anthocyanin concentrations of the cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Negri, Alfredo S.; Prinsi, Bhakti; Failla, Osvaldo; Scienza, Attilio; Espen, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e., flavonoids). In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different ext...

  4. Proteomic and metabolic traits of grape exocarp to explain different anthocyanin concentrations of the cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Simone Negri; Bhakti ePrinsi; Osvaldo eFailla; Attilio eScienza; Luca eEspen

    2015-01-01

    The role of grape berry skin as a protective barrier against damage by physical injuries and pathogen attacks requires a metabolism able to sustain biosynthetic activities such as those relating to secondary compounds (i.e. flavonoids). In order to draw the attention on these biochemical processes, a proteomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed among Riesling Italico, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Croatina cultivars, which are known to accumulate anthocyanins to a different exten...

  5. Seychelles demersal fishery an analysis of data relating to four key demersal species

    OpenAIRE

    Mees, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    Seychelles demersal fishery is described based on historic catch and effort data, and on biological studies of four key species: Batrican (Pristipomoides filamentosus), Job Gris (Aprion virescens), Bourgeois (Lutjanus sebae), and Maconde (Epinephelus chlorostigma). During the period 1985 - 1990 demersal species formed on average 33_310= of the total annual landings of the local fishing fleet. Schooners and whalers were the most important boat types engaging in this fishery, and more recentl...

  6. Description d’une espèce nouvelle du genre Eugithopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.

    1892-01-01

    D’une forme ovale, couvert d’un enduit noirâtre sur le prothorax, brun-pourpre foncé sur les élytres, orné d’un dessin blanc-jaunâtre en dessus; dessous blanc-jaunâtre lavé de gris. — Long. 25 millim. (rostr. excl.). Espèce offrant beaucoup d’analogie avec E. elegans mihi, par la forme et le mode de

  7. Contemporary (1960-2012) Evolution of the Climate and Surface Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Angelen, J. H.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Wouters, B.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.

    2014-09-01

    We assess the contemporary (1960-2012) surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), its individual components and trends. We use output of the high-resolution (11 km) regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2), evaluated with automatic weather stations and GRACE data. A persistent negative North Atlantic oscillation index over the last 6 years resulted in the summertime advection of relatively warm continental air toward the GrIS. Added to the enhanced radiative forcing by increased CO2 levels, this has resulted in an increase in near-surface temperature of more than 2 K during 2007-2012 compared to 1960-1990. The associated decrease in albedo led to an extra absorption of shortwave radiation of ˜6 Wm-2 (11 %) in the summer months, which is the main driver of enhanced surface melting and runoff in recent years. From 1990 onward, we see a steady increase in meltwater runoff and an associated decrease in the SMB, accelerating after 2005, with the record low SMB year in 2010. Despite the fact that the GrIS was subject to the highest surface melt rates in 2012, relatively high accumulation rates prevented 2012 to set a record low SMB. In 2012, melt occurred relatively high on the ice sheet where melt water refreezes in the porous firn layer. Up to 2005, increased runoff was partly offset by increased accumulation rates. Since then, accumulation rates have decreased, resulting in low SMB values. Other causes of decreased SMB are the loss of firn pore space and decreasing refreezing rates in the higher ablation area. The GrIS has lost in total 1,800 ± 300 Gt of mass from surface processes alone since 1990 and about half of that in the last 6 years.

  8. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Michiel M.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Reerink, Thomas J.; Bintanja, Richard; Madsen, Marianne S.; Yang, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Qiong

    2017-08-01

    The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  9. Long-term ocean simulations in FESOM: evaluation and application in studying the impact of Greenland Ice Sheet melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhu; Wang, Qiang; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Danilov, Sergey; Schröter, Jens; Jung, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) is formulated on unstructured meshes and offers geometrical flexibility which is difficult to achieve on traditional structured grids. In this work, the performance of FESOM in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean on large time scales is evaluated in a hindcast experiment. A water-hosing experiment is also conducted to study the model sensitivity to increased freshwater input from Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melting in a 0.1-Sv discharge rate scenario. The variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the hindcast experiment can be explained by the variability of the thermohaline forcing over deep convection sites. The model also reproduces realistic freshwater content variability and sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean. The anomalous freshwater in the water-hosing experiment leads to significant changes in the ocean circulation and local dynamical sea level (DSL). The most pronounced DSL rise is in the northwest North Atlantic as shown in previous studies, and also in the Arctic Ocean. The released GrIS freshwater mainly remains in the North Atlantic, Arctic Ocean and the west South Atlantic after 120 model years. The pattern of ocean freshening is similar to that of the GrIS water distribution, but changes in ocean circulation also contribute to the ocean salinity change. The changes in Arctic and sub-Arctic sea level modify exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and subpolar seas, and hence the role of the Arctic Ocean in the global climate. Not only the strength of the AMOC, but also the strength of its decadal variability is notably reduced by the anomalous freshwater input. A comparison of FESOM with results from previous studies shows that FESOM can simulate past ocean state and the impact of increased GrIS melting well.

  10. Brief communication "Important role of the mid-tropospheric atmospheric circulation in the recent surface melt increase over the Greenland ice sheet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Lang, C.; Belleflamme, A.; Erpicum, M.; Gallée, H.

    2013-02-01

    Since 2007, there has been a series of surface melt records over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), continuing the trend towards increased melt observed since the end of the 1990's. The last two decades are characterized by an increase of negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) favouring warmer and drier summers than normal over GrIS. In this context, we use a circulation type classification based on daily 500 hPa geopotential height to evaluate the role of atmospheric dynamics in this surface melt acceleration for the last two decades. Due to the lack of direct observations, the interannual melt variability is gauged here by the summer (June-July-August) mean temperature from reanalyses at 700 hPa over Greenland; analogous atmospheric circulations in the past show that ~70% of the 1993-2012 warming at 700 hPa over Greenland has been driven by changes in the atmospheric flow frequencies. Indeed, the occurrence of anticyclones centred over the GrIS at the surface and at 500 hPa has doubled since the end of 1990's, which induces more frequent southerly warm air advection along the western Greenland coast and over the neighbouring Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). These changes in the NAO modes explain also why no significant warming has been observed these last summers over Svalbard, where northerly atmospheric flows are twice as frequent as before. Therefore, the recent warmer summers over GrIS and CAA cannot be considered as a long-term climate warming but are more a consequence of NAO variability affecting atmospheric heat transport. Although no global model from the CMIP5 database projects subsequent significant changes in NAO through this century, we cannot exclude the possibility that the observed NAO changes are due to global warming.

  11. Long-term ice sheet-climate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, Miren [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); University of California, Department of Geography, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Maier-Reimer, Ernst [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Groeger, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Schurgers, Guy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund (Sweden); Winguth, Arne M.E. [Center for Climatic Research, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Several multi-century and multi-millennia simulations have been performed with a complex Earth System Model (ESM) for different anthropogenic climate change scenarios in order to study the long-term evolution of sea level and the impact of ice sheet changes on the climate system. The core of the ESM is a coupled coarse-resolution Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). Ocean biogeochemistry, land vegetation and ice sheets are included as components of the ESM. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) decays in all simulations, while the Antarctic ice sheet contributes negatively to sea level rise, due to enhanced storage of water caused by larger snowfall rates. Freshwater flux increases from Greenland are one order of magnitude smaller than total freshwater flux increases into the North Atlantic basin (the sum of the contribution from changes in precipitation, evaporation, run-off and Greenland meltwater) and do not play an important role in changes in the strength of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (NAMOC). The regional climate change associated with weakening/collapse of the NAMOC drastically reduces the decay rate of the GrIS. The dynamical changes due to GrIS topography modification driven by mass balance changes act first as a negative feedback for the decay of the ice sheet, but accelerate the decay at a later stage. The increase of surface temperature due to reduced topographic heights causes a strong acceleration of the decay of the ice sheet in the long term. Other feedbacks between ice sheet and atmosphere are not important for the mass balance of the GrIS until it is reduced to 3/4 of the original size. From then, the reduction in the albedo of Greenland strongly accelerates the decay of the ice sheet. (orig.)

  12. Reconstruction of the 1979–2006 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Results from a 28-year simulation (1979–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveal an increase of solid precipitation (+0.4±2.5 km3 yr−2 and run-off (+7.9±3.3 km3 yr−2 of surface meltwater. The net effect of these competing factors is a significant Surface Mass Balance (SMB loss of −7.2±5.1 km3 yr−2. The contribution of changes in the net water vapour flux (+0.02±0.09 km3 yr−2 and rainfall (+0.2±0.2 km3 yr−2 to the SMB variability is negligible. The meltwater supply has increased because the GrIS surface has been warming up +2.4°C since 1979. Sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and net solar radiation have not varied significantly over the last three decades. However, the simulated downward infrared flux has increased by 9.3 W m−2 since 1979. The natural climate variability (e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation does not explain these changes. The recent global warming, due to the greenhouse gas concentration increase induced by human activities, could be a cause of these changes. The doubling of surface meltwater flux into the ocean over the period 1979–2006 suggests that the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given the likely meltwater-induced acceleration of outlet glaciers. This study suggests that increased melting overshadows over an increased accumulation in a warming scenario and that the GrIS is likely to keep losing mass in the future. An enduring GrIS melting will probably affect in the future an certain effect on the stability of the thermohaline circulation and the global sea level rise.

  13. Evaluation of the Surface Representation of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a General Circulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.; Zhao, Bin; Suarez, Max J.

    2014-01-01

    Simulated surface conditions of the Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS 5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) are examined for the contemporary Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). A surface parameterization that explicitly models surface processes including snow compaction, meltwater percolation and refreezing, and surface albedo is found to remedy an erroneous deficit in the annual net surface energy flux and provide an adequate representation of surface mass balance (SMB) in an evaluation using simulations at two spatial resolutions. The simulated 1980-2008 GrIS SMB average is 24.7+/-4.5 cm yr(- 1) water-equivalent (w.e.) at.5 degree model grid spacing, and 18.2+/-3.3 cm yr(- 1) w.e. for 2 degree grid spacing. The spatial variability and seasonal cycle of the simulation compare favorably to recent studies using regional climate models, while results from 2 degree integrations reproduce the primary features of the SMB field. In comparison to historical glaciological observations, the coarser resolution model overestimates accumulation in the southern areas of the GrIS, while the overall SMB is underestimated. These changes relate to the sensitivity of accumulation and melt to the resolution of topography. The GEOS-5 SMB fields contrast with available corresponding atmospheric models simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). It is found that only a few of the CMIP5 AGCMs examined provide significant summertime runoff, a dominant feature of the GrIS seasonal cycle. This is a condition that will need to be remedied if potential contributions to future eustatic change from polar ice sheets are to be examined with GCMs.

  14. Greenland ice sheet motion insensitive to exceptional meltwater forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; P. W. Nienow; A. J. Sole; D. W. F. Mair; Cowton, Tom; I. D. Bartholomew; King, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in south-west Greenland to the exceptional melting observed in 2012. During summer, meltwater generated on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface accesses the ice sheet bed, lubricating ...

  15. Poly[μ2-aqua-aqua[μ3-N-butyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyldithiocarbamato-κ3O,O′:S]sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzaffar A. Bhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na(C7H14NOS2(H2O2]n, the NaI cation is coordinated by five O atoms [Na—O = 2.3142 (11–2.4677 (10 Å] from three aqua and two N-butyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyldithiocarbamate (L ligands and one S atom [Na—S = 3.0074 (6 Å] from a third L ligand in a highly distorted octahedral geometry. Two aqua ligands related by an inversion center bridge two NaI cations, and each L ligand coordinates three NaI cations, leading to a layered arrangement aligned parallel to the bc plane. Intermolecular O—H...S hydrogen bonds are observed in the inner part of each polymeric layer; these are packed along the a axis and held together by weak van der Waals forces.

  16. Fate of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Strong decline under continued warming and Greenland melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, P.; Schmittner, A.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Bi, D.; Broeke, M. R.; Chan, W.-L.; Hu, A.; Beadling, R. L.; Marsland, S. J.; Mernild, S. H.; Saenko, O. A.; Swingedouw, D.; Sullivan, A.; Yin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment report concludes that the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) could weaken substantially but is very unlikely to collapse in the 21st century. However, the assessment largely neglected Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, lacked a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, and was limited to the 21st century. Here in a community effort, improved estimates of GrIS mass loss are included in multicentennial projections using eight state-of-the-science climate models, and an AMOC emulator is used to provide a probabilistic uncertainty assessment. We find that GrIS melting affects AMOC projections, even though it is of secondary importance. By years 2090-2100, the AMOC weakens by 18% [-3%, -34%; 90% probability] in an intermediate greenhouse-gas mitigation scenario and by 37% [-15%, -65%] under continued high emissions. Afterward, it stabilizes in the former but continues to decline in the latter to -74% [+4%, -100%] by 2290-2300, with a 44% likelihood of an AMOC collapse. This result suggests that an AMOC collapse can be avoided by CO2 mitigation.

  17. First results from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements of meltwater flux in a large supraglacial river in western Greenland compared with downstream proglacial river outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, L. H.; Smith, L. C.; Overstreet, B. T.; Chu, V. W.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Cooper, M. G.; Gleason, C. J.; Yang, K.

    2015-12-01

    A vast network of seasonally evolving, thermally eroding supraglacial rivers on the southwestern Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is the preeminent transporter of meltwater across this area of the ablation zone. Supraglacial rivers are important for estimating surface water storage and transport into moulins and into the en-, sub-, and proglacial environments. Yet, little is known about their role in the GrIS cryo-hydrologic system. To that end, supraglacial river discharge in a large river, the "Rio Behar" (67.05°, -49.02°; ~75 km from the Kangerlussuaq International Airport), was measured in situ over 300 times: approximately four times per hour over three consecutive days from July 19 - 22, 2015. The Rio Behar drains a ~ 70 km2 ice catchment and enters a large moulin in the Watson River land-ice watershed in western Greenland. River discharge was measured using a Sontek M9 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Each profile records water temperature, depth-integrated velocity, channel width and channel bathymetry. This novel dataset can be used to assess diurnal variations in river discharge, slope, velocity, stream power, and channel incision in order to enhance process-level understanding of GrIS meltwater routing, storage and transport. Future work will compare supraglacial river discharge in the Rio Behar with in situ estimates of proglacial river outflow upstream of the Watson River bridge in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland.

  18. Initial Steps Toward a Hydrologic "Watershed" Model for the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Pitcher, L. H.; Overstreet, B. T.; Chu, V. W.; Ryan, J.; Yang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Surface meltwater production on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a well-documented phenomenon but we lack understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the production, transport, and fate of the meltwater. To address this, we present initial steps toward the development of a novel hydrologic model for supraglacial streamflow on the GrIS. Ice ablation and surface meteorology were measured during a 6-day field campaign in a 112 km2 ablation zone of southwest Greenland. We modeled ablation using SnowModel, an energy balance snow- and ice-ablation model. The required model inputs included standard surface meteorology and a digital elevation model (DEM), and the model outputs include all components of the energy balance and surface meltwater production for each grid cell in the ice-sheet watershed. Our next steps toward developing a complete hydrologic model for supraglacial streamflow in the ablation zone of the GrIS include the application of the meltwater-routing model HydroFlow to compare with in-situ measurements of supraglacial river discharge.

  19. [Structural and functional changes of the hippocampus in patients with multiple sclerosis and their relationship with memory processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gómez, Álvaro J; Belenguer-Benavides, Antonio; Martínez-Bronchal, Beatriz; Fittipaldi-Márquez, M Sol; Forn, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Una de las alteraciones cognitivas mas prevalentes en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple son los problemas de codificacion de la informacion (tanto verbal como visual), proceso relacionado con el hipocampo. Objetivo. Estudiar la relacion entre los procesos de aprendizaje y retencion de la informacion a largo plazo con el volumen hipocampal y la conectividad funcional (CF) en pacientes con esclerosis multiple comparados con un grupo control. Sujetos y metodos. Ambos grupos fueron evaluados con la bateria neuropsicologica breve, que incluye pruebas de memoria verbal y visual. Se realizo el estudio de volumetria de la sustancia gris mediante la tecnica de morfometria basada en el voxel y un estudio de CF de voxel de semilla centrado en la zona de interes (hipocampo). Se realizaron analisis de asociacion entre rendimiento en memoria y cambios volumetricos y de CF. Resultados. Los resultados mostraron atrofia en la sustancia gris en el hipocampo izquierdo y una menor CF entre el hipocampo izquierdo y el troncoencefalo, el cerebelo, el giro fusiforme y el giro temporal superior en los pacientes respecto al grupo control. En el grupo de pacientes se observa una correlacion positiva entre la sustancia gris en ambos hipocampos y el rendimiento en memoria verbal, asi como una correlacion positiva entre el rendimiento en memoria visual y la CF entre el hipocampo izquierdo y diversas regiones temporales. Conclusiones. Los resultados muestran una relacion entre el rendimiento de memoria verbal y visual, y cambios estructurales y funcionales en el hipocampo en pacientes con esclerosis multiple.

  20. Sustained High Basal Motion of the Greenland Ice Sheet Revealed by Borehole Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luthi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.; Hoffman, Matthew, J.; Catania, Ginny A.; Hawley, Robert L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Kristensen, Steen S.

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high amount of basal motion contribution to surface velocity of 44-73 percent in winter, and up to 90 percent in summer. Measured ice deformation rates show an unexpected variation with depth that can be explained with the help of an ice-flow model as a consequence of stress transfer from slippery to sticky areas. This effect necessitates the use of high-order ice-flow models, not only in regions of fast-flowing ice streams but in all temperate-based areas of the GrIS. The agreement between modeled and measured deformation rates confirms that the recommended values of the temperature-dependent flow rate factor A are a good choice for ice-sheet models.

  1. Supraglacial bacterial community structures vary across the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Karen A; Stibal, Marek; Zarsky, Jakub D; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Schostag, Morten; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2016-02-01

    The composition and spatial variability of microbial communities that reside within the extensive (>200 000 km(2)) biologically active area encompassing the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is hypothesized to be variable. We examined bacterial communities from cryoconite debris and surface ice across the GrIS, using sequence analysis and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes from co-extracted DNA and RNA. Communities were found to differ across the ice sheet, with 82.8% of the total calculated variation attributed to spatial distribution on a scale of tens of kilometers separation. Amplicons related to Sphingobacteriaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae and WPS-2 accounted for the greatest portion of calculated dissimilarities. The bacterial communities of ice and cryoconite were moderately similar (global R = 0.360, P = 0.002) and the sampled surface type (ice versus cryoconite) did not contribute heavily towards community dissimilarities (2.3% of total variability calculated). The majority of dissimilarities found between cryoconite 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA and RNA was calculated to be the result of changes in three taxa, Pseudanabaenaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and WPS-2, which together contributed towards 80.8 ± 12.6% of dissimilarities between samples. Bacterial communities across the GrIS are spatially variable active communities that are likely influenced by localized biological inputs and physicochemical conditions.

  2. Northeast sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet to undergo the greatest inland expansion of supraglacial lakes during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignéczi, Ádám.; Sole, Andrew J.; Livingstone, Stephen J.; Leeson, Amber A.; Fettweis, Xavier; Selmes, Nick; Gourmelen, Noel; Briggs, Kate

    2016-09-01

    The formation and rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes (SGL) influences the mass balance and dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Although SGLs are expected to spread inland during the 21st century due to atmospheric warming, less is known about their future spatial distribution and volume. We use GrIS surface elevation model and regional climate model outputs to show that at the end of the 21st century (2070-2099) approximately 9.8 ± 3.9 km3 (+113% compared to 1980-2009) and 12.6 ± 5 km3 (+174%) of meltwater could be stored in SGLs under moderate and high representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5), respectively. The largest increase is expected in the northeastern sector of the GrIS (191% in RCP 4.5 and 320% in RCP 8.5), whereas in west Greenland, where the most SGLs are currently observed, the future increase will be relatively moderate (55% in RCP 4.5 and 68% in RCP 8.5).

  3. Decreasing clouds drive mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Bamber, Jonathan; Tedstone, Andrew; Fettweis, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. Here we show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be largely attributed to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9% ± 0.28%.yr. Model output indicates that the GrIS surface mass balance has a sensitivity of -5.4 ± 2 Gt per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, due principally to the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  4. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, S. A.; Kjaer, K.; Bevis, M. G.; Bamber, J. L.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Wahr, J. M.; Stearns, L. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Muresan, I. S.; Larsen, N. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been one of the largest contributors to global sea level rise over the last 20 years, accounting for c. 0.5 of a total of c. 3.2 mm yr-1. A significant portion of this contribution is associated with the speed up of glaciers in southeast and northwest Greenland. Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland.

  5. Decreasing cloud cover drives the recent mass loss on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefan; Tedstone, Andrew J; Fettweis, Xavier; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2017-06-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since the mid-1990s. This has been due to both increased ice discharge into the ocean and melting at the surface, with the latter being the dominant contribution. This change in state has been attributed to rising temperatures and a decrease in surface albedo. We show, using satellite data and climate model output, that the abrupt reduction in surface mass balance since about 1995 can be attributed largely to a coincident trend of decreasing summer cloud cover enhancing the melt-albedo feedback. Satellite observations show that, from 1995 to 2009, summer cloud cover decreased by 0.9 ± 0.3% per year. Model output indicates that the GrIS summer melt increases by 27 ± 13 gigatons (Gt) per percent reduction in summer cloud cover, principally because of the impact of increased shortwave radiation over the low albedo ablation zone. The observed reduction in cloud cover is strongly correlated with a state shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation promoting anticyclonic conditions in summer and suggests that the enhanced surface mass loss from the GrIS is driven by synoptic-scale changes in Arctic-wide atmospheric circulation.

  6. Investigation of a Quantitative Method for the Analysis of Chiral Monoterpenes in White Wine by HS-SPME-MDGC-MS of Different Wine Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei; Xia, Ying; Tomasino, Elizabeth

    2015-04-22

    A valid quantitative method for the analysis of chiral monoterpenes in white wine using head-space solid phase micro-extraction-MDGC-MS (HS-SPME-MDGC-MS) with stable isotope dilution analysis was established. Fifteen compounds: (S)-(-)-limonene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (+)-(2R,4S)-cis-rose oxide, (-)-(2S,4R)-cis-rose oxide, (-)-(2R,4R)-trans-rose oxide, (+)-(2S,4S)-cis-rose oxide, furanoid (+)-trans-linalool oxide, furanoid (-)-cis-linalool oxide, furanoid (-)-trans-linalool oxide, furanoid (+)-cis-linalool oxide, (-)-linalool, (+)-linalool, (-)-α-terpineol, (+)-α-terpineol and (R)-(+)-β-citronellol were quantified. Two calibration curves were plotted for different wine bases, with varying residual sugar content, and three calibration curves for each wine base were investigated during a single fiber's lifetime. This was needed as both sugar content and fiber life impacted the quantification of the chiral terpenes. The chiral monoterpene content of six Pinot Gris wines and six Riesling wines was then analyzed using the verified method. ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparisons showed significant differences for each of the detected chiral compounds in all 12 wines. PCA score plots showed a clear separation between the Riesling and Pinot Gris wines. Riesling wines had greater number of chiral terpenes in comparison to Pinot Gris wines. Beyond total terpene content it is possible that the differences in chiral terpene content may be driving the aromatic differences in white wines.

  7. Solid phospholipid nano-particles: investigations into formulation and dissolution properties of griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann-Trettenes, Ulla; Bauer-Brandl, Annette

    2014-06-05

    Solid phospholipid (PL) nanoparticles with griseofulvin (GRIS) as a model drug were prepared by co-spray drying. Their dissolution properties were compared with formulations containing the physical blends of the native crystalline drug and excipient materials, and physical blends of the spray dried materials. Co-spray drying was performed from ethanol+water solutions (80+20) using Büchi Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Dissolution profiles in phosphate buffer (PBS), simulated intestinal fluids (fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF)) and pancreatin containing media (PAN) were studied. It was found that the influence of PL on the dissolution profile was affected by both the solid state of the drug formulation and the dissolution medium: the co-SD formulations showed the fastest release in all media. The amount of GRIS dissolved after 5h increases by a factor of 7 for the co SD as compared to physical blend of native materials in PBS, and a factor of 4 in FaSSIF respectively. Surprisingly, in contrast to PBS, dissolution rate in FaSSIF decreased with increasing the PL content. All the pancreatin containing media showed a decrease in dissolution rate and extent independently of the processing methods due to an incompatibility between GRIS and PAN.

  8. Constitutive Intracellular Na+ Excess in Purkinje Cells Promotes Arrhythmogenesis at Lower Levels of Stress Than Ventricular Myocytes From Mice With Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, B Cicero; Pandit, Sandeep V; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Zarzoso, Manuel; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Limbu, Bijay; Deo, Makarand; Camors, Emmanuel; Ramirez, Rafael J; Mironov, Sergey; Herron, Todd J; Valdivia, Héctor H; Jalife, José

    2016-06-14

    In catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) appear more susceptible to Ca(2+) dysfunction than ventricular myocytes (VMs). The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using a CPVT mouse (RyR2(R4496C+/Cx40eGFP)), we tested whether PC intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) dysregulation results from a constitutive [Na(+)]i surplus relative to VMs. Simultaneous optical mapping of voltage and [Ca(2+)]i in CPVT hearts showed that spontaneous Ca(2+) release preceded pacing-induced triggered activity at subendocardial PCs. On simultaneous current-clamp and Ca(2+) imaging, early and delayed afterdepolarizations trailed spontaneous Ca(2+) release and were more frequent in CPVT PCs than CPVT VMs. As a result of increased activity of mutant ryanodine receptor type 2 channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load, measured by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) transients, was lower in CPVT VMs and PCs than respective controls, and sarcoplasmic reticulum fractional release was greater in both CPVT PCs and VMs than respective controls. [Na(+)]i was higher in both control and CPVT PCs than VMs, whereas the density of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger current was not different between PCs and VMs. Computer simulations using a PC model predicted that the elevated [Na(+)]i of PCs promoted delayed afterdepolarizations, which were always preceded by spontaneous Ca(2+) release events from hyperactive ryanodine receptor type 2 channels. Increasing [Na(+)]i monotonically increased delayed afterdepolarization frequency. Confocal imaging experiments showed that postpacing Ca(2+) spark frequency was highest in intact CPVT PCs, but such differences were reversed on saponin-induced membrane permeabilization, indicating that differences in [Na(+)]i played a central role. In CPVT mice, the constitutive [Na(+)]i excess of PCs promotes triggered activity and arrhythmogenesis at lower levels of stress than VMs. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Constitutive Intracellular Na+ Excess in Purkinje Cells Promotes Arrhythmogenesis at Lower Levels of Stress Than Ventricular Myocytes From Mice With Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, B. Cicero; Pandit, Sandeep V.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Zarzoso, Manuel; Guerrero-Serna, Guadalupe; Limbu, Bijay; Deo, Makarand; Camors, Emmanuel; Ramirez, Rafael J.; Mironov, Sergey; Herron, Todd J.; Valdivia, Héctor H.

    2016-01-01

    Background— In catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) appear more susceptible to Ca2+ dysfunction than ventricular myocytes (VMs). The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using a CPVT mouse (RyR2R4496C+/Cx40eGFP), we tested whether PC intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) dysregulation results from a constitutive [Na+]i surplus relative to VMs. Methods and Results— Simultaneous optical mapping of voltage and [Ca2+]i in CPVT hearts showed that spontaneous Ca2+ release preceded pacing-induced triggered activity at subendocardial PCs. On simultaneous current-clamp and Ca2+ imaging, early and delayed afterdepolarizations trailed spontaneous Ca2+ release and were more frequent in CPVT PCs than CPVT VMs. As a result of increased activity of mutant ryanodine receptor type 2 channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, measured by caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients, was lower in CPVT VMs and PCs than respective controls, and sarcoplasmic reticulum fractional release was greater in both CPVT PCs and VMs than respective controls. [Na+]i was higher in both control and CPVT PCs than VMs, whereas the density of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current was not different between PCs and VMs. Computer simulations using a PC model predicted that the elevated [Na+]i of PCs promoted delayed afterdepolarizations, which were always preceded by spontaneous Ca2+ release events from hyperactive ryanodine receptor type 2 channels. Increasing [Na+]i monotonically increased delayed afterdepolarization frequency. Confocal imaging experiments showed that postpacing Ca2+ spark frequency was highest in intact CPVT PCs, but such differences were reversed on saponin-induced membrane permeabilization, indicating that differences in [Na+]i played a central role. Conclusions— In CPVT mice, the constitutive [Na+]i excess of PCs promotes triggered activity and arrhythmogenesis at lower levels of stress than VMs. PMID:27169737

  10. Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Astrobiology is a scientific discipline devoted to the study of life in the universe--its origins, evolution, distribution, and future. It brings together the physical and biological sciences to address some of the most fundamental questions of the natural world: How do living systems emerge? How do habitable worlds form and how do they evolve? Does life exist on worlds other than Earth? As an endeavor of tremendous breadth and depth, astrobiology requires interdisciplinary investigation in order to be fully appreciated and examined. As part of a concerted effort to undertake such a challenge, the NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established in 1998 as an innovative way to develop the field of astrobiology and provide a scientific framework for flight missions. Now that the NAI has been in existence for almost a decade, the time is ripe to assess its achievements. At the request of NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Committee on the Review of the NASA Astrobiology Institute undertook the assignment to determine the progress made by the NAI in developing the field of astrobiology. It must be emphasized that the purpose of this study was not to undertake a review of the scientific accomplishments of NASA's Astrobiology program, in general, or of the NAI, in particular. Rather, the objective of the study is to evaluate the success of the NAI in achieving its stated goals of: 1. Conducting, supporting, and catalyzing collaborative interdisciplinary research; 2. Training the next generation of astrobiology researchers; 3. Providing scientific and technical leadership on astrobiology investigations for current and future space missions; 4. Exploring new approaches, using modern information technology, to conduct interdisciplinary and collaborative research among widely distributed investigators; and 5. Supporting outreach by providing scientific content for use in K-12 education programs, teaching undergraduate classes, and

  11. Performance of a BGO-NaI {eta} spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, M.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Anderson, M.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Kapustinsky, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Li, T.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Mishra, C.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Peng, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Simmons, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Div. of Physics; Dytman, S.A. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hardie, J.G. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Von Reden, K.F. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Smith, C. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A two-arm spectrometer, designed to detect {eta} and {pi}{sup 0} mesons, has been built and used in ({pi},{eta}) measurements at LAMPF. This spectrometer contains BGO active converters and NaI total-energy counters. Its construction and performance for ({pi}{sup -},{pi}{sup 0}) and ({pi}{sup -},{eta}) measurements on CH{sub 2} are described. Novel techniques to monitor the gains of the BGO and NaI counters are also presented. (orig.).

  12. Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubareva, Larisa V; Besselaar, Terry G; Daniels, Rod S; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicki; Huang, Weijuan; Hurt, Aeron C; Jorquera, Patricia A; Lackenby, Angie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Lo, Janice; Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Siqueira, Marilda M; Takashita, Emi; Odagiri, Takato; Wang, Dayan; Zhang, Wenqing; Meijer, Adam

    2017-08-10

    Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) assessed antiviral susceptibility of 14,330 influenza A and B viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres (NICs) between May 2015 and May 2016. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for NA inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Furthermore, NA sequences from 13,484 influenza viruses were retrieved from public sequence databases and screened for amino acid substitutions (AAS) associated with reduced inhibition (RI) or highly reduced inhibition (HRI) by NAIs. Of the viruses tested by WHO CCs 93% were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 0.8% (n = 113) exhibited either RI or HRI by at least one of four NAIs. As in previous seasons, the most common NA AAS was H275Y in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which confers HRI by oseltamivir and peramivir. Two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carried a rare NA AAS, S247R, shown in this study to confer RI/HRI by the four NAIs. The overall frequency of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses containing NA AAS associated with RI/HRI was approximately 1.8% (125/6915), which is slightly higher than in the previous 2014-15 season (0.5%). Three B/Victoria-lineage viruses contained a new AAS, NA H134N, which conferred HRI by zanamivir and laninamivir, and borderline HRI by peramivir. A single B/Victoria-lineage virus harboured NA G104E, which was associated with HRI by all four NAIs. The overall frequency of RI/HRI phenotype among type B viruses was approximately 0.6% (43/7677), which is lower than that in the previous season. Overall, the vast majority (>99%) of the viruses tested by WHO CCs were susceptible to all four NAIs, showing normal inhibition (NI). Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antivirals for treatment of

  13. Clinical perspectives on osteogenesis imperfecta versus non-accidental injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elaine Maria

    2015-12-01

    Although non-accidental injuries (NAI) are more common in cases of unexplained fractures than rare disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), ruling out OI and other medical causes of fracture is always indicated. The majority of OI patients can be diagnosed with the help of family history, physical examination, and radiographic findings. In particular, there are a few radiological findings which are seen more commonly in NAI than in OI which may help guide clinician considerations regarding the probability of either of these diagnoses. At the same time, molecular testing still merits careful consideration in cases with unexplained fractures without obvious additional signs of abuse.

  14. Poly[tetra­aqua­(μ4-benzene-1,3,5-tri­carboxyl­ato)sodium(I)zinc(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Hong Ma; Xiu-Yan Wang; Xian-Wu Dong; Yu-Jie Li

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [NaZn(C9H3O6)(H2O)4]n, the ZnII atom is six-coordinated by four O atoms from two different benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions and two water O atoms in a distorted tetragonal-bipyramidal geometry and the NaI atom is five-coordinated by three O atoms from three different benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions and two water O atoms in a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. The benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anion bridges two ZnII atoms and two NaI atoms, resulting in the f...

  15. Impact of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09‐related pneumonia: an individual participant data meta‐analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuri, Stella G.; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R.; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Lim, Wei Shen; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Araújo, Wildo N.; Azziz‐Baumgartner, Eduardo; Báez, Clarisa; Bantar, Carlos; Barhoush, Mazen M.; Bassetti, Matteo; Beovic, Bojana; Bingisser, Roland

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) on influenza‐related pneumonia (IRP) is not established. Our objective was to investigate the association between NAI treatment and IRP incidence and outcomes in patients hospitalised with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. \\ud METHODS: A worldwide meta‐analysis of individual participant data from 20 634 hospitalised patients with laboratory‐confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 20 021) or clinically diagnosed (n = 613) ‘pandemic influenza’. The prim...

  16. Impact of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-related pneumonia: an IPD meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuri, Stella G.; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R.; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Lim, Wei Shen; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Araújo, Wildo N.; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Báez, Clarisa; Bantar, Carlos; Barhoush, Mazen M.; Bassetti, Matteo; Beović, Bojana; Bingisser, Roland

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) on Influenza-related pneumonia (IRP) is not established. Our objective was to investigate the association between NAI treatment and IRP incidence and outcomes in patients hospitalised with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. ----- METHODS: A worldwide meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from 20,634 hospitalised patients with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 (n=20,021) or clinically diagnosed (n=613) 'pandemic influe...

  17. Impact of neuraminidase inhibitors on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09‐related pneumonia: an individual participant data meta‐analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muthuri, Stella G.; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R.; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Lim, Wei Shen; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Araújo, Wildo N.; Azziz‐Baumgartner, Eduardo; Báez, Clarisa; Bantar, Carlos; Barhoush, Mazen M.; Bassetti, Matteo; Beovic, Bojana; Bingisser, Roland

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) on influenza‐related pneumonia (IRP) is not established. Our objective was to investigate the association between NAI treatment and IRP incidence and outcomes in patients hospitalised with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. METHODS: A worldwide meta‐analysis of individual participant data from 20 634 hospitalised patients with laboratory‐confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 20 021) or clinically diagnosed (n = 613) ‘pandemic influenza’. The prim...

  18. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Lichti, G. G.; Briggs, M.S.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.; Georgii, R.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W.; Preece, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; von Kienlin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The selection of the GLAST burst monitor (GBM) by NASA will allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts. The GBM consists of 12 NaI and 2 BGO crystals allowing a continuous measurement of the energy spectra of gamma-ray bursts from ~5 keV to \\~30 MeV. One feature of the GBM is its high time resolution for time-resolved gamma-ray spectroscopy. Moreover the arrangement of the NaI crystals allows a rapid on-board location (

  19. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  20. Investigating the background of a 1-cm(3) quartz gas proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, George A

    2008-01-01

    The background count rate of a 1-cm(3) quartz gas proportional counter (GPC) was investigated for measuring natural radioactivity levels of small samples. Using a new multiparameter digital counting system, spurious or afterpulses that contribute to background were identified by their pulse waveform and by a special event indicator defined by the time (low-background NaI(Tl) scintillation guard detector, the weighted mean and standard uncertainty anticoincidence counts per day (d(-1)) was 6.2+/-0.4d(-1).