WorldWideScience

Sample records for grin great images

  1. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  2. Great Images in NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRIN is a collection of over a thousand images of significant historical interest scanned at high-resolution in several sizes. This collection is intended for the...

  3. Design and simulation of GRIN objective lenses for an imaging fiber based speckle metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhathan, P.; Guru Prasad, A. S.; Haridas, Aswin; Chan, Kelvin H. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Gradient-Index (GRIN) lenses are characterized by its small diameter and length, enabling them to be an effective lens for an integrated probe based imaging system. For a speckle-based surface metrology system, the imaging lens plays an important role in deciding the statistical dimensions of the speckles. In such cases, the design and simulation of the lens system would be a key process to better the performance of the lensed imaging fiber probe. In this context, this paper focuses on the design of lensed fiber probes for a speckle-based surface metrological imaging system that can find intra cavity interrogation applications. Different optical properties of GRIN lenses and imaging fibers are considered while designing the final probe distal end to meet the targeted specifications. Singlet GRIN lens configuration is analyzed for a front view configuration and a parameter optimization has been carried out to obtain the specifications including the field-of-view, resolution, working distance and magnification.

  4. Three-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained tissue using a GRIN lens endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huland, David M; Charan, Kriti; Ouzounov, Dimitre G; Jones, Jason S; Nishimura, Nozomi; Xu, Chris

    2013-05-01

    We present a compact and portable three-photon gradient index (GRIN) lens endoscope system suitable for imaging of unstained tissues, potentially deep within the body, using a GRIN lens system of 1 mm diameter and 8 cm length. The lateral and axial resolution in water is 1.0 μm and 9.5 μm, respectively. The ~200 μm diameter field of view is imaged at 2 frames/s using a fiber-based excitation source at 1040 nm. Ex vivo imaging is demonstrated with unstained mouse lung at 5.9 mW average power. These results demonstrate the feasibility of three-photon GRIN lens endoscopy for optical biopsy.

  5. Two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopic imaging using a GRIN lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Peng, Xiao; Lin, Danying; Wang, Qi; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Jie; Ye, Tong; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid development of life sciences, there is an increasing demand for intravital fluorescence imaging of small animals. However, large dimensions and limited working distances of objective lenses in traditional fluorescence microscopes have limited the imaging applications mostly to superficial tissues. To overcome this disadvantage, researchers have developed the graded-index (GRIN) probes with small diameters for imaging internal organs of small animals in a minimally invasive fashion. Here, we present the development of a fluorescence endoscopic imaging system based on a GRIN lens using two-photon excitation. Experimental results showed that this system could perform dynamic fluorescence microendoscopic imaging and monitor the blood flow in anesthetized living mice using two-photon excitation.

  6. Scanless functional imaging of hippocampal networks using patterned two-photon illumination through GRIN lenses

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Claudio

    2016-09-12

    Patterned illumination through the phase modulation of light is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to investigate biological tissues in combination with two-photon excitation and light-sensitive molecules. However, to date two-photon patterned illumination has only been coupled to traditional microscope objectives, thus limiting the applicability of these methods to superficial biological structures. Here, we show that phase modulation can be used to efficiently project complex two-photon light patterns, including arrays of points and large shapes, in the focal plane of graded index (GRIN) lenses. Moreover, using this approach in combination with the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP6, we validate our system performing scanless functional imaging in rodent hippocampal networks in vivo ~1.2 mm below the brain surface. Our results open the way to the application of patterned illumination approaches to deep regions of highly scattering biological tissues, such as the mammalian brain.

  7. GRIN2B encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schütz, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    presented with neurodevelopmental disorders and a spectrum of hypotonia, movement disorder, cortical visual impairment, cerebral volume loss and epilepsy. Six patients presented with a consistent malformation of cortical development (MCD) intermediate between tubulinopathies and polymicrogyria. Missense...... treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment...

  8. ALON GRIN optics for visible-MWIR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Nagendra; Jha, Santosh; Sastri, Suri; Goldman, Lee M.; McCarthy, Peter; Schmidt, Greg R.; Bentley, Julie L.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2016-05-01

    Surmet continuously strives to develop novel, advanced optical ceramics products for current and future defense and commercial systems. Using conventional powder processing techniques, Surmet has made substantial progress in its ability to manufacture large ALON® sensor windows, lenses, domes and transparent armor. In addition to transparency, Surmet has demonstrated the ability to incorporate other capabilities into its optical ceramic components, including: EMI shielding, heating, internal antennas and cooling channels. Working closely with the University of Rochester, Surmet has developed gradient index (GRIN) optics in ALON for use in the visible through the MWIR applications. Surmet has demonstrated the ability to tailor the refractive index of ALON® Optical Ceramic by either varying its composition or through the addition of dopants. Smooth axial and radial gradient profiles with ~0.055 change in refractive index, over depths of 1-8 mm (axial) and over 20 mm radius (radial) have been demonstrated. Initial design studies have shown that such elements provide unique capabilities. Radial gradients in particular, with their optical power contribution, provide additional degrees of freedom for color correction in broadband imaging systems. Surmet continues to mature ALON® GRIN technology along with the associated metrology. Surmet is committed to the development of its ALON® GRIN capability as well as finding insertion opportunities in novel imaging solutions for military and other commercial systems.

  9. Delineating the GRIN1 phenotypic spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geider, Kirsten; Helbig, Katherine L.; Heyne, Henrike O.; Schütz, Hannah; Hentschel, Julia; Courage, Carolina; Depienne, Christel; Nava, Caroline; Heron, Delphine; Møller, Rikke S.; Hjalgrim, Helle; Lal, Dennis; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Nürnberg, Peter; Thiele, Holger; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Arnold, Georgianne L.; Bhambhani, Vikas; Bartholdi, Deborah; Pedurupillay, Christeen Ramane J.; Misceo, Doriana; Frengen, Eirik; Strømme, Petter; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Doherty, Emily S.; Bijlsma, Emilia K.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A.; Hoffer, Mariette J.V.; Goldstein, Amy; Rajan, Deepa S.; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ramsey, Keri; Belnap, Newell; Schrauwen, Isabelle; Richholt, Ryan; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Sá, Joaquim; Mendonça, Carla; de Kovel, Carolien G.F.; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Hardies, Katia; De Jonghe, Peter; De Meirleir, Linda; Milh, Mathieu; Badens, Catherine; Lebrun, Marine; Busa, Tiffany; Francannet, Christine; Piton, Amélie; Riesch, Erik; Biskup, Saskia; Vogt, Heinrich; Dorn, Thomas; Helbig, Ingo; Michaud, Jacques L.; Laube, Bodo; Syrbe, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. Methods: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional consequences of GRIN1 mutations were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Results: We identified heterozygous de novo GRIN1 mutations in 14 individuals and reviewed the phenotypes of all 9 previously reported patients. These 23 individuals presented with a distinct phenotype of profound developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity with a dominant-negative effect. In addition, we describe 2 homozygous GRIN1 mutations (1 missense, 1 truncation), each segregating with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes in consanguineous families. Conclusions: De novo GRIN1 mutations are associated with severe intellectual disability with cortical visual impairment as well as oculomotor and movement disorders being discriminating phenotypic features. Loss of NMDA receptor function appears to be the underlying disease mechanism. The identification of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations blurs the borders of dominant and recessive inheritance of GRIN1-associated disorders. PMID:27164704

  10. Investigation of GRIN2A in common epilepsy phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lal, Dennis; Steinbrücker, Sandra; Schubert, Julian; Sander, Thomas; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Thiele, Holger; Krause, Roland; Lehesjoki, Anna Elina; Nürnberg, Peter; Palotie, Aarno; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Helbig, Ingo; Becker, Albert J.; Schoch, Susanne; Hansen, Jörg; Dorn, Thomas; Hohl, Christin; Lüscher, Nicole; von Spiczak, Sarah; Lemke, Johannes R.; Zimprich, Fritz; Feucht, Martha; Suls, Arvid; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Claes, Lieve; Deprez, Liesbet; Smets, Katrien; Dyck, Tine Van; Deconinck, Tine; De Jonghe, Peter; Møller, Rikke S.; Klitten, Laura L.; Hjalgrim, Helle; Campus, Kiel; Ostertag, Philipp; Trucks, Hol ger; Elger, Christian E.; Kleefuß-Lie, Ailing A.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Surges, Rainer; Gaus, Verena; Janz, Dieter; Schmitz, Bettina; Klein, Karl Martin; Reif, Philipp S.; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Hamer, Hajo M.; Rosenow, Felix; Kapser, Claudia; Schankin, Christoph J.; Koeleman, Bobby P C; de Kovel, Carolien; Lindhout, Dick; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Steinboeck, Hannelore; Neo-phytou, Birgit; Geldner, Julia; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Haberlandt, Edda; Ronen, Gabriel M.; Altmueller, Janine; Nuernberg, Peter; Neubauer, Bernd; Sirén, Auli

    2015-01-01

    Recently, mutations and deletions in the GRIN2A gene have been identified to predispose to benign and severe idiopathic focal epilepsies (IFE), revealing a higher incidence of GRIN2A alterations among the more severe phenotypes. This study aimed to explore the phenotypic boundaries of GRIN2A mutatio

  11. Diffusion studies of anamorphic GRIN lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekh, Md. Asraful; SoodBiswas, Nisha; Sarkar, Samir; Basuray, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    The present paper reports the diffusion study of cylindrical GRIN rod with elliptical cross section, developed by ion exchange process. The diffusion equation takes the form of Mathieu equations when transform into elliptic coordinate system and the solutions are derived in terms of angular and radial Mathieu functions. Computations of eigenvalues and expansion coefficients as well as angular and radial Mathieu functions are made which shows good agreement with the existing results. Simpler expression for ionic concentration is derived using asymptotic formulae of the functions which are used for final computation of ionic concentration of diffusing cations in elliptic GRIN. The plot of change in concentration versus diffusion depth along different directions approximately correlates with the results obtained by an earlier experimental study.

  12. Delineating the GRIN1 phenotypic spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Geider, Kirsten; Helbig, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. METHODS: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional conseque......OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. METHODS: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional......, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity...

  13. Biomimetic Gradient Index (GRIN) Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    optics include single lenses inspired by cephalopod (octopus) eyes and a three-lens, wide field of view, optical system for a surveillance sensor...camera. Details are easily resolv- able with the polymer lens. This lens system was installed on an Evolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a...lens system was installed in an NRL Evolution UAV and used to record video images at a height of up to 1000 ft. The index gradients in the polymer

  14. Epilepsy in patients with GRIN2A alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stülpnagel, Celina; Ensslen, M; Møller, R S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To delineate the genetic, neurodevelopmental and epileptic spectrum associated with GRIN2A alterations with emphasis on epilepsy treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study of 19 patients (7 females; age: 1-38 years; mean 10.1 years) with epilepsy and GRIN2A alteration. Genetic variants we...

  15. Grin1 receptor deletion within CRF neurons enhances fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette Gafford

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF dysregulation is implicated in mood and anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. CRF is expressed in areas engaged in fear and anxiety processing including the central amygdala (CeA. Complicating our ability to study the contribution of CRF-containing neurons to fear and anxiety behavior is the wide variety of cell types in which CRF is expressed. To manipulate specific subpopulations of CRF containing neurons, our lab has developed a mouse with a Cre recombinase gene driven by a CRF promoter (CRFp3.0Cre (Martin et al., 2010. In these studies, mice that have the gene that encodes NR1 (Grin1 flanked by loxP sites (floxed were crossed with our previously developed CRFp3.0Cre mouse to selectively disrupt Grin1 within CRF containing neurons (Cre+/fGrin1+. We find that disruption of Grin1 in CRF neurons did not affect baseline levels of anxiety, locomotion, pain sensitivity or exploration of a novel object. However, baseline expression of Grin1 was decreased in Cre+/fGrin1+ mice as measured by RTPCR. Cre+/fGrin1+ mice showed enhanced auditory fear acquisition and retention without showing any significant effect on fear extinction. We measured Gria1, the gene that encodes AMPAR1 and the CREB activator Creb1 in the amygdala of Cre+/fGrin1+ mice after fear conditioning. Both Gria1 and Creb1 were enhanced in the amygdala after training. To determine if the Grin1-expressing CRF neurons within the CeA are responsible for the enhancement of fear memory in adults, we infused a lentivirus with Cre driven by a CRF promoter (LV pCRF-Cre/fGrin1+ into the CeA of floxed Grin1 mice. Cre driven deletion of Grin1 specifically within CRF expressing cells in the CeA also resulted in enhanced fear memory acquisition and retention. Altogether, these findings suggest that selective disruption of Grin1 within CeA CRF neurons strongly enhances fear memory.

  16. Achrotech: achromat cost versus performance for conventional, diffractive, and GRIN components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Wolf, Greg; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Sparrold, Scott

    2016-09-01

    An achromatic component shares a common focus at two wavelengths and is a commonly used device in optical assemblies. This work explores the cost versus performance tradeoff for several types of achromatic lenses: conventional doublets with homogenous glass elements, hybrid doublets with a diffractive surface, axial GRadient INdex (GRIN) lenses (where the index of refraction changes along the length of the lens), and radial GRIN lenses (where the index of refraction changes depending on radial position). First order achromatic principles will be reviewed and applied to each system as a starting point and refined through the use of ray trace software. Optical performance will be assessed in terms of focusing efficiency and imaging. Cost will then be evaluated by accounting for current manufacturing costs and retail price through several distributors.

  17. Propagation of Gaussian Beams through Active GRIN Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Varela, A I; Flores-Arias, M T; Bao-Varela, C; Gomez-Reino, C [Grupo de ' Microoptica y Optica GRIN' , Unidad asociada al Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Aragon, ICMA/CSIC, Zaragoza, Espana y Escuela de Optica y OptometrIa, Campus Sur s/n, Universidade de Santiago, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); De la Fuente, X, E-mail: maite.flores@usc.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC), Maria de Luna 3, E50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    We discussed light propagation through an active GRIN material that exhibits loss or gain. Effects of gain or loss in GRIN materials can be phenomenologically taken into account by using a complex refractive index in the wave equation. This work examines the implication of using a complex refractive index on light propagation in an active GRIN material illuminated by a non-uniform monochromatic wave described by a Gaussian beam. We analyze how a Gaussian beam is propagated through the active material in order to characterize it by the beam parameters and the transverse irradiance distribution.

  18. MATLAB GUI (graphical user interface) for the design of GRIN components for optical systems as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Bao-Varela, C.

    2014-07-01

    New technologies and the available computing tools are becoming more important every day in the teaching evolution. The use of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) with MATLAB enables the implementation of practical teaching methodologies to make easier the comprehension of a given subject. In this work, we report on the application of GUIs in order to provide the students with a simple tool for a better understanding on how to design GRIN elements for optical systems. Another GUIs advantage is that they can be converted to an executable file, so any student could use the interface in their own computer without having a MATLAB license. We present a graphical interface to show the performance of an optical device for controlling beam size and for deflecting light for coupling purposes, by a simple geometrical optics study, in a tapered GRIN lens illuminated by a parallel beam of tilted rays. We also show a graphical interface to obtain the maximum coupling efficiency between fundamental modes of two single-mode fibers by a scaling operation carried out by a GRIN fiber lens. With this interface the students can vary the magnification and the image plane in order to get the more suitable GRIN fiber lens to maximize the coupling efficiency between two fibers.

  19. Caffeine, creatine, GRIN2A and Parkinson's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, David K; Wu, Cai; Tilley, Barbara C; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine; Payami, Haydeh; Wills, Anne-Marie; Aminoff, Michael J; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Dewey, Richard; Hauser, Robert A; Schaake, Susen; Schneider, Jay S; Sharma, Saloni; Singer, Carlos; Tanner, Caroline M; Truong, Daniel; Wei, Peng; Wong, Pei Shieen; Yang, Tianzhong

    2017-04-15

    Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD. The GRIN2A genotype was not associated with the rate of clinical progression of PD in the placebo group. However, there was a 4-way interaction between GRIN2A genotype, caffeine, creatine and the time since baseline. Among subjects in the creatine group with high levels of caffeine intake, but not among those with low caffeine intake, the GRIN2A T allele was associated with more rapid progression (p=0.03). These data indicate that the deleterious interaction between caffeine and creatine with respect to rate of progression of PD is influenced by GRIN2A genotype. This example of a genetic factor interacting with environmental factors illustrates the complexity of gene-environment interactions in the progression of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of GRIN2A in common epilepsy phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Dennis; Steinbrücker, Sandra; Schubert, Julian

    2015-01-01

    mutations by investigating patients with the two most common epilepsy syndromes: (i) idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and (ii) temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Whole exome sequencing data of 238 patients with IGE as well as Sanger sequencing of 84 patients with TLE were evaluated for GRIN2A sequence...

  1. GRIN2B predicts attention problems among disadvantaged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Battaglia, Marco; Nobile, Maria; Cattaneo, Francesca; Lazazzera, Claudio; Mascheretti, Sara; Giorda, Roberto; Mérette, Chantal; Émond, Claudia; Maziade, Michel; Marino, Cecilia

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that adversities and GRIN2B (coding an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit) are independently associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments in childhood. However, a high proportion of children exposed to adversities have good, long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that among children exposed to adversities, GRIN2B variants would predict the worst cognitive and behavioral outcomes. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B were genotyped in 625 children aged 6-11 years from an Italian community-based sample. The interacting effect of GRIN2B variants with 4 measures of adversities [low socioeconomic status (SES), preterm delivery, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and absence of breastfeeding] was investigated upon blindly assessed cognitive abilities (vocabulary, block design, digit spans of Wechsler's Intelligence Scale, and Rey complex figure) and parents-rated behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist/6-18). Rs2268119 × SES interaction (Hotelling's Trace = 0.07; F(12,1154) = 3.53; p = 0.00004) influenced behavior, with more attention problems among children in the 'either A/T or T/T genotype and low SES' group, compared to all other groups. This interaction effect was not significant in an independent, replication sample of 475 subjects from an Italian community-based sample. GRIN2B variants predict children with the worst outcome in attention functioning among children exposed to low SES. Our findings, if replicated, could help in the identification of children with the highest risk and may prompt cost-effective preventive/treatment strategies.

  2. GRIN2A polymorphisms and expression levels are associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Wang, Yiqing; Wang, Miaomiao; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2017-04-01

    Lead acts as an antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). GRIN2A encodes an important subunit of NMDARs and may be a critical factor in the mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. Changes in GRIN2A expression levels or gene variants may be mechanisms of lead-induced neurotoxicity. In this study, we hypothesized that GRIN2A might contribute to lead-induced neurotoxicity. A preliminary HEK293 cell experiment was performed to analyze the association between GRIN2A expression and lead exposure. In addition, in a population-based study, serum GRIN2A levels were measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To detect further the influence of GRIN2A gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced neurotoxicity, 3 tag SNPs (rs2650429, rs6497540, and rs9302415) were genotyped in a case-control study that included 399 lead-exposed subjects and 398 controls. Lead exposure decreased GRIN2A expression levels in HEK293 cells ( p lead-free cells. Lead-exposed individuals had lower serum GRIN2A levels compared with controls ( p lead level ( p lead poisoning compared with the rs2650429 CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio = 1.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.00]. Therefore, changes in GRIN2A expression levels and variants may be important mechanisms in the development of lead-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. GRIN-Global: An International Project to Develop a Global Plant Genebank Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the GRIN-Global Project is to create a new, scalable version of the Germplasm Resource Information System (GRIN) to provide the world’s crop genebanks with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use plant genetic resource (PGR) information management system. The system will help safeguard PGR ...

  4. Imaging of pediatric great vessel stents: Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hamersvelt, R. W.; Budde, R. P. J.; de Jong, P. A.; Schilham, A. M. R.; Bos, C.; Breur, J. M. P. J.; Leiner, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Complications might occur after great vessel stent implantation in children. Therefore follow-up using imaging is warranted. Purpose To determine the optimal imaging modality for the assessment of stents used to treat great vessel obstructions in children. Material and methods Five different large vessel stents were evaluated in an in-vitro setting. All stents were expanded to the maximal vendor recommended diameter (20mm; n = 4 or 10mm; n = 1), placed in an anthropomorphic chest phantom and imaged with a 256-slice CT-scanner. MRI images were acquired at 1.5T using a multi-slice T2-weighted turbo spin echo, an RF-spoiled three-dimensional T1-weighted Fast Field Echo and a balanced turbo field echo 3D sequence. Two blinded observers assessed stent lumen visibility (measured diameter/true diameter *100%) in the center and at the outlets of the stent. Reproducibility of diameter measurements was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability and 95% limits of agreement for agreement analysis. Results Median stent lumen visibility was 88 (IQR 86–90)% with CT for all stents at both the center and outlets. With MRI, the T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence was preferred which resulted in 82 (78–84%) stent lumen visibility. Interobserver reliability and agreement was good for both CT (ICC 0.997, mean difference -0.51 [-1.07–0.05] mm) and MRI measurements (ICC 0.951, mean difference -0.05 [-2.52 –-2.41] mm). Conclusion Good in-stent lumen visibility was achievable in this in-vitro study with both CT and MRI in different great vessel stents. Overall reliability was good with clinical acceptable limits of agreement for both CT and MRI. However, common conditions such as in-stent stenosis and associated aneurysms were not tested in this in-vitro study, limiting the value of the in-vitro study. PMID:28141852

  5. I like your GRIN: Deign methods for gradient-index progressive addition lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David J.; Moore, Duncan T.

    2002-12-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power, used to treat the physical condition presbyopia. These lenses are currently fabricated using non-rotationally symmetric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. In this research, we consider the use of Gradient-Index (GRIN) designs for providing both power progression and aberration control. The use of B-Spline curves for GRIN representation is explained. Design methods and simulation results for GRIN PALs are presented. Possible uses for the design methods with other lenses, such as unifocal lenses and axicons, are also discussed.

  6. Using GRIN to save 50% lens weight for an 8x rifle scope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, R. A.; Beadie, G.

    2017-05-01

    Starting with a literature-based design for a rifle scope, we demonstrate the potential to replace large, heavy glass lenses with polymer-based GRIN lenses with little optical penalty, while saving 50% of the lens weight in the system. Several properties of the primary design are chosen to favor manufacturability, such as leaving glass for the external surfaces and choosing polymers and GRIN geometries based on proven fabrication techniques. Compared to the reference design which weighed 154 g, the GRIN-substituted design weighed 78 g while maintaining visually constant performance from 0-40°C.

  7. Association of GRIN1 and GRIN2A-D With schizophrenia and genetic interaction with maternal herpes simplex virus-2 infection affecting disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Nyegaard, Mette; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle;

    2011-01-01

    with schizophrenia and 1,500 control persons) and antibodies against maternal HSV-2 infection were measured in one of the samples (365 cases and 365 controls). Nine SNPs out of 30 in GRIN2B were significantly associated with schizophrenia. One SNP remained significant after Bonferroni correction (rs1806194, P......(nominal) ¿=¿0.0008). Significant interaction between maternal HSV-2 seropositivity and GRIN2B genetic variation in the offspring were observed for seven SNPs and two remained significant after Bonferroni correction (rs1805539, P(nominal) ¿=¿0.0001 and rs1806205, P(nominal) ¿=¿0.0008). The significant...... associations and interactions were located at the 3' region of GRIN2B suggesting that genetic variation in this part of the gene may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  8. Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central dip in the core index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.

    2013-12-01

    Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index dip (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication processes. The index dip may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index dip on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index dip.

  9. Evidence that GRIN2A mutations in melanoma correlate with decreased survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Ann N D'mello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous whole-exome sequencing has demonstrated that melanoma tumours harbour mutations in the GRIN2A gene. GRIN2A encodes the regulatory GluN2A subunit of the glutamate-gated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, involvement of which in melanoma remains undefined. Here, we sequenced coding exons of GRIN2A in 19 low-passage melanoma cell lines derived from patients with metastatic melanoma. Potential mutation impact was evaluated in silico, including within the GluN2A crystal structure, and clinical correlations were sought. We found that of 19 metastatic melanoma tumours, four (21% carried five missense mutations in the evolutionarily conserved domains of GRIN2A; two were previously reported. Melanoma cells that carried these mutations were treatment-naïve. SIFT analysis predicted that S349F, G762E and P1132L would disrupt protein function. When modelled into the crystal structure of GluN2A, G762E was seen to potentially alter GluN1-GluN2A interactions and ligand binding, implying disruption to NMDAR functionality. Patients whose tumours carried nonsynonymous GRIN2A mutations had faster disease progression and shorter overall survival (P < 0.05. This was in contrast to the BRAF V600E mutation, found in 58% of tumours but showing no correlation with clinical outcome (P = 0.963. Although numbers of patients in this study are small, and firm conclusions about the association between GRIN2A mutations and poor clinical outcome cannot be drawn, our results highlight the high prevalence of GRIN2A mutations in metastatic melanoma and suggest for the first time that mutated NMDARs impact melanoma progression.

  10. GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy with infantile-onset epilepsy, and hyperkinetic and stereotyped movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Chihiro; Shiina, Masaaki; Tohyama, Jun; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Mukaida, Souichi; Nozaki, Fumihito; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Onuma, Akira; Kodera, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kazuhiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2015-06-01

    Recently, de novo mutations in GRIN1 have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and epileptic encephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis of patients with genetically unsolved epileptic encephalopathies identified four patients with GRIN1 mutations, allowing us to investigate the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1 mutations. Eighty-eight patients with unclassified early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) with an age of onset stereotypic hand movements were observed in two and three patients, respectively. All the four patients exhibited only nonspecific focal and diffuse epileptiform abnormality, and never showed suppression-burst or hypsarrhythmia during infancy. A de novo mosaic mutation (c.1923G>A) with a mutant allele frequency of 16% (in DNA of blood leukocytes) was detected in one patient. Three mutations were located in the transmembrane domain (3/4, 75%), and one in the extracellular loop near transmembrane helix 1. All the mutations were predicted to impair the function of the NMDA receptor. Clinical features of de novo GRIN1 mutations include infantile involuntary movements, seizures, and hand stereotypies, suggesting that GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy resulting in seizures and movement disorders. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. Numerical analysis of GRIN lens based miniature probes for optical coherence tomography%基于GRIN镜头的小型OCT探头的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王驰; 毛幼馨; 唐智; 方臣; 于瀛洁; 齐博

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation technology was investigated by using the optical software GLAD to design Gradient Index(GRIN)lens based miniature probes for imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT).Firstly,the basic features of the GRIN lens were overviewed,and design methods for GRIN lens based optical probes were discussed.Then,the probe model consisting of a single mode fiber,a glass rod spacer and a GRIN lens were simulated.The simulating results show that the numerical simulation technique using GLAD can provide an intuitive and effective method for design of miniaturized probes and verification of their optical performance.In addition,the spacer can improve the optical properties of the GRIN lens based optical probes for there exists a suitable range of the spacer lengths in the glass rod.It shows that the working distance of the probe will be greater than 1.0 mm and the focus spot size less than 40 μm when the constant length of GRIN lens is to be 0.1 mm and the spacer length range from 0.8 to 1.1 mm.%利用光学软件GLAD的数值仿真技术设计了用于光学相干层析技术成像的基于梯度折射率(GRIN)镜头的小型化探头.首先,简述了梯度折射率镜头的基本特性,讨论了基于梯度折射率镜头的光学探头的设计方法;然后,对由单模光纤、玻璃棒隔片和梯度折射率镜头构成的探头模型进行了仿真.结果显示,利用GLAD的数值仿真技术为小型化探头的设计及其光学性能的验证提供了一种直观而有效的方法.另外,玻璃棒隔片存在一个适当的长度范围,可以改善设计的光学探头的传光性能.在所给仿真条件下,如设定梯度折射率镜头长0.1 mm、玻璃棒隔片长度为0.8~1.1 mm,则探头的工作距离将超过1.0 mm,而聚焦光斑的尺寸<40 μm.

  12. Response to immunotherapy in a patient with Landau-Kleffner syndrome and GRIN2A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Nina; Harper, Amy; Tchapyjnikov, Dmitry; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2016-03-01

    Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) has been demonstrated in the past to respond to immunotherapy. Recently, some cases of LKS have been shown to be secondary to glutamate receptor (GRIN2A) mutations. Whether such cases respond to immunotherapy is not known. Here, we present the case of a 3-year-old boy with LKS found to have a GRIN2A heterozygous missense mutation, whose clinical symptoms and EEG responded to a course of combination oral steroids and monthly infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin. He then relapsed after discontinuation of this therapy, and responded again after a second course of intravenous immunoglobulin. We conclude that immunotherapy should be considered as a therapeutic option in patients with LKS who are also found to harbour GRIN2A mutations.

  13. Start Your Search Engines. Part 2: When Image is Everything, Here are Some Great Ways to Find One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that Google is great for finding images. Simply head to its home page, click the "Images" link, enter criteria in the search box, and--voila! In this article, the authors share some of their other favorite search engines for finding images. To make sure the desired images are available for educational use, consider searching for…

  14. Effect of crystalline lens surfaces and refractive index on image quality by model simulation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meimei Kong; Zhishan Gao; Lei Chen; Xinhua Li

    2008-01-01

    The surfaces and refractive index of crystalline lens play an important role in the optical performance of human eye.On the basis of two eye models,which are widely applied at present,the effect of lens surfaces and its refractive index distribution on optical imaging is analyzed with the optical design software ZEMAX (Zemax Development Co.,San Diego,USA).The result shows that good image quality can be provided by the aspheric lens surfaces or (and) the gradient-index (GRIN) distribution.It has great potential in the design of intraocular lens (IOL).The eye models with an intraocular implantation are presented.

  15. Acquired epileptic opercular syndrome related to a heterozygous deleterious substitution in GRIN2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculier, Claudine; Tilmant, Anne-Sophie; De Tiège, Xavier; Giurgea, Sanda; Paquier, Philippe; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Lesca, Gaetan; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2017-08-23

    Epileptic encephalopathies with continuous spike-and-waves during sleep (CSWS) are characterized by cognitive or language impairment, and are occasionally associated with pathogenic variants of the GRIN2A gene. In these disorders, speech dysfunction could be either related to cerebral dysfunction caused by the GRIN2A deleterious variant or intense interictal epileptic activity. Here, we present a patient with apraxia of speech, clearly linked to severity of epilepsy, carrying a GRIN2A variant. A 6-year-old boy developed acute regression of expressive language following epileptic seizures, leading to complete mutism, at which time EEG revealed CSWS. MEG showed bilateral superior parietal and opercular independent CSWS onsets and PET with fluorodeoxyglucose demonstrated significant increase in relative glucose metabolism in bilateral superior parietal regions. Corticosteroids induced a regression of CSWS together with impressive improvement in speech abilities. This case supports the hypothesis of a triggering role for epileptic discharges in speech deterioration observed in children carrying a deleterious variant of GRIN2A. When classic antiepileptic drugs fail to control epileptic activity, corticosteroids should be considered. Multimodal functional neuroimaging suggests a role for opercular and superior parietal areas in acquired epileptic opercular syndrome. [Published with video sequences on www.epilepticdisorders.com].

  16. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – Public Interface Demonstration and Input Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GRIN-Global (GG) Information Management System, under development for the past three years, provides the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  17. The GRIN-Global Information Management System – A Preview and Opportunity for Public User Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GRIN-Global Information Management System, under development for the past two years, will provide the world's crop genebanks and plant genetic resource (PGR) users with a powerful, flexible, easy-to-use PGR information management system. Developed jointly by the USDA Agricultural Research Servi...

  18. Handbook for the GREAT08 Challenge: An image analysis competition for cosmological lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bridle, Sarah; Amara, Adam; Applegate, Douglas; Balan, Sreekumar T; Bernstein, Gary; Berge, Joel; Dahle, Hakon; Erben, Thomas; Gill, Mandeep; Heavens, Alan; Heymans, Catherine; High, Will; Hoekstra, Henk; Jarvis, Mike; Kitching, Thomas; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kuijken, Konrad; Lagattuta, David; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Moghaddam, Baback; Moudden, Yassir; Nakajima, Reiko; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Pires, Sandrine; Rassat, Anais; Refregier, Alexandre; Rhodes, Jason; Schrabback, Tim; Semboloni, Elisabetta; Shmakova, Marina; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Voigt, Lisa; Wittman, David

    2008-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2008 (GREAT08) Challenge focuses on a problem that is of crucial importance for future observations in cosmology. The shapes of distant galaxies can be used to determine the properties of dark energy and the nature of gravity, because light from those galaxies is bent by gravity from the intervening dark matter. The observed galaxy images appear distorted, although only slightly, and their shapes must be precisely disentangled from the effects of pixelisation, convolution and noise. The worldwide gravitational lensing community has made significant progress in techniques to measure these distortions via the Shear TEsting Program (STEP). Via STEP, we have run challenges within our own community, and come to recognise that this particular image analysis problem is ideally matched to experts in statistical inference, inverse problems and computational learning. Thus, in order to continue the progress seen in recent years, we are seeking an infusion of new ideas from the...

  19. The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey: Herschel Image Atlas and Aperture Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason K.; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, K. L.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J. H.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Xu, K. C.; Paladini, R.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Billot, N.; Chan, B. H. P.; Evans, A. S.; Fadda, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Haan, S.; Ishida, C. M.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D.-C.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E.; Petric, A.; Privon, G. C.; Surace, J. A.; Treister, E.

    2017-04-01

    Far-infrared images and photometry are presented for 201 Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies [LIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=11.00{--}11.99, ULIRGs: log ({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )=12.00{--}12.99], in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) instruments. The image atlas displays each GOALS target in the three PACS bands (70, 100, and 160 μm) and the three SPIRE bands (250, 350, and 500 μm), optimized to reveal structures at both high and low surface brightness levels, with images scaled to simplify comparison of structures in the same physical areas of ˜100 × 100 kpc2. Flux densities of companion galaxies in merging systems are provided where possible, depending on their angular separation and the spatial resolution in each passband, along with integrated system fluxes (sum of components). This data set constitutes the imaging and photometric component of the GOALS Herschel OT1 observing program, and is complementary to atlases presented for the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory. Collectively, these data will enable a wide range of detailed studies of active galactic nucleus and starburst activity within the most luminous infrared galaxies in the local universe. Based on Herschel Space Observatory observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and important participation from NASA.

  20. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Editing Sites in grin1b Transcripts of Embryonic Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pozo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovering RNA editing sites in model organisms provides an insight into their adaptations in addition to finding potential sites for the regulation of neural activity and the basis of integrated models of metazoan editing with a variety of applications, including potential clinical treatments of neural dysregulation. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an important vertebrate model system. We focused on the grin1b gene of zebrafish due to its important function in the nervous tissue as a glutamate receptor. Using a comparative sequence-based approach, we located possible RNA editing events within the grin1b transcript. Surprisingly, sequence analysis also revealed a new editing site which was not predicted by the comparative approach. We here report the discovery of two novel RNA editing events in grin1b transcripts of embryonic zebrafish. The frequency of these editing events and their locations within the grin1b transcript are also described.

  1. Creating a tsunami disaster archive of the Great Northeastern Japan earthquake using images uploaded to the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Takehara, A.

    2014-02-01

    We think that the that the experiences from the disaster caused by the Great Northeastern Earthquake in Japan must be of great interest to people not only in the stricken areas but in the whole of Japan and the whole world. Accordingly, we tried to create a method to preserve the digital images of Great Northeastern Earthquake for the next generation. The Creative Commons License may be one of the most useful solutions to avoid complicated processes when a person other than authors would like to build a disaster archive using images uploaded to the Internet.

  2. Image Analysis for Cosmology: Results from the GREAT10 Star Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, T D; Gill, M; Heymans, C; Massey, R; Witherick, D; Courbin, F; Georgatzis, K; Gentile, M; Gruen, D; Kilbinger, M; Li, G L; Mariglis, A P; Meylan, G; Storkey, A; Xin, B

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from the first public blind PSF reconstruction challenge, the GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Star Challenge. Reconstruction of a spatially varying PSF, sparsely sampled by stars, at non-star positions is a critical part in the image analysis for weak lensing where inaccuracies in the modelled ellipticity and size-squared can impact the ability to measure the shapes of galaxies. This is of importance because weak lensing is a particularly sensitive probe of dark energy, and can be used to map the mass distribution of large scale structure. Participants in the challenge were presented with 27,500 stars over 1300 images subdivided into 26 sets, where in each set a category change was made in the type or spatial variation of the PSF. Thirty submissions were made by 9 teams. The best methods reconstructed the PSF with an accuracy of ~0.00025 in ellipticity and ~0.00074 in size squared. For a fixed pixel scale narrower PSFs were found to be more difficult to model than ...

  3. IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR COSMOLOGY: RESULTS FROM THE GREAT10 STAR CHALLENGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitching, T. D.; Heymans, C. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Rowe, B.; Witherick, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gill, M. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Massey, R. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Courbin, F.; Gentile, M.; Meylan, G. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Georgatzis, K. [Department of Information and Computer Science, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Gruen, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 209 South 33rd Street, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kilbinger, M. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mariglis, A. P.; Storkey, A. [School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 10 Crichton Street, Edinburgh EH8 9AB (United Kingdom); Xin, B., E-mail: t.kitching@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from the first public blind point-spread function (PSF) reconstruction challenge, the GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Star Challenge. Reconstruction of a spatially varying PSF, sparsely sampled by stars, at non-star positions is a critical part in the image analysis for weak lensing where inaccuracies in the modeled ellipticity e and size R {sup 2} can impact the ability to measure the shapes of galaxies. This is of importance because weak lensing is a particularly sensitive probe of dark energy and can be used to map the mass distribution of large scale structure. Participants in the challenge were presented with 27,500 stars over 1300 images subdivided into 26 sets, where in each set a category change was made in the type or spatial variation of the PSF. Thirty submissions were made by nine teams. The best methods reconstructed the PSF with an accuracy of {sigma}(e) Almost-Equal-To 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} and {sigma}(R {sup 2})/R {sup 2} Almost-Equal-To 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. For a fixed pixel scale, narrower PSFs were found to be more difficult to model than larger PSFs, and the PSF reconstruction was severely degraded with the inclusion of an atmospheric turbulence model (although this result is likely to be a strong function of the amplitude of the turbulence power spectrum).

  4. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemori, Juzoh; Takao, Keizo; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hattori, Satoko; Furuse, Tamio; Wakana, Shigeharu; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-21

    The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mutant mouse strain (Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+) that has a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1. These mutant mice showed hyperactivity, increased novelty-seeking to objects, and abnormal social interactions. Therefore, Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice may serve as a potential animal model of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, other behavioral characteristics related to these disorders, such as working memory function and sensorimotor gating, have not been fully explored in these mutant mice. In this study, to further investigate the behavioral phenotypes of Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, we subjected them to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. There was no significant difference in nociception between Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ and wild-type mice. The mutants did not display any abnormalities in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. We confirmed the previous observations that the locomotor activity of these mutant mice increased in the open field and home cage activity tests. They displayed abnormal anxiety-like behaviors in the light/dark transition and the elevated plus maze tests. Both contextual and cued fear memory were severely deficient in the fear conditioning test. The mutant mice exhibited slightly impaired working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test. The startle amplitude was markedly decreased in Grin1(Rgsc174)/Grin1+ mice, whereas no significant differences between genotypes were detected in the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. The mutant mice showed no obvious deficits

  5. Thin gas cell with GRIN fiber lens for intra-cavity fiber laser gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Dai, Jing-min; Peng, Gang-ding

    2009-07-01

    Fiber laser gas sensors based on the intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy require the use of gas cells. We propose a simple and reliable gas cell using graded-index fiber lens (GFL) based all-fiber collimator. Conventional gas cells usually utilize direct fiber-to-fiber coupling without collimators or graded-index (GRIN) lens as collimators. Direct fiberto- fiber gas cell has simple configuration, but it suffers from high coupling loss and stray light interference. Gas cells applying fiber pigtailed GRIN lens are advantageous to achieve low coupling loss. However, fiber pigtailed GRIN lens requires accurate and complicated alignment and glue packaging which could compromise long term reliability and thermal stability. The proposed technique fabricates all-fiber collimators by simply splicing a short section of gradedindex fiber to single mode fiber which is both compact and durable. With that collimator, the gas cell can be fabricated very thin and are suitable for extreme environments with high temperature and vibration. In this paper, we have carried out experiment and analysis to evaluate the proposed technique. The coupling efficiency is studied versus different GFL gradient parameter profiles using ray matrix transformation of the complex beam parameter. Experiments are also done to prove the practical feasibility of the collimator. The analysis indicates that gas cell using GFLs can overcome the disadvantages of traditional design; it may replace the conventional gas cells in practical applications.

  6. Mutation screening of GRIN2B in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder in a Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuto; Koide, Takayoshi; Wang, Chenyao; Kimura, Hiroki; Xing, Jingrui; Kushima, Itaru; Ishizuka, Kanako; Mori, Daisuke; Sekiguchi, Mariko; Ikeda, Masashi; Aizawa, Miki; Tsurumaru, Naoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Yoshimi, Akira; Arioka, Yuko; Yoshida, Mami; Noma, Hiromi; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kunimoto, Shohko; Aleksic, Branko; Uno, Yota; Okada, Takashi; Ujike, Hiroshi; Egawa, Jun; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Someya, Toshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in the central nervous systems. Recent genetics studies in schizophrenia (SCZ) show that SCZ is susceptible to NMDARs and the NMDAR signaling complex. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), several studies report dysregulation of NMDARs as a risk factor for ASD. To further examine the association between NMDARs and SCZ/ASD development, we conducted a mutation screening study of GRIN2B which encodes NR2B subunit of NMDARs, to identify rare mutations that potentially cause diseases, in SCZ and ASD patients (n = 574 and 152, respectively). This was followed by an association study in a large sample set of SCZ, ASD, and normal healthy controls (n = 4145, 381, and 4432, respectively). We identified five rare missense mutations through the mutation screening of GRIN2B. Although no statistically significant association between any single mutation and SCZ or ASD was found, one of its variant, K1292R, is found only in the patient group. To further examine the association between mutations in GRIN2B and SCZ/ASD development, a larger sample size and functional experiments are needed. PMID:27616045

  7. Myocardial imaging in patients with transposition of the great arteries. Comparison between Mustard and Rastelli operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuo; Tanimoto, Takeshi (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)); Kohata, Tohru

    1982-12-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging was performed in 21 patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). In the 13 patients with preoperative TGA, it was possible to differentiate TGA with the intact ventricular septum from TGA with associated anomalies such as patent ductus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect, and also TGA with pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary stenosis from TGA without them by evaluating the degree of thallium uptake in the free wall of the pulmonary ventricle (anatomical left ventricle). The degree of thallium uptake was well correlated with systolic pressure of the pulmonary ventricle (r = 0.98). In the 13 patients with postoperative TGA, it was less correlated with the pulmonary ventricular systolic pressure (r = 0.83). Four cases sequentially studied showed a marked decrease in thallium uptake in the pulmonary ventricle 10 to 16 months after Rastelli operation. But the corrected thallium uptake (thallium activity/ventricular systolic pressure) was more increased compared with the uptake of the systemic ventricle after the surgery. This was probably related to a decrease of the pressure load to the pulmonary ventricle following the surgery and to the fact that there should be some delay of a decrease of the ventricular mass. An increased lung uptake of thallium was noted in the cases of tricuspid regurgitation after Mustard operation, but the degree of regurgitation was not clearly correlated with the increase of thallium uptake in the lung. In five cases after Rastelli operation, one patient showed a high degree of thallium uptake of the pulmonary ventricle (anatomical right ventricle), and the conduit valve calcification and severe pulmonary stenosis were confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography. Thus myocardial imaging provides a reliable means for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of TGA before and after operation.

  8. Evaluation of radionuclide imaging in the aneurysms of the aorta and great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Atsushi

    1988-04-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide image (RN) using /sup 99m/Tc-HSA or /sup 99m/Tc-RBC, computed tomogram (CT) and angiogram was performed in the aneurysms of the aorta and great arteries. In 80 cases of these disorders, certain findings including localization, shape, size, involvement of aortic branches, influence on the adjacent organs and presence of thrombi were observed. In the cases of aneurysms without dissection, localization, shape and size were approximately well demonstrated in the studies of both RN and CT. But CT was superior to RN in observing the thrombus formation and the influence on the adjacent organs. In 96 % of all cases, aneurysm was demonstrated as a dilatation of the vessels having increased RN activity. In 33 cases of dissecting aneurysms, RN was superior to CT for demonstrating the hemodynamics of peripheral vessels and involvement of major aortic branches, but it was inferior for the evaluation of the true lumen or thrombus formation. The specific appearance of RN angiograms in these disturbances were tapered visualization of the true channel in the early phase, followed by delayed filling and stasis of radioactivity of the false channel. The imaging of both modalities should, therefore, be carefully analysed in the case of thrombus formation. In 70 % of the dissecting aneurysms, the correlation of the dissecting area and DeBakey's classification was correctly demonstrated. RN was often superior to contrast angiography for getting the further information of hemodynamic changes by analyzing the time activity curve. RN has, consequently, been proved useful in the diagnosis and extremely follow up study of the aneurysms. (author) 50 refs.

  9. Association between GRIN3A gene polymorphism in Kawasaki disease and coronary artery aneurysms in Taiwanese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ju Lin

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is pediatric systemic vasculitis with the classic complication of coronary artery aneurysm (CAA. It is the leading cause of acquired cardiovascular diseases in children. Some severe cases present with multi-organ involvement or neurological dysfunction. To identify the role of the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-d-aspartate 3A (GRIN3A in KD, we investigated genetic variations in GRIN3A in a Taiwanese cohort of 262 KD patients (76 with and 186 without CAA complications. We used univariate and multivariate regression analyses to identify the associations between clinical characteristics and GRIN3A genetic variations in KD. According to univariate regression analysis, CAA formation in KD was significantly associated with fever duration (p < 0.0001, first Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG used (days after day one of fever (p < 0.0001, and the GRIN3A (rs7849782 genetic variant (p < 0.001. KD patients with GG+GC genotype showed a lower rate of developing CAA (GG+GC genotype: odds ratio = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.14-0.46. Significant associations were identified between KD with CAA complication and the GRIN3A (rs7849782 genetic variant by using multivariate regression analysis. Specifically, significant correlations were observed between KD with CAA complications and the presence of GG+GC genotypes for the GRIN3A rs7849782 single-nucleotide polymorphism (full model: odds ratio = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.14-0.46. Our results suggest that a polymorphism of the GRIN3A gene may play a role in KD pathogenesis.

  10. GRIN2B Gene and Associated Brain Cortical White Matter Changes in Bipolar Disorder: A Preliminary Combined Platform Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa Nadia Kuswanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in glutamate signaling and glutamate toxicity are thought to be important in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD. Whilst previous studies have found brain white matter changes in BD, there is paucity of data about how glutamatergic genes affect brain white matter integrity in BD. Based on extant neuroimaging data, we hypothesized that GRIN2B risk allele is associated with reductions of brain white matter integrity in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions and cingulate gyrus in BD. Fourteen patients with BD and 22 healthy controls matched in terms of age, gender and handedness were genotyped using blood samples and underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Compared to G allele, brain FA values were significantly lower in BD patients with risk T allele in left frontal region (P=0.001, right frontal region (P=0.002, left parietal region (P=0.001, left occipital region (P=0.001, right occipital region (P<0.001, and left cingulate gyrus (P=0.001. Further elucidation of the interactions between different glutamate genes and their relationships with such structural, functional brain substrates will enhance our understanding of the link between dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission and neuroimaging endophenotypes in BD.

  11. Gradient Index in Wear Debris Image Collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LVZhi-yong; GAOHui-liang; YANXin-ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve a problem of oil on-line monitoring, this instrument adopts a prinripium of self-focus lens of Gradieat index fiber( GRIN Len) to design optics system and magnetic circuit. For the magnetic circuit, the monitor can catch particle wear debris in oil. And for the optics circuit. GRIN Len can transfer image of debris to apparatus of gather image, e . g, CCD and camera. And the image of debris is transferred to computer for analyzing seize and physiognomy of debris. The character of the monitor is of micro weight, micro volume andcurve imaging And it is directly pluged into oil to catch image of wear particles.

  12. GRIN2B Mutations in West Syndrome and Intellectual Disability with Focal Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Hendrickx, Rik; Geider, Kirsten; Laube, Bodo; Schwake, Michael; Harvey, Robert J; James, Victoria M; Pepler, Alex; Steiner, Isabelle; Hörtnagel, Konstanze; Neidhardt, John; Ruf, Susanne; Wolff, Markus; Bartholdi, Deborah; Caraballo, Roberto; Platzer, Konrad; Suls, Arvid; De Jonghe, Peter; Biskup, Saskia; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify novel epilepsy genes using a panel approach and describe the functional consequences of mutations. Methods Using a panel approach, we screened 357 patients comprising a vast spectrum of epileptic disorders for defects in genes known to contribute to epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (ID). After detection of mutations in a novel epilepsy gene, we investigated functional effects in Xenopus laevis oocytes and screened a follow-up cohort. Results We revealed de novo mutations in GRIN2B encoding the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in 2 individuals with West syndrome and severe developmental delay as well as 1 individual with ID and focal epilepsy. The patient with ID and focal epilepsy had a missense mutation in the extracellular glutamate-binding domain (p.Arg540His), whereas both West syndrome patients carried missense mutations within the NR2B ion channel-forming re-entrant loop (p.Asn615Ile, p.Val618Gly). Subsequent screening of 47 patients with unexplained infantile spasms did not reveal additional de novo mutations, but detected a carrier of a novel inherited GRIN2B splice site variant in close proximity (c.2011-5_2011-4delTC). Mutations p.Asn615Ile and p.Val618Gly cause a significantly reduced Mg2+ block and higher Ca2+ permeability, leading to a dramatically increased Ca2+ influx, whereas p.Arg540His caused less severe disturbance of channel function, corresponding to the milder patient phenotype. Interpretation We identified GRIN2B gain-of-function mutations as a cause of West syndrome with severe developmental delay as well as of ID with childhood onset focal epilepsy. Severely disturbed channel function corresponded to severe clinical phenotypes, underlining the important role of facilitated NMDA receptor signaling in epileptogenesis. PMID:24272827

  13. A Bio-Inspired Polymeric Gradient Refractive Index (GRIN) Human Eye Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    optical model of the crystalline lens and eye of the octopus ,” Vision Res. 39(17), 2841–2852 (1999). 5. D. E. Nilsson, L. Gislén, M. M. Coates, C...aberrations [1]. Biological examples of GRIN lenses include spherical eye lenses found in aquatic creatures such as fish, octopus , squid, and jellyfish [2–5...µATR-FTIR examination by exhuming cross sections of adjacent sheet material. The µATR-FTIR technique can map the relative composition across the cross

  14. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet S Kochar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively.

  15. Third-order aberrations in GRIN crystalline lens: a new method based on axial and field rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, Arturo Díaz Del; Gómez-Reino, Carlos; Flores-Arias, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for calculating the third-order aberration of gradient-index (GRIN) lenses that combines an iterative numerical method with the Hamiltonian theory of aberrations in terms of two paraxial rays with boundary conditions on general curved end surfaces and, as a second algebraic step has been presented. Application of this new method to a GRIN human is analyzed in the framework of the bi-elliptical model. The different third-order aberrations are determined, except those that need for their calculation skew rays, because the study is made only for meridional rays.

  16. Characterization of Hemodynamics in Great Arteries of Wild-Type Mouse Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Based on Ultrasound Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Yue; Ma, Youcai; Wang, Jingying; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic factors in cardiovascular system are hypothesized to play a significant role in causing structural heart development. It is thus important to improve our understanding of velocity characteristics and parameters. We present such a study on wild-type mouse to characterize the vessel geometry, flow pattern, and wall shear stress in great arteries. Microultrasound imaging for small animals was used to measure blood boundary and velocity of the great arteries. Subsequently, specimens' flow boundary conditions were used for 3-dimensional reconstructions of the great artery and aortic arch dimensions, and blood flow velocity data were input into subject-specific computational fluid dynamics for modeling hemodynamics. Measurement by microultrasound imaging showed that blood velocities in the great artery and aortic arch had strong correlations with vascular sizes, whereas blood pressure had a weak trend in relation to vascular size. Wall shear stress magnitude increased when closer to arterial branches and reduced proximally in the aortic root and distally in the descending aorta, and the parameters were related to the fluid mechanics in branches in some degree. We developed a method to investigate fluid mechanics in mouse arteries, using a combination of microultrasound and computational fluid dynamics, and demonstrated its ability to reveal detailed geometric, kinematic, and fluid mechanics parameters.

  17. Image-based reconstruction of the Great Buddha of Bamiyan, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Armin; Remondino, Fabio; Zhang, Li

    2003-01-01

    In the great valley of Bamiyan, north-west of Kabul, Afghanistan, two big standing Buddha statues were carved out of the sedimentary rock of the region around the second to fourth centuries AD. The larger statue was 53 meters high while the smaller Buddha measured 35 m. The two colossal statues were demolished on March 2001 by the Taleban, using mortars, dynamite, anti-aircraft weapons and rockets. After the destruction, a consortium was founded to rebuild the Great Buddha at original shape, size and place. Our group performed the required computer reconstruction, which serves as a basis for the physical reconstruction. The work has been done using three different types of imagery in parallel and in this paper we present our results of the 3D computer reconstruction of the statue.

  18. A de novo loss-of-function GRIN2A mutation associated with childhood focal epilepsy and acquired epileptic aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Kusumoto, Hirofumi; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Wenjuan; XiangWei, Wenshu; Shaulsky, Gil H.; Hu, Chun; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Yuan, Hongjie; Jiang, Yuwu

    2017-01-01

    Objective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) subunit GRIN2A/GluN2A mutations have been identified in patients with various neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and intellectual disability / developmental delay (ID/DD). In this study, we investigated the phenotype and underlying molecular mechanism of a GRIN2A missense mutation identified by next generation sequencing on idiopathic focal epilepsy using in vitro electrophysiology. Methods Genomic DNA of patients with epilepsy and ID/DD were sequenced by targeted next-generation sequencing within 300 genes related to epilepsy and ID/DD. The effects of one missense GRIN2A mutation on NMDAR function were evaluated by two-electrode voltage clamp current recordings and whole cell voltage clamp current recordings. Results We identified one de novo missense GRIN2A mutation (Asp731Asn, GluN2A(D731N)) in a child with unexplained epilepsy and DD. The D731N mutation is located in a portion of the agonist-binding domain (ABD) in the GluN2A subunit, which is the binding pocket for agonist glutamate. This residue in the ABD is conserved among vertebrate species and all other NMDAR subunits, suggesting an important role in receptor function. The proband shows developmental delay as well as EEG-confirmed seizure activity. Functional analyses reveal that the GluN2A(D731N) mutation decreases glutamate potency by over 3,000-fold, reduces amplitude of current response, shortens synaptic-like response time course, and decreases channel open probability, while enhancing sensitivity to negative allosteric modulators, including extracellular proton and zinc inhibition. The combined effects reduce NMDAR function. Significance We identified a de novo missense mutation in the GRIN2A gene in a patient with childhood focal epilepsy and acquired epileptic aphasia. The mutant decreases NMDAR activation suggesting NMDAR hypofunction may contribute to the epilepsy pathogenesis. PMID:28182669

  19. State Variation in Medical Imaging: Despite Great Variation, the Medicare Spending Decline Continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess state-level trends in per beneficiary Medicare spending on medical imaging. Medicare part B 5% research identifiable files from 2004 through 2012 were used to compute national and state-by-state annual average per beneficiary spending on imaging. State-to-state geographic variation and temporal trends were analyzed. National average per beneficiary Medicare part B spending on imaging increased 7.8% annually between 2004 ($350.54) and its peak in 2006 ($405.41) then decreased 4.4% annually between 2006 and 2012 ($298.63). In 2012, annual per beneficiary spending was highest in Florida ($367.25) and New York ($355.67) and lowest in Ohio ($67.08) and Vermont ($72.78). Maximum state-to-state geographic variation increased over time, with the ratio of highest-spending state to lowest-spending state increasing from 4.0 in 2004 to 5.5 in 2012. Spending in nearly all states decreased since peaks in 2005 (six states) or 2006 (43 states). The average annual decrease among states was 5.1% ± 1.8% (range, 1.2-12.2%) The largest decrease was in Ohio. In only two states did per beneficiary spending increase (Maryland, 12.5% average annual increase since 2005; Oregon, 4.8% average annual increase since 2008). Medicare part B average per beneficiary spending on medical imaging declined in nearly every state since 2005 and 2006 peaks, abruptly reversing previously reported trends. Spending continued to increase, however, in Maryland and Oregon. Identification of state-level variation may facilitate future investigation of the potential effect of specific and regional changes in spending on patient access and outcomes.

  20. Segmentation of the heart and great vessels in CT images using a model-based adaptation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecabert, Olivier; Peters, Jochen; Walker, Matthew J; Ivanc, Thomas; Lorenz, Cristian; von Berg, Jens; Lessick, Jonathan; Vembar, Mani; Weese, Jürgen

    2011-12-01

    Recently, model-based methods for the automatic segmentation of the heart chambers have been proposed. An important application of these methods is the characterization of the heart function. Heart models are, however, increasingly used for interventional guidance making it necessary to also extract the attached great vessels. It is, for instance, important to extract the left atrium and the proximal part of the pulmonary veins to support guidance of ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation treatment. For cardiac resynchronization therapy, a heart model including the coronary sinus is needed. We present a heart model comprising the four heart chambers and the attached great vessels. By assigning individual linear transformations to the heart chambers and to short tubular segments building the great vessels, variable sizes of the heart chambers and bending of the vessels can be described in a consistent way. A configurable algorithmic framework that we call adaptation engine matches the heart model automatically to cardiac CT angiography images in a multi-stage process. First, the heart is detected using a Generalized Hough Transformation. Subsequently, the heart chambers are adapted. This stage uses parametric as well as deformable mesh adaptation techniques. In the final stage, segments of the large vascular structures are successively activated and adapted. To optimize the computational performance, the adaptation engine can vary the mesh resolution and freeze already adapted mesh parts. The data used for validation were independent from the data used for model-building. Ground truth segmentations were generated for 37 CT data sets reconstructed at several cardiac phases from 17 patients. Segmentation errors were assessed for anatomical sub-structures resulting in a mean surface-to-surface error ranging 0.50-0.82mm for the heart chambers and 0.60-1.32mm for the parts of the great vessels visible in the images.

  1. Variable wind ripple migration at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, observed by timelapse imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Valdez, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Granule ripples at Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) were observed using inexpensive digital timelapse cameras over a 70-day period in winter 2010-2011. The ripples migrated during a handful of discrete events — visible ripple movement occurred on only 11 days during the observation period. The movement conditions are documented with hourly and 15-minute records from two nearby weather stations, and by a cup anemometer at the site itself. During the most prominent movement episode, when local winds averaged ~ 10 m/s, ripples of several sizes were observed simultaneously and a reciprocal relationship of ripple size and propagation speed was seen, with small (~ 10 cm) ripples moving at ~ 1.4 cm/min, and larger (~ 80 cm) ripples at ~ 0.15 cm/min. Ripple sizes and morphologies evolve throughout the observation period.

  2. Grin2A expression under inhibition of miR-17 in poststroke depression rats%卒中后抑郁模型大鼠与miR-137抑制下的Grin2A表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓煜; 史齐; 褚秀峰; 张清琴; 张敏; 郑胜哲; 姬颖华; 路平

    2015-01-01

    背景:卒中后抑郁是脑血管病后最常见的心理行为障碍并发症,其发病机制目前尚未明确。目前研究表明, microRNA与神经发生和突触形成有关,可能在精神疾病中扮演至关重要的作用。目的:分析卒中后抑郁大鼠模型脑内和外周血中的miR-137的表达以及其对模型行为学的影响。方法:将36只大鼠分为6组,每组各6只。对照组不做任何处理,卒中后抑郁组大鼠经大脑中动脉阻塞后慢性温和刺激建立卒中后抑郁模型,agomir-137组、agomir-NC组、agomir-137+Grin2A组和agomir-137+vector组大鼠在建立卒中后抑郁模型的基础上分别给予脑室内注射agomir-137、agomir-NC、agomir-137和Grin2A过表达质粒以及agomir-137和空白质粒。结果与结论:实时定量 PCR检测显示卒中后抑郁模型大鼠脑内和外周血中 miR-137表达水平均明显低于对照组正常大鼠。行为学结果显示,在脑缺血第3周,agomir-137组大鼠垂直得分以及水平得分均显著高于agomir-NC组大鼠以及卒中后抑郁组大鼠。糖水消耗实验结果显示,在脑缺血后第2周末起,agomir-137组大鼠糖水消耗百分比即显著高于agomir-NC组大鼠以及卒中后抑郁组大鼠。进一步研究发现,miR-137可以与Grin2A的3’UTR端结合,抑制Grin2A mRNA的翻译从而下调其蛋白的表达。并且在卒中后抑郁大鼠模型的脑内过表达Grin2A基因后,miR-137抗卒中后抑郁的作用被显著减弱。提示miR-137可通过与Grin2A mRNA结合抑制其蛋白表达,从而发挥抗卒中后抑郁的作用,为卒中后抑郁提供新的临床治疗靶点。%BACKGROUND:Poststroke depression is one of the most common psychological behavior disorders after stroke and its mechanism remains unclear. Studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis may play an important role in psychology diseases. OBJECTIVE:To observe the expression

  3. ENU-mutagenesis mice with a non-synonymous mutation in Grin1 exhibit abnormal anxiety-like behaviors, impaired fear memory, and decreased acoustic startle response

    OpenAIRE

    Umemori, Juzoh; Takao, Keizo; Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Hattori, Satoko; Furuse, Tamio; Wakana, Shigeharu; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Grin1 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic, NMDA1) gene expresses a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is considered to play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. Grin1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In our previous study, we examined an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-generated mut...

  4. Applying the Back Projection Method to Image the Rupture Process of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Great Chile's Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Ge, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 8.8 Chiles earthquake of 27 February 2010 was the most great Chilean earthquake since 1960. After the earthquake occurred, we applied the back projection method based on the non-plane wave assumption to image the rupture process of the Chiles earthquake with three-component broadband seismograms recorded by the US Array Transportable Network. According to the derived imaging of the rupture process and source parameters provided by USGS, we assumed that the strike, dip, length and width of the fault plane of the great Chiles earthquake were known. Then we imaged the rupture process again. The final results as shown in figure 1 showed that the Chiles earthquake bilaterally ruptured from the epicenter, and simultaneously extended northwards and southwards, but it was dominated by the northern branch. The rupture length of the northern branch was about 340 km with a rupture time period about 125 seconds. So its rupture speed was around 2.87 km/s. On the other hand, the rupture strength of the southern branch was much lower than the northern, its rupture front couldn't be obtained after 100 seconds. According to the obtained results of the southern branch, we estimated the rupture speed to be about 1.84 km/s. Thus the total rupture length of the great Chiles earthquake was about 570 km. The width of the rupture plane was over 100 km. Moreover, there are two energy releasing peaks in the rupture process. One is at 16 sec after the rupture began and locates 75 km north to the epicenter. The other one is at 79 sec and locates about 230 km north to the epicenter. As the energy releasing peaks were determined, the rescue information could be provide for the earthquake emergency. Fig. 1 Imaging the rupture process of the Chile's earthquake. The little black points represent the aftershocks during one day after the main earthquake happened. The transparent gray plane is the fault plane. The circles are the rupture fronts and their areas depict their own energy. The

  5. NASA Space Imaging is a Great Resource to Teach Science Topics in Professional Development Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Long, T.; Edwards, S.; Ofman, L.; Brosius, J. W.; Gordon, D.; St Cyr, O. C.; Krotkov, N. A.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our multi- component project aims to develop and test NASA educational resource materials, provide training for pre- and in-service elementary school teachers in STEM disciplines needed in Washington DC area. We use physics and math in a hands-on enquiry based setting and make extensive use of imagery from NASA space missions (SDO, SOHO, STEREO) to develop instructional modules focusing on grades, PK-8. Our two years of effort culminated in developing three modules: The Sun - the nearest star Students learn about the Sun as the nearest star. Students make outdoor observations during the day and all year round. At night, they observe and record the motion of the moon and stars. Students learn these bodies move in regular and predictable ways. Electricity & Magnetism - From your classroom to the Sun Students investigate electricity and magnetism in the classroom and see large scale examples of these concepts on the Sun's surface, interplanetary space, and the Earth's magnetosphere as revealed from NASA space missions. Solar Energy The Sun is the primary source of energy for Earth's climate system. Students learn about wavelength and frequency and develop skills to do scientific inquiry, including how to use math as a tool. They use optical, UV, EUV, and X-ray images to trace out the energetic processes of the Sun. Each module includes at least one lesson plan, vocabulary, activities and children book for each grade range PK-3; 4-5; 6-8

  6. [Association polymorphic variants of GRIN2B gene with paranoid schizophrenia and response to common neuroleptics in Russians and Tatars from Bashkortostan Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareeva, A E; Zakirov, D F; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of the association of paranoid schizophrenia seeking with polymorphic variants of GRIN2B gene was performed in order to identify genetic risk factors of disease development and genetic markers of the response to therapy by neuroleptics in Russian and Tatar patients from Bashkortostan Republic (BB). In the course of the analysis, we revealed the following: 1) genetic markers of increased risk of developing paranoid schizophrenia in various ethnic groups, including, in Tatars, the GRIN2B* T/*Tgenotype (p = 0.003; OR = 2.33) and GRIN2B*T allele (p = 0.001; OR = 2.36), rs1805247; in Russians, the GRIN2B*T/*T genotype (p = 0.038; OR = 2.12) and GRIN2B* T allele (p = 0.028; OR = 2.03), rs1805247, genotype GRIN2B*A/*A (p = 0.042; OR = 2.12), rs1805476; 2) genetic markers of the reduced risk of developing paranoid schizophrenia; 3) genetic markers of therapy response and the risk of side effects development during neuroleptics (haloperidol) treatment in Bashkortostan. The significant interethnic diversity of genetic factors related to the risk of this disease development was noted.

  7. Association of DRD3 and GRIN2B with impulse control and related behaviors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Sung Sup; Lim, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Ji Sun; Jeon, Beom S

    2009-09-15

    We aimed to assess whether allelic variants of dopamine receptor, glutamate receptor, and serotonin transporter genes are associated with the appearance of impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) in Parkinson's disease (PD) with dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). We surveyed ICRB in consecutive Korean patients with PD who were treated with stable DRT using modified Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview over a period of 4 months. In the 404 patients who completed the interview and the 559 Korean healthy normal controls, genotyping was performed for variants of the DRD3 p.S9G, DRD2 Taq1A, GRIN2B c.366C>G, c.2664C>T and c.-200T>G, and the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). Behavioral abnormalities suggestive of ICRB including compulsive buying, gambling, sexual behavior and eating, and punding, were present in 14.4% of the patients. Variants of DRD2 and 5-HTTLPR were not associated with the risk of developing ICRB. However, the AA genotype of DRD3 p.S9G and the CC genotype of GRIN2B c.366C>G were more frequent in patients with ICRB than in nonaffected patients (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21, P = 0.0094; and 2.14, P = 0.0087, after adjusting for age and sex). After controlling for clinical variables in the multivariate analysis, carriage of either AA genotype of DRD3 or CC genotype of GRIN2B was identified as an independent risk factor for ICRB (adjusted OR: 2.57, P = 0.0087). Variants of DRD3 p.S9G and GRIN2B c.366C>G may be associated with the appearance of ICRB in PD.

  8. «A BAD SET OF FELLOWS»: «GREAT EXPECTATIONS» AND THE IMAGE OF CHILDHOOD IN VICTORIAN ENGLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Krupenina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Dickens’s novel "Great Expectations" is an outstanding work that rightfully takes its place among the best books of the English world literature. The article discusses and analyzes the precarious situation of children in Victorian England, based on the novel "Great Expectations" by Ch. Dickens, and also examines the problem of shifted paradigms of perceiving the image of childhood in Victorian England. It also addresses the problem of dehumanization of the child in the world contemporary to Charles Dickens. Particular attention is paid to family relations. The article traces the evolution of public mind in perception of childhood. Dickens believed that sufferings and deaths of children should be a significant impetus for reforms to be made by the authorities. Until the XIX century, there were no laws concerning the cruelty of parents and teachers to children; they were always exposed to exploitation. New social consciousness, reflected in the novel of Charles Dickens, was caused by the necessity to attract attention to parental responsibility for their children, what is disclosed in detail in the article.

  9. Simulation of two-dimensional adjustable liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Zichun; Wu, Xiang; Sun, Yunli; Du, Ying

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed which can be used in adjusting focusing direction and focal spot of light beam. Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the convection diffusion process happening in core inlet flow and cladding inlet flow. And the ray tracing method shows us the light beam focusing effect including the extrapolation of focal length and output beam spot size. When the flow rates of the core and cladding fluids are held the same between the internal and external, left and right, and upper and lower inlets, the focal length varied from 313 μm to 53.3 μm while the flow rate of liquids ranges from 500 pL/s to 10,000 pL/s. While the core flow rate is bigger than the cladding inlet flow rate, the light beam will focus on a light spot with a tunable size. By adjusting the ratio of cladding inlet flow rate including Qright/Qleft and Qup/Qdown, we get the adjustable two-dimensional focus direction rather than the one-dimensional focusing. In summary, by adjusting the flow rate of core inlet and cladding inlet, the focal length, output beam spot and focusing direction of the input light beam can be manipulated. We suppose this kind of flexible microlens can be used in integrated optics and lab-on-a-chip system.

  10. GaAs/AlGaAs GRIN-SCH-SQW DBR Laser Diodes with Passive Waveguides Integrated by Compositional Disordering of the Quantum Well Using Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takaaki; Maeda, Minoru; Suehiro, Masayuki; Hosomatsu, Haruo

    1990-06-01

    GaAs/AlGaAs GRIN-SCH-SQW DBR laser diodes are fabricated by ion implantation and two-step MOVPE growth. Passive waveguides are monolithically integrated by compositional disordering of quantum well heterostructures using silicon ion implantation. Waveguide losses of partially disordered GRIN-SCH-SQW passive waveguides are measured, and propagation losses as low as 4.4 cm-1 are observed at the lasing wavelength. Stable single mode operation is obtained, and the narrowest linewidth achieved is 840 kHz. The results show that this fabrication process is useful for photonic integrated circuits.

  11. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LOS POLIMORFISMOS DEL GEN GRIN-1 DEL RECEPTOR NMDA EN UNA POBLACIÓN SANA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Villegas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha encontrado que el gen GRIN-1 juega un papel fundamental en muchas funciones cerebrales y se le ha asociado con numerosas enfermedades razón por la cual ha despertado un gran interés científico el conocimiento del polimorfismo de este gen entre la población normal y enferma. Hasta el momento no han sido identificados polimorfismos que lleven a un cambio de aminoácido en la proteína y los estudios poblacionales hechos hasta la fecha sólo incluyen caucásicos, africanos americanos y asiáticos. En este trabajo se estudiaron los polimorfismos genéticos del gen GRIN-1 ubicados en la región 5’-UTR y en los exones 3, 6 y 16. Se encontró que la población estudiada se diferencia significativamente de caucásicos y no difiere significativamente de otros grupos étnicos.

  12. Multiband optics for imaging systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Jasbinder S.; Gibson, Daniel J.; Bayya, Shyam S.; Nguyen, Vinh Q.; Kotov, Mikhail; McClain, Collin

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong desire to reduce size and weight of single and multiband IR imaging systems in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations on hand-held, helmet mounted or airborne platforms. NRL is developing new IR glasses that expand the glass map and provide compact solutions to multispectral imaging systems. These glasses were specifically designed to have comparable glass molding temperatures and thermal properties to enable lamination and co-molding of the optics which leads to a reduction in the number of air-glass interfaces (lower Fresnel reflection losses). Our multispectral optics designs using these new materials demonstrate reduced size, complexity and improved performance. This presentation will cover discussions on the new optical materials, multispectral designs, as well fabrication and characterization of new optics. Additionally, graded index (GRIN) optics offer further potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 µm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional materials. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations will be presented in this talk.

  13. Comprendre le référendum d’autodétermination monténégrin

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Du référendum d’autodétermination monténégrin de mars 1992 à celui de mai 2006, l’opinion monténégrine a évolué en faveur de l’option indépendantiste. Cet article propose d’analyser cette évolution par une mise en perspective combinant les «clivages géonationalistes» structurants de la scène politique au Monténégro, du XIXe siècle à nos jours, et leurs multiples articulations en fonction du contexte sociopolitique des quinze dernières années. Ces multiples combinaisons permettent d’interpréte...

  14. Genome-wide gene-environment study identifies glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's disease modifier gene via interaction with coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Taye H; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M; Rhodes, Shannon L; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Payami, Haydeh

    2011-08-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P(2df) = 10(-6), GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10(-7)) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that "Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers" was confirmed: OR(Replication) = 0.59, P(Replication) = 10(-3); OR(Pooled) = 0.51, P(Pooled) = 7×10(-8). Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10(-3)), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10(-13)). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P(2df)coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify

  15. Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Taye H.; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M.; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I.; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W.; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K.; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Payami, Haydeh

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P2df = 10−6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10−7) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that “Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers” was confirmed: ORReplication = 0.59, PReplication = 10−3; ORPooled = 0.51, PPooled = 7×10−8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10−3), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10−13). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P2dfcoffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that

  16. The image of Great Britain in the interpretation of journalists of the military periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines and analyses the image of Great Britain which at the beginning of the last century was formed by Russian journalists on the pages of the pro-government periodical “The Chronicle of the War against Japan”. Within this work the British Empire appears to be one of Russia's main competitors in the struggle for the leading positions in the international arena. This research analyses more than 60 issues of this periodical. In conclusion, in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century periodicals had a special role in informational impact on people's minds.

  17. Candidate-Gene Screening and Association Analysis at the Autism-Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 16p: Evidence of Association at GRIN2A and ABAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Gabrielle; Abbott, Aaron; Sykes, Nuala; Morris, Andrew; Weeks, Daniel E.; Mott, Richard; Lamb, Janine; Bailey, Anthony J.; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose underlying genetic causes have yet to be identified. To date, there have been eight genome screens for autism, two of which identified a putative susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p. In the present study, 10 positional candidate genes that map to 16p11-13 were examined for coding variants: A2BP1, ABAT, BFAR, CREBBP, EMP2, GRIN2A, MRTF-B, SSTR5, TBX6, and UBN1. Screening of all coding and regulatory regions by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography identified seven nonsynonymous changes. Five of these mutations were found to cosegregate with autism, but the mutations are not predicted to have deleterious effects on protein structure and are unlikely to represent significant etiological variants. Selected variants from candidate genes were genotyped in the entire International Molecular Genetics Study of Autism Consortium collection of 239 multiplex families and were tested for association with autism by use of the pedigree disequilibrium test. Additionally, genotype frequencies were compared between 239 unrelated affected individuals and 192 controls. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium were investigated, and the transmission of haplotypes across candidate genes was tested for association. Evidence of single-marker association was found for variants in ABAT, CREBBP, and GRIN2A. Within these genes, 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently genotyped in 91 autism trios (one affected individual and two unaffected parents), and the association was replicated within GRIN2A (Fisher's exact test, P<.0001). Logistic regression analysis of SNP data across GRIN2A and ABAT showed a trend toward haplotypic differences between cases and controls. PMID:15830322

  18. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  19. Great Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Women of China magazine was first published in 1956. When the "cultural revolution" started in 1966 the magazine was obliged to stop publication. In 1979, when the magazine resumed publication, Mme. Soong Ching Ling, late vice chairperson of the National People’s Congress, wrote her congratulations—"Congratulations and Great Expectation."

  20. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip encount

  1. Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  2. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  3. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…

  4. A new low-voltage-driven GRIN liquid crystal lens with multiple ring electrodes in unequal widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Yuan; Chao, Paul C-P; Hsueh, Chieh-Wen

    2010-08-30

    This work is dedicated to design a novel liquid crystal (LC) lens device with multiple ring electrodes in unequal widths, in order to offer tunability on focusing quality and to lower the level of applied voltage. The number and widths of the multiple ring electrodes are pre-designed and optimized to offer the on-line tunability on individual electrode voltages to render a better refraction index distribution for focusing, as compared to the past hole-type LC lenses. The resulted refractive index distribution is expected to offer similar focusing effects based on the theory of the gradient refraction index (GRIN) lens. The transparent electrodes of this new LC lens are placed at the inner surface of the LC cell to minimize the driving voltages, in results, less than 10 V, for the same level of focusing power and an easy practical operation. A new fabrication process in the wafer level to bury bus lines is developed for generating smooth electrical fields over the lens aperture. In addition, a dielectric layer is coated between electrodes and the LC layer.

  5. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  6. Design and Fabrication of Large Diameter Gradient-Index Lenses for Dual-Band Visible to Short-Wave Infrared Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Anthony Joseph

    The fabrication of gradient-index (GRIN) optical elements is quite challenging, which has traditionally restricted their use in many imaging systems; consequently, commercial-level GRIN components usually exist in one particular market or niche application space. One such fabrication technique, ion exchange, is a well-known process used in the chemical strengthening of glass, the fabrication of waveguide devices, and the production of small diameter GRIN optical relay systems. However, the manufacturing of large diameter ion-exchanged GRIN elements has historically been limited by long diffusion times. For example, the diffusion time for a 20 mm diameter radial GRIN lens in commercially available ion exchange glass for small diameter relays, is on the order of a year. The diffusion time can be dramatically reduced by addressing three key ion exchange process parameters; the composition of the glass, the diffusion temperature, and the composition of the salt bath. Experimental work throughout this thesis aims to (1) scale up the ion exchange diffusion process to 20 mm diameters for a fast-diffusing titania silicate glass family in both (2) sodium ion for lithium ion (Na+ for Li+) and lithium ion for sodium ion (Li+ for Na+) exchange directions, while (3) utilizing manufacturing friendly salt bath compositions. In addition, optical design studies have demonstrated that an important benefit of gradient-index elements in imaging systems is the added degree of freedom introduced with a gradient's optical power. However, these studies have not investigated the potential usefulness of GRIN materials in dual-band visible to short-wave infrared (vis-SWIR) imaging systems. The unique chromatic properties of the titania silicate ion exchange glass become a significant degree of freedom in the design process for these color-limited, broadband imaging applications. A single GRIN element can replace a cemented doublet or even a cemented triplet, without loss in overall system

  7. Deep Tissue Microscopic Imaging of the Kidney with a Gradient-Index Lens System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yu, Weiming

    2008-04-01

    Intravital microscopy using two-photon excitation is proven to be a valuable tool for studying the kidney and associated disease processes. However, routine performance of intravital kidney imaging is limited by the fact that fluorescence signal is attenuated by the tissue and at certain tissue depth lost its strength completely. For most of the animal tissues, this finite imaging depth is limited to a few hundred microns. Currently it is not possible to non-invasively image the kidney beyond the superficial tissue layers of the cortex. This has imposed significant limitations on the animal models one can use for imaging since structure such the glomerulus is typically located below the superficial layer of the cortex that can not be imaged using a conventional fluorescence microscope. Here we report the use of a needle-like lens system based on gradient-index (GRIN) microlenses capable of transferring high quality fluorescence images of the tissue through a regular microscope objective for deep tissue imaging of the kidney. By combining this GRIN lens system with a Zeiss LSM 510 NLO microscope, we are able to extend the imaging depth for kidney tissues far beyond the few hundred microns limit. This GRIN lens imaging system provides an alternative microendoscopic imaging tool that will enhance current intravital kidney imaging techniques for studying structural and functional properties of local tissues at locations below the superficial layers of the kidney.

  8. [The association between the GRIN2B gene and verbal fluency and impairment of abstract thinking in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Korovaitseva, G I; Abramova, L I; Lezheiko, T V; Aksenova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Исследование было направлено на поиск ассоциаций между геном GRIN2B и признаками нарушения мышления и речи при шизофрении, в основе которых может лежать снижение доступа к ментальному лексикону. Материал и методы. В группе из 552 пациентов с расстройствами шизофренического спектра определяли связи между полиморфизмом rs7301328 в гене GRIN2B и семантической вербальной беглостью и пятью симптомами нарушений мышления и речи, входящими в шкалу позитивных и негативных симптомов (PANSS). Результаты и обсуждение. Обнаружена ассоциация гена GRIN2B как с вербальной беглостью (p=0,013), так и нарушением абстрактного мышления (p=0,012). При этом не выявлено опосредующей роли вербальной беглости в ассоциации между геном и нарушением мышления. Результаты позволяют предположить, что ген GRIN2B оказывает модифицирующее действие на лингвистические процессы, обеспечивающие извлечение информации из ментального лексикона на основе семантических признаков, и, кроме того, вносит вклад в вариативность клинически выраженных нарушений абстрактного мышления у больных шизофренией. При этом гете

  9. Analysis of variations in the glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A gene reveals their relative importance as genetic susceptibility factors for heroin addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhao

    Full Text Available The glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A gene that encodes the 2A subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor was recently shown to be involved in the development of opiate addiction. Genetic polymorphisms in GRIN2A have a plausible role in modulating the risk of heroin addiction. An association of GRIN2A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with heroin addiction was found earlier in African Americans. To identify markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction, we examined the potential association between heroin addiction and forty polymorphisms of the GRIN2A gene using the MassARRAY system and GeneScan in this study. The frequency of the (GT26 repeats (rs3219790 in the heroin addiction group was significantly higher than that in the control group (χ(2 = 5.360, P = 0.021. The allele frequencies of three polymorphisms (rs1102972, rs1650420, and rs3104703 in intron 3 were strongly associated with heroin addiction (P<0.001, 0.0002, and <0.001, after Bonferroni correction. Three additional SNPs from the same intron (rs1071502, rs6497730, and rs1070487 had nominally significant P values for association (P<0.05, but did not pass the threshold value. Haplotype analysis revealed that the G-C-T-C-C-T-A (block 6 and T-T (block 10 haplotypes of the GRIN2A gene displayed a protective effect (P = <0.001 and 0.003. These findings point to a role for GRIN2A polymorphisms in heroin addiction among the Han Chinese from Shaanxi province, and may be informative for future genetic or neurobiological studies on heroin addiction.

  10. GRIN介质中的程函方程与光线方程%Eikonal Equation and Equation of Ray in GRIN Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭守月; 穆姝慧; 袁兴红; 周倩

    2011-01-01

    由变折射率(GRIN)介质中光程的定义,不需借助近似理论直接推出程函方程(eikonal equation),再由程函方程推得光线方程的矢量形式,并将矢量形式化简为光线方程的标量形式.应用实例表明该公式更适于已知折射率变化规律的条件下确定光线的轨迹方程.%With the aid of the definition of optical length in gradient index (GRIN) medium, the eikonal equation was deduced without the help of approximate theory, then the vector form of ray equation can be derived by eikonal equation, and finally the vector form of ray equation was simplified into its scalar form. The results of application example show that the equation is especially applicable to determine the equation of ray track in terms of known variation law of refractive index.

  11. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case-control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively. Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035, as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10(-8, respectively. After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10(-7. In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849-rs12319804-rs10845851, CC (rs12582848-rs7952915, and AAGAC (rs2041986-rs11055665-rs7314376-rs7297101-rs2098469, had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively. In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively. In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between GRIN2B

  12. Association Study of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2B (GRIN2B) Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia Symptoms in the Han Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxing; Yang, Ge; Wang, Xiujuan; Ding, Minli; Jiang, Tianzi; Lv, Luxian

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common and complex psychiatric disorder that has a significant genetic component. The glutamatergic system is the major excitatory neurotransmitter system in the central nervous system, and is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Disturbances in this system have been hypothesized to play a major role in SZ pathogenesis. Several studies have revealed that the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (GRIN2B) potentially associates with SZ and its psychiatric symptoms. In this study, we performed a case–control study to identify polymorphisms of the GRIN2B gene that may confer susceptibility to SZ in the Han Chinese population. Thirty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 528 paranoid SZ patients and 528 control subjects. A significant association was observed in allele and genotype between SZ and controls at rs2098469 (χ2 = 8.425 and 4.994; p = 0.025 and 0.014, respectively). Significant associations were found in the allele at rs12319804 (χ2 = 4.436; p = 0.035), as well as in the genotype at rs12820037 and rs7298664 between SZ and controls (χ2 = 11.162 and 38.204; p = 0.003 and 4.27×10-8, respectively). After applying the Bonferroni correction, rs7298664 still had significant genotype associations with SZ (p = 1.71×10-7). In addition, rs2098469 genotype and allele frequencies, and 12820037 allele frequencies were nominally associated with SZ. Three haplotypes, CGA (rs10845849—rs12319804—rs10845851), CC (rs12582848—rs7952915), and AAGAC (rs2041986—rs11055665—rs7314376—rs7297101—rs2098469), had significant differences between SZ and controls (χ2 = 4.324, 4.582, and 4.492; p = 0.037, 0.032, and 0.034, respectively). In addition, three SNPs, rs2098469, rs12820037, and rs7298664, were significantly associated with cognition factors PANSS subscores in SZ (F = 16.799, 7.112, and 13.357; p = 0.000, 0.017, and 0.000, respectively). In conclusion, our study provides novel evidence for an association between

  13. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a hi

  14. Dobutamine-induced increase of right ventricular contractility without increased stroke volume in adolescent patients with transposition of the great arteries : Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I.I.; Lee, PL; Groenink, M; van der Wall, EE; Pieper, PG; Romkes, H; Mulder, BJM; Stoker, J

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Prognosis in patients with surgically corrected (Senning or Mustard) transposition of the great arteries (TGA) depends mainly on right ventricular (RV) function and RV functional reserve. We examined the role of dobutamine stress in the early detection of RV dysfunction in asymptomatic or

  15. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  16. The Forgotten Great War: Viewpoint of a Political Scientist. Book review: Russia in the Great War of 1914-1918. The images and texts / ed. by A. K. Sorokin, A. Yu. Shutov ; auth.-comp. K. M. Anderson, et al. – Moscow : Politicheskaya entsik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankratov Sergey Anatolyevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication is a review of the book Russia in the Great War of 1914-1918. The images and texts, prepared by the team of authors and edited by A.K. Sorokin and A.Yu. Shutov in the context of joint activity of the Russian Society of Political Scientists,Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian State Archive of Social and Political History. The reviewer characterizes the specifics of the publication which represents an attempt to reveal the atmosphere of the century-old events, semantic plots, images of people and their actions through the photographs from the pages of periodicals, posters and cartoons, leaflets and official documents of the First World War.

  17. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, S. Vazeed; Satish, K. V.; Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Prasada Rao, P. V. V.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005-2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  18. Satellite image based quantification of invasion and patch dynamics of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) in Great Rann of Kachchh, Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Vazeed Pasha; K V Satish; C Sudhakar Reddy; P V V Prasada Rao; C S Jha

    2014-10-01

    The invasion of alien species is a significant threat to global biodiversity and the top driver of climate change. The present study was conducted in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve, Gujarat, India, which has been severely affected by invasion of Prosopis juliflora. The invasive weed infestation has been identified using multi-temporal remote sensing datasets of 1977, 1990, 1999, 2005 and 2011. Spatial analyses of the transition matrix, extent of invasive colonies, patchiness, coalescence and rate of spread were carried out. During the study period of three and half decades, almost 295 km2 of the natural land cover was converted into Prosopis cover. This study has shown an increment of 42.9% of area under Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of the Kachchh Biosphere Reserve during 1977 to 2011. Spatial analysis indicates high occupancy of Prosopis cover with most of the invasion (95.9%) occurring in the grasslands and only 4.1% in other land cover types. The process of Prosopis invasion shows high patch initiation, followed by coalescence, indicating aggressive colonization of species. The number of patches within an area of > 1 km2 increased from 1977 to 2011, indicating the formation of new Prosopis habitats by replacing the grasslands. The largest patch of Prosopis cover increased from 144 km2 in 1977 to 430 km2 in 2011. The estimated mean patch size was 7.8 km2 in 1977. The mean patch size was largest during 2011, i.e., 9 km2. The annual spread rate for Prosopis has been estimated as 2.1% during 2005–2011. The present work has investigated the long term changes in Prosopis cover in the Great Rann of Kachchh, part of Kachchh Biosphere Reserve. The spatial database generated will be useful in preparing strategies for the management of Prosopis juliflora.

  19. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  20. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. [land use, image enhancement, winter wheat, agriculture, water resources, and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L.; Ulaby, F. T.; Davis, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Improvement in the land use classification accuracy of ERTS-1 MSS multi-images over Kansas can be made using two distances between neighboring grey tone N-tuples instead of one distance. Much more information is contained texturally than spectrally on the Kansas image. Ground truth measurements indicate that reflectance ratios of the 545 and 655 nm wavebands provide an index of plant development and possibly physiological stress. Preliminary analysis of MSS 4 and 5 channels substantiate the ground truth interpretation. Results of the land use mapping experiment indicate that ERTS-1 imagery has major potential in regionalization. The ways in which land is utilized within these regions may then be studied more effectively than if no adequate regionalization is available. A model for estimating wheat yield per acre has been applied to acreage estimates derived from ERTS-1 imagery to project the 1973 wheat yields for a ten county area in southwest Kansas. The results are within 3% of the preharvest estimates for the same area prepared by the USDA. Visual identification of winter wheat is readily achieved by using a temporal sequence of images. Identification can be improve by stratifying the project area into subregions having more or less homogeneous agricultural practices and crop mixes.

  1. Improving Children's Mental Health with a Digital Social Skills Development Game: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial of Adventures aboard the S.S. GRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca; Brown, Emily; Kocher, Kelly; DeRosier, Melissa

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a computer-based game to improve social skills and mental health in children with social skills deficits would be efficacious. The program, Adventures aboard the S.S. GRIN, translates a proven in-person intervention into a nine-episode interactive online adventure game that provides opportunity for knowledge acquisition and skill practice. Participants (children aged 7-11 years with social skills challenges) were randomly assigned to immediate treatment group (n = 33) or waitlist control group (n = 36). Children in the immediate treatment condition completed the game at home over the course of 9 weeks. Before playing the game and again within 1 week of game completion, children completed surveys about social literacy, social anxiety, bullying, social self-efficacy, and social satisfaction. Children who played Adventures improved significantly more from pretest to posttest than children who did not play the game in social literacy, social anxiety, bullying victimization, and social satisfaction. Online interactive games can be effective in improving mental health for children who struggle with social skills. For children who can access them, serious games have the potential to increase the reach of effective programs by overcoming the logistical and implementation barriers (such as cost, travel, and accessibility) that limit traditionally delivered mental health interventions.

  2. Analysis of the Expression and Polymorphism of APOE, HSP, BDNF, and GRIN2B Genes Associated with the Neurodegeneration Process in the Pathogenesis of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Nowak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is characterized by optic neuropathy of the RGC or retinal nerve fiber. The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the neurodegenerative genes’ polymorphisms of the APOE (rs449647, BDNF (rs2030324, GRIN2B (rs3764028, and HSP70-1 (rs1043618 and the occurrence risk of POAG and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Analysis of the genes’ polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP. The level of mRNA expression was determined by QRT-PCR. We showed a statistically significant association of BDNF and APOE genes’ polymorphisms with a risk of POAG occurrence. There was a statistically significant association of the rs2030324 polymorphism with progression of POAG based on cup disc ratio value and rs1043618 polymorphism based on nerve fiber index and rim area. Furthermore, we found that mean HSP70-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the case of individuals with the G/G genotype than in the case of minor allele carriers, that is, G/C and C/C. We also found that BDNF and HSP70-1 expression level are associated with the progression of POAG based on rim area value. In conclusion, our results suggest that BDNF, APOE, and HSP70-1 genes might be associated with a risk of POAG occurrence in the Polish population.

  3. Analysis of the expression and polymorphism of APOE, HSP, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes associated with the neurodegeneration process in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Alicja; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Przybyłowska-Sygut, Karolina; Pytel, Dariusz; Szymanek, Katarzyna; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by optic neuropathy of the RGC or retinal nerve fiber. The aim of this study was to evaluate a relationship between the neurodegenerative genes' polymorphisms of the APOE (rs449647), BDNF (rs2030324), GRIN2B (rs3764028), and HSP70-1 (rs1043618) and the occurrence risk of POAG and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Analysis of the genes' polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP. The level of mRNA expression was determined by QRT-PCR. We showed a statistically significant association of BDNF and APOE genes' polymorphisms with a risk of POAG occurrence. There was a statistically significant association of the rs2030324 polymorphism with progression of POAG based on cup disc ratio value and rs1043618 polymorphism based on nerve fiber index and rim area. Furthermore, we found that mean HSP70-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the case of individuals with the G/G genotype than in the case of minor allele carriers, that is, G/C and C/C. We also found that BDNF and HSP70-1 expression level are associated with the progression of POAG based on rim area value. In conclusion, our results suggest that BDNF, APOE, and HSP70-1 genes might be associated with a risk of POAG occurrence in the Polish population.

  4. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite and Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for the Great Lakes Basin Ecological Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    The proposed solution would simulate VIIRS and LDCM sensor data for use in the USGS/USFWS GLBET DST. The VIIRS sensor possesses a spectral range that provides water-penetrating bands that could be used to assess water clarity on a regional spatial scale. The LDCM sensor possesses suitable spectral bands in a range of wavelengths that could be used to map water quality at finer spatial scales relative to VIIRS. Water quality, alongshore sediment transport and pollutant discharge tracking into the Great Lakes system are targeted as the primary products to be developed. A principal benefit of water quality monitoring via satellite imagery is its economy compared to field-data collection methods. Additionally, higher resolution satellite imagery provides a baseline dataset(s) against which later imagery can be overlaid in GIS-based DST programs. Further, information derived from higher resolution satellite imagery can be used to address public concerns and to confirm environmental compliance. The candidate solution supports the Public Health, Coastal Management, and Water Management National Applications.

  5. Atlas of Great Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  6. Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. III. Nurture shapes up the Hubble sequence in the Great Wall

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Fossati, Matteo; Dotti, Massimo; Fumagalli, Michele; Boselli, Alessandro; Gutierrez, Leonel; Toledo, Hector Hernandez; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of Halpha3, an Halpha imaging survey of galaxies selected from the HI ALFALFA Survey in the Coma Supercluster. By using the Halpha line as a tracer of the "instantaneous" star formation, complemented with optical colors from SDSS we explore the hypothesis that a morphological sequence of galaxies of progressively earlier type, lower gas-content exists in the neighborhood of the Coma cluster, with specific star formation activity decreasing with increasing local galaxy density and velocity dispersion. In the dwarf regime (8.5<\\log(M*)< 9.5) we identify a 4-step sequence of galaxies with progressively redder colors, i.e. of decreasing specific star formation, from (1) HI-rich Late-Type Galaxies belonging to the blue-cloud exhibiting extended plus nuclear star formation, (2) HI-poor LTGs with nuclear star formation only, (3) HI-poor galaxies with no star formation either extended or nuclear, but with nuclear Post-Star-Burst signature,(4) Early-type Galaxies in the red-sequence, with...

  7. Fast Rendering for Great Width Stereo Image Pair Based on Distributed Rendering%基于分布式绘制的大幅面立体像对快速浏览技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 谢剑薇; 龚雪晶; 赵兴国

    2012-01-01

    针对当前影像数据存储格式不能适应海量影像数据快速访问的情况,研究设计了大幅面立体像对的逻辑四叉树存储格式,并通过立体像对的逻辑四叉树剖分算法把普通格式的立体像对格式快速转换成逻辑四叉树存储格式。由于单机显示无法满足大幅面立体像对的高分辨率、高沉浸感的显示,因此系统研究了大幅面立体像对快速浏览的分布式结构,包括硬件选择、分布式策略和通信方式等方面。由于当前分布式网络不足以支持大规模数据的实时传输,根据帧相关性原理,研究提出了大幅面立体像对的分布式缓冲机制。最后通过实验证明该方法能够实现大幅面立体像对的实时浏览。%The current image data format cannot fit the fast access of the massive image data, so the logistic quad-tree structure has been designed for the large scale stereo image pair, and the ordinary form of stereo image pair can be fast changed into logistic quad-tree structure ones through the split method of the logistic quad-tree structure. The single machine display cannot meet the high resolution and high immersion display of the large scale stereo image pair, so the distributed structure has been studied to the fast browsing of the large scale stereo image pair, including hardware choice, distributed strategy, communications method, and so on. Because the current distributed network is insufficient to support the real-time transmission of the large-scale data, the data management mechanism has been proposed for the large scale stereo image pair according to the flame relevant principle, including distributed cache mechanism and fast access algorithm. The experiment proves that the application above technology to the fast rendering for the great width stereo image pair has realized real-time roams in the large screen stereo display.

  8. GRIN3B missense mutation as an inherited risk factor for schizophrenia: whole-exome sequencing in a family with a familiar history of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Tobias; Grüning, Björn; Kundu, Kousik; Houwaart, Torsten; Backofen, Rolf; Biber, Knut; Normann, Claus

    2017-01-30

    Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate-gated ionotropic cation channel that is composed of several subunits and modulated by a glycine binding site. Many forms of synaptic plasticity depend on the influx of calcium ions through NMDA receptors, and NMDA receptor dysfunction has been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in a family with a strong history of psychotic disorders over three generations. We used an iterative strategy to obtain condense and meaningful variants. In this highly affected family, we found a frameshift mutation (rs10666583) in the GRIN3B gene, which codes for the GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor in all family members with a psychotic disorder, but not in the healthy relatives. Matsuno et al., also reported this null variant as a risk factor for schizophrenia in 2015. In a broader sample of 22 patients with psychosis, the allele frequency of the rs10666583 mutation variant was increased compared to those of healthy population samples and unaffected relatives. Compared to the 1000 Genomes Project population, we found a significant increase of this variant with a large effect size among patients. The amino acid shift degrades the S1/S2 glycine binding domain of the dominant modulatory GluN3B subunit of the NMDA receptor, which subsequently affects the permeability of the channel pore to calcium ions. A decreased glycine affinity for the GluN3B subunit might cause impaired functional capability of the NMDA receptor and could be an important risk factor for the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders.

  9. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  10. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, N V; Wesseling, P; Hamer, P C de Witt; Noske, D P; Galgano, G D; Mansvelder, H D; Baayen, J C; Groot, M L

    2016-05-01

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy provides label-free, real-time images of histopathological quality; increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and rarefaction of neuropil in fresh, unstained human brain tissue could be clearly recognized. We further demonstrate THG images taken with a GRIN objective, as a step toward in situ THG microendoscopy of tumor boundaries. THG imaging is thus a promising tool for optical biopsies.

  11. Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, N. V.; Wesseling, P.; Hamer, P. C. de Witt; Noske, D. P.; Galgano, G. D.; Mansvelder, H. D.; Baayen, J. C.; Groot, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy provides label-free, real-time images of histopathological quality; increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and rarefaction of neuropil in fresh, unstained human brain tissue could be clearly recognized. We further demonstrate THG images taken with a GRIN objective, as a step toward in situ THG microendoscopy of tumor boundaries. THG imaging is thus a promising tool for optical biopsies. PMID:27231629

  12. Great attractor really a great wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A.; Turner, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  13. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  14. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  15. Four-dimensional visualization of thoracic blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging in a patient following correction of transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) and uncorrected aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, J; Unterhinninghofen, R; Rengier, F; Markl, M; Eichhorn, J; von Tengg-Kobligk, H; Ley, S

    2009-10-01

    Recent advances in flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and data analysis allow for comprehensive noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of complex blood flow. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated three-directional (3dir) flow measurements were employed to assess and visualize time-resolved 3D blood flow in the pulmonary arteries (PA) and thoracic aorta. We present findings in a juvenile patient with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) and aortic coarctation. For the first time, the complex flow patterns in the PA following d-TGA were visualized. Morphologically, a slight asymmetry of the PA was found, with considerable impact on vascular hemodynamics, resulting in diastolic retrograde flow in the larger vessel and diastolic filling of the smaller PA. Additionally, increased flow to the supraaortic vessels was found due to aortic coarctation.

  16. Four-Dimensional Visualization of Thoracic Blood Flow by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Patient Following Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA) and Uncorrected Aortic Coarctation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Rengier, F.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von (German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)); Ley, S.; Unterhinninghofen, R. (Univ. of Karlsruhe, Inst. of Computer Science and Engineering, Karlsruhe (Germany)); Markl, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, Univ. Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)); Eichhorn, J. (Univ. Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany))

    2009-10-15

    Recent advances in flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and data analysis allow for comprehensive noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of complex blood flow. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated three-directional (3dir) flow measurements were employed to assess and visualize time-resolved 3D blood flow in the pulmonary arteries (PA) and thoracic aorta. We present findings in a juvenile patient with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) and aortic coarctation. For the first time, the complex flow patterns in the PA following d-TGA were visualized. Morphologically, a slight asymmetry of the PA was found, with considerable impact on vascular hemodynamics, resulting in diastolic retrograde flow in the larger vessel and diastolic filling of the smaller PA. Additionally, increased flow to the supraaortic vessels was found due to aortic coarctation.

  17. CT imaging in congenital heart disease: an approach to imaging and interpreting complex lesions after surgical intervention for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and single ventricle heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B Kelly; Lesser, John R

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are the most commonly performed diagnostic studies in patients with congenital heart disease. A small percentage of patients with congenital heart disease will be referred to cardiac CT subsequent to echocardiography when magnetic resonance imaging is insufficient, contraindicated, or considered high risk. The most common complex lesions referred for CT at our institution are tetralogy of Fallot, transposition complexes, and single ventricle heart disease. This review discusses the most common surgical procedures performed in these patients and the technical considerations for optimal image acquisition on the basis of the prior procedure and the individual patient history. Cardiac CT can provide the functional and anatomic information required for decision making in complex congenital heart disease. Image interpretation is aided by knowledge of the common approaches to operative repair and the residual hemodynamic abnormalities. Acquisition and interpretation that is both individualized to the patient's underlying disease and the specific clinical question is likely to maintain diagnostic accuracy while decreasing the potential risk of cardiac CT.

  18. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  19. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  20. Ultra-thin rigid endoscope: Two-photon imaging through a graded-index multi-mode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Sivankutty, Siddharth; Cossart, Rosa; Bouwmans, Géraud; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Rigid endoscopes like graded-index (GRIN) lenses are known tools in biological imaging, but it is conceptually difficult to miniaturize them. In this letter, we demonstrate an ultra-thin rigid endoscope with a diameter of only 125 microns. In addition, we identify a domain where two-photon endoscopic imaging with fs-pulse excitation is possible. We validate the ultra-thin rigid endoscope consisting of a few cm of graded-index multi-mode fiber by using it to acquire optically sectioned two-photon fluorescence endoscopic images of three-dimensional samples.

  1. Great ape foresight is looking great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Suddendorf, Corballis and Collier-Baker (Anim Cogn 12: 751-754, 2009) comment on a study on great ape foresight (Osvath and Osvath, Anim Cogn 11: 661-674, 2008). That study consisted of four experiments investigating foresight in chimpanzees and orangutans, examining in particular whether the planning they exhibit is best explained by assuming an episodic cognitive system. This system has widely been regarded as exclusive to humans. Indeed, the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis explicitly states that planning for a future need is outside the abilities of non-humans. In our paper, we argued that the results implied the presence of episodic abilities and challenged the Bischof-Köhler hypothesis. Suddendorf et al. are not ready to accept this claim. They critique each experiment in detail and maintain their view that episodic cognition is unique to humans. Here, I point out the misapprehensions and weaknesses in their critique notably a lack of appreciation for how the experiments in the study are interrelated and serve as controls for each other and for the baseline experiment. I reinforce my earlier conclusions with a number of recently published findings.

  2. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah

    2016-01-01

    in the region's well-watered granite hills and valleys, and culminating in a vast urban and trading society. Later, c.1550 AD, it is argued, drying climate, land overexploitation, and changing regional trading patterns would lead to the decline of Great Zimbabwe. A review of this model is necessary since Great...... Zimbabwe and communities living around it survive in a region constantly threatened by water crises. However, we still know very little on the forms and uses of water and how these have influenced its development and demise. This article offers a multilayered review of available information on water......, including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding...

  3. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  4. The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This introduction to the natural history of the Great Dismal Swamp is presented at a time when 50,000 acres of the Swamp are being converted from private holdings to...

  5. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  6. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  7. Great Zimbabwe's water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pikirayi, Innocent; Sulas, Federica; Musindo, Tendai Treddah;

    2016-01-01

    , including new records on environmental sequences, modern water sources, and provisioning models from in and around Great Zimbabwe. The integration of both old and new datasets allows us to follow the history of people-water interaction from early times to the present. We argue that understanding......Once a thriving center with commercial links to the Indian Ocean, what remains of Great Zimbabwe is its monumental architecture. Its rise and decline have long been linked to environmental changes in southern Zimbabwe, beginning in the second half of the 13th century with agropastoralists thriving...... of the local environment was vital in managing both water excesses and shortages in the past, and show that some of this knowledge survives among indigenous communities linked to the site and living in the surrounding landscape. While nearby Masvingo town has persistently lived under water-emergency conditions...

  8. Not so Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  9. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  10. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  11. Southern Great Plains Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prell

    2010-09-01

    This months issue contains the following articles: (1) Scientists convene at SGP site for complex convective cloud experiment; (2) VORTEX2 spins down; (3) Sunphotometer supports SPARTICUS (a Sun and Aureole Measurement imaging sunphotometer) campaign and satellite validation studies; and (4) Ceilometer represents first deployment of new ground-based instruments from Recovery Act.

  12. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  13. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  14. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  15. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  16. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  17. Europa's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  18. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for upper gastrointestinal tract imaging by using ball lens probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Reddy, Rohith; Trasischker, Wolfgang; Poupart, Oriane; Lu, Weina; Carruth, Robert W.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    While endoscopy is the most commonly used modality for diagnosing upper GI tract disease, this procedure usually requires patient sedation that increases cost and mandates its operation in specialized settings. In addition, endoscopy only visualizes tissue superfically at the macroscopic scale, which is problematic for many diseases that manifest below the surface at a microscopic scale. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. The TCE device is a swallowable capsule that contains optomechanical components that circumferentially scan the OCT beam inside the body as the pill traverses the organ via peristalsis. While we have successfully imaged ~100 patients with the TCE device, the optics of our current device have many elements and are complex, comprising a glass ferrule, optical fiber, glass spacer, GRIN lens and prism. As we scale up manufacturing of this device for clinical translation, we must decrease the cost and improve the manufacturability of the capsule's optical configuration. In this abstract, we report on the design and development of simplificed TCE optics that replace the GRIN lens-based configuration with an angle-polished ball lens design. The new optics include a single mode optical fiber, a glass spacer and an angle polished ball lens, that are all fusion spliced together. The ball lens capsule has resolutions that are comparable with those of our previous GRIN lens configuration (30µm (lateral) × 7 µm (axial)). Results in human subjects show that OCT-based TCE using the ball lens not only provides rapid, high quality microstructural images of upper GI tract, but also makes it possible to implement this technology inexpensively and on a larger scale.

  19. [Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  20. Modifed Great Basin Extent (Buffered)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two different great basin perimeter files were intersected and dissolved using ArcGIS 10.2.2 to create the outer perimeter of the great basin for use modeling...

  1. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  2. Fiber-optic confocal microscopy using a miniaturized needle-compatible imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajesh S.; Lorenser, Dirk; Sampson, David D.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the design and implementation of a 350 μm-diameter confocal imaging probe based on gradient-index (GRIN) optics and a fiber-based scanning arrangement. The form factor of the probe is such that it can potentially be inserted into a 22-gauge hypodermic needle to perform high-resolution confocal fluorescence imaging in solid tissues. We introduce a simple scanning arrangement based on lensed fiber, which eliminates off-axis aberrations induced by conventional scanning optics and is suitable for integration into a compact hand-held unit. We present the details of the optical design and experimental verification of the performance of the optical system. The measured lateral resolution of ~700 nm is in agreement with the optical design and is the highest resolution reported for a confocal fluorescence imaging probe of this size. Further, we demonstrate the imaging capability of the probe by obtaining high-resolution images of fluorescently labeled muscle fibers.

  3. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT USING IMAGE FUSION AND IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-01-01

    Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Digital image enhancement techniques provide a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images. Appropriate choice of such techniques is greatly influenced by the imaging modality, task at hand and viewing conditions. This paper will provide a combination of two concepts, image fusion by DWT and digital image processing techniques. The e...

  4. Trauma to the Thoracic Aorta and the Great Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Trauma to the thoracic aorta and the great vessels carries a high mortality rate. The survival rate can be improved if these patients are given prompt and appropriate treatment. Various types of vascular injury are caused by blunt, penetrating, iatrogenic trauma. This article reviews the multimodality imaging of traumatic injuries to the aortic and great vessels

  5. Three rare diseases in one Sib pair: RAI1, PCK1, GRIN2B mutations associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome, cytosolic PEPCK deficiency and NMDA receptor glutamate insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David R; Yuan, Hongjie; Holyoak, Todd; Arajs, Katrina H; Hakimi, Parvin; Markello, Thomas C; Wolfe, Lynne A; Vilboux, Thierry; Burton, Barbara K; Fajardo, Karin Fuentes; Grahame, George; Holloman, Conisha; Sincan, Murat; Smith, Ann C M; Wells, Gordon A; Huang, Yan; Vega, Hugo; Snyder, James P; Golas, Gretchen A; Tifft, Cynthia J; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Hanson, Richard W; Traynelis, Stephen F; Kerr, Douglas S; Gahl, William A

    2014-11-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program evaluates patients for whom no diagnosis has been discovered despite a comprehensive diagnostic workup. Failure to diagnose a condition may arise from the mutation of genes previously unassociated with disease. However, we hypothesized that this could also co-occur with multiple genetic disorders. Demonstrating a complex syndrome caused by multiple disorders, we report two siblings manifesting both similar and disparate signs and symptoms. They shared a history of episodes of hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, but had differing exam findings and developmental courses. Clinical acumen and exome sequencing combined with biochemical and functional studies identified three genetic conditions. One sibling had Smith-Magenis Syndrome and a nonsense mutation in the RAI1 gene. The second sibling had a de novo mutation in GRIN2B, which resulted in markedly reduced glutamate potency of the encoded receptor. Both siblings had a protein-destabilizing homozygous mutation in PCK1, which encodes the cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C). In summary, we present the first clinically-characterized mutation of PCK1 and demonstrate that complex medical disorders can represent the co-occurrence of multiple diseases.

  6. Imaging vascular implants with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Dal Ponte, Donny B.; Williams, Stuart K.; Ford, Bridget K.; Descour, Michael R.

    2000-04-01

    Vascular stents and grafts have many proven and promising clinical applications, but also a large number of complications. A focus of current research is the development of biocompatible implants. Evaluation of these devices generally requires a large number of animals due to the need for explanation and histological evaluation of the implant at several time intervals. It would be desirable to use instead a high resolution, in situ assessment method. An in vitro study was performed to determine if OCT could image cell proliferation and thrombus formation on vascular stents and grafts. First, images were taken of explanted stents. The implants were locate din peripheral vessels of a porcine model of atherosclerosis. The images clearly show the vessel response to initial damage, the materials of the implant, extent of intimal cell hyper proliferation, and small platelet aggregates. Next, a tissue engineered graft, which had been sodded with smooth muscle cells and incubated in a bioreactor, was evaluated. Cross-section images showed the pores of the polymer material and the layer of smooth muscle cells beginning to invade the graft material. For comparison, in vitro 20 MHz IVUS images of the same grafts were obtained. A catheter was designed for intravascular imaging. The 2.3 mm diameter catheter contains a fiber with GRIN lens and right angle prism, a monorail guidewire, and a novel positioning wire that can be protruded to push the catheter against the vessel wall, potentially eliminating the need for saline flush. Preliminary in vitro results with this catheter are encouraging.

  7. How users experience great products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz Nicolas, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports qualitative research about how users experience great products. Eighteen interviews were conducted in which participants were asked to bring along a ‘great’ product that they own. During the interviews participants explained why they consider a product great and how they experienc

  8. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  9. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  10. Great Explorers to the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  11. Rethinking China's new great wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zhijun; Melville, David S; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hongyan; Ren, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Piersma, Theunis; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosed by thousands of kilometers of seawalls, whose length exceeds that of China’s famous ancient “Great Wall” (see photos and map). This new “Great Wall,” covering 60% of the total length of coast-line along mainland China...

  12. Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Y.; Minoura, K.; Hirano, S.; Yamada, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011, Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake, already among the most destructive earthquakes in modern history, emanated from a fault rupture that extended an estimated 500 km along the Pacific coast of Honshu. This earthquake is the fourth among five of the strongest temblors since AD 1900 and the largest in Japan since modern instrumental recordings began 130 years ago. The earthquake triggered a huge tsunami, which invaded the seaside areas of the Pacific coast of East Japan, causing devastating damages on the coast. Artificial structures were destroyed and planted forests were thoroughly eroded. Inrush of turbulent flows washed backshore areas and dunes. Coastal materials including beach sand were transported onto inland areas by going-up currents. Just after the occurrence of the tsunami, we started field investigation of measuring thickness and distribution of sediment layers by the tsunami and the inundation depth of water in Sendai plain. Ripple marks showing direction of sediment transport were the important object of observation. We used a soil auger for collecting sediments in the field, and sediment samples were submitted for analyzing grain size and interstitial water chemistry. Satellite images and aerial photographs are very useful for estimating the hydrogeological effects of tsunami inundation. We checked the correspondence of micro-topography, vegetation and sediment covering between before and after the tsunami. The most conspicuous phenomenon is the damage of pine forests planted in the purpose of preventing sand shifting. About ninety-five percent of vegetation coverage was lost during the period of rapid currents changed from first wave. The landward slopes of seawalls were mostly damaged and destroyed. Some aerial photographs leave detailed records of wave destruction just behind seawalls, which shows the occurrence of supercritical flows. The large-scale erosion of backshore behind seawalls is interpreted to have been caused by

  13. The Desolation Mirrored In Two Great Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-ming

    2003-01-01

    To the Frontier as an Envoy and The Waste Land are two great poems composed respectively by an ancient Chinese poet Wang Wei and a modem English poet T. S. Eliot respectively. There exist in certain aspects some similarities and differences between the two poems. An analytical comparison is used between the two verses in the aspects as follows: the description of scenery, images and melancholy moods. These similarities can promote people to regard the literary works in different regions and different eras as the organic branches of the world literature. And their differences among the literary works can reflect the absolute diversity of human arts.

  14. The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Hooper

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of The Great Cacti: Ethnobotany & Biogeography. David Yetman. 2007. The University of Arizona, Tucson. Pp. 320, 366 color photographs, 17 maps. $59.95 (cloth. ISBN 9780816524310.

  15. Juyongguan on the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Juyongguan Pass on the Great Wall,one ofthe most important strategic passes of the oldcapital Beijing,is now repaired and a goodplace for tourists to see ancient Chinesemilitary and cultural facilities,as well asbeautiful local scenery.

  16. Critical Realism in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莲

    2014-01-01

    Great Expectations is an important work by English novelist Dickens.His novels not only reflect the life experience of a whole generation genuinely,but also disclose the social reality vividly in England in the middle 19th century.Its depth and width go beyond most of the works of his contemporaries.Great Expectations is the excellent novel of critical realism in the later period of Dickens.It describes the de-velopment of Pip’s grown-up and the disillusion of his“great expectations”.Educated by the reality,he came to realize what he pursued in the Vanity Fair was not valuable at all.So as to see clearer the great power of critical realism in Dickens’works and thus can understand the no-vel,this thesis analyzes the hero’s character development and the influential factors upon the formation of his character.

  17. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  18. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  19. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Data Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting...

  20. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  1. GREAT Process Modeller user manual

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Urko; España, Sergio; Ruiz, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    This report contains instructions to install, uninstall and use GREAT Process Modeller, a tool that supports Communication Analysis, a communication-oriented business process modelling method. GREAT allows creating communicative event diagrams (i.e. business process models), specifying message structures (which describe the messages associated to each communicative event), and automatically generating a class diagram (representing the data model of an information system that would support suc...

  2. Analysis of Alienation Phenomenon in The Great Gatsby From the Perspective of Image%从意象分析《了不起的盖茨比》中异化现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩

    2016-01-01

    The Great Gatsby , as one of the representative works of Fitzgerald , plays an important role in the history of litera-ture .The glamorous life and a troubled relationship described in the novel reflected self alienation between individual and the capital system.%《了不起的盖茨比》作为菲茨杰拉德的代表作之一,在文学史上具有举足轻重的地位。在小说中所描述的纸醉金迷的纽约生活和混乱的人际关系,体现出作者对资本制度下人与人之间、个体自身异化的控诉。

  3. «We Felt the Bitter Satisfaction of Our Shared Victory”: the Theme and Images of the ‘Great War’ in the Official and Pro-government Periodical Press of the White Siberia (June 1918 – December 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry N. Shevelev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, using the data of official and pro-government periodical press, issued in the east of Russia since summer of 1918 to 1919, considers the propaganda, made by the Omsk government out of the recollections of the First World War. The author came to the conclusion that the whole set of propaganda texts, presented in numerous declarations, booklets, newspaper articles, interviews, reviews, notes and feuilletons should be considered as a specific narrative with own actualization contexts, representation composition and scenario. The political discourse of the White Siberia presented the First World War as a specific starting point, backbone, structuring the political space. Besides, the ‘Great War’ played the significant role in the construction of the new political identity, based on the national, sovereign and patriotic values and the memory of the former glories of Russia.

  4. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  5. Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利娟

    2014-01-01

    F. Scott Fitzgerald, the famous American novelist in the 1920s, is famous as the spokesman and laureate of the“The Lost Generation”. Considered one of Fitzgerald’s representative works and the finest achievement of his literary career, The Great Gatsby is widely recognized as a classic of American literature. Since its publication in 1925, it has been a continual hot sub⁃ject of critical attention,and studies on it have never stopped. This paper provides a detailed account of“the Fitzgerald revival”as well as the previous criticism on The Great Gatsby.

  6. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  7. Stress fracture of the great toe sesamoid in a ballerina: MRI appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.M. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Amaker, B.H. [Medical Coll. of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    1994-03-01

    This case is the first to depict a stress fracture of the great toe sesamoid bone using magnetic resonance imaging. We used a 3`` surface coil to produce high resolution images of the sesamoid. (orig.)

  8. The Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/948383.948400 American Scientist,. Computing may be the fourth great domain of science, along with the physical, life, and social sciences.

  9. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  10. Myths of the Great War

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We review some "myths" of the Great War of 1914 to 1918: that the war broke out inadvertently, that the western front saw needless slaughter, that the Allies used the food weapon to strangle Germany, and that the peace treaty that ended the war caused the rise of Hitler and the still greater war that followed.\\ud

  11. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  12. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  13. The Great Goddesses of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SheldonGosline; KatjaReinhardt; NortheastNormalUniversity

    2000-01-01

    Norman,Oklahoma:UniversityofOklahomaPress:Norman,1999.ISBN0-8061-3202-7.Pp.319.US$19.95.TheGreatGoddessesofEgyptstelltsiebenGoettinnenindenMittelpunktderagyptischenReligionsgeschichte:Nut,Neith,Nechbet,Wadjet,Hathor,MutundIsis.JederGottinisteineigenesKapitelgewidmet,zusatzlichsindeineEinfuhrung,diesichkurzmitderFnihdynastischenZeitbeschaftigt,undeinKapitelzuTempelundKultbeigefugt.EinGlossar,dasGottinnen(keineGotter)undeinigeimTexterwahnteKoniginnenauffuhrt,undeineausfuhrlicheBibliographieschlierendasBuchab....

  14. Symbols in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琰

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the symbols in the book"The Great Gatsby" which include some particular places, objects, characters, settings and actions. These symbols are considered to have values different from what they are symbolized and most of them are connected to the theme of the novel-the corruption of the American dream.

  15. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  16. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  17. Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) Challenge Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kitching, Thomas; Gill, Mandeep; Harmeling, Stefan; Heymans, Catherine; Massey, Richard; Rowe, Barnaby; Schrabback, Tim; Voigt, Lisa; Balan, Sreekumar; Bernstein, Gary; Bethge, Matthias; Bridle, Sarah; Courbin, Frederic; Gentile, Marc; Heavens, Alan; Hirsch, Michael; Hosseini, Reshad; Kiessling, Alina; Kirk, Donnacha; Kuijken, Konrad; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Moghaddam, Baback; Nurbaeva, Guldariya; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Rassat, Anais; Rhodes, Jason; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Shawe-Taylor, John; Shmakova, Marina; Taylor, Andy; Velander, Malin; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Witherick, Dugan; Wittman, David

    2010-01-01

    GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 2010 (GREAT10) is a public image analysis challenge aimed at the development of algorithms to analyse astronomical images. Specifically the challenge is to measure varying image distortions in the presence of a variable convolution kernel, pixelization and noise. This is the second in a series of challenges set to the astronomy, computer science and statistics communities, providing a structured environment in which methods can be improved and tested in preparation for planned astronomical surveys. GREAT10 extends upon previous work by introducing variable fields into the challenge. The 'Galaxy Challenge' involves the precise measurement of galaxy shape distortions, quantified locally by two parameters called shear, in the presence of a known convolution kernel. Crucially, the convolution kernel and the simulated gravitational lensing shape distortion both now vary as a function of position within the images, as is the case for real data. In addition we introduce the 'St...

  18. Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, E; Johnson, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0<=Mmin<=8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4<=Mmin<= 8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitat...

  19. Ohlin on the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Benny; Jonung, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Bertil Ohlin was a most active commentator on current economic events in the interwar period, combining his academic work with a journalistic output of an impressive scale. He published more than a thousand newspaper articles in the 1920s and 1930s, more than any other professor in economics in Sweden. Here we have collected ten articles by Ohlin, translated from Swedish and originally published in Stockholms-Tidningen, to trace the evolution of his thinking during the Great Depression of the...

  20. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  1. Great Basin geoscience data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  2. Facts about dextro-Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... view a larger image Dextro-Transposition (pronounced DECKS-tro trans-poh-ZI-shun) of the Great Arteries ... Great Arteries (d-TGA)? Dextro-Transposition (pronounced DECKS-tro trans-poh-ZI-shun) of the Great Arteries ...

  3. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  4. The Heart and Great Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuka, Ekene; King, Nakesha; Heuer, Eric; Breuer, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. We have made large strides over the past few decades in management, but definitive therapeutic options to address this health-care burden are still limited. Given the ever-increasing need, much effort has been spent creating engineered tissue to replaced diseased tissue. This article gives a general overview of this work as it pertains to the development of great vessels, myocardium, and heart valves. In each area, we focus on currently studied methods, limitations, and areas for future study. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member

  6. The Third Gravitational Lensing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) Challenge Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bosch, James; Chang, Chihway; Courbin, Frederic; Gill, Mandeep; Jarvis, Mike; Kannawadi, Arun; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Rhodes, Jason; Simet, Melanie; Zuntz, Joe; Armstrong, Bob; Bridle, Sarah; Coupon, Jean; Dietrich, Jörg P; Gentile, Marc; Heymans, Catherine; Jurling, Alden S; Kent, Stephen M; Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Massey, Richard; Melchior, Peter; Peterson, John; Roodman, Aaron; Schrabback, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is the third in a series of image analysis challenges, with a goal of testing and facilitating the development of methods for analyzing astronomical images that will be used to measure weak gravitational lensing. This measurement requires extremely precise estimation of very small galaxy shape distortions, in the presence of far larger intrinsic galaxy shapes and distortions due to the blurring kernel caused by the atmosphere, telescope optics, and instrumental effects. The GREAT3 challenge is posed to the astronomy, machine learning, and statistics communities, and includes tests of three specific effects that are of immediate relevance to upcoming weak lensing surveys, two of which have never been tested in a community challenge before. These effects include realistically complex galaxy models based on high-resolution imaging from space; spatially varying blurring kernel; and combination of multiple different exposures. To facilitate entry by p...

  7. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  8. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  9. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, John (Washington University)

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  10. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  11. Images of the Great Depression: A Photographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the Farm Security Administration (FSA) and the photographic section of the FSA. Identifies six photographers and features three photographers (Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, and Ben Shahn) who were recruited to document farm conditions. Discusses using FSA photos in the classroom and provides lesson plans to help…

  12. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  13. Le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belaidi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de présenter quelques problématiques d'une recherche sur la construction d’un mécanisme de valorisation sociale de la protection de l’environnement : l’ordre public écologique. Cette étude s’appuie sur une expérience récente et originale en Afrique australe : la création de Parcs pour la Paix dont relève le Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Ces parcs sont officiellement consacrés à la protection et à la conservation de la diversité biologique, des ressources naturelles et culturelles qui y sont associées, ainsi qu’à la promotion de la coopération et de la Paix qu’elle soit civile, sociale, économique ou culturelle. La logique de construction de ces parcs repose sur l’idée que l’articulation des zones de conservation facilite la résolution de conflits territoriaux – de toutes sortes – en transformant les préoccupations environnementales en objet de coopération entre des juridictions politiques diverses. C’est précisément le schéma du concept juridique objet de nos travaux : l’ordre public écologique. Aussi peut-on se demander si le GLTP, en particulier, (peut constitue(r une illustration concrète de ce mécanisme et permettre d’atteindre la Paix recherchée, favorisant ainsi les processus de développement ?This article aims to present some problems of researches on the construction of a mechanism of social valorisation of the environmental protection: ecological public order. This study leans on a recent and original experience in southern Africa: the creation of Peace Park like the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP. These parks are officially dedicated to the protection and to the preservation of biological diversity, natural and cultural resources which are associated with it, as well as in the promotion of the cooperation and the peace. The peace looked for in these parks is not only the opposite of the war but it is also social, economic and cultural peace

  14. Cholera: a great global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  16. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  17. Transposition of the great arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castela Eduardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposition of the great arteries (TGA, also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually

  18. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  19. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  20. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  1. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Siebeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  2. Niemann-Pick disease Type C - Sea-blue histiocytosis: Phenotypic and imaging observations and mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a report on an 18-year-old boy with Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C who presented with progressive decline in scholastic performance since 9 years of age. At 12 years, he developed abnormal behavior and after 2 years had insidious onset, progressive gait ataxia and dysarthria followed by dystonia of the right upper extremity, excessive drooling, dysphagia and nasal regurgitation. He had coarse facies, depressed nasal bridge, high arched palate, crowded teeth, splenomegaly and peculiar facial grin. In addition, impaired vertical saccadic and pursuit eye movements, brisk muscle stretch reflexes and limb and gait ataxia were observed. He had a low IQ of 47 on Binet-Kamat test. The ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed the presence of moderate splenomegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed symmetrical leucoencephalopathy and mild cerebellar atrophy. Bone marrow aspiration showed numerous foamy macrophages and sea-blue histiocytes suggesting the diagnosis of NP-C.

  3. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  4. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bray Hedworth, Angela; Smith, Cassidy S

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death among adults in the United States and in the Great Lakes states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Regional Stroke Network was created to enhance collaboration and coordination among the Great Lakes states to reduce the burden of stroke and stroke-related disparities associated with race, sex, and geography. Three priorities were identified for reducing the effects of stro...

  5. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  6. 100 ways to make good photos great tips & techniques for improving your digital photography

    CERN Document Server

    Cope, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A practical, accessible guide to turning your good photographs into great ones whether you are shooting on the latest digital SLR or a camera phone! Discover 100 simple and fun ways to improve your photographs both in-camera and through post-processing image manipulation. Every key photographic genre is covered, from perfect portraits and the great outdoors, to travel photos and shooting at night. Filled with inspirational examples of great photographs compared against the more average images, with easy to follow techniques for how you can achieve the same results.

  7. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  8. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...

  9. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  10. A Report from Great Smoky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑾

    2008-01-01

    This is a report from Great Smoky Mountain. From this report, I will tell you a story about me and my team. After ten years of hardworking, we made some achievements in Branson, Missouri in America, and then we turned to Great Smoky Mountain for another business. To my group and me, itis like a legend.

  11. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the... every year, the draw need not open for vessels. If the fourth Sunday falls on a religious holiday,...

  12. Quantum Ghost Imaging through Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, P Ben; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; O'Sullivan-Hale, Colin; Rodenburg, Brandon; Hardy, Nicholas D; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Simon, D S; Sergienko, A V; Boyd, R W; Howell, John C

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a novel experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method increased the imaged pattern visibility from V = 0.14 +/- 0.04 to V = 0.29 +/- 0.04.

  13. The Next 7 Great Achievements in Pediatric Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Bogue, Clifford W; Dover, George J

    2017-05-01

    The "7 Great Achievements in Pediatric Research" campaign noted discoveries in the past 40 years that have improved child and adult health in the United States and around the globe. This article predicts the next 7 great pediatric research advancements, including new immunizations, cancer immunotherapy, genomic discoveries, identification of early antecedents of adult health, impact of specific social-environmental influences on biology and health, quality improvement science, and implementation and dissemination research to reduce global poverty. It is an extraordinary time of new research tools that include electronic health records, technological ability to manage big data and measure "omics," and new functional and structural imaging modalities. These tools will discern mechanisms leading to health and disease with new prevention targets and cures. This article further discusses the challenges and opportunities to accelerate these exciting pediatric research discoveries to improve the lives of children and the adults they will become. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Symbolism of Color Green in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 顾珍珍

    2014-01-01

    Color is an essential material for painting and creates marvelous world. Though it is not supposed to be one of the ma-terials in the novel, colors in The Great Gatsby present a colorful novel in painting world. Green, traditionally associated with good images such as spring,hope and youth, is a significant color in g Gatsby’s world. Nevertheless, green has a symbolic mean-ing of despair and instead hope. It is not surprised that colors in this novel imply a lot, reflecting different lights from different an-gles. This paper is divided into three parts. Part one is a brief introduction to the symbolism, such as its definition and function. Part two expounds the importance of colors, especially in this novel like green, white and yellow. Part three states the symbolic meaning of color green in The Great Gatsby in details.

  15. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  16. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  17. Neural imaging in songbirds using fiber optic fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooshabadi, Fatemeh; Hearn, Gentry; Lints, Thierry; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2012-02-01

    The song control system of juvenile songbirds is an important model for studying the developmental acquisition and generation of complex learned vocal motor sequences, two processes that are fundamental to human speech and language. To understand the neural mechanisms underlying song production, it is critical to characterize the activity of identified neurons in the song control system when the bird is singing. Neural imaging in unrestrained singing birds, although technically challenging, will advance our understanding of neural ensemble coding mechanisms in this system. We are exploring the use of a fiber optic microscope for functional imaging in the brain of behaving and singing birds in order to better understand the contribution of a key brain nucleus (high vocal center nucleus; HVC) to temporal aspects of song motor control. We have constructed a fluorescence microscope with LED illumination, a fiber bundle for transmission of fluorescence excitation and emission light, a ~2x GRIN lens, and a CCD for image acquisition. The system has 2 μm resolution, 375 μm field of view, 200 μm working distance, and 1 mm outer diameter. As an initial characterization of this setup, neurons in HVC were imaged using the fiber optic microscope after injection of quantum dots or fluorescent retrograde tracers into different song nuclei. A Lucid Vivascope confocal microscope was used to confirm the imaging results. Long-term imaging of the activity of these neurons in juvenile birds during singing may lead us to a better understanding of the central motor codes for song and the central mechanism by which auditory experience modifies song motor commands to enable vocal learning and imitation.

  18. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  19. Broken faces: reconstructive surgery during and after the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, Beatriz

    2010-03-01

    Amongst the most terrifying injuries experienced by the soldiers during the First World War (1914-1918) were facial wounds. The French Medical Corps took photographic portraits of these wounded men, the so-called gueules cassées, with a view to conducting reconstructive surgery. However, other groups were quick to use the images they produced for their own political, social or artistic purposes. These photographs then, with their many meanings, capture the diversity of attitudes towards the Great War in its aftermath.

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  1. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  2. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  3. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  4. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  6. Great Smoky Mountains National Wetland Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent, approximate location and type of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These data...

  7. The Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2009-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper Ⅰ want to present my ideas of the symbolism in The Great Gatsby. During my pressntation, Ⅰ have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, Ⅰ also repeat my own opinion: the significant symbolism made The Great Garry the "small" masterpiece of American literature

  8. Mediocrity and Romance in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯莹莹

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby tells a romantic tragedy between Gatsby and Daisy. Throughout the novel romance and mediocrity are closely mingled together. The paper tries to explore the mixture of the both that lies in Gatsby and Daisy as well.

  9. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  10. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  11. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  12. Rights in the Great Lakes Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-11-08

    Nov 8, 1997 ... Great Lakes region was host to some 1,253,000 refugees or about ..... North East. ..... voluntary repatriation, integration into the local community in .... Protection of Refugees and Displaced Persans in Asia, I IHL, San Renamo,.

  13. Climate change and the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant impacts on the Great Basin by the mid-21st century. The following provides an overview of past and projected climate change for the globe and for the region.

  14. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...

  15. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  16. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  17. The Great War and German Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)......Review essay on Jason Crouthamel, The Great War and German Memory. Society, Politics and Psychological Trauma, 1914-18 (2009) and Anton Kaes, Shell Shock Cinema: Weimar Culture and the Wounds of War (2009)...

  18. The Gothic Features in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jia-xuan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most well-known novels of Charles Dickens, it is difficult to define one single specific genre for Great Expectations. It is widely recognized as a bildungsroman and realistic fiction and social criticism. In addition to all these genres, we can also identify many intriguing features of Gothic novel. This paper is devoted to interpreting the Gothic characteristics of Great Expectations, and particularly, settings characters, and the narration of the novel are the major focuses of analysis.

  19. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  20. Design and characterization of a novel sensor combined imaging and zinc ion sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wang, Lili

    2012-05-01

    A novel fluorescent sensor for Zn(II) detection and imaging is developed by incorporating 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and Rhodamine B (RB) in a sol-gel film on an end face of a gradient index (GRIN) lens rod which is tightly connected with an imaging fiber. This technique has high-quality imaging capabilities for observing remote sample while measuring Zn(II). The RB and PAN employed in combination as the indicator for zinc-sensing is much cheaper than that of the other zinc-sensitive fluorescent dyes. The sol is prepared by base catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with the addition of 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GLYMO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which is more suitable for Zn(II) detection. The sensor has the linear range of Zn(II) from 0.1 to 1 mmol/L. Simultaneously, it has the capabilities of real-time imaging with the whole system's resolution of 18.73 line pairs/mm. This bi-functional sensor has potential applications in in situ biosensing and other remote measurements.

  1. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  2. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  3. Thrombosis of the great cerebral vein in a hemodialysis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, Marina; Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Gledovic, Branka; Radunovic, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare condition with various clinical presentations which may delay diagnosis. It is frequently associated with severe consequences. We present the first documented case of thrombosis of the great cerebral vein in a hemodialysis patient. A 29-year-old female patient with end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology was admitted to a hospital with altered consciousness and nausea. Severe headache in the right parietal area had started 2 days before. On examination, she was in the poor overall condition, dysartric, with a severe nystagmus. Urgent brain multislice computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed thrombosis of the great cerebral vein with hypodense zones in hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia. She was treated with heparin bolus of 25000 IU with a favorable outcome. Detailed examination demonstrated increased lupus anticoagulant (LA) 1 and LA2 and increased LA1/LA2. Control magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 year later revealed multiple vascular lesions within the brain. Acetylsalicylate was introduced in therapy. Thrombosis of the cerebral veins should be suspected in patients with end-stage renal disease, altered neurological status and signs of increased intracranial pressure.

  4. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries.

  5. ["Great jobs"-also in psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, H; Hübner-Liebermann, B

    2003-09-01

    Against the background of a beginning shortage of psychiatrists, results from interviews with 112 employees of an automotive company with the topic "Great Job" are presented to discuss their relevance to psychiatry. The interviews were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis. Most employees assigned importance to great pay, constructive collaboration with colleagues, and work appealing to personal interests. Further statements particularly relevant to psychiatry were: successful career, flexible working hours, manageable job, work-life balance, well-founded training, no bureaucracy within the company, and personal status in society. The well-known economic restrictions in health care and the still negative attitude towards psychiatry currently reduce the attraction of psychiatry as a profession. From the viewpoint of personnel management, the attractors of a great job revealed in this study are proposed as important clues for the recruitment of medical students for psychiatry and the development of psychiatric staff.

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the great lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A. (ed.) [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    2006-07-01

    The environment around the Laurentian Great Lakes region has been adversely affected by agricultural runoff, urban waste, industrial discharge, landfill leachate, and atmospheric deposition. Although there have been some improvements over the last 20 years, persistent toxic organic pollutants are now a serious problem. This book brings together what is known about the major classes of these pollutants in the Great Lakes. Each chapter reviews our knowledge of the extent of contamination of the various parts of the Great Lakes ecosystem (air, water, sediment, fishes, birds, etc.), what is known about the trends over time of this contamination, and knowledge about the mechanisms by which these pollutants are mobilized in the lakes. Detailed information is presented on polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, pesticides, toxaphene, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardants, and perfluoroalkyl acids. These reviews make this volume an invaluable resource for all those involved in environmental research, measurements, and decision making. (orig.)

  7. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  8. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  9. Daisy Shadow upon the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋智慧

    2016-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a significant classic in American literature. The Great Gatsby tells the love story between young Gatsby and rich Daisy. From the moment they loved each other, they cherished their pure love; to the moment Daisy hurt Gatsby twice, fragile love and crushed American dream came into their life, which indirectly led to Gatsby's death. Daisy Shadow has swallowed Gatsby's soul and destroyed his whole life. The sarcasm of the novel also makes people try best to find a good or proper ending to Gatsby, while so many possibilities lead to nothing proper.

  10. Usage of Symbolism in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓斌

    2008-01-01

    F.Scott Fitzgerald.the famous American novelist in the 20th century,is known as the spokesman and laureate of the"Jazz Age"American.whose works give us an accurate picture of the American twenties:the prosperity of economy and the moral absence.Written in 1925.The Great Gatsby is one of the great literary documents of Fitzgerald's period,which wins many favorable praises.Fitzgerald has adopted plenty of symbols to reflect the theme of the times and the value of America in his outstanding representative works,and this thesis tries to analyze their symbolic meaning and significance.

  11. Language Features of The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云川

    2014-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is a 1925 novel written by American author F.Scott Fitzgerald.Besides great popularity for its vivid depiction of the Ameri-can Dream,the novel also impresses the world with its skillfully used American English which is interwoven with the plots,the characters and the theme.The article is to explore how Fitzgerald analyzes the class system of the American society and what enables him to express this analysis through different types of A-merican English.

  12. Great Importance Attached to Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Intangible Cultural Heritage on Verge of Extinction? With the acceleration of globalization and modernization, dramatic changes have taken place in China's cultural ecology: intangible cultural heritage is confronted with great challenges and a lot of orally and behaviorally transmitted cultural heritage disappear one after another; a great deal of traditional craftsmanship is on the verge of extinction; a large number of precious objects and materials of historical and cultural values are destroyed,deserted or lost in foreign countries; arbitrary misuse and excessive exploitation of intangible cultural heritage occur from time to time. Therefore, the protection of intangible cultural heritage brooks no delay.

  13. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  14. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  15. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  16. High speed photoacoustic imaging with fast OPO laser at 1.7 μm (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Teng, Ma; Li, Jiawen; Qu, Yueqiao; Yu, Mingyue; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    Acute cardiovascular events are mostly due to a blood clot or thrombus induced by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques within coronary artery walls. Based on the high optical absorption contrast of the lipid rich plaques within the vessel wall, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging at 1.7 μm spectral band has shown promising capabilities for detecting of lipid composition, but the translation of the technology for in vivo application is limited by the slow imaging speed. In this work, we will present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm (5 nm linewidth). A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a polished 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. Two optical illumination methods by gradient-index (GRIN) lens and ball lens are introduced and compared for higher spatial resolution. At 1725 nm, atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged at two frame per second, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than previous reported IVPA imaging. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo.

  17. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  18. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  19. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The Great Plains! The words alone create a sense of space and a feeling of destiny a challenge. But what exactly is this special part of Western America that contains so much of our history? How did it come to be? Why is it different?

  20. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  1. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  2. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  3. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  4. Beyond "It Was Great"? Not so Fast!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E. David

    2015-01-01

    The Forum on Education Abroad's Ninth Annual Conference in 2013 was organized around the provocative theme, "Moving Beyond It Was Great." In the opening plenary speech, Lilli Engle warned the audience of study abroad researchers, leaders, administrators, and providers that study abroad programs were not as effective as they may want to…

  5. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  6. The Artistic Characteristics of Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文玺

    2007-01-01

    The whole thesis is to study the delicate techniques of displaying arts and literature exercised by Dickens. Furthermore, the thesis is to guide readers to know about the wordings and humour of Dickens and appreciate the charm of Great Expectations through a large number of examples.

  7. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  8. Countdown to the Great American Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulco, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The Great American Total Solar Eclipse (TSE2017) will occur on August 21 this year--the first total solar eclipse in the continental United States since 1979. For many reasons, this is a scientific and educational milestone event of the highest magnitude that should not be missed by any teacher and student whether or not their school is in session…

  9. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  10. Financial fragility in the Great Moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Grydaki, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A nascent literature explores the measurement of financial fragility. This paper considers evidence for rising financial fragility during the 1984-2007 Great Moderation in the U.S. The literature suggests that macroeconomic stability combined with strong growth of credit to asset markets, in asset p

  11. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  12. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  13. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  14. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  15. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  16. Rules for diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and spatial identification of ventricles. Crossed great arteries and transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, M V; Berrazueta, J R; Arteaga, M; Attie, F; Soni, J

    1976-04-01

    Rules are presented for the diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and the spatial position of the ventricles in these cardiopathies by means of angiocardiography and the position of cardiac catheters. Because these rules are based on previous anatomo-embryological findings, the normal development of the conus and the truncus is briefly analysed. The probable morphogenesis of this group of truncoconal cardiopathies is discussed. The fundamental process required to establish the diagnosis of these cardiopathies is as follows: 1) The truncoconal morphology is identified in the lateral projection. a) The anterior position of the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum with respect to the aorta and its infundibulum is characteristic of crossed great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. b) The anterior position of the aorta and its infundibulum with respect to the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum is characteristic of transposition of the great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. 2) Once the truncoconal morphology is identified, the use of the anteroposterior projection allows the establishment of the differential diagnosis between arterioventricular concordances and discordances, and of the spatial location of the ventricles in these entities. a) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left, emerging from an infundibulum placed on the left side (anatomically right ventricle on the left) or an anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right, arising from an infundibulum located to the right (anatomically right ventricular placed on the right), is the specific image of discordant crossed great arteries. b) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left emerging from an infundibulum placed on the right side (anatomically right ventricle on the right side) or the anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right arising from a left-sided infundibulum (anatomically right ventricle

  17. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  18. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy. Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied. This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes. Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once. In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe. The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Division. The project is a

  19. What Makes a Great Journal Great in Economics? The Singer Not the Song.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); L. Oxley (Les)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in economics, based on quantifiable measures. Alternative Research Assessment Measures (RAM) are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). The various ISI RAM that

  20. Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Arias, Leonel; Morales-Martínez, André; Zazueta-López, Rosa María; Ramírez-Dovala, Silvia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malalignment of the great toenail (CMA) is a disorder of the anatomic orientation of the ungual apparatus, in which the longitudinal axis of the nail plate is not parallel with the axis of the distal phalanx but is deflected sideways. This disorder is understood to arise from multiple factors. Although many theories have been proposed about its origin, its pathogenesis is not fully known. Besides the cosmetic impact, this disorder causes such problems in the medium and long term as onychocryptosis and difficulty in motion. Some cases may regress spontaneously, although persistent cases may require a specialized surgical approach. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail is poorly understood and described medical condition that is often treated incorrectly; thus, reviewing the subject is important. A symptombased clinical classification system is proposed to guide diagnosis and treatment modality decisions.

  1. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  2. Great ape genetic diversity and population history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Sudmant, Peter H; Kidd, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Most great ape genetic variation remains uncharacterized; however, its study is critical for understanding population history, recombination, selection and susceptibility to disease. Here we sequence to high coverage a total of 79 wild- and captive-born individuals representing all six great ape...... species and seven subspecies and report 88.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our analysis provides support for genetically distinct populations within each species, signals of gene flow, and the split of common chimpanzees into two distinct groups: Nigeria-Cameroon/western and central....../eastern populations. We find extensive inbreeding in almost all wild populations, with eastern gorillas being the most extreme. Inferred effective population sizes have varied radically over time in different lineages and this appears to have a profound effect on the genetic diversity at, or close to, genes in almost...

  3. WOODEN DOOR WINGS OF ADIYAMAN GREAT MOSQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ARSLAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodworking which is in the most important Turk art branches have been used especially in Anatolia land readily. Wooden material that is seen on architectural units such as mimbar, ambo, wings of door and window, lectern has an important particularly with its ornamental figures. Wooden composition on the north and east doors of Adıyaman Great Mosque was built by Dulkadir Principality but regulated again in the last period of Ottoman Empire, is a theme which is exemined detailedly in Turk art. In this article, it is tried to determined ornamentel and tecnical characteristics of wooden door wings of Adıyaman Great Mosque belongs to early XX. century and the place of them in Turk art.

  4. The Great Wall for the first time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Jin Shanling is on the way of a spectacular 7 mile hike to the incredible knife-edge peaks at Simatai. From each watch-tower (67 are said to grace this section) it is like the Great Wall for the first time. It is a swaying cable bridge crosses to Simatai. Atop tours reached through steep, narrow steps are million-dollar vistas of an endless dragon’s tail. Here, the wall

  5. Work, gravitational energy and the Great Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    According to the Greek historian Herodotus, it took a task force of 100 000 men and 20 years to build up the Great Pyramid of Gizeh or Khufu’s Pyramid. In this work we discuss an analytical solution obtained in the framework of basic Newtonian mechanics that allows us to check Herodotus’s statement. Numerical estimates are compared to more detailed calculations. An estimation of the dietary energy intake necessary to accomplish the task is also discussed.

  6. Water resources in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin Watershed covers 362,600 km (140,110 mi2) and extends from the Sierra Nevada Range in California to the Wasatch Range in Utah, and from southeastern Oregon to southern Nevada (NBC Weather Plus Website). The region is among the driest in the nation and depends largely on winter snowfall and spring runoff for its water supply. Precipitation may be as much...

  7. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    for her eternal patience and fine editing; and a special acknowl- edgement to the Puget Sound Nearshore Science Team for recognizing the Great Blue...mainland Sunshine Coast offer differing habitat op- portunities and breeding concentrations. Within the inland waters of British Columbia, 62 active...1966 and 1994 based on breeding bird survey results (Downes and Collins 1996). Observa- tions indicate that fewer herons now breed on the Sunshine

  8. Solitary nodule of the great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Wilde, J L; Sartori, C R; Elston, D M

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 21-year-old woman with a subungual exostosis exhibiting both skin and nail findings. The patient presented with a firm, flesh-colored, nontender, subungual nodule in the distal nail bed of the great toe. Radiographic examination revealed focal calcification of the nodule, with direct communication to the underlying phalanx. Subungual exostosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any digital mass. Surgical excision, followed by curettage of the base, is the treatment of choice.

  9. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  10. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  11. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  12. Corrected transposition of the great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Hi; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    The corrected transposition of the great arteries is an usual congenital cardiac malformation, which consists of transposition of great arteries and ventricular inversion, and which is caused by abnormal development of conotruncus and ventricular looping. High frequency of associated cardiac malformations makes it difficult to get accurate morphologic diagnosis. A total of 18 cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries is presented, in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between September 1976 and June 1981. The clinical, radiographic, and operative findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases, 13 cases have normal cardiac position, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs solitus, 2 cases have dextrocardia with situs inversus and 1 case has levocardia with situs inversus. 2. Segmental sets are (S, L, L) in 15 cases, and (I, D,D) in 3 cases and there is no exception to loop rule. 3. Side by side interrelationships of both ventricles and both semilunar valves are noticed in 10 and 12 cases respectively. 4. Subaortic type conus is noted in all 18 cases. 5. Associated cardic malformations are VSD in 14 cases, PS in 11, PDA in 3, PFO in 3, ASD in 2, right aortic arch in 2, tricuspid insufficiency, mitral prolapse, persistent left SVC and persistent right SVC in 1 case respectively. 6. For accurate diagnosis of corrected TGA, selective biventriculography using biplane cineradiography is an essential procedure.

  13. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Rights and great responsibilities of academic pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William O

    2013-01-01

    Abraham Jacobi, in his first address to the newly formed American Pediatric Society over 100 years ago, stated, "Questions of public hygiene and medicine are both professional and social. Thus, every physician is by destiny a citizen of the commonwealth with many rights and great responsibilities." Accordingly, pediatricians have rights and great responsibilities to advocate for children who may be at particularly high risk for adverse outcomes. Often, well-intentioned policies or interventions can have tragic unexpected consequence for these children. In many circumstances, policies are developed by providers, policymakers, and others who may act without sufficient information to understand how a particular policy might adversely affect vulnerable populations. Thus, academic pediatricians should fulfill their great responsibilities by identifying signals from the populations they serve that may indicate unintended consequences of policies, performing the highest quality research and discovery to evaluate these signals, and disseminating the information back to the appropriate decision-makers to ensure that policies and interventions result in optimal outcomes for all children.

  15. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  16. The great brain versus vein debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  17. Temporal bone imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmerling, Marc [Algemeen Ziekenhuis Sint-Lucas, Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Foer, Bert de (ed.) [Sint-Augustinus Ziekenhuis, Wilrijk (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. Straightforward structure to facilitate learning. Detailed consideration of newer imaging techniques, including the hot topic of diffusion-weighted imaging. Includes a chapter on anatomy that will be of great help to the novice interpreter of imaging findings. Excellent illustrations throughout. This book provides a complete overview of imaging of normal and diseased temporal bone. After description of indications for imaging and the cross-sectional imaging anatomy of the area, subsequent chapters address the various diseases and conditions that affect the temporal bone and are likely to be encountered regularly in clinical practice. The classic imaging methods are described and discussed in detail, and individual chapters are included on newer techniques such as functional imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. There is also a strong focus on postoperative imaging. Throughout, imaging findings are documented with the aid of numerous informative, high-quality illustrations. Temporal Bone Imaging, with its straightforward structure based essentially on topography, will prove of immense value in daily practice.

  18. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catch 1929-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  19. Great Lakes Commercial Fishing Catches 1929-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery...

  20. TRIO Platform: A novel low profile in vivo imaging support and restraint system for mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav eVoziyanov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1 sturdy head fixation, (2 an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3 safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse’s head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals.

  1. TRIO Platform: A Novel Low Profile In vivo Imaging Support and Restraint System for Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voziyanov, Vladislav; Kemp, Benjamin S; Dressel, Chelsea A; Ponder, Kayla; Murray, Teresa A

    2016-01-01

    High resolution, in vivo optical imaging of the mouse brain over time often requires anesthesia, which necessitates maintaining the animal's body temperature and level of anesthesia, as well as securing the head in an optimal, stable position. Controlling each parameter usually requires using multiple systems. Assembling multiple components into the small space on a standard microscope stage can be difficult and some commercially available parts simply do not fit. Furthermore, it is time-consuming to position an animal in the identical position over multiple imaging sessions for longitudinal studies. This is especially true when using an implanted gradient index (GRIN) lens for deep brain imaging. The multiphoton laser beam must be parallel with the shaft of the lens because even a slight tilt of the lens can degrade image quality. In response to these challenges, we have designed a compact, integrated in vivo imaging support system to overcome the problems created by using separate systems during optical imaging in mice. It is a single platform that provides (1) sturdy head fixation, (2) an integrated gas anesthesia mask, and (3) safe warm water heating. This THREE-IN-ONE (TRIO) Platform has a small footprint and a low profile that positions a mouse's head only 20 mm above the microscope stage. This height is about one half to one third the height of most commercially available immobilization devices. We have successfully employed this system, using isoflurane in over 40 imaging sessions with an average of 2 h per session with no leaks or other malfunctions. Due to its smaller size, the TRIO Platform can be used with a wider range of upright microscopes and stages. Most of the components were designed in SOLIDWORKS® and fabricated using a 3D printer. This additive manufacturing approach also readily permits size modifications for creating systems for other small animals.

  2. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Th...

  3. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  4. American Women and the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  5. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  7. The Great War, ethics of Vidovdan, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After a characterization of contemporaneity (dominance of the financial sector and high technology, politicization of economy, ideological use of culture and thought control and a brief analysis of expansionism (political, economic, cultural on the eve of the Great War, the author gives a more detailed description of the spiritual situation in the wake of the Great War: in philosophy, literature, and art, as well as the national political programmatic texts and war propaganda publications of German intellectuals of the time. The continuity of the Austro-Hungarian colonial policy towards the Balkans and Serbia culminated in instigation of a preventive war against Serbia by the elites in Berlin and Vienna, which is important for the question of responsibility for the war, with concrete war aims which reflected in the causes of the war. These war elites wanted to declare the assassination in Sarajevo as the cause of war, which in fact was a political assassination and tyrannicide. The liberation movement of democratic youth Mlada Bosna (Young Bosnia needs to be viewed both in the European context and inspired by the Serbian tradition of Kosovo cult and the ethics of Vidovdan (St Vitus Day speaking about the sacrifice as sublimation of history and about honorable suffering as element of identity. Historical memory suggests that historical responsibility is transgenerational. The epic proportions of Serbian suffering in the Great War have additionally incited the idea of the Temple of St Vitus Day (Vidovdanski Hram conceived by Ivan Meštrović. The bases of this idea were shaken by Miloš Crnjanski in his Lyrics of Ithaca where he succeeded to bring back to Vidovdan (St Vitus Day its inexhaustible national power of validity. Because of enormous Serbian military and civilian casualties in recent history, the establishing of a Victims of War Memorial today would have identity, existential, ethical and ontological significance for the Serbian people

  8. THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR AND ITS FALSIFICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melsitov V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the results of the lessons and consequences of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in the context of modernity, as well as falsification attempts to distort, defame and otherwise detract the role of the USSR in the victory over Nazi Germany. They argue that the knowledge of the truth about the Great Patriotic War gives us the opportunity not only proud of the feat of their fathers and grandfathers, our homeland, but also strengthen the belief in the great future of modern Russia. They say that for a long time in Western historiography, and, unfortunately, in the domestic, and plant abstracts, not only contrary to the truth, archival materials and documents, but also the common logic. In particular, the article in question of who is to blame for fueling the war - the Soviet Union and Germany, Stalin or Hitler? The authors argue that, despite some external similarities in politics and ideology of the two historical actors of Stalin and Hitler, the two totalitarian regimes, it is really only superficial similarities. The authors show that it is the ideology and politics of fascism and Nazism became the primary cause of the outbreak of Hitler started World War II, and then the attack on the Soviet Union. The article stated a direct continuity between past and present Nazi fascism, emerging after the coup in the Ukraine with the direct support of the West. The article analyzes and that assistance provided by the Soviet Union and its allies in the anti-Hitler Germany - United States and Britain. Without belittling their contribution to winning, the authors, however, have proved a decisive role of our country in it

  9. 1914 to 1917: the Great War years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, F; Duyckaerts, C

    1999-07-01

    In 1914, American and international neurology were already very well developed, but like the other scientific and societal forces of the time, they underwent numerous changes as a result of World War I. This article reviews the state of neurology between 1914 and 1917 as it can be inferred from the journals of the time, the main topics they covered, the meetings, and the neurological societies, as well as some of the actors on the neurology scene during these years. It concludes with a brief survey of the ways in which neurology was changed by the Great War. During these years, neurology was there.

  10. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  11. Muslim Women and Islamophobia in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    CHAIB, Fatima Zohra

    2016-01-01

    The principle issues of Islam have a great impact on the British society which had shared a mission of reflecting the realities of feminism before Islam. The manifestation of Islam is also considered as a proof of the best realization in the history of women rights in UK. Thus, this research investigates Muslim woman’s life by showing her social status through time and space and studying her roles in the construction of the society. We tend mainly, to focus on the way she fought for her relig...

  12. Combining OCT and a fluorescence intensity imaging method for atherosclerosis detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Saidi, Arya; Jing, Joe; Liu, Gangjun; Yin, Jiechen; Narula, Jagat; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (like myocardial infarction) is caused by atherosclerosis. It cause over 30% of all deaths in North America and are the most common cause of death in European men under 65 years of age and the second most common cause in women. To diagnose this atherosclerosis before it gets rupture is the most effect way to increase the chance of survival for patients who suffer from this disease. The crucial tusk is how to find out vulnerable plaques. In resent years optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a very useful tool for intravascular imaging, since it has high axial and transverse resolution. OCT can tell the detail structure inside the plaque like the thickness of plaque cap which is an important factor to identify vulnerable plaques. But we still need to find out the biochemical characteristics that is unique for vulnerable plaques (like inflammation). Fluorescence molecular imaging is a standard way to exam the biochemical property of biological samples. So we integrate these two techniques together into one probe. Our probe is comprised of a double-clad fiber (DCF) and a grin lens, and rotates with a micro mirror in front. The single-mode inner core of the DCF transmits both OCT and fluorescence excitation light, and the multimode inner cladding is used to detect fluorescence signal. In vitro result shows that this is a possible way for more accurate diagnose of vulnerable plaques.

  13. GREAT3 results I: systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Armstrong, Robert; Bard, Deborah; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bosch, James; Boutigny, Dominique; Courbin, Frederic; Dawson, William A; Donnarumma, Annamaria; Conti, Ian Fenech; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gentile, Marc; Gill, Mandeep; Hogg, David W; Huff, Eric M; Jee, M James; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Kilbinger, Martin; Kuntzer, Thibault; Lang, Dustin; Luo, Wentao; March, Marisa C; Marshall, Philip J; Meyers, Joshua E; Miller, Lance; Miyatake, Hironao; Nakajima, Reiko; Mboula, Fred Maurice Ngole; Nurbaeva, Guldariya; Okura, Yuki; Paulin-Henriksson, Stephane; Rhodes, Jason; Schneider, Michael D; Shan, Huanyuan; Sheldon, Erin S; Simet, Melanie; Starck, Jean-Luc; Sureau, Florent; Tewes, Malte; Adami, Kristian Zarb; Zhang, Jun; Zuntz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    We present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically-varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty about a spatially-varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety a...

  14. China in space the great leap forward

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The 21st century has seen the emergence, after the Soviet Union and the United States, of the third great space superpower: China. Here, in China in Space - The Great Leap Forward, Brian Harvey takes a contemporary look at the new Chinese space program. China has already launched its first space station, Tiangong; has sent its first spacecraft to the Moon, the Chang e; and has plans to send spaceships to Mars and further afield. China's annual launch rate has already overtaken those of both Europe and the United States. Huge new production plants and launch centers are under construction, to build and launch the new family of Long March 5, 6, and 7 rockets. In Roadmap 2050, the Academy of Sciences indicates that China intends to be the leading spacefaring nation by mid-century, with bases on the Moon and Mars. This book gives an informed, fully up-to-date commentary on all aspects of the Chinese space program, including its history, development, technology, missions, and the personalities involved. It lists a...

  15. How to write a great business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, W A

    1997-01-01

    Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers - and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

  16. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  17. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  18. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  19. Imaging spectrum of neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Long Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system, and also one of the most common causes of seizures in endemic areas. Globalization has caused the disease to spread around the world beyond the endemic regions. With no specific clinical symptoms of the disease, medical imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Familiarity with these imaging findings may help greatly in early diagnosis, appropriate treatment decision, and follow-up of patients with neurocysticercosis.

  20. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  1. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  2. Characteristics of the Great Whale River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, R. Grant

    1981-03-01

    Observations of the motion field and dilution effects associated with the plume of Great Whale River in Hudson Bay are presented for both open water and ice-covered conditions. In the summer months a distinct plume of about 100 km2 in area is formed offshore which is characterized by a 1-2 m thickness and large velocities directed away from the river mouth in contrast to slower currents parallel to the shore in the ambient waters underneath. Surface drifter results suggest that the outer boundary of plume may be a zone of frontal convergence. Under ice-covered conditions the plume was significantly thicker and extended much farther offshore in spite of a marked reduction in river runoff at this time.

  3. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  4. A Great Time to Do Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Has there ever been a more exciting time to do physics? Whether you are interested in the universal questions of matter and energy or just the next cool wireless gadget, whether you want to contribute to the big-picture discussion of all things nuclear or simply save a life with positron emission tomography, you should know that physics is a great place to begin the journey. In this talk, I'll expound a bit on career trajectories of hidden physicists, using both anecdotes and statistics, and conclude with a bit about my favorite research (the physics of Spandex) and pointers about getting science jobs for students, whether it's a summer research internship, an industry position, or in graduate school.

  5. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence...... management of water resources over the last thousand years or so. These findings call for a rethinking of current models of urban evolutions in the region. More importantly, this study illustrates the need for integrating different datasets at multiple spatial and temporal scales to address people-water......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...

  6. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested.

  7. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  8. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  9. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  10. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  11. South China Sea: Disputes and Great Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinming

    2011-01-01

    In the South China Sea disputes, China has ample proof to claim sovereignty over the Xisha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nansha Islands (the Spratly Islands) while the claims of certain southeast Asian countries do not hold any water. The South China Sea disputes have their origins in the San Francisco Peace Treaty signed in 1951, the result of intervention by the United States and Great Britain in regional affairs. Even today, the United States has not discarded its Cold War mentality and continues to intervene in the South China Sea disputes. The only change in the United States' attitude is that it has changed its pretext for intervention from "containing Communist expansion" in the past to "preserving freedom of navigation in the South China Sea" in the present.

  12. The Great Game and the copyright villain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rosenblatt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the reactions of Sherlock Holmes fans and enthusiasts to assertions of intellectual property ownership and infringement by putative rights holders in two eras of Sherlockian history. In both the 1946–47 and 2013–15 eras, Sherlock Holmes devotees villainized the entities claiming ownership of intellectual property in Holmes, distancing those entities from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and casting them as greedy and morally bankrupt. Throughout each era, Sherlockians did not shy away from creating transformative works based on the Holmes canon over the objections of putative rights holders. This complicates the usual expectation that copyright assertions against fans are likely to chill fan production. The essay explores possible reasons why Sherlockian fandom might differ from other fandoms in this respect, including the role of the Great Game form of Sherlockian fandom in shaping fan attitudes toward their subject.

  13. Great Ellipse Route Planning Based on Space Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wenchao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of navigation error caused by unified earth model in great circle route planning using sphere model and modern navigation equipment using ellipsoid mode, a method of great ellipse route planning based on space vector is studied. By using space vector algebra method, the vertex of great ellipse is solved directly, and description of great ellipse based on major-axis vector and minor-axis vector is presented. Then calculation formulas of great ellipse azimuth and distance are deduced using two basic vectors. Finally, algorithms of great ellipse route planning are studied, especially equal distance route planning algorithm based on Newton-Raphson(N-R method. Comparative examples show that the difference of route planning between great circle and great ellipse is significant, using algorithms of great ellipse route planning can eliminate the navigation error caused by the great circle route planning, and effectively improve the accuracy of navigation calculation.

  14. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  15. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  16. Great River Resource Management Study (Great III): Reconnaissance Report, Mississippi River - Saverton, Missouri to Cairo, Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Cape Girardeau, Mo Sewage Treament Primary 50.2 S.E. Missouri Stone Co. Mining • 49 Marquette Cement Co. Cement Plant • 43.5 City of Illmo, Mo Sewage...are a class of compounds of great stability under both heat and pressure that have been manufactured and used since 1929. Beginning in 1970, the uses of

  17. [One year after the Great Tohoku Disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.

  18. History of photodynamic therapy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, D; Ackroyd, R

    2005-12-01

    Although the concept photodynamic therapy has been recognised for over a century, it is only over the last 25 years that it has been used in Great Britain. The first applications in the UK were in 1981 by John Carruth, who treated patients with advanced ENT and skin cancers. The following year, he and Stephen Bown set up the British Medical Laser Association (BMLA). Since that time, the use of PDT in the UK has slowly expanded in all fields of medicine and surgery. In 1986, Bown set up the National Medical Laser Centre (NMLC) and later collaborated with Liverpool gastroenterologist, Neville Krasner, in animal studies on rat colon. In 1997, Keyvan Moghissi founded the Yorkshire Laser Centre (YLC) and began treating patients with advanced inoperable bronchial and oesophageal cancers. Stan Brown in Leeds set up the Centre for Photobiology and Photodynamic Therapy at the University of Leeds, working in close collaboration with the Yorkshire Cancer Research Centre. Other pioneers include Hugh Barr in Gloucester, Colin Hopper in London, Grant Fullarton in Glasgow and Roger Ackroyd, Malcolm Reed and Nicky Brown in Sheffield. PDT has now been used in the UK in the treatment of skin, oral, ENT, oesophageal, lung, bladder and gynaecological malignancies.

  19. [Claude Fortier: the great history of neuroendocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostène, William

    2005-05-01

    The work of Claude Fortier is linked to the history of neuroendocrinology. Through him and his pioneer work in Montreal with Hans Selye, the , and at Laval University in Quebec City in his own laboratory, where all researchers involved in the study of the hypothalamo-hypophysial adrenal axis have been through, it is the whole saga of the search for the neuropeptide CRH (corticotropin releasing factor), and the harsh fight for the Nobel distinction that can be related. Among Claude Fortier's scientific discoveries, the feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoid hormones on brain and pituitary function, the presence of both mineralo and glucocorticoid receptors in some brain structures, and the introduction of computer science in biomedical research, can be cited. The consequences of these discoveries are illustrated in the pathologies linked to stress (anxiety, depression, addiction). Claude Fortier was not only a great figure in biomedical science, honored by several distinctions, but also an important personality in the policy of research in which he played a prominent role in Quebec medical research and allowed it to rank among the best in the world.

  20. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  1. Natural Selection in the Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M

    2016-12-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  3. Natural Selection in the Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. PMID:27795229

  4. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. What makes CERN’s research great

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As a newcomer to CERN, I find myself both honoured and humbled to have had the role of Research Director confided in me for five years.    My career has taken me from Hamburg to Stanford and Heidelberg and back to Hamburg, and although this is the first time I have been based at CERN, it is not my first involvement with the Laboratory. I was a member of the OPAL collaboration in the late 1980s, and chaired the LHCC from 2011 to 2014. In addition, over the past ten years I have enjoyed contacts with many colleagues at CERN, via joint European programmes and particularly in discussions on linear colliders. In this, my first message to personnel, I’d like to set out my view of what makes CERN’s research great, and where I’d like to see things when I step down at the end of 2020. First and foremost, I have to refer to the many excellent experts at CERN and to the thousands of users of our facilities. Their ideas are the backbone of all...

  6. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  7. Destination image, image at destination. Methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a diffe- rentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed in this article.

  8. Content based Image Retrieval from Forensic Image Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati A. Gulhane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the proliferation of video and image data in digital form, Content based Image Retrieval has become a prominent research topic. In forensic sciences, digital data have been widely used such as criminal images, fingerprints, scene images and so on. Therefore, the arrangement of such large image data becomes a big issue such as how to get an interested image fast. There is a great need for developing an efficient technique for finding the images. In order to find an image, image has to be represented with certain features. Color, texture and shape are three important visual features of an image. Searching for images using color, texture and shape features has attracted much attention. There are many content based image retrieval techniques in the literature. This paper gives the overview of different existing methods used for content based image retrieval and also suggests an efficient image retrieval method for digital image database of criminal photos, using dynamic dominant color, texture and shape features of an image which will give an effective retrieval result.

  9. Research on the damage of the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty in Beijing by remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using aerial photos and high resolution satellite images of the year of 2004,this paper establishes remote sensing interpretation marks of the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty’s damaged levels. Based on field survey and remote sensing survey in 1984,we analyzed present situation and changing characteristics being of the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty in Beijing. The results show that about 7.02% of the wall is well-preserved (about 25861 m); 31.5% of the wall is slightly or moderately dam-aged (about 115989 m); 61.5% of the wall is badly damaged (about 226379 m). This paper analyzes the dynamic change of the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty. It shows that the damaged situation of the Great Wall of Ming Dynasty in Beijing is serious. From 1984 to 2004,the well-preserved wall is decreased by 33206 m (decreased by 56%); badly damaged wall increased by 51207 m (increased by 67%). Finally,this paper analyzes the influence factors of damaging Great Wall. The conclusion is as follows: The damaged Great Wall is generally near the roads and villages,small slope,and easily arriving land.

  10. Statistical image processing and multidimensional modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fieguth, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Images are all around us! The proliferation of low-cost, high-quality imaging devices has led to an explosion in acquired images. When these images are acquired from a microscope, telescope, satellite, or medical imaging device, there is a statistical image processing task: the inference of something - an artery, a road, a DNA marker, an oil spill - from imagery, possibly noisy, blurry, or incomplete. A great many textbooks have been written on image processing. However this book does not so much focus on images, per se, but rather on spatial data sets, with one or more measurements taken over

  11. Cholera:a great global concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal; Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenicVibrio cholerae (V. cholerae)to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. TheV. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. TheO1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima.V. choleraeO1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistantV. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  12. The Great Easter Egg Hunt: The Void's Incredible Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out

  13. Microwave emissivity of freshwater ice, Part II: Modelling the Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Lake ice within three Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) pixels over the Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes have been simulated with the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo). The resulting thicknesses and temperatures were fed to a radiative transfer-based ice emissivity model and compared to the satellite measurements at three frequencies---6.925 GHz, 10.65 GHz and 18.7 GHz. Excluding the melt season, the model was found to have strong predictive power, returning a correlation of 0.926 and a residual of 0.78 Kelvin at 18 GHz, vertical polarization. Discrepencies at melt season are thought to be caused by the presence of dirt in the snow cover which makes the microwave signature more like soil rather than ice. Except at 18 GHz, all results showed significant bias compared to measured values. Further work needs to be done to determine the source of this bias.

  14. The Great Mother Archetypal Image in Mrs.Ramsay of To the Lighthouse%The Great Mother Archetypal Image in Mrs. Ramsay of To the Lighthouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昕

    2016-01-01

    大地母亲是荣格原型理论中重要的原型意象.弗吉尼亚?伍尔夫的代表作《到灯塔去》中的女主人拉姆齐夫人集聪慧、善良和包容于一身,善待家人,帮扶朋友,是典型的大地母亲原型意象的体现.

  15. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    UTILIZATION OF A MARKETING STRATEGY AToNAVAL REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER GREAT LAKES NGREAT LAKES, ILLINOIS I DTIC S1 ELECTE I A Graduate Research...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. rCCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (bw* u S.wufty asification) Utilization of A Marketing Strategy At Naval Regional Medical Center...Applied Research Question. ........ 37 Summary of the Steps of a Marketing Strategy .. ..... 38 Applicability to the Military Health Care System

  16. [Obstruction of outflow tracts in complete transposition of great arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Castellanos, Luis; Kuri Nivon, Magdalena; Quiñones Cárdenas, Alma Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The obstructive lesions in the outflow tracts of hearts with complete transposition of the great arteries determine the clinical evolution, prognosis, and the selection of surgical procedures. Their knowledge is basic to interpret the imaging findings. From the pathologic specimens collection of the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología "Ignacio Chávez", seventy-tree hearts with this cardiopathy were studied morphologically with the sequential segmental system. Thirty-two hearts had outflow tracts anomalies, being obstructive twenty-eight; among these lesions were: malposition of the infundibular septum, hipertrophyc left infundibulum, prolapse of tricuspid valve tissue through a ventricular septal defect, accessory mitral valve tissue, septal hipertrophy at the left outflow tract level, abnormal insertion of cord tendinae of the mitral valve, anticlockwise malposition of the mitral valve (first report in the literature). The left outflow tract presented obstructive lesions (92.85%) more frequently than the right one. These lesions produce left ventricular hipertrophy, a fundamental feature for the anatomic surgical procedures to be made.

  17. Satellite Regional Cloud Climatology over the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Ackerman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one years of imager data from polar orbiting satellites are composited to produce a satellite climate data set of cloud amount for the Great Lakes region. A trend analysis indicates a slight decreasing trend in cloud cover over the region during this time period. The trend is significant and largest (~2% per decade over the water bodies. A strong seasonal cycle of cloud cover is observed over both land and water surfaces. Winter cloud amounts are greater over the water bodies than land due to heat and moisture flux into the atmosphere. Late spring through early autumn cloud amounts are lower over the water bodies than land due to stabilization of the boundary layer by relatively cooler lake waters. The influence of the lakes on cloud cover also extends beyond their shores, affecting cloud cover and properties far down wind. Cloud amount composited by wind direction demonstrate that the increasing cloud amounts downwind of the lakes is greatest during autumn and winter. Cold air flows over relatively warm lakes in autumn and winter generate wind parallel convective cloud bands. The cloud properties of these wind parallel cloud bands over the lakes during winter are presented.

  18. When climate twitches, evolution takes great leaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-09-18

    Earth's climate system has ridden a slow roller coaster for the past 60 million years. It warmed gradually until about 53 million years ago, reaching a peak that brought crocodiles to northern Canada; then it entered a long, undulating downgrade toward the ice-age world of the past few million years. Because the same span of time brought major evolutionary changes, including the rise of modern mammals, paleontologists have long assumed that these slow temperature changes helped spur the processes of evolution. But recent findings have suggested that another, more potent mechanisms was also at work: Abrupt climate excursions, superimposed on these long-term trends, have now been linked to rapid periods of mammal evolution. The evidence for short, sharp evolutionary shocks comes from studies of a pair of mirror-image climate shifts at opposite ends of the Eocene epoch, 55 million and 33.5 million years ago. In both cases, researchers studying the record of climate preserved in sea-floor sediments have found that a gradual climate change-warming in the first case, cooling in the second - suddenly steepened into a short-lived pulse of extreme warming or cooling. The short time scale of these events and their clear coincidence with turning points in the evolution of mammals are providing the tightest links yet between global climate change and evolution on land.

  19. Multispectral image filtering method based on image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposed a novel filter scheme by image fusion based on Nonsubsampled ContourletTransform(NSCT) for multispectral image. Firstly, an adaptive median filter is proposed which shows great advantage in speed and weak edge preserving. Secondly, the algorithm put bilateral filter and adaptive median filter on image respectively and gets two denoised images. Then perform NSCT multi-scale decomposition on the de-noised images and get detail sub-band and approximate sub-band. Thirdly, the detail sub-band and approximate sub-band are fused respectively. Finally, the object image is obtained by inverse NSCT. Simulation results show that the method has strong adaptability to deal with the textural images. And it can suppress noise effectively and preserve the image details. This algorithm has better filter performance than the Bilateral filter standard and median filter and theirs improved algorithms for different noise ratio.

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CONTENT BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL FOR MEDICAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASI KUMAR. M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Content-based image retrieval (CBIR technology benefits not only large image collections management, but also helps clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Digital images are found in X-Rays, MRI, CT which are used for diagnosing and planning treatment schedules. Thus, visual information management is challenging as the data quantity available is huge. Currently, available medical databases utilization is limited image retrieval issues. Archived digital medical images retrieval is always challenging and this is being researched more as images are of great importance in patient diagnosis, therapy, medical reference, and medical training. In this paper, an image matching scheme using Discrete Sine Transform for relevant feature extraction is presented. The efficiency of different algorithm for classifying the features to retrieve medical images is investigated.

  1. Taking DoD Contracting From Good to Great

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    answers the question, “What about the company that is not born with great DNA?” Is it possible for good companies, mediocre companies, even bad ...can produce great results. • Technology Accelerators— Good to great companies think diff erently about the role of technology . • The Flywheel and...2009 4 Q When you took the reigns at DCMA, you spoke about taking the agency from good to great. From your perspective, what are some hallmarks of a

  2. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... of the Interior (Secretary) has established, in the State of New Jersey, Paterson Great Falls...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  3. Functional imaging and endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Zhang; Hai-Feng Liu

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases and the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases has brought great changes.The mere observation of anatomy with the imaging mode using modern endoscopy has played a significant role in this regard.However,increasing numbers of endoscopies have exposed additional deficiencies and defects such as anatomically similar diseases.Endoscopy can be used to examine lesions that are difficult to identify and diagnose.Early disease detection requires that substantive changes in biological function should be observed,but in the absence of marked morphological changes,endoscopic detection and diagnosis are difficult.Disease detection requires not only anatomic but also functional imaging to achieve a comprehensive interpretation and understanding.Therefore,we must ask if endoscopic examination can be integrated with both anatomic imaging and functional imaging.In recent years,as molecular biology and medical imaging technology have further developed,more functional imaging methods have emerged.This paper is a review of the literature related to endoscopic optical imaging methods in the hopes of initiating integration of functional imaging and anatomical imaging to yield a new and more effective type of endoscopy.

  4. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model, tasks 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Ulaby, F. T.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author identified significant results in this report. Environmental and resources investigations in Kansas utilizing ERTS-1 imagery are summarized for the following areas: (1) use of feature extraction techniqued for texture context information in ERTS imagery; (2) interpretation and automatic image enhancement; (3) water use, production, and disease detection and predictions for wheat; (4) ERTS-1 agricultural statistics; (5) monitoring fresh water resources; and (6) ground pattern analysis in the Great Plains.

  5. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  6. Ernst Chain: a great man of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Nelson; Demain, Arnold L

    2013-08-01

    resources were scarce in postwar Britain, the British government declined the project. Chain then took a post in 1948 at Rome's Instituto Superiore di Sanitá, establishing a new biochemistry department with a pilot plant. During that period, his department developed important new antibiotics (including the first semisynthetic antibiotics) as well as improved technological processes to produce a wide variety of important microbial metabolites that are still in wide use today. Chain was also responsible for helping several countries to start up a modern penicillin industry following World War II, including the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. In 1964, Chain returned to England to establish a new biochemistry department and industrial scale fermentation pilot plant at Imperial College in London. Imperial College became the preeminent biochemical department in Europe. Chain was also a pioneer in changing the relationship between government, private universities, and private industry for collaboration and funding to support medical research. Ernst Chain has left a lasting impact as a great scientist and internationalist.

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  8. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  9. Voices, grins and laughter in the lecture room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Van Dam, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the listening behaviors of students in a university lecture hall for cues of ‘active listening’ and/or cognitive/emotional engagement. Claims that the lecture format intrinsically lacks opportunities for learning since there is no (verbal) student response are examined on the

  10. Think& Grin%想一想 笑一笑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Trying to explain to our five-year-old daughter how much computers had changed, my husband pointed to our brand-new personal computer and told her that when he was in college, a computer with the same amount of power as ours would have been the size of a house.

  11. Surly Londoners at Bottom of UK“Grin League”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辰

    2003-01-01

    选注者言:这是来自著名的英国《卫报》的一条新闻。文章的主题句是理解的关键。主题句看不懂,全文的理解就有问题。文章虽短,却有文采。stonily ignoringsmiles beamed at them→just four percent smiling back→a cheery 68 percent→a 70 percent smile-return-rate→by reciprocating54 percent of smiles。当你把这些表达能够串联起来时,文章就好理解了。不过,读了此文,你是否想过,若在我国进行如此smile-return-rate街头试验,那结果将是如何?

  12. The GRIN-Taxonomy crop wild relative inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to provide an informational tool for assessing and prioritizing germplasm needs for ex situ conservation in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 2008 initiated a project to identify wild relatives (CWR) of major and minor crops. Each cro...

  13. Lessons learned from a great master!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Seixas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    critical thinking as early as the their first semester was something revolutionary and very attractive. This teaching strategy was so well accepted that was common to find either students who had already approved the course of Biochemistry or students attending advanced semesters returning to attend the class and to see the beloved teacher once again! In class it was possible to both discuss biochemistry and learn history! To have the classroom invaded by "actors" playing the judgment and beheading of Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier over 100 years after his death while discussing his experiments caused a whirlwind of emotions in the students. This was important to sensitize them to the challenges experienced by renowned scientists who paid with their lives to defend their ideas. Thus, students became protagonists of story and the biochemistry classes more interesting and challenging. This challenge was shared by the "actors", who actually were students of the Biological Chemistry program sharing the classroom with the great master. For these graduate students, it was an experience where they raised awareness of the importance of dedication to the teaching of Sciences.Prof. de Meis’ speech where he stated no one owns the truth or all knowledge was another point closing the relationship with the undergraduate students. In the modern world it is nearly impossible to keep yourself up to date, so we ended up specializing in something. De Meis used to cause some perplexity among the students by showing a picture with all copies of a single reputable scientific journal in the biochemistry field published over a year. Surprisingly, this stack of magazines was 1.5 meters tall! Could you imagine that all recent knowledge in biochemistry is compiled in few pages of a textbook? de Meis, then, revealed that we do not know everything, but we do need to learn how to interpret new facts, a new experiment, a new concept, a new technique, a new discovery. We need to develop critical thinking to

  14. Embedded foveation image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  15. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations.

  16. Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, S.; Zhai, Y.; Levander, A.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere in the western Great Plain region of the Southwestern U.S. has been subject to tectonic deformation from the Proterozoic to present day. Proterozoic island arc terranes accreted onto the North American continent between 1.8 and 1.1 Ga, forming the original continent, and there is evidence for Proterozoic continental extension which formed basement penetrating faults between 1.5 and .6 Ga . This was followed by the uplift of the Ancestral Rockies and, most recently, the subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Extension has occurred throughout the Basin and Range and formed the Rio Grand Rift (RGR). However, the relative impact that large scale tectonic forces, regional asthenospheric upwelling, and preexisting structural weaknesses have on the extension of the RGR is still undetermined. This study seeks to better understand the current tectonic system east of the Colorado Plateau beneath the RGR and western Great Plains. We use teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the nature of extension in the RGR as well as its connection to the small-scale convection thought to be occurring beneath the Colorado Plateau-RGR-Great Plains region. Our receiver function images were generated from 85 earthquake events recorded at 187 USArray Transportable Array seismic stations located throughout the western Great Plains (Latitude: 28-48, Longitude: -105-100). Previous studies have indicated crustal thickness between 39 km and 50 km beneath the Great Plains and as thin as 35 km beneath the RGR (Wilson et.al, 2005). Tomography results have shown high velocity anomalies on both sides of the RGR, extending to 600 km depth beneath the western Great Plains, and a low velocity anomaly directly beneath the RGR (Gok et. al, 2003, Wilson et. al, 2005, Gao et. al, Song and Helmberger, 2007). The western Great Plains high velocity anomaly has been interpreted to be part of the downwelling portion of an edge driven convection system induced by a lateral

  17. An efficient adaptive arithmetic coding image compression technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Yun Jiao-Jiao; Zhang Yong-Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient lossless image compression scheme for still images based on an adaptive arithmetic coding compression algorithm.The algorithm increases the image coding compression rate and ensures the quality of the decoded image combined with the adaptive probability model and predictive coding.The use of adaptive models for each encoded image block dynamically estimates the probability of the relevant image block.The decoded image block can accurately recover the encoded image according to the code book information.We adopt an adaptive arithmetic coding algorithm for image compression that greatly improves the image compression rate.The results show that it is an effective compression technology.

  18. Subharmonic imaging of contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, F; Shi, W T; Goldberg, B B

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents promise to improve the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. It is of great importance to adapt ultrasound equipment for optimal use with contrast agents e.g., by exploiting the nonlinear properties of the contrast microbubbles. Harmonic imaging is one technique that has been extensively studied and is commercially available. However, harmonic imaging is associated with problems, due to second harmonic generation and accumulation within the tissue itself. Given the lack of subharmonic generation in tissue, one alternative is the creation of subharmonic images by transmitting at the fundamental frequency (fo) and receiving at the subharmonic (fo/2). Subharmonic imaging should have a much better lateral resolution and may be suitable for scanning deep-lying structures owing to the higher transmit frequency and the much smaller attenuation of scattered subharmonic signals. In this paper, we will review different aspects of subharmonic imaging including implementation, in-vitro gray-scale imaging and subharmonic aided pressure estimation.

  19. Global Politics, Regional Competition: Great Power Politics in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Lakatos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of competing great power interests in Central Asia, known for specialists in international relations as the New Great Game. The focus is in first hand on interests of the “Big Four” global powers and secondly, on the interests of a series of regional powers which can bring decisive contributions to the New Great Game. The analysis has two directions: one concentrated on strategic analysis, and the second focused on economic interests.

  20. Recent advances in imaging Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskie, Meredith N; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Advances in brain imaging technology in the past five years have contributed greatly to the understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review recent research related to amyloid imaging, new methods for magnetic resonance imaging analyses, and statistical methods. We also review research that evaluates AD risk factors and brain imaging, in the context of AD prediction and progression. We selected a variety of illustrative studies, describing how they advanced the field and are leading AD research in promising new directions.

  1. A demonstration of position angle-only weak lensing shear estimators on the GREAT3 simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply the position angle-only shear estimator of Whittaker et al. (2014) to realistic galaxy images. This is done by demonstrating the method on the simulations of the GREAT3 challenge (Mandelbaum et al. 2014b), which include contributions from anisotropic PSFs. We measure the position angles of the galaxies using three distinct methods - the integrated light method, quadrupole moments of surface brightness, and using model-based ellipticity measurements provided by IM3SHAPE. A weighting scheme is adopted to address biases in the position angle measurements which arise in the presence of an anisotropic PSF. Biases on the shear estimates, due to measurement errors on the position angles and correlations between the measurement errors and the true position angles, are corrected for using simulated galaxy images and an iterative procedure. The properties of the simulations are estimated using the deep field images provided as part of the challenge. A method is developed to match the distributions ...

  2. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  3. GREAT: a web portal for Genome Regulatory Architecture Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Bucchini, François; Elati, Mohamed; Képès, François

    2016-07-08

    GREAT (Genome REgulatory Architecture Tools) is a novel web portal for tools designed to generate user-friendly and biologically useful analysis of genome architecture and regulation. The online tools of GREAT are freely accessible and compatible with essentially any operating system which runs a modern browser. GREAT is based on the analysis of genome layout -defined as the respective positioning of co-functional genes- and its relation with chromosome architecture and gene expression. GREAT tools allow users to systematically detect regular patterns along co-functional genomic features in an automatic way consisting of three individual steps and respective interactive visualizations. In addition to the complete analysis of regularities, GREAT tools enable the use of periodicity and position information for improving the prediction of transcription factor binding sites using a multi-view machine learning approach. The outcome of this integrative approach features a multivariate analysis of the interplay between the location of a gene and its regulatory sequence. GREAT results are plotted in web interactive graphs and are available for download either as individual plots, self-contained interactive pages or as machine readable tables for downstream analysis. The GREAT portal can be reached at the following URL https://absynth.issb.genopole.fr/GREAT and each individual GREAT tool is available for downloading.

  4. Crowding Norms in Marine Settings: A Case Study of Snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis; Johnson; Ponte

    1999-10-01

    / Research on crowding in natural environments has traditionally been concerned with encounters in terrestrial settings. Increased visitation to tropical marine environments, however, has meant that evaluations of aesthetic quality are increasingly becoming issues for managers of marine parks. In this study, we used image-capture techniques to develop a series of above- and below-water images depicting different numbers of people snorkeling in acoral reef setting. The presence of safety facilities in the above-water settings was manipulated to examine the influence of human-made structures on perception of crowding. Four respondent groups-a scuba-diving club, local residents, tourists, and US university students-representing different levels of experience in marine recreation on the Great Barrier Reef, were asked to rate the acceptability of each image. Ratings were significantly influenced by the number of people in the images, the prior experience and gender of the respondents, and the presence of safety infrastructure. Experienced scuba divers preferred scenes without people or infrastructure, while novices regarded the presence of both as more acceptable. The results suggest that evaluations of social density and crowding may vary between below-water scenes and the more familiar above-water setting. A lack of concordance between how respondents rated the images and their nominated preferences for the number of other people in the settings highlights a need for more research on how perceptions of resource conditions should be measured in marine environments.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; Image capture technology; Crowding norms; Snorkelinghttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p369.html

  5. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  6. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Mela

    Full Text Available We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously,

  7. Stereoscopic Integrated Imaging Goggles for Multimodal Intraoperative Image Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mela, Christopher A; Patterson, Carrie; Thompson, William K; Papay, Francis; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We have developed novel stereoscopic wearable multimodal intraoperative imaging and display systems entitled Integrated Imaging Goggles for guiding surgeries. The prototype systems offer real time stereoscopic fluorescence imaging and color reflectance imaging capacity, along with in vivo handheld microscopy and ultrasound imaging. With the Integrated Imaging Goggle, both wide-field fluorescence imaging and in vivo microscopy are provided. The real time ultrasound images can also be presented in the goggle display. Furthermore, real time goggle-to-goggle stereoscopic video sharing is demonstrated, which can greatly facilitate telemedicine. In this paper, the prototype systems are described, characterized and tested in surgeries in biological tissues ex vivo. We have found that the system can detect fluorescent targets with as low as 60 nM indocyanine green and can resolve structures down to 0.25 mm with large FOV stereoscopic imaging. The system has successfully guided simulated cancer surgeries in chicken. The Integrated Imaging Goggle is novel in 4 aspects: it is (a) the first wearable stereoscopic wide-field intraoperative fluorescence imaging and display system, (b) the first wearable system offering both large FOV and microscopic imaging simultaneously,

  8. Imaging in laryngeal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays an important complementary role to clinical examination and endoscopic biopsy in the evaluation of laryngeal cancers. A vast majority of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance (MR imaging allows excellent depiction of the intricate anatomy of the larynx and the characteristic patterns of submucosal tumor extension. CT, MRI and more recently PET-CT, also provide vital information about the status of cervical nodal disease, systemic metastases and any synchronous malignancies. Additionally, certain imaging-based parameters like tumor volume and cartilaginous abnormalities have been used to predict the success of primary radiotherapy or surgery in these patients. Integration of radiological findings with endoscopic evaluation greatly improves the pretherapeutic staging accuracy of laryngeal cancers, and significantly impacts the choice of management strategies in these patients. Imaging studies also help in the post-therapeutic surveillance and follow-up of patients with laryngeal cancers. In this article, we review the currently used laryngeal imaging techniques and protocols, the key anatomic structures relevant to tumor spread and the characteristic patterns of submucosal extension and invasion of laryngeal cancer. The role of CT, MRI and PET-CT in the evaluation of patients with laryngeal SCC and the impact of imaging findings on prognosis and clinical management is also discussed.

  9. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  10. The psoriatic great toe or the psoriatic onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of great toe (OP3gt)

    OpenAIRE

    Contessa, C.; P. Zucchetta; R. Ramonda; L. Punzi

    2011-01-01

    The onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of the great toe is a characteristic feature of psoriatic arthritis first described by Fournié in 1980. In the affected patients, the great toe involvement is characterised by a relevant osteo-periostitis of the distal phalanx, a thickening of the distal soft tissues associated with a psoriatic onychopathy. In most cases, the distal interphalangeal joint is spared. Radiographic and scintigraphic osteo-periostitis of distal phalanx of the great toe are frequen...

  11. The psoriatic great toe or the psoriatic onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of great toe (OP3gt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Contessa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of the great toe is a characteristic feature of psoriatic arthritis first described by Fournié in 1980. In the affected patients, the great toe involvement is characterised by a relevant osteo-periostitis of the distal phalanx, a thickening of the distal soft tissues associated with a psoriatic onychopathy. In most cases, the distal interphalangeal joint is spared. Radiographic and scintigraphic osteo-periostitis of distal phalanx of the great toe are frequent, being found in about 44% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. However, clinical manifestations, with inflammatory inflammation of the great toe, are rare.

  12. [The psoriatic great toe or the psoriatic onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of great toe (OP3gt)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonda, R; Zucchetta, P; Contessa, C; Punzi, L

    2004-01-01

    The onycho-pachydermo-periostitis of the great toe is a characteristic feature of psoriatic arthritis first described by Fournié in 1980. In the affected patients, the great toe involvement is characterised by a relevant osteo-periostitis of the distal phalanx, a thickening of the distal soft tissues associated with a psoriatic onychopathy. In most cases, the distal interphalangeal joint is spared. Radiographic and scintigraphic osteo-periostitis of distal phalanx of the great toe are frequent, being found in about 44% of patients with psoriatic arthritis. However, clinical manifestations, with inflammatory inflammation of the great toe, are rare.

  13. Image Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accredited Practices EER Endowment for Education & Research Journal Image Gallery Click each image to enlarge. Fetal nose/lips Fetal nose, upper ... in the third trimester of pregnancy; the ultrasound image shows the chest of each fetus with the ...

  14. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  15. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  16. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  17. Great Books, Reform, and the Catholic Educational Tradition: A Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, John

    1981-01-01

    Responds to an article on St. Thomas Aquinas College's Great Books Curriculum (EJ 240 962). Endorses the program's aims of using Great Books as a means to truth, not as an end in themselves, but feels that the approach is too narrow and too reliant upon authority and that it fails to develop complex thinking and knowing methods. (DMM)

  18. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  19. Using Music to Teach about the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    2007-01-01

    The Great Depression is typically taught through history textbooks, but the music of this time allows students to learn about this era through different perspectives. The Great Depression witnessed many musical styles--from the light heartedness of popular music to the sadness of the blues, gospel, which offered inspiration, to the tension between…

  20. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and popula

  1. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory..., 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers ] are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  2. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... comment period will be held during the meeting on October 18, 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers...

  3. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... completes its work on the agenda given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit...

  4. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  5. Revisiting the Seeming Unanimous Verdict on the Great Debate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    The great debate on African Philosophy refers to the debate as to whether ... aroused a great deal of interest among philosophers, some of who are of African origin .... thought-pattern of a people and which addresses fundamental issues about the .... about man, or about the universe (whatever form this reflection may take) ...

  6. Figuring Somepin 'bout the Great Depression. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Amy; Pietsch, Chris

    These 10th and 11th grade lessons plans related to the Great Depression and the novel "The Grapes of Wrath" help students to: develop research skills and strategies, such as keyword searches, for finding information; recognize and use the different voices of migrants; and understand the politics of migration and the Great Depression. By…

  7. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  8. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.The Great Konya Basin, some 300 k

  9. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and

  10. The Time Scale of Recombination Rate Evolution in Great Apes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevison, Laurie S; Woerner, August E; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Kelley, Joanna L; Veeramah, Krishna R; McManus, Kimberly F; Bustamante, Carlos D; Hammer, Michael F; Wall, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    We present three linkage-disequilibrium (LD)-based recombination maps generated using whole-genome sequence data from 10 Nigerian chimpanzees, 13 bonobos, and 15 western gorillas, collected as part of the Great Ape Genome Project (Prado-Martinez J, et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and popula

  11. The Great Depression and the Great Recession: A Comparative Analysis of their Analogies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peicuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The decades preceding the Great Depression and the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis have close similarities. Both decades were characterized by rapid growth without major contractions, by an increase in liquidity, a lack of inflation, and a generalized decrease in risk premiums. Additional similarities included significant changes in the financing of real estate by commercial banks along with a consolidation of the banking sector and high hopes that the efficiency of monetary policy would prevent financial crises. These decades were also characterized by the consolidation of the powers of young central banks (the Federal Reserve System in the 1920s and the European Central Bank in the 2000s, by unsuccessful attempts to control market speculation, by their international dimensions, and by the eruption of crises after the failure of a major American financial institution that could have been avoided. Understanding these analogies help us better identify the causes of the subprime mortgage crisis and prevent history from repeating itself to the extentof such large-scale devastating consequences.

  12. A case report of complex auricular neuralgia treated with the great auricular nerve and facet blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtesadi, Marzieh; Leroux, Elizabeth; Vargas-Schaffer, Grisell

    2017-01-01

    Background The great auricular nerve is a cutaneous branch of the cervical plexus originating from the C2 and C3 spinal nerves. It innervates the skin over the external ear, the angle of the mandible and the parotid gland. It communicates with the ansa cervicalis. Great auricular neuralgia is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice and can be refractory. We present a new approach using ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Case We present a case of a 41-year-old female with paroxysmal ear pain accompanied by dysautonomia, tingling in the tongue, dysphagia, dysarthria and abdominal symptoms. No significant findings were found on cervical and brain imaging. The patient responded partially to a great auricular nerve block. A combined approach using this block with facet block of C2 and C3 induced a more pronounced and prolonged benefit. Conclusion Great auricular neuralgia is not often encountered in practice and can be accompanied by symptoms originating from the ansa cervicalis network. A combined approach of nerve blocks can be considered in refractory cases. PMID:28255253

  13. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...

  14. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments or... published at 74 FR 32428 on July 8, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 100... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  15. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  16. Guided image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiming; Sun, Jian; Tang, Xiaoou

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

  17. Watermarking on Colored Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The great success of internet and the ease of copying anddistributing the electronic data has presented a new challenge of how to protect the digital data. Digital watermarks have been proposed as a means for copyright protection of multimedia. Unlike the traditional visible watermark, the challenge here is to introduce a digital watermark that does not alter the quality of electronic content, while being extremely robust to attack. From the angle of signal processing, the two basic requirements for an effective watermarking scheme, robustness and transparency conflict with each other. So the digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it can not be removed without important degradation of images quality. This paper consists of two parts. In the first part, an authentication technique by embedding digital “watermarks” into colored images is proposed. In our approach, we embed the “watermarks” with visually recognizable patterns into the images by selectively modifying the middle-frequency coefficients of the image. In the second part, the technique of hiding a colored image into another colored one is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques successfully survive image processing operations, image cropping and the JPEG lossy compression.

  18. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  19. GREAT Highlights from the SOFIA Early Science Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, Hans; Gusten, R.; GREAT Team

    2012-01-01

    Since its first light on April 01, the German REceiver for Astronomy at TeraHertz Frequencies (GREAT) has flown more than a dozen SOFIA science flights both for US and German proposals. The spectrometer was operated routinely in its low frequency configurations, for sky frequencies between 1.25 and 1.5 THz (L1 channel) and 1.81-1.91 THz (L2 channel). During a GREAT engineering flight, the 2.5 THz OH ground-state transition was successfully observed. We will summarize the science opportunities with GREAT and present highlights from these Early Science flights.

  20. The Great Wall,A Miracle of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    A very popular Chinese song goes, "the Great Wall is ten thousand li (one li=1/2 kilometer) long, and at the foot of it is my homeland...." It always moves the Chinese who live overseas to tears. In Chinese’s hearts, the Great Wall is a symbol of the Chinese nation. The construction of the Great Wall can be dated back to the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period in the 7th and 8th century (B.C), when different states in the empire

  1. Great Clips与NOR签署三年合同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Great Clips 1月13日在代顿宣布,已与NCR签署为期3年的合同,由NCR向公司旗下分布在北美的2700家门店提供钥匙式的捆绑POS解决方案。这个客户化的POS由NCR与Great Clips联合开发,包括NCR RealPOS70工作站、预装Great Clips Styleware客户软件以及包括一台NCR热敏打印机的多种外设。

  2. Why greatness cannot be planned the myth of the objective

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, Kenneth O

    2015-01-01

    Why does modern life revolve around objectives? From how science is funded, to improving how children are educated -- and nearly everything in-between -- our society has become obsessed with a seductive illusion: that greatness results from doggedly measuring improvement in the relentless pursuit of an ambitious goal. In Why Greatness Cannot Be Planned, Stanley and Lehman begin with a surprising scientific discovery in artificial intelligence that leads ultimately to the conclusion that the objective obsession has gone too far. They make the case that great achievement can't be bottled up int

  3. Regional surficial geochemistry of the northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, S.; Folger, H.; Kotlyar, B.; Mossotti, V.G.; Coombs, M.J.; Hildenbrand, T.G.

    2006-01-01

    The regional distribution of arsenic and 20 other elements in stream-sediment samples in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon was studied in order to gain new insights about the geologic framework and patterns of hydrothermal mineralization in the area. Data were used from 10,261 samples that were originally collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program in the 1970s. The data are available as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-0227. The data were analyzed using traditional dot maps and interpolation between data points to construct high-resolution raster images, which were correlated with geographic and geologic information using a geographic information system (GIS). Wavelength filters were also used to deconvolute the geochemical images into various textural components, in order to study features with dimensions of a few kilometers to dimensions of hundreds of kilometers. The distribution of arsenic, antimony, gold, and silver is different from distributions of the other elements in that they show a distinctive high background in the southeast part of the area, generally in areas underlain by the pre-Mesozoic craton. Arsenic is an extremely mobile element and can be used to delineate structures that served as conduits for the circulation of metal-bearing fluids. It was used to delineate large crustal structures and is particularly good for delineation of the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend and the Steens lineament, which corresponds to a post-Miocene fault zone. Arsenic distribution patterns also delineated the Black Rock structural boundary, northwest of which the basement apparently consists entirely of Miocene and younger crust. Arsenic is also useful to locate district-sized hydrothermal systems an d clusters of systems. Most important types of hydrothermal mineral deposit in the northern Great Basin appear to be strongly associated with arsenic; this is less

  4. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der F.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Blanken, H.M.; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by industri

  5. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  6. Chlorophyll a images and artificial intelligence techniques: a great tool for HABs monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Hermida

    2014-01-01

    The Rias Baixas, located to the Northwest of Spain, along the northern boundary of the NW Africa upwelling system, is one of the most important areas of production of seafood in the world. In this area, thousands of commercial mussel platforms produced significant economic benefits for the region. Episodes of oceanic upwelling regulate the dynamics of movement of the Galician estuaries due to its North-South orientation and the summer winds of Northern component. Some species of Pseudo-nitzsc...

  7. Chlorophyll a images and artificial intelligence techniques: a great tool for HABs monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Hermida

    2014-06-01

    With the goal of improving Bloom prediction and detection, an oceanic modeling system was required to allow real-time forecasting Pseudo-nizschia spp. In order to improve forecasting systems include several lines of action in the future: the use of systems of automatic data located in the areas of production of mussels, the use of variables related to nutrients and data of detected domoic acid in the samples and the use of HF sensor data for a greater understanding of the surface dynamics of the estuary.

  8. SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC ACTIVITY WITHIN DISEASED CORALS FROM THE GREAT BARRIER REEF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, George; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Fine, Maoz

    2008-01-01

    Morphological diagnosis and descriptions of seven disease-like syndromes affecting scleractinian corals were characterized from the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Chl a fluorescence of PSII was measured using an Imaging-PAM (pulse amplitude modulated) fluorometer, enabling visualization...... with white patch syndrome appeared to impact primarily on the symbiotic dinoflagellates, as evidenced by declines in minimum fluorescence (F0) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), with no indication of degeneration in the host tissues. Our results suggest that for the majority of coral syndromes from the GBR......, pathogenesis occurs in the host tissue, while the impact on the zooxanthellae populations residing in affected corals is minimal....

  9. Autism Greatly Boosts Kids' Injury Risk, Especially for Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164198.html Autism Greatly Boosts Kids' Injury Risk, Especially for Drowning ... TUESDAY, March 21, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Children with autism are at extremely high risk of drowning compared ...

  10. Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  11. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : January - Decemeber 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows NWR and satellite refuges outlines refuge accomplishments during the 1974 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1969 : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. Narrative Report : Fiscal Year 1975 : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows NWR and satellite refuges outlines refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  14. Safety Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Suffolk, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to...

  15. Great River & Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuges Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great River and Clarence Cannon NWRs Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  16. Hydrology Study at Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study evaluates the effects of changing land use on the water environment of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Past, present and future land use maps...

  17. Forest Management Plan Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the timber management program at Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are: 1) protecting and preserving the unique and outstanding ecosystem...

  18. Annual Narrative 1964 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Anticosti Island. (40 CFR 1043.20). EPA believes that the goal of repowering the fleet of Great Lakes... program is 14.0 hours annually. This is based on two steamship owners repowering two steamships in each...

  20. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  1. Tree Growth Rates in the Periodically Flooded Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tree diameter growth rates were measured in the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia using vernier tree bands. Measurements were made in cypress, cedar, maple-gum, and mixed...

  2. The Natural And Cultural History Of The Great Dismal Swamp

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Great Dismal Swamp is a forested wetland located on the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain in Southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. Estimates of the...

  3. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report CY 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report CY 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1966-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the winters of 1965/66 through 1976/77, NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) collected weekly ice thickness and stratigraphy data at up...

  6. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  7. Wildland Fire Management Plan: Great River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document establishes a Fire Management Plan (FMP) for the Great River National Wildlife Refuge and for purposes of this plan includes Clarence Cannon National...

  8. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Great Meadows NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  9. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: February 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments February 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  10. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: March 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during March 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  11. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: August 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during August 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  12. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: January 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during January 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  13. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: April 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during April 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  14. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: June 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during June 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  15. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: September 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during September 1993. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: July 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during July 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  17. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Cpmplex: Monthly Narrative February

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Complex outlines Refuge accomplishments during February 1998. The report begins with a...

  18. The Great Kanto earthquake and F. Scott Fitzgerald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Bina, Craig R.

    How many recall the following striking sentence from The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, which appears on the second page of the novel, where Fitzgerald first introduces Gatsby? “If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.”This line may have failed to focus our attention when we first read the book in our younger days. Now, however, as a Japanese seismologist and an American geophysicist (and student of Japanese culture), we would be greatly remiss for failing to take greater note of this statement. Indeed, as The Great Gatsby was published in 1925, it occurred to us that the earthquake Fitzgerald might have been thinking of was the Great Kanto earthquake, which occurred on September 1, 1923 and devastated the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  19. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report CY 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Brook Trout Genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) is committed to monitoring ecological and evolutionary functions and processes of park ecosystems. Brook trout (Salvelinus...

  1. Snowy plover survey: Great Salt Lake, UT: Summary report 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The snowy plover survey was conducted in the Great Salt Lake ecosystem from 7 May - 7 June 2007. A total of 274 clusters were surveyed and 659 birds counted. The...

  2. The Detached Point of View in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯德平

    2008-01-01

    The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald's finest novel, which was published in 1925, and Eliot considered it "to be the first step that America has taken since Henry James". It is a sensitive and symbolic treatment of themes of contemporary life related with irony and pathos to the legendry of "American dream". In this novel, Fitzgerald used many techniques: the controlled and detached point of view, the crafted structure and symbolism, all these distinguish The Great Gatsby from the style of his earlier works.However, in this paper I want to present my ideas of the detached point of view in The Great Gatsby. During my presentation, I have quoted some materials from critics to support my arguments. In the conclusion part, I also repeat my own opinion: the detached point of view, made The Great Gatsby the "small" masterpiece of American literature.

  3. Whooping crane stopover site use intensity within the Great Plains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whooping cranes (Grus americana) of the Aransas- Wood Buffalo population migrate twice each year through the Great Plains in North America. Recovery activities for...

  4. A great disappearing act: the electronic analogue computer

    OpenAIRE

    Bissell, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    One historian of technology has called the analogue computer 'one of the great disappearing acts of the Twentieth Century'. This paper will look briefly at the origins, development and decline of the electronic analogue computer ..

  5. Annual Narrative 1965 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Narrative Report : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Southern Great Plains rapid ecoregional assessment : Pre-assessment report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Pre-Assessment Report for the Southern Great Plains Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to document the selection process for and final list of...

  8. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Monthly Narrative January

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Complex outlines Refuge accomplishments during January 1998. The report begins with a...

  9. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : May - August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : May - August 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  11. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  12. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N

    2010-01-01

    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  13. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report CY 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. The Blaschke conjecture and great circle fibrations of spheres

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We construct an explicit diffeomorphism taking any fibration of a sphere by great circles into the Hopf fibration, using elementary geometry--indeed the diffeomorphism is a local (differential) invariant, algebraic in derivatives.

  15. Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1968 : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  16. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (Sudbury Division) [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  17. Animal Control Plan Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl production objectives for the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge are to create habitat supporting the production of 16,000 ducks and 500 geese annually....

  18. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Monthly Narrative: May 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during May 1993. The report begins with a summary of the...

  19. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  20. Spiders of the Great Dismal Swamp: Lake Drummond 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of a study of spiders that was conducted along the shores of Lake Drummond, in the Great Dismal Swamp. The purpose of the study was...

  1. Healthy Family 2009: 8 Great "Whys" Seniors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 8 Great "Whys" Seniors Should Exercise Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... strength—carry groceries, climb stairs Improve balance—prevent falls Restore flexibility—speed recovery from injury Build endurance— ...

  2. 2015 RFA for Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue monitoring and assessment of Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

  3. Annual Narrative 1966 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Annual Narrative 1967 Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Contaminants Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Alternatives for an environmental contaminants monitoring plan have been developed for the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge). This study...

  6. Photothermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotko, Dmitry; Antonishina, Elena

    1995-02-01

    An automated image analysis system with two imaging regimes is described. Photothermal (PT) effect is used for imaging of a temperature field or absorption structure of the sample (the cell) with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. In a cell study PT-technique enables imaging of live non-stained cells, and the monitoring of the cell shape/structure. The system includes a dual laser illumination unit coupled to a conventional optical microscope. A sample chamber provides automated or manual loading of up to 3 samples and cell positioning. For image detection a 256 X 256 10-bit CCD-camera is used. The lasers, scanning stage, and camera are controlled by PC. The system provides optical (transmitted light) image, probe laser optical image, and PT-image acquisition. Operation rate is 1 - 1.5 sec per cell for a cycle: cell positioning -- 3 images acquisition -- image parameters calculation. A special database provides image/parameters storage, presentation, and cell diagnostic according to quantitative image parameters. The described system has been tested during live and stained blood cell studies. PT-images of the cells have been used for cell differentiation. In experiments with the red blood cells (RBC) that originate from normal and anaemia blood parameters for disease differentiation have been found. For white blood cells in PT-images the details of cell structure have found that absent in their optical images.

  7. Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    2010 Carnegie Mellon University SEI Webinar Series: Agile Development & Software Architecture – Crossing the Great Divide Software Engineering...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Agile Development & Software Architecture - Crossing the Great Divide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Mellon University , Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  8. Fitzgeralds View of Women in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利娟

    2014-01-01

    F.-Scott-Fitzgerald,-the-famous-American-novelist-in-the-1-920s,-is-known-as-the-spokesman-and-laureate-of-the“The-Lost-Generation”.-Considered-one-of-Fitzgeralds-representative-works-and-the-finest-achievement-of-his-literary-career,-The-Great-Gatsby-is-wide-ly-recognized-as-a-classic-of-American-literature.-The-paper-is-an-investigation-of-the-patriarchal-ideology-and-misogyny,-with-a-discussion-of-their-influence-on-the-portrayal-of-women-characters-in-The-Great-Gatsby.

  9. The Ambivalent Gender Ideology of The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾善萍

    2013-01-01

    As a hot topic in modernist literature, gender ideology has aroused great interest in interpreting literary works from a new perspective. The thesis is a systematic research into the gender ideology of Scott Fitzgerald ’s masterpiece The Great Gatsby. It presents Fitzgerald’s gender ambivalence and the reason why he commits it through Nick’s relationship with Mr. McKee, Jordan Baker, and Gatsby.

  10. The Great Adventure of an American Human Geneticist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G; King, Mary-Claire

    2016-08-31

    It is my great pleasure to have been asked by the Editorial Committee of the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics to write a short autobiography of my life in genetics over the past 70 years. It has been a great adventure. I came both to America and to human genetics by a circuitous and ultimately very fortunate route. I hope the next generation of geneticists will enjoy reading about it.

  11. Does Sympathy Motivate Prosocial Behaviour in Great Apes?

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Liebal; Amrisha Vaish; Daniel Haun; Michael Tomasello

    2014-01-01

    Prosocial behaviours such as helping, comforting, or sharing are central to human social life. Because they emerge early in ontogeny, it has been proposed that humans are prosocial by nature and that from early on empathy and sympathy motivate such behaviours. The emerging question is whether humans share these abilities to feel with and for someone with our closest relatives, the great apes. Although several studies demonstrated that great apes help others, little is known about their underl...

  12. Characterization of the vessel geometry, flow mechanics and wall shear stress in the great arteries of wildtype prenatal mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Hwai Yap

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal fluid mechanical environment in the pre-natal cardiovascular system is hypothesized to play a significant role in causing structural heart malformations. It is thus important to improve our understanding of the prenatal cardiovascular fluid mechanical environment at multiple developmental time-points and vascular morphologies. We present such a study on fetal great arteries on the wildtype mouse from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 to near-term (E18.5. METHODS: Ultrasound bio-microscopy (UBM was used to measure blood velocity of the great arteries. Subsequently, specimens were cryo-embedded and sectioned using episcopic fluorescent image capture (EFIC to obtain high-resolution 2D serial image stacks, which were used for 3D reconstructions and quantitative measurement of great artery and aortic arch dimensions. EFIC and UBM data were input into subject-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD for modeling hemodynamics. RESULTS: In normal mouse fetuses between E14.5-18.5, ultrasound imaging showed gradual but statistically significant increase in blood velocity in the aorta, pulmonary trunk (with the ductus arteriosus, and descending aorta. Measurement by EFIC imaging displayed a similar increase in cross sectional area of these vessels. However, CFD modeling showed great artery average wall shear stress and wall shear rate remain relatively constant with age and with vessel size, indicating that hemodynamic shear had a relative constancy over gestational period considered here. CONCLUSION: Our EFIC-UBM-CFD method allowed reasonably detailed characterization of fetal mouse vascular geometry and fluid mechanics. Our results suggest that a homeostatic mechanism for restoring vascular wall shear magnitudes may exist during normal embryonic development. We speculate that this mechanism regulates the growth of the great vessels.

  13. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameters...... effecting the image quality of SA is of great importance, and this paper proposes an advanced procedure for optimizing the parameters essential for acquiring an optimal image quality, while generating high resolution SA images. Optimization of the image quality is mainly performed based on measures...... such as F-number, number of emissions and the aperture size. They are considered to be the most contributing acquisition factors in the quality of the high resolution images in SA. Therefore, the performance of image quality is quantified in terms of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) and the cystic...

  14. ImageSpace: An Environment for Image Ontology Management

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shiyong; Chebotko, Artem; Deng, Yu; Fotouhi, Farshad

    2009-01-01

    More and more researchers have realized that ontologies will play a critical role in the development of the Semantic Web, the next generation Web in which content is not only consumable by humans, but also by software agents. The development of tools to support ontology management including creation, visualization, annotation, database storage, and retrieval is thus extremely important. We have developed ImageSpace, an image ontology creation and annotation tool that features (1) full support for the standard web ontology language DAML+OIL; (2) image ontology creation, visualization, image annotation and display in one integrated framework; (3) ontology consistency assurance; and (4) storing ontologies and annotations in relational databases. It is expected that the availability of such a tool will greatly facilitate the creation of image repositories as islands of the Semantic Web.

  15. Bioluminescence microscopy using a short focal-length imaging lens

    OpenAIRE

    Ogoh, K; Akiyoshi, R; May-Maw-Thet,; Sugiyama, T; Dosaka, S; Hatta-Ohashi, Y; Suzuki, H.

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence from cells is so dim that bioluminescence microscopy is performed using an ultra low-light imaging camera. Although the image sensor of such cameras has been greatly improved over time, such improvements have not been made commercially available for microscopes until now. Here, we customized the optical system of a microscope for bioluminescence imaging. As a result, bioluminescence images of cells could be captured with a conventional objective lens and colour imaging camera....

  16. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2009-11-01

    We explore an NIR autofluorescence imaging technique for cancer diagnosis and detection. A set of tissue images including NIR white light images, autofluorescence (AF) images and fluorescence polarized images (FPI) (parallel-, and perpendicular- polarization) were acquired in tandem on human colonic tissues. The results show that NIR fluorescence intensity of normal tissue is significantly higher than that of cancer tissue. The perpendicular-polarization image yields the highest diagnostic accuracy 93% compared to other imaging modes. This work demonstrates that Fluorescence polarization imaging (FPI) technique has great potential for cancer diagnosis and detection in the colon.

  17. LIFTERS-hyperspectral imaging at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bennett, C.; Carter, M.

    1994-11-15

    LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, recently developed at LLNL, is an instrument which enables extremely efficient collection and analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LIFTIRS produces a spatial format of 128x128 pixels, with spectral resolution arbitrarily variable up to a maximum of 0.25 inverse centimeters. Time resolution and spectral resolution can be traded off for each other with great flexibility. We will discuss recent measurements made with this instrument, and present typical images and spectra.

  18. Image Mining: Review and New Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Barbora Zahradnikova; Sona Duchovicova; Peter Schreiber

    2015-01-01

    Besides new technology, a huge volume of data in various form has been available for people. Image data represents a keystone of many research areas including medicine, forensic criminology, robotics and industrial automation, meteorology and geography as well as education. Therefore, obtaining specific in-formation from image databases has become of great importance. Images as a special category of data differ from text data as in terms of their nature so in terms of storing and retrieving. ...

  19. Perceptual digital imaging methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lukac, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is a complex process requiring interaction between the receptors in the eye that sense the stimulus and the neural system and the brain that are responsible for communicating and interpreting the sensed visual information. This process involves several physical, neural, and cognitive phenomena whose understanding is essential to design effective and computationally efficient imaging solutions. Building on advances in computer vision, image and video processing, neuroscience, and information engineering, perceptual digital imaging greatly enhances the capabilities of tradition

  20. CLASSIFYING MEDICAL IMAGES USING MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE MANIFOLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Varol, Erdem; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Input features for medical image classification algorithms are extracted from raw images using a series of pre processing steps. One common preprocessing step in computational neuroanatomy and functional brain mapping is the nonlinear registration of raw images to a common template space. Typically, the registration methods used are parametric and their output varies greatly with changes in parameters. Most results reported previously perform registration using a fixed parameter setting and u...