WorldWideScience

Sample records for gridded energy analyzer

  1. Note: Laser-cut molybdenum grids for a retarding field energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheer, K.; Kobelev, A. A.; Smirnov, A. S.; Bosman, J.; Deelen, S.; Rossewij, M.; de Waal, A. C.; Poulios, I.; Benschop, A. F.; Schropp, R. E. I.; Rath, J. K.

    2017-06-01

    A retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) with grids created by laser-cutting a honeycomb mesh in a 50 μm thick molybdenum foil is presented. The flat grids span an area of 1 cm2 and have high transmission (20 μm wide walls between 150 μm wide meshes). The molybdenum grids were tested in a 3-grid RFEA configuration with an analyzer depth of 0.87 mm.

  2. A Framework to Analyze the Stochastic Harmonics and Resonance of Wind Energy Grid Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a modeling and analysis methodology for investigating the stochastic harmonics and resonance concerns of wind power plants (WPPs. Wideband harmonics from modern wind turbines (WTs are observed to be stochastic, associated with real power production, and they may adversely interact with the grid impedance and cause unexpected harmonic resonance, if not comprehensively addressed in the planning and commissioning of the WPPs. These issues should become more critical as wind penetration levels increase. We thus propose a planning study framework comprising the following functional steps: First, the best fitted probability density functions (PDFs of the harmonic components of interest in the frequency domain are determined. In operations planning, maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs followed by a chi-square test are used once field measurements or manufacturers’ data are available. Second, harmonic currents from the WPP are represented by randomly-generating harmonic components based on their PDFs (frequency spectrum and then synthesized for time domain simulations via inverse Fourier transform. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive assessment by including the impacts of feeder configurations, harmonic filters and the variability of parameters. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study approach for a 100-MW offshore WPP consisting of 20 units of 5-MW full converter turbines, a realistic benchmark system adapted from a WPP under development in Korea and discuss lessons learned through this research.

  3. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  4. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  5. Analyzing Grid Log Data with Affinity Propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modena, G.; van Someren, M.W.; Ali, M; Bosse, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Jonker, C.M; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised learning approach to detect meaningful job traffic patterns in Grid log data. Manual anomaly detection on modern Grid environments is troublesome given their increasing complexity, the distributed, dynamic topology of the network and heterogeneity of the jobs

  6. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  7. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  8. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  9. Wind energy in offshore grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, S.T.

    2013-01-15

    This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid affects the economics of an offshore wind park. It is shown that the spot market income is lower if an offshore wind farm is placed in an interconnector and subject to nodal pricing instead of having a national affiliation. Moreover, congestion in the interconnector can prevent the wind farm from correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less generation than expected at the closure of the day-ahead spot market. This can lead to a suboptimal utilisation of the infrastructure and associated socio-economic losses. These and possibly undesired reallocative effects between the parties can be avoided if the regulatory regime is adjusted to reflect special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment framework has also been addressed with a policy study about possible combinations of support schemes and international cooperation mechanisms between countries to achieve their

  10. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  11. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  12. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  13. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  14. The Design of Distributed Micro Grid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ya-feng; Wang, Yan-ping

    2018-03-01

    Distributed micro-grid runs in island mode, the energy storage system is the core to maintain the micro-grid stable operation. For the problems that it is poor to adjust at work and easy to cause the volatility of micro-grid caused by the existing energy storage structure of fixed connection. In this paper, an array type energy storage structure is proposed, and the array type energy storage system structure and working principle are analyzed. Finally, the array type energy storage structure model is established based on MATLAB, the simulation results show that the array type energy storage system has great flexibility, which can maximize the utilization of energy storage system, guarantee the reliable operation of distributed micro-grid and achieve the function of peak clipping and valley filling.

  15. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  16. Large-acceptance-angle gridded analyzers in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic retarding-potential gridded analyzers have been used to measure the current and the axial energy distributions of ions escaping along magnetic field lines in the 2XIIB magnetic mirror fusion experiment at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Three analyzers are discussed: a large scanning analyzer with a movable entrance aperture that can measure ion or electron losses from a different segment of the plasma diameter on each shot, a smaller analyzer that mounts in 5-cm-diam ports, and a multicollector analyzer that can continuously measure losses from the entire plasma diameter

  17. Grid resilience governance of the future: analyzing the role of associations in experimental smart grid projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Imke; Vasenev, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Local generation decentralizes urban grids. Soon new actors, such as associations, might enter the traditional energy domain. As electrical grids are critical for society, new actors will need to collaborate with other city-level stakeholders to ensure proper grid functioning in times of crisis.

  18. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them.Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public).It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this

  19. Grid computing in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, R.; Kuhn, D.; Kneringer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The future high energy physics experiments are characterized by an enormous amount of data delivered by the large detectors presently under construction e.g. at the Large Hadron Collider and by a large number of scientists (several thousands) requiring simultaneous access to the resulting experimental data. Since it seems unrealistic to provide the necessary computing and storage resources at one single place, (e.g. CERN), the concept of grid computing i.e. the use of distributed resources, will be chosen. The DataGrid project (under the leadership of CERN) develops, based on the Globus toolkit, the software necessary for computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases in a grid structure. The high energy physics group Innsbruck participates with several resources in the DataGrid test bed. In this presentation our experience as grid users and resource provider is summarized. In cooperation with the local IT-center (ZID) we installed a flexible grid system which uses PCs (at the moment 162) in student's labs during nights, weekends and holidays, which is especially used to compare different systems (local resource managers, other grid software e.g. from the Nordugrid project) and to supply a test bed for the future Austrian Grid (AGrid). (author)

  20. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  1. Methods and apparatus of analyzing electrical power grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Gibson, Tara D.

    2017-09-05

    Apparatus and methods of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid are described. According to one aspect, a method of processing large-scale data regarding an electrical power grid includes accessing a large-scale data set comprising information regarding an electrical power grid; processing data of the large-scale data set to identify a filter which is configured to remove erroneous data from the large-scale data set; using the filter, removing erroneous data from the large-scale data set; and after the removing, processing data of the large-scale data set to identify an event detector which is configured to identify events of interest in the large-scale data set.

  2. Wind energy and integration into the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, B.

    2009-01-01

    The development of wind power plants raises multiple challenges in terms of planning, exploitation and control of power systems. One characteristic of this energy source is its variability with time and its difficulty to be planned. This book takes stock of the theoretical and practical aspects of the question. It gives us a state-of-the-art of the existing solutions to integrate this energy source to the national grid beside other sources of different origin (nuclear, thermal..). In order to allow the reader to understand the stakes and the solutions, some basic notions of electrotechnics and wind technologies are presented first. Then it deals with the wind power impact on power system operation when the wind energy penetration reaches 10% of the whole power. The production/consumption balancing is analyzed and the problem of wind power unpredictability is approached. Beside the problems of voltage regulation of a wind farm and supply maintenance during voltage drop, the book allows to apprehend the operation of electricity markets and in particular those related to wind power (meteorology forecasts and anticipation of production). (J.S.)

  3. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy...... as efficient as possible. Further, the recent challenges with nuclear power plants are arguing to find more sustainable energy generation solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future challenges. One is to change the electrical power production from...... sources, wind energy and photovoltaics. Then main focus is on the power electronics and control technology for wind turbines as they are the largest renewable power contributor, allowing their penetration into a SmartGrid to be even higher in the future....

  4. GRID computing for experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, G.R.; Martin, L.; Seviour, E.; Taylor, G.N.; Moorhead, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to be completed at the CERN laboratory in 2006, will generate 11 petabytes of data per year. The processing of this large data stream requires a large, distributed computing infrastructure. A recent innovation in high performance distributed computing, the GRID, has been identified as an important tool in data analysis for the LHC. GRID computing has actual and potential application in many fields which require computationally intensive analysis of large, shared data sets. The Australian experimental High Energy Physics community has formed partnerships with the High Performance Computing community to establish a GRID node at the University of Melbourne. Through Australian membership of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, Australian researchers have an opportunity to be involved in the European DataGRID project. This presentation will include an introduction to the GRID, and it's application to experimental High Energy Physics. We will present the results of our studies, including participation in the first LHC data challenge

  5. Smart Grids - The Playground of Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hribernik, W.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, energy transition is already in full swing. In the power supply, wind and solar energy play an increasingly important role. The fluctuating feed-in of these often also decentral energy sources can lead to capacity problems at different network levels. Intelligent electrical networks, so called "smart grids", optimally optimize system capacities through ongoing coordination between producers. From a global point of view, the aim is to set a set of measures that meet the most important target parameters for the smart networks: maximum integration of renewable energy sources, maximum security of supply and an optimal functioning of the energy markets in an economically efficient manner. (rössner) [de

  6. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  7. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  8. Energy Storage Management for Grid Operation Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Santos; Ricardo André; Ricardo Bessa; Clara Gouveia; António Araújo; Filipe Guerra; José Damásio; Guillermo Bravo; Jean Sumaili

    2016-01-01

    The Horizon 2020 Storage ENabled SustaInable energy for BuiLdings and communitiEs (SENSIBLE) project is currently looking at the integration of small-scale storage technologies in buildings and distribution networks. In the demonstration site of the SENSIBLE project, EDP has already installed an experimental storage system supplying a university campus in MV. It was mainly designed to increase service quality to the university by providing backup power in the event of MV grid failure, but it ...

  9. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somervgille, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  10. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  11. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  12. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn R. Jongerden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to the usage-specific demand profiles and location-specific production profiles, local energy storage through the use of batteries is becoming increasingly important, since it allows one to balance variations in production and demand, either locally or via the grid. Moreover, local storage can also help to ensure a continuous energy supply in the presence of grid outages, at least for a while. Hybrid Petri net (HPN models allow one to analyze the effect of different battery management strategies on the continuity of such energy systems in the case of grid outages. The current paper focuses on one of these strategies, the so-called smart strategy, that reserves a certain percentage of the battery capacity to be only used in case of grid outages. Additionally, we introduce a new strategy that makes better use of the reserved backup capacity, by reducing the demand in the presence of a grid outage through a prioritization mechanism. This new strategy, called power-save, only allows the essential (high-priority demand to draw from the battery during power outages. We show that this new strategy outperforms previously-proposed strategies through a careful analysis of a number of scenarios and for a selection of survivability measures, such as minimum survivability per day, number of survivable hours per day, minimum survivability per year and various survivability quantiles.

  13. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). Efficiently managing and distributing electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. The power grid is evolving into the Smart Grid, which is being developed...... to distribute and produce electricity more efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS and the Smart Grid. Additionally, it provides an overview on how Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is involved in the Smart Grid and how they help to achieve the emerging...... functionalities that the Smart Grid can provide....

  14. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  15. Balancing Area Coordination: Efficiently Integrating Renewable Energy Into the Grid, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-06-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. Coordinating balancing area operation can promote more cost and resource efficient integration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, into power systems. This efficiency is achieved by sharing or coordinating balancing resources and operating reserves across larger geographic boundaries.

  16. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  17. Smart Control of Energy Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Iov, Florin; Hägerling, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of todays distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses) and the qu......The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of todays distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses...

  18. Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast...... and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...... renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults....

  19. Energy analysis of thermal energy storages with grid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid configurations of TESs are developed and assessed. • Characteristics of various configurations of TESs are developed as functions of properties. • Functions for the discharge temperature and the discharge energy of the TES are developed. - Abstract: In some thermal networks like district energy systems, there can exist conditions, depending on space availability, economics, project requirements, insulation, storing media type and other issues, for which it may be advantageous to utilize several thermal energy storages (TESs) instead of one. Here, various configurations for multiple TESs are proposed and investigated. Significant parameters for a TES, or a set of TESs, include discharging temperature and recovered energy. First, one TES is modeled to determine the final temperature, energy recovery, and energy efficiency. Next, characteristics for various grid configurations of multiple TESs are developed as functions of TES characteristics (e.g., charging and discharging temperatures and energy quantities). Series, parallel and comprehensive grid TES configurations are considered. In the parallel configuration, the TESs behave independently. This suggests that the TES can consist of different storage media types and sizes, and that there is no restriction on initial temperature of the TES. In the series configuration, the situation is different because the TESs are connected directly or indirectly through a heat exchanger. If there is no heat exchanger between the TESs, the TES storage media should be the same, because the outlet of one TES in the series is the inlet to the next. The initial temperature of the second TES must be smaller than the discharge temperature of the first. There is no restriction on the TES size for series configurations. The general grid configuration is observed to exhibit characteristics of both series and parallel configurations

  20. Electric grids and energy transition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Focussing on electricity, this report proposes an analysis of the main elements in favour of large investments in electric grids, while notably outlining technical or economic uncertainties as well as possible political consequences such as compatibility of a largely interconnected European network with a free choice of energy sources (as specified in the Lisbon Treaty), and responsibility for the States in terms of supply security. The author first describes the present situation: overview of the regulatory framework of the liberalization process. The second part addresses challenges which emerged with the European commitment in favour of renewable sources of electricity and the emergence of new needs, notably regarding electric vehicles. It also presents measures aimed at supporting the development of networks. The third part introduces a discussion about the relevancy of this development by highlighting, on the one hand, the fragility of economic perspectives, and on the other hand, the necessity to address future consequences of a major increase of interconnections within the European electric grid. Some recommendations are finally proposed. Examples and specific analysis more particularly concern Germany, Spain, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom

  1. Cutback for grid operators; Netbeheerders energie gekort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulmeester, P. [GEN Nederland, Rotterdam (Netherlands); De Laat, J. [NRE Netwerk, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-02-24

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are. [Dutch] De NMa/DTe wil de vermogenskostenvergoeding voor netbeheerders naar beneden bijstellen. In dit stuk worden de effecten van deze verlaging besproken door eerst uitleg te geven over maatstafconcurrentie als reguleringssystematiek en de rol van de vermogenskostenvergoeding in deze systematiek. Hierna wordt verklaard hoe de vermogenskostenvergoeding wordt berekend en waarom deze wordt veranderd. Tot slot bekijken we het effect van deze verlaging.

  2. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Grid-Edge Control Hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the OMNETRIC Group Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  3. Energy efficiency - an alternative to grid reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-12-01

    A shortage of electrical distribution capacity can be approached either by reinforcing the existing distribution network or by using demand side management (DSM) to match consumption to existing capacity. Oslo-based E-CO Partner and network owner Viken Nett have recently completed a project on implementing DSM in Oslo. The results of this project are being used in another, ongoing, project, 'New technology for controlling power load in Oslo', which started in 2001. The two projects evaluate the potential for peak load power reduction amongst residential and commercial customers, as well as the potential for saving energy and for selecting alternative energy carriers to electricity. The consequences and limitations of implementing DSM were studied in greater depth in three pilot studies: these included the analysis of metered data, model simulations and comprehensive surveys to map key motivational factors and behaviour amongst a wide selection of end-users. The projects have shown that it is possible, over a 3-4 year period, to reduce or curb the peak load in a city area by 10-15%. This potential is related to a wide type of measures, among them installation of new equipment, replacement of electrical energy carriers, renovation of buildings and installation of smart house solutions. For network owners, the project has shown that DSM measures in a certain city area can be achieved at a cost 30% below that for grid reinforcement. (UK)

  4. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  5. Energy management and grid stability aspects of wind energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, B.; Krau, S.; Gagnon, R.

    2002-01-01

    Wind energy management on power grids was discussed with reference to a wind integration study in Vermont and new projects at Hydro-Quebec's electricity research institute (IREQ (Recherche en Electricite du Quebec)). Modeling concepts for wind integration were presented for hydro/wind systems and for thermal/wind systems. A large scale wind power integration study for the Quebec/Labrador area has shown that large wind power capacity can be integrated in the existing power system without special investment. The Canadian Wind Energy Association's goal of integrating 10,000 MW of wind in Canadian grids appears realistic from a technical point of view. The Vermont thermal system type project involves the integration of wind and biomass. The project objective is to evaluate the impacts, by 2010, of high penetration levels of renewable energy on the Vermont grid. The study showed that wind power can represent a large portion of Vermont's total generation because transmission capacities to get to other regions are large, plus Vermont has ties with other power systems. The Hydro-Quebec load and Vermont wind are well correlated, meaning that Hydro-Quebec's peak is driven by winter electric space heating demand, and Vermont's best wind resource period is also in the winter. Model results show an economic benefit of adding wind power in the Vermont Power system when it is managed with Quebec's generation assets. The impact that this would have on the transmission system was also discussed. 1 tab., 13 figs

  6. StoRMon: an event log analyzer for Grid Storage Element based on StoRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappi, Riccardo; Dal Pra, Stefano; Dibenedetto, Michele; Ronchieri, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Managing a collaborative production Grid infrastructure requires to identify and handle every issue, which might arise, in a timely manner. Currently, the most complex problem of the data Grid infrastructure relates to the data management because of its distributed nature. To ensure that problems are quickly addressed and solved, each site should contribute to the solution providing any useful information about services that run in its administrative domain. Often Grid sites' administrators to be effective must collect, organize and examine the scattered logs events that are produced from every service and component of the Storage Element. This paper focuses on the problem of gathering the events logs on a Grid Storage Element and describes the design of a new service, called StoRMon. StoRMon will be able to collect, archive, analyze and report on events logs produced by each service of Storage Element during the execution of its tasks. The data and the processed information will be available to the site administrators by using a single contact-point to easily identify security incidents, fraudulent activity, and the operational issues mainly. The new service is applied to a Grid Storage Element characterized by StoRM, GridFTP and YAMSS, and collects the usage data of StoRM, transferring and hierarchical storage services.

  7. A design approach for improving the performance of single-grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have a long flight history and have been included on numerous spaceflight missions including Dynamics Explorer, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System. RPAs allow for simultaneous measurement of plasma composition, density, temperature, and the component of the velocity vector normal to the aperture plane. Internal conductive grids are used to approximate ideal potential planes within the instrument, but these grids introduce perturbations to the potential map inside the RPA and cause errors in the measurement of the parameters listed above. A numerical technique is presented herein for minimizing these grid errors for a specific mission by varying the depth and spacing of the grid wires. The example mission selected concentrates on plasma dynamics near the sunset terminator in the equatorial region. The international reference ionosphere model is used to discern the average conditions expected for this mission, and a numerical model of the grid-particle interaction is used to choose a grid design that will best fulfill the mission goals.

  8. Electric grid stability and the design of sustainable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The article presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  9. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  10. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  11. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  12. Towards Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Storage Devices in Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobin; Yu, Wei; Griffith, David; Golmie, Nada; Moulema, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) provides a generic infrastructure for different applications to integrate information communication techniques with physical components to achieve automatic data collection, transmission, exchange, and computation. The smart grid, as one of typical applications supported by IoT, denoted as a re-engineering and a modernization of the traditional power grid, aims to provide reliable, secure, and efficient energy transmission and distribution to consumers. How to effectively integrate distributed (renewable) energy resources and storage devices to satisfy the energy service requirements of users, while minimizing the power generation and transmission cost, remains a highly pressing challenge in the smart grid. To address this challenge and assess the effectiveness of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices, in this paper we develop a theoretical framework to model and analyze three types of power grid systems: the power grid with only bulk energy generators, the power grid with distributed energy resources, and the power grid with both distributed energy resources and storage devices. Based on the metrics of the power cumulative cost and the service reliability to users, we formally model and analyze the impact of integrating distributed energy resources and storage devices in the power grid. We also use the concept of network calculus, which has been traditionally used for carrying out traffic engineering in computer networks, to derive the bounds of both power supply and user demand to achieve a high service reliability to users. Through an extensive performance evaluation, our data shows that integrating distributed energy resources conjointly with energy storage devices can reduce generation costs, smooth the curve of bulk power generation over time, reduce bulk power generation and power distribution losses, and provide a sustainable service reliability to users in the power grid.

  13. Smart Grids as keys to a successful energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    This publication addresses several issues related to the role of smart grids in energy transition. The contributions discuss whether the future of smart grid markets can be found in developing countries, outline that the deployment of smart counters announces the development of smart grids in France, comment the search for a new business model for the smart grid market, and question the role of power storage as a key for the integration of renewable energies into the grid. They also address the case of French non interconnected areas which could be a laboratory to develop and test smart grids. They outline that smart grids display an economic logic against energy poverty, that smart grids in developing countries could be a lever against blackouts and electricity thefts, and that they can be a solution for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. They present energy cooperatives as a successful model for smart grid projects. A last contribution addresses the smart management of water as a solution to preserve the resource while generating profits

  14. Future Energy Grid. Migration paths into the energy Internet; Future Energy Grid. Migrationspfade ins Internet der Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelrath, Hans-Juergen [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Kagermann, Henning [acatech - Deutsche Akademie der Technikwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany). Hauptstadtbuero; Mayer, Christoph (eds.) [OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The present study describes the migration path that must be taken up to the year 2030 in pursuit of the Future Energy Grid. For this purpose it has explored what possible future scenarios must be taken into account along the migration path. The following key factors were identified in preparation of drawing up scenarios: expansion of the electrical infrastructure; system-wide availability of an information and communication technology infrastructure; flexibilisation of consumption; energy mix; new services and products; final consumer costs; and standardisation and political framework conditions. These eight key factors were combined with each other in different variants to give three consistent scenarios for the year 2030.

  15. The role of Smart Grids to foster energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, P.S.; De Almeida, A.T. [Institute of Systems and Robotics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopez, G.L.; Moreno, J.I. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The traditional electricity grid has remained the same for most of last century, without major architectural improvements. However, its requirements, guidelines and goals do have changed, especially during the last few years, driven by the sustainability in energy generation and energy efficiency principles. Thus, taking greenhouse gases emissions and CO2 footprint reduction as key objectives and information and communications technologies as key enabler technologies, a novel and revolutionary electric grid paradigm, the so-called Smart Grid, is emerging, in which energy efficiency and renewable generation play a central role. This paper presents an overview on the main requirements and features of Smart Grids to integrate energy efficiency, on the work done and to be done, on the enabler technologies, as well as on the expected impacts and the main benefits Smart Grids will bring.

  16. Integration of distributed energy resources into low voltage grid: A market-based multiperiod optimization model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashhour, Elahe; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyd Khandan, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Shariati, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-04-15

    This paper develops a multiperiod optimization model for an interconnected micro grid with hierarchical control that participates in wholesale energy market to maximize its benefit (i.e. revenues-costs). In addition to the operational constraints of distributed energy resources (DER) including both inter-temporal and non-inter-temporal types, the adequacy and steady-state security constraints of micro grid and its power losses are incorporated in the optimization model. In the presented model, DER are integrated into low voltage grid considering both technical and economical aspects. This integration as a micro grid can participate in wholesale energy market as an entity with dual role including producer and consumer based on the direction of exchanged power. The developed model is evaluated by testing on a micro grid considering different cases and the results are analyzed. (author)

  17. Analysis and improvement of security of energy smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Halim

    2014-01-01

    The Smart grid is the next generation power grid, which is a new self-healing, self-activating form of electricity network, and integrates power-flow control, increased quality of electricity, and energy reliability, energy efficiency and energy security using information and communication technologies. Communication networks play a critical role in smart grid, as the intelligence of smart grid is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Its two-way communication and electricity flow enable to monitor, predict and manage the energy usage. To upgrade an existing power grid into a smart grid, it requires an intelligent and secure communication infrastructure. Because of that, the main goal of this dissertation is to propose new architecture and implementation of algorithms for analysis and improvement of the security and reliability in smart grid. In power transmission segments of smart grid, wired communications are usually adopted to ensure robustness of the backbone power network. In contrast, for a power distribution grid, wireless communications provide many benefits such as low cost high speed links, easy setup of connections among different devices/appliances, and so on. Wireless communications are usually more vulnerable to security attacks than wired ones. Developing appropriate wireless communication architecture and its security measures is extremely important for a smart grid system. This research addresses physical layer security in a Wireless Smart Grid. Hence a defense Quorum- based algorithm is proposed to ensure physical security in wireless communication. The new security architecture for smart grid that supports privacy-preserving, data aggregation and access control is defined. This architecture consists of two parts. In the first part we propose to use an efficient and privacy-preserving aggregation scheme (EPPA), which aggregates real-time data of consumers by Local Gateway. During aggregation the privacy of consumers is

  18. Interplay Between Energy-Market Dynamics and Physical Stability of a Smart Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, Sergio; Mammoli, Andrea; Sorrentino, Francesco

    2013-03-01

    A smart power grid is being envisioned for the future which, among other features, should enable users to play the dual role of consumers as well as producers and traders of energy, thanks to emerging renewable energy production and energy storage technologies. As a complex dynamical system, any power grid is subject to physical instabilities. With existing grids, such instabilities tend to be caused by natural disasters, human errors, or weather-related peaks in demand. In this work we analyze the impact, upon the stability of a smart grid, of the energy-market dynamics arising from users' ability to buy from and sell energy to other users. The stability analysis of the resulting dynamical system is performed assuming different proposed models for this market of the future, and the corresponding stability regions in parameter space are identified. We test our theoretical findings by comparing them with data collected from some existing prototype systems.

  19. The role of smart grids in integrating renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MEKKAOUI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel model of smart grid connected photovoltaic / wind turbine hybrid system is developed. A Smart Grid has been presented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment to see the approach for analysis of power exchange. Analysis of this last, gives the exact idea to know the range of maximum permissible loads that can be connected to their relevant bus bars. This paper presents the variation of Active Power with varying load angle in context with small signal analysis. The Smart Grid, regarded as the future generation power grid, uses two-way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network.

  20. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  1. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Trevor S. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, 1100 23rd Avenue, Port Huenem, CA 93043 (United States); Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas (United States); Weeks, Kelly [Department of Maritime Administration, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Tucker, Coleman [Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas 77002 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  2. Grid-Tied PV System with Energy Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Shahjehan; Waleed Shahjehan; Muhammad Naeem Arbab

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Electricity that is generated from coal, natural gas and fossil fuel has an impact on human health and also causes global warming. The integration of renewable energy sources with the grid is a good solution to these problems. This approach is known as smart grid. Sources of renewable energy such as wind or PV are not able to provide a continuous supply of energy to the load due to periodic or seasonal variations. Connecting these renewable sources to the grid can help...

  3. Twelve Principles for Green Energy Storage in Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabzadeh, Maryam; Johnson, Jeremiah X; Keoleian, Gregory A; Rasmussen, Paul G; Thompson, Levi T

    2016-01-19

    The introduction of energy storage technologies to the grid could enable greater integration of renewables, improve system resilience and reliability, and offer cost effective alternatives to transmission and distribution upgrades. The integration of energy storage systems into the electrical grid can lead to different environmental outcomes based on the grid application, the existing generation mix, and the demand. Given this complexity, a framework is needed to systematically inform design and technology selection about the environmental impacts that emerge when considering energy storage options to improve sustainability performance of the grid. To achieve this, 12 fundamental principles specific to the design and grid application of energy storage systems are developed to inform policy makers, designers, and operators. The principles are grouped into three categories: (1) system integration for grid applications, (2) the maintenance and operation of energy storage, and (3) the design of energy storage systems. We illustrate the application of each principle through examples published in the academic literature, illustrative calculations, and a case study with an off-grid application of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In addition, trade-offs that can emerge between principles are highlighted.

  4. Finite grid radius and thickness effects on retarding potential analyzer measured suprathermal electron density and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of finite grid radius and thickness on the electron current measured by planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) is analyzed numerically. Depending on the plasma environment, the current is significantly reduced below that which is calculated using a theoretical equation derived for an idealized RPA having grids with infinite radius and vanishingly small thickness. A correction factor to the idealized theoretical equation is derived for the Pioneer Venus (PV) orbiter RPA (ORPA) for electron gases consisting of one or more components obeying Maxwell statistics. The error in density and temperature of Maxwellian electron distributions previously derived from ORPA data using the theoretical expression for the idealized ORPA is evaluated by comparing the densities and temperatures derived from a sample of PV ORPA data using the theoretical expression with and without the correction factor

  5. Load Matching and Grid Interaction of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Karsten; Candanedo, José A.; Geier, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    of seasonal energy storage on-site. Even though the wording “Net Zero Energy Building” focuses on the annual energy balance, large differences may occur between solution sets in the amount of grid interaction needed to reach the goal. The paper reports on the analysis of example buildings concerning the load......“Net Zero Energy Building” has become a prominent wording to describe the synergy of energy efficient building and renewable energy utilization to reach a balanced energy budget over a yearly cycle. Taking into account the energy exchange with a grid infrastructure overcomes the limitations...... matching and grid interaction. Indices to describe both issues are proposed and foreseen as part of a harmonized definition framework. The work is part of subtask A of the IEA SHCP Task40/ECBCS Annex 52: “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”....

  6. What hampers energy system transformations? The case of smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, Stefan; Thuss, Sebastian; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2014-01-01

    Energy systems are undergoing significant change. Many countries have ambitions to increase the share of renewable energy in their energy mix. This development entails the challenge of incorporating an increasing amount of volatile energy supply and a higher number of energy providers on distribution grid level. The smart grid could be a solution for this challenge. However, the implementation of smart grid technologies is rather slow. In this paper, we examine which barriers exist for the implementation of smart grid technologies. Fourteen in-depth expert interviews were conducted and qualitatively analysed using the grounded theory approach. First, a dynamic definition framework of the term “smart grid” was developed that incorporates contextual factors. Second, barriers to the implementation of smart grid technologies were gathered. We identified (1) cost and benefit, (2) knowledge, and (3) institutional mechanisms as barrier categories. Third, policy implications were derived. We recommend (1) the acceptance of a diversity of solutions, (2) the acceptance of incremental change, (3) the implementation of a stable regulatory framework, (4) the alignment of interests of individual market participants with the entire system, (5) the definition of a suitable scope of regulations, and (6) the collection of problem-specific information. - Highlights: • Fourteen in-depth expert interviews were conducted and qualitatively analysed. • We provide a dynamic smart grid definition framework. • We examine barriers to smart grid technology implementation. • We provide recommendations to overcome these barriers

  7. Analysis of retarding field energy analyzer transmission by simulation of ion trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, T. H. M.; de Meijere, C. A.; van der Horst, R. M.; van Kampen, M.; Banine, V. Y.; Beckers, J.

    2018-04-01

    Retarding field energy analyzers (RFEAs) are used routinely for the measurement of ion energy distribution functions. By contrast, their ability to measure ion flux densities has been considered unreliable because of lack of knowledge about the effective transmission of the RFEA grids. In this work, we simulate the ion trajectories through a three-gridded RFEA using the simulation software SIMION. Using idealized test cases, it is shown that at high ion energy (i.e., >100 eV) the transmission is equal to the optical transmission rather than the product of the individual grid transparencies. Below 20 eV, ion trajectories are strongly influenced by the electric fields in between the grids. In this region, grid alignment and ion focusing effects contribute to fluctuations in transmission with ion energy. Subsequently the model has been used to simulate the transmission and energy resolution of an experimental RFEA probe. Grid misalignments reduce the transmission fluctuations at low energy. The model predicts the minimum energy resolution, which has been confirmed experimentally by irradiating the probe with a beam of ions with a small energy bandwidth.

  8. ESIF 2016: Modernizing Our Grid and Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Becelaere, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-09

    This 2016 annual report highlights work conducted at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in FY 2016, including grid modernization, high-performance computing and visualization, and INTEGRATE projects.

  9. Big Data Analytics for Dynamic Energy Management in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Diamantoulakis, Panagiotis D.; Kapinas, Vasileios M.; Karagiannidis, George K.

    2015-01-01

    The smart electricity grid enables a two-way flow of power and data between suppliers and consumers in order to facilitate the power flow optimization in terms of economic efficiency, reliability and sustainability. This infrastructure permits the consumers and the micro-energy producers to take a more active role in the electricity market and the dynamic energy management (DEM). The most important challenge in a smart grid (SG) is how to take advantage of the users' participation in order to...

  10. Parametric study of variable renewable energy integration in Europe: Advantages and costs of transmission grid extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaber, Katrin; Steinke, Florian; Mühlich, Pascal; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Wind and solar energy will play an important role in the decarbonization of the European electricity generation. However, high shares of these variable renewable energies (VREs) challenge the power system considerably due to their temporal fluctuations and geographical dispersion. In this paper, we systematically analyze transmission grid extensions as an integration measure for VREs in Europe. We show the effects of grid extensions for fundamental properties of the power system as a function of the penetration and mix of wind and solar energy. Backup capacity requirements and overproduction are reduced with a powerful overlay transmission grid. We determine the costs of the grid extensions in dependence of the VRE penetration and mix and find that the grid integration costs remain below 25% of the VRE investment costs for all conceivable VRE configurations. Furthermore, robust design features of future power systems in terms of grid geometry and flexibility requirements for backup technologies are identified. We apply a spatially and temporally highly resolved techno-economic model of the European power system for our analysis. - Highlights: ► Quantification of the advantages and costs of a European overlay transmission grid. ► Grid integration costs for VREs in Europe remain below 6€/MWh. ► Application of a detailed power system model to a wide parameter space.

  11. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  12. Distributed asynchronous supply coordination for energy producers embedded in the energy grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the congestion control and energy flow allocation of renewable energy producers equipped with local energy storage devices and energy converters. The producers are embedded in the existing energy grids. Based on the producers’ own measurements and some coordination with the grid

  13. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  14. Grid computing in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, P

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...

  15. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the power system, with high percentage, is a well known challenge nowadays. Power sources like wind and solar are highly volatile, with uctuations on various time scales. One long term solution is to build a continentwide or worldwide supergrid....... Another solution is to use distributed energy storage units, and create virtual power plants. Stationary energy storage is a complementary solution, which can postpone the network expansion and can be optimized for dierent kind of grid services. As an energy storage solution with timing for few seconds...... multilevel converter structure with integrated energy storage is introduced. This converter structure is suitable to interface low and medium voltage energy storage units to medium and high voltage grids. It can also interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power ow, were both can be backed...

  16. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  17. Conference on renewable energies integration to power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Bischoff, Torsten; Merkel, Marcus; Rohrig, Kurt; Glatigny, Alain; Quitmann, Eckard; Lehec, Guillaume; Teirlynck, Thierry; Stahl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on renewable energies integration to power grids. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 150 participants exchanged views on the perspectives and possible solutions of this integration in order to warrant the security of supplies and the grid stability in a context of increasing injection and decentralization of renewable power sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French distribution grids - Overview and perspectives (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Distribution Grids in Germany - Overview and Perspective (Torsten Bischoff); 3 - Integration of renewable energies into distribution grids - a case example from Germany (Marcus Merkel); 4 - Regeneratives Kombikraftwerk Deutschland: System Services with 100 % Renewable energies (Kurt Rohrig); 5 - Overview of the different grid instrumentation-control and automation tools (Alain Glatigny); 6 - Which Ancillary Services needs the Power System? The contribution from Wind Power Plants (Eckard Quitmann); 7 - The Flexibility Aggregator - the example of the GreenLys Project (Guillaume Lehec); 8 - Energy Pool - Providing flexibility to the electric system. Consumption cut-off solutions in France (Thierry Teirlynck); 9 - Demand Response experiences from Germany (Oliver Stahl)

  18. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Richard M; Hammerstrom, Donald J; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C.W.; Tuffner, Francis K

    2013-07-02

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  19. Grid regulation services for energy storage devices based on grid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-09-05

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for charging and discharging an energy storage device connected to an electrical power distribution system. In one exemplary embodiment, a controller monitors electrical characteristics of an electrical power distribution system and provides an output to a bi-directional charger causing the charger to charge or discharge an energy storage device (e.g., a battery in a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)). The controller can help stabilize the electrical power distribution system by increasing the charging rate when there is excess power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid exceeds an average value), or by discharging power from the energy storage device to stabilize the grid when there is a shortage of power in the electrical power distribution system (e.g., when the frequency of an AC power grid is below an average value).

  20. Modelling of Diesel Generator Sets That Assist Off-Grid Renewable Energy Micro-grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Salazar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling diesel generators for off-grid installations based on renewable energies. Variations in Environmental Variables (for example, Solar Radiation and Wind Speed make necessary to include these auxiliary systems in off-grid renewable energy installations, in order to ensure minimal services when the produced renewable energy is not sufficient to fulfill the demand. This paper concentrates on modelling the dynamical behaviour of the diesel generator, in order to use the models and simulations for developing and testing advanced controllers for the overall off-grid system. The Diesel generator is assumed to consist of a diesel motor connected to a synchronous generator through an electromagnetic clutch, with a flywheel to damp variations. Each of the components is modelled using physical models, with the corresponding control systems also modelled: these control systems include the speed and the voltage regulation (in cascade regulation.

  1. A New Method to Energy Saving in a Micro Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vallati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy production systems is a relevant issue that must be considered in order to follow the fossil fuels consumption reduction policies and CO2 emission regulation. Increasing electricity production from renewable resources (e.g., photovoltaic systems and wind farms is desirable but its unpredictability is a cause of problems for the main grid stability. A system with multiple energy sources represents an efficient solution, by realizing an interface among renewable energy sources, energy storage systems, and conventional power generators. Direct consequences of multi-energy systems are a wider energy flexibility and benefits for the electric grid, the purpose of this paper is to propose the best technology combination for electricity generation from a mix of renewable energy resources to satisfy the electrical needs. The paper identifies the optimal off-grid option and compares this with conventional grid extension, through the use of HOMER software. The solution obtained shows that a hybrid combination of renewable energy generators at an off-grid location can be a cost-effective alternative to grid extension and it is sustainable, techno-economically viable, and environmentally sound. The results show how this innovative energetic approach can provide a cost reduction in power supply and energy fees of 40% and 25%, respectively, and CO2 emission decrease attained around 18%. Furthermore, the multi-energy system taken as the case study has been optimized through the utilization of three different type of energy storage (Pb-Ac batteries, flywheels, and micro—Compressed Air Energy Storage (C.A.E.S..

  2. Strategic Energy Management (SEM) in a micro grid with modern grid interactive electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Reddy, K. Srikanth; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B.K.; Vyas, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • System: Modelling of energy and storage systems for micro grid. • Target: Co-ordination of unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). • Energy management strategies: Only URFC, URFC–EV charging, URFC-V2G with enabled. • Multi-objective approach: loss, cost minimization, maximization of stored energy. • Proposed Solution: Intelligent co-ordination of URFC and EV with V2G with most effective strategy. - Abstract: In this paper, strategic energy management in a micro grid is proposed incorporating two types of storage elements viz. unitised regenerative fuel cell (URFC) and electric vehicle (EV). Rather than a simple approach of optimizing micro grid operation to minimize line loss in the micro grid, this paper deals with multi objective optimization to minimize line loss, operational cost and maximize the value of stored energy of URFC and EV simultaneously. Apart from URFC, two operation strategies are proposed for EV enabling V2G operation to reduce overall system cost of operation. To address the complexity, non-linearity and multi dimensionality of the objective function, particle swarm optimization-a heuristic approach based solution methodology along with forward and back sweep algorithm based load flow solution technique is developed. Combined with particle swarm optimization (PSO), forward and backward sweep algorithm resolves the complexity and multi dimensionality of the load flow analysis and optimizes the operational cost of micro grid. The simulation results are presented and discussed which are promising with regard to reduction in line loss as well as cost of operation. Scheduling strategy of the micro grid with both URFC and EV enabling V2G operation presents a promising approach to minimize line loss and cost of operation.

  3. Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Roy

    2010-09-15

    In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.

  4. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    The major concern in electric grid operation is operating under the most economical and reliable fashion to ensure affordability and continuity of electricity supply. This dissertation investigates the effects of such challenges, which affect electric grid reliability and economic operations. These challenges are: 1. Congestion of transmission lines, 2. Transmission lines expansion, 3. Large-scale wind energy integration, and 4. Phaser Measurement Units (PMUs) optimal placement for highest electric grid observability. Performing congestion analysis aids in evaluating the required increase of transmission line capacity in electric grids. However, it is necessary to evaluate expansion of transmission line capacity on methods to ensure optimal electric grid operation. Therefore, the expansion of transmission line capacity must enable grid operators to provide low-cost electricity while maintaining reliable operation of the electric grid. Because congestion affects the reliability of delivering power and increases its cost, the congestion analysis in electric grid networks is an important subject. Consequently, next-generation electric grids require novel methodologies for studying and managing congestion in electric grids. We suggest a novel method of long-term congestion management in large-scale electric grids. Owing to the complication and size of transmission line systems and the competitive nature of current grid operation, it is important for electric grid operators to determine how many transmission lines capacity to add. Traditional questions requiring answers are "Where" to add, "How much of transmission line capacity" to add, and "Which voltage level". Because of electric grid deregulation, transmission lines expansion is more complicated as it is now open to investors, whose main interest is to generate revenue, to build new transmission lines. Adding a new transmission capacity will help the system to relieve the transmission system congestion, create

  5. Overcoming Challenges of Renewable Energy on Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawole Joseph Petinrin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of the conventional grid due to population growth, advancement in technology and infrastructures which contribute immensely to instability, insecurity, and inefficiency and environmental energy sustainability calls for the use of renewable energy for sustainability of power supply. Intermittency and fluctuation of the renewable energy is a great challenge on the smart grid. This paper reveal the potential challenges of renewable energy on the smart grid and proffer solution with the application of high voltage DC (HVDC and Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices. The functions and advantages of FACTS devices are presented in this paper. Voltage control and stability control with FACTS application are also discussed. This was achieved because FACTS has fast controllability and capability to exchange active and reactive power independently.

  6. Energy management of internet data centers in smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

  7. Advanced Grid Control Technologies Workshop Series | Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Smart Grid and Beyond John McDonald, Director, Technical Strategy and Policy Development, General Control Technologies Workshop Series In July 2015, NREL's energy systems integration team hosted workshops the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) and included a technology showcase featuring projects

  8. Consumer-oriented smart grid for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrazovac, Bojan; Bjelica, Milan Z.; Teslic, Nikola; Papp, Istvan; Temerinac, Miodrag [RT-RK Institute for Computer Based Systems, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-07-01

    The global market faces a large expansion of available solutions for residential power management and energy conservation that can be easily integrated into the smart grid. Unfortunately, most of these solutions lack the capability to make automated power saving decisions which do not require a user to intervene. In this paper we present an intelligent device-level energy monitoring and managing platform for the residential use. The platform is mainly based on interactive wireless electrical infrastructure, smart outlets and smart light switches, which provide low installation costs. As opposed to conventional smart home solutions that utilize a complex set of sensors for human detection, user awareness is achieved without specific sensor devices, only by analyzing and quantifying radio signal strength variations at the inputs of radio transceivers, embedded in smart nodes. The automation is achieved by interpreting user-defined behavioural patterns, which enable the platform to be used for various setups of an environment. The platform intelligently controls power consumption of appliances, contributing to energy savings in the household. (orig.)

  9. Energy resource management in smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2012-01-01

    , an EV shall be operated by will be addressed. This is not an isolated control problem, but for reliable decisions also requires to take into account characteristics of the involved networks in combination with the dynamics of the decision information at the controllers. In the paper we propose...... behavior. This paper1 addresses communication and control challenges to achieve a plug'n'play type of DER management. A use case with Electric Vehicles is considered because of its high dynamic behavior in smart grid. In particular, the problem of making correct decisions on which controller out of many...... a decentralized (de)register/reconfiguration protocol and evaluate its ability to lead to reliable decisions of EV assignments to controllers in a hierarchical multi control system....

  10. From smart grid to micro grid. Energy active settlements of the future; Vom Smart Grid zum Micro Grid. Energieaktive Siedlungen der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme und Elektrische Antriebe

    2012-07-01

    The path to a mainly sustainable energy supply is predetermined by European and national directives. It is to be expected that the sustainable energy supply is growing much faster than the infrastructure can follow. Bottlenecks in the transmission system in particular by the development of onshore and offshore wind energy are probable. Also the expansion of photovoltaics in the settlements demands from the distribution networks. The idea of smart grids to store the excess energy in the superimposed classical energy system is negatively impacted by new problems. The micro grid expands the decentralized technology by allowing for temporary autonomy and energy balance especially if central storage systems and transmission capacities can not be used due to temporary bottlenecks. Concepts of decentralized supply are interesting that offer a temporary opportunity for a restricted island operation with reduced load.

  11. A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayi, Huang; Chuanwen, Jiang; Rong, Xu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Huashan Road 1954, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The distributed energy resources (DER) comprise several technologies, such as diesel engines, micro turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, small wind turbines, etc. The coordinated operation and control of DER together with controllable loads and storage devices, such as flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries are central to the concept of MicroGrid (MG). MG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid, or in an islanded mode. This paper reviews the researches and studies on MG technology. The operation of MG and the MG in the market environment are also described in the paper. (author)

  12. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  13. Voltage Impact of a Wave Energy Converter on an Unbalanced Distribution Grid and Corrective Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Mendonça

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is steadily increasing its penetration level in electric power systems. Wind and solar energy have reached a high degree of maturity, and their impacts on the grid are well known. However, this is not the case for emerging sources like wave energy. This work explores the impact of the fluctuating power injected by a wave energy converter on the distribution grid voltage and proposes a strategy for mitigating the induced voltage fluctuations. The paper describes the mechanics of how a fluctuating active power injection leads to grid voltage fluctuations and presents an unbalanced three-phase power flow tool that allows one to quantitatively analyze the voltage evolution at every phase and bus of a distribution grid driven by this power injection. The paper also proposes a corrective action for mitigating the voltage fluctuations that makes use of the hardware resources already available in the wave energy converter, by means of a control strategy on the reactive capability of the grid-side inverter. The use of a STATCOM as additional reactive compensation equipment is also explored. The effectiveness of the proposal is assessed in the IEEE 13-bus test feeder showing that, in some cases, the wave energy converter by itself is able to mitigate the voltage fluctuations that it causes. If not, a STATCOM can provide the extra reactive capability needed.

  14. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-01-01

    The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid conne...

  15. Passivity Enhancement in Renewable Energy Source Based Power Plant With Paralleled Grid-Connected VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic instability is threatening the operation of renewable energy based power plants where multiple gridconnected VSIs are connected in parallel. To analyze and improve the stability of the grid-connected VSIs, the real part of the output admittance of the VSIs is first investigated......-connected VSIs can improve the stability of the renewable power plant....

  16. Compressed Air Energy Storage in Offshore Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    management framework is used as the basis for identifying key challenges and opportunities to enhance the integration of climate change adaptation in energy planning and decision-making. Given its importance for raising awareness and for stimulating action by planners and decision-makers, emphasis is placed......Energy systems are significantly vulnerable to current climate variability and extreme events. As climate change becomes more pronounced, the risks and vulnerabilities will be exacerbated. To date, energy sector adaptation issues have received very limited attention. In this paper, a climate risk...... barriers to integration of climate risks and adaptive responses in energy planning and decision making. Both detailed assessments of the costs and benefits of integrating adaptation measures and rougher ‘order of magnitude’ estimates would enhance awareness raising and momentum for action....

  17. Smart grids for smart cities: Smart energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieny, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids are currently a hot topic. Growing numbers of municipalities are experimenting with smart grids as the foundation for tomorrow's smart cities. And yet, end users are struggling to understand the innovative new energy distribution models just over the horizon. Our energy system is at a crossroads. And the coming years will tell us whether smart grids - whether they integrate renewable energy sources or not - will develop as a hybrid industry combining energy and IT or emerge as a full-fledged sector in and of itself. First and foremost, smart grids must be considered from a local, micro-economic standpoint, but one that also takes into account issues and interactions at the regional, national, EU, and global levels. Today, fighting climate change is a major challenge at both the national and global levels. The Kyoto Protocol and the Copenhagen Summit established a framework for crucial initiatives to combat climate change. The EU and France followed suit with their Climate and Energy Package and Grenelle de l'environnement environmental agenda. These policies set forth measures to fight climate change and to adapt to its impacts on people and the economy. France, for instance, set two basic targets to be achieved by 2020: - Make renewable energy a priority by promoting the development of energy from renewable sources to achieve the target of 23% renewables in the final energy mix. - Promote energy savings and increase energy efficiency by 20% and limit global warming to less than 2 deg. C over pre-industrial temperatures in industrialized nations by 2050 (around 1.2 deg. C above current temperatures). Tomorrow's grids will have to be smarter, which means incorporating information and communication technologies to provide the responsiveness and enhanced communication capabilities needed to meet the following challenges: - Integrating electricity from renewable sources; - Controlling demand; - Managing peak consumption; - Promoting widespread adoption of

  18. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  19. The importance of nuclear energy for the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ricardo Luis Pereira dos; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Arouca, Maurício Cardoso; Ribeiro, Alan Emanuel Duailibe

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the thermal energy options available in the country to support the expansion of Brazil's electricity grid capacity. The country's electricity mix consists primarily of renewable sources of energy and this configuration will be maintained throughout the 21st century. However, grid expansion can no longer benefit from hydroelectric power plants with large reservoirs leading to a greater participation of thermal power plants. Among the thermal sources available in the country, nuclear power has important comparative advantages. Recognizing these benefits, the Brazilian government has established that expanding electricity grid capacity will amount to up to 8000 MW through nuclear energy by 2030. The use of nuclear technology for electricity generation has historically been a controversial issue worldwide and some countries have decided to review their nuclear programs in the aftermath of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident. This article shows that increasing the participation of nuclear energy in Brazil's electricity grid will provide important benefits for the country by ensuring energy security, keeping Brazil's electricity mix as one of the cleanest in the world, securing electricity grid reliability and safety and reducing operating costs. - Highlights: • The expansion of the power capacity is essential to support the economic growth. • The increase through hydropower cannot benefit from storage reservoirs. • It will be necessary to increase the capacity thermal power. • Nuclear power has significant comparative advantages in Brazil. • Brazil has institutional base, uranium reserves and nuclear technology

  20. Thermal energy storage for smart grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hallaj, Said; Khateeb, Siddique; Aljehani, Ahmed; Pintar, Mike

    2018-01-01

    Energy consumption for commercial building cooling accounts for 15% of all commercial building's electricity usage [1]. Electric utility companies charge their customers time of use consumption charges (/kWh) and additionally demand usage charges (/kW) to limit peak energy consumption and offset their high operating costs. Thus, there is an economic incentive to reduce both the electricity consumption charges and demand charges by developing new energy efficient technologies. Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using a phase change material (PCM) is one such technology that can reduce demand charges and shift the demand from on-peak to off-peak rates. Ice and chilled water have been used in thermal storage systems for many decades, but they have certain limitations, which include a phase change temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and relatively low thermal conductivity in comparison to other materials, which limit their applications as a storage medium. To overcome these limitations, a novel phase change composite (PCC) TES material was developed that has much higher thermal conductivity that significantly improves the charge / discharge rate and a customizable phase change temperature to allow for better integration with HVAC systems. Compared to ice storage, the PCC TES system is capable of very high heat transfer rate and has lower system and operational costs. Economic analysis was performed to compare the PCC TES system with ice system and favorable economics was proven. A 4.5 kWh PCC TES prototype system was also designed for testing and validation purpose.

  1. Optimizing Energy Costs for Offices Connected to the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgievski, Ilche; Degeler, Viktoriya; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Lazovik, Alexander; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In addition to providing for a more reliable distribution infrastructure, the smart grid promises to give the end users better pricing and usage information. It is thus interesting for them to be ready to take advantage of features such as dynamic energy pricing and real-time choice of operators. In

  2. Grid Scale Energy Storage (Symposium EE8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    any one of the areas 5 touched upon by speakers participated in symposium EE8, which could potentially change the energy storage landscape in an...Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on RuO2/PEDOT Hybrid Ultrathin Films Chuanfang (John) Zhang1, Thomas Higgins1, Jonathan Coleman1, Valeria...or capacitance) at the expense of electrodes transmittance. Therefore it’s very necessary to develop ultrathin films with highly pseudocapacitive

  3. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  4. Smart grid strategy - the future intelligent energy system. [Denmark]; Smart grid-strategi - fremtidens intelligente energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Government's Smart Grid Strategy brings Danish consumers a big step closer to managing their own energy consumption. The strategy, combines electricity meters read on an hourly basis with variable tariffs and a data hub. It will make it possible for consumers to use the power when it is least expensive. ''Today we set the course for developing a smart energy network that will reduce the cost of converting to sustainable energy, cut electricity bills and create brand new products consumers will welcome,'' says Minister of Climate, Energy and Building Martin Lidegaard. Encouraging consumers to use energy more efficiently is a key aspect of the strategy. The remote-read electricity meters are crucial if consumers are to play a role in optimising the flexible energy network. (LN)

  5. Heuristic Scheduling in Grid Environments: Reducing the Operational Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Christian

    In a world where more and more businesses seem to trade in an online market, the supply of online services to the ever-growing demand could quickly reach its capacity limits. Online service providers may find themselves maxed out at peak operation levels during high-traffic timeslots but too little demand during low-traffic timeslots, although the latter is becoming less frequent. At this point deciding which user is allocated what level of service becomes essential. The concept of Grid computing could offer a meaningful alternative to conventional super-computing centres. Not only can Grids reach the same computing speeds as some of the fastest supercomputers, but distributed computing harbors a great energy-saving potential. When scheduling projects in such a Grid environment however, simply assigning one process to a system becomes so complex in calculation that schedules are often too late to execute, rendering their optimizations useless. Current schedulers attempt to maximize the utility, given some sort of constraint, often reverting to heuristics. This optimization often comes at the cost of environmental impact, in this case CO 2 emissions. This work proposes an alternate model of energy efficient scheduling while keeping a respectable amount of economic incentives untouched. Using this model, it is possible to reduce the total energy consumed by a Grid environment using 'just-in-time' flowtime management, paired with ranking nodes by efficiency.

  6. Financing off-grid sustainable energy access for the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glemarec, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of public instruments in promoting private finance to achieve off-grid sustainable energy access. Renewable energy technologies are increasingly becoming the cheapest solutions for off-grid energy access. The dramatic uptake of mobile phones in developing countries shows how quickly decentralized services can develop on a commercial basis under the right conditions, and raises the prospect that private finance could also drive decentralized energy access for the poor. Indeed, there are already a number of instances of clean energy solutions – such as solar portable lights, household biogas units or solar home systems – that have managed to scale-up through leveraging private finance. However, the experience gained from first-generation market development projects show that, in almost all cases, significant public resources have been necessary to increase the affordability of clean energy technologies, provide access to financing for the poor, and remove non-economic barriers. Such public interventions may be funded by international public finance, domestic budgets and carbon finance. Despite mounting fiscal constraints facing governments worldwide, the emergence of new sources of climate finance and the political momentum in support of energy subsidy reforms, as well as new programming modalities, offer opportunities to leverage additional resources to achieve universal energy access by 2030. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is increasingly the cheapest solution for off-grid energy access. ► Universal access to energy now depends less on technology and more business models. ► Substantial public finance will still be required to support universal energy access.

  7. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  8. Sustainable Energy in Remote Indonesian Grids. Accelerating Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Brian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burman, Kari [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elchinger, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hardison, R. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karsiwulan, D. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States); Castermans, B. [Winrock International, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Sustainable Energy for Remote Indonesian Grids (SERIG) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to support Indonesia’s efforts to develop clean energy and increase access to electricity in remote locations throughout the country. With DOE support, the SERIG implementation team consists of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Winrock International’s Jakarta, Indonesia office. Through technical assistance that includes techno-economic feasibility evaluation for selected projects, government-to-government coordination, infrastructure assessment, stakeholder outreach, and policy analysis, SERIG seeks to provide opportunities for individual project development and a collective framework for national replication office.

  9. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichele, Christian; Doleski, Oliver D.

    2014-01-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [de

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  11. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  13. Managing peak loads in energy grids: Comparative economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, A.; Zeigarnik, Yu.; Buzoverov, E.; Sheindlin, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key issues in modern energy technology is managing the imbalance between the generated power and the load, particularly during times of peak demand. The increasing use of renewable energy sources makes this problem even more acute. Various existing technologies, including stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS), can be employed to provide additional power during peak demand times. In the future, integration of on-board batteries of the growing fleet of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) into the grid can provide power during peak demand hours (vehicle-to-grid, or V2G technology). This work provides cost estimates of managing peak energy demands using traditional technologies, such as maneuverable power plants, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants and peaker generators, as well as BESS and V2G technologies. The derived estimates provide both per kWh and kW year of energy supplied to the grid. The analysis demonstrates that the use of battery storage is economically justified for short peak demand periods of <1 h. For longer durations, the most suitable technology remains the use of maneuverable steam gas power plants, gas turbine,reciprocating gas engine peaker generators, conventional hydroelectric, pumped storage plants. - Highlights: • Cost of managing peak energy demand employing different technologies are estimated. • Traditional technologies, stationary battery storage and V2G are compared. • Battery storage is economically justified for peak demand periods of <1 h. • V2G appears to have better efficiency than stationary battery storage in low voltage power grids.

  14. Renewable energy in district heating grids. A realistic perspective?; Erneuerbare Energien in Waermenetzen. Eine realistische Perspektive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Elke [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltplanung; Futterlieb, Matthias; Ohlhorst, Doerte [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Zentrum Technik und Gesellschaft (ZTG); Wenzel, Bernd [Ingenieurbuero fuer neue Energie (IfnE), Teltow (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The heating sector holds high potentials for cutting CO{sub 2} emissions by using renewable energy. These potentials can be tapped either by substituting fossil fuels in individual heating units or by using renewable energy in district heating networks, which may be more efficient. This paper asks for the options to increase the share of renewable energy in Germany's district heating infrastructure and for the restrictions that are hampering further development in this field. It critically discusses the relevant technical, political and economic challenges and determinants. District heating networks fuelled by renewable energy are not only competing with fossil fuels in individual heating units. They are also facing the more fundamental question regarding the preconditions for a profitable and worthwhile operation of grid-bound heat supply. The economic viability of heat grids has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis, since it depends predominantly on individual framework conditions. Those include a decreasing heat demand due to improving energy performance of buildings, competing gas grids already in place and the complex interest structures of the actors involved. The growth rates that were observed in the last years were predominantly achieved in small renewably fuelled district heating networks. Even under favourable framework conditions, there is a need for additional supportive measures to increase the share of renewable energy in district heating grids. This mix of policy instruments should encompass measures to increase the implementation rates of municipal heat utilization concepts, measures to decrease the initial investments needed, as well as public relations to improve the user perception of grid-bound heat supply. However, the options to increase the share of renewable heat in existing large-scale grids are considered to be rather limited. (orig.)

  15. Is inexpensive natural gas hindering the grid energy storage industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittinger, Eric; Lueken, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Grid energy storage is a maturing technology and forecasts of the industry's growth have been promising. However, recent years have realized little growth in actual deployments of grid-level storage and several high-profile storage companies and projects have failed. We hypothesize that falling natural gas prices have significantly reduced the potential profit from many U.S. energy storage projects since 2009 and quantify that effect. We use engineering–economic models to calculate the monthly revenue to energy storage devices providing frequency regulation and energy arbitrage in several electricity markets and compare that revenue to prevailing natural gas prices. We find that flywheel devices providing frequency regulation were profitable in months when natural gas prices were above $7/mcf, but face difficulties at current prices (around $4/mcf). For energy arbitrage alone, we find that the breakeven capital cost for large-scale storage was around $300/kWh in several key locations in 2004–2008, but is around $100/kWh in the same locations today. Though cost and performance improvements have been continually decreasing the effective cost of energy services from storage, fundamental market signals indicating the need for energy storage are at or near 10-year lows for both energy arbitrage and frequency regulation. - Highlights: • We use engineering–economic models to determine breakeven capital cost of storage. • Two applications are examined: frequency regulation and energy arbitrage. • For both services, potential revenue has decreased significantly since 2008. • We show a high correlation of revenue with natural gas price. • We demonstrate a causal relationship using the PHORUM grid modeling software.

  16. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  17. Renewable energy off-grid power systems: options for energy suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouchet, K.

    1992-01-01

    SURVIVOR ENERGY SYSTEMS package a range of wind-based renewable energy systems for the supply of 24-hour power to off-grid homesteads and communities. This paper presents a leasing package for these power users and illustrates their cost effectiveness in comparison with stand-alone diesel and comparative hybrid power options. This offer is seen as a alternative for energy planners and supply agencies for their off-grid clients. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  19. From electricity smart grids to smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, Anders N.; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    , electricitysmartgrids must be coordinated with the utilisation of renewable energy being converted into other forms of carriers than electricity including heat and biofuels as well as energy conservation and efficiency improvements, such as CHP and improved efficiencies e.g. in the form of fuel cells. All such measures...... such measures are combined with energy conservation and system efficiency improvements. This article illustrates why electricitysmartgrids should be seen as part of overall smartenergysystems and emphasises the inclusion of flexible CHP production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilisation. Furthermore...

  20. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  1. Dispatch Strategy Development for Grid-tied Household Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Joseph

    The prevalence of renewable generation will increase in the next several decades and offset conventional generation more and more. Yet this increase is not coming without challenges. Solar, wind, and even some water resources are intermittent and unpredictable, and thereby create scheduling challenges due to their inherent "uncontrolled" nature. To effectively manage these distributed renewable assets, new control algorithms must be developed for applications including energy management, bridge power, and system stability. This can be completed through a centralized control center though efforts are being made to parallel the control architecture with the organization of the renewable assets themselves--namely, distributed controls. Building energy management systems are being employed to control localized energy generation, storage, and use to reduce disruption on the net utility load. One such example is VOLTTRONTM, an agent-based platform for building energy control in real time. In this thesis, algorithms developed in VOLTTRON simulate a home energy management system that consists of a solar PV array, a lithium-ion battery bank, and the grid. Dispatch strategies are implemented to reduce energy charges from overall consumption (/kWh) and demand charges (/kW). Dispatch strategies for implementing storage devices are tuned on a month-to-month basis to provide a meaningful economic advantage under simulated scenarios to explore algorithm sensitivity to changing external factors. VOLTTRON agents provide automated real-time optimization of dispatch strategies to efficiently manage energy supply and demand, lower consumer costs associated with energy usage, and reduce load on the utility grid.

  2. A closed-loop energy price controlling method for real-time energy balancing in a smart grid energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagoz, B. Baykant; Kaygusuz, Asim; Akcin, Murat; Alagoz, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Future smart grids will require a flexible, observable, and controllable network for reliable and efficient energy delivery under uncertain generation and demand conditions. One of the mechanisms for efficient and reliable energy generation is dynamic demand-responsive generation management based on energy price adjustments that creates a balance in energy markets. This study presents a closed-loop PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller-based price control method for autonomous and real-time balancing of energy demand and generation in smart grid electricity markets. The PID control system can regulate energy prices online to respond dynamically and instantaneously to the varying energy demands of grid consumers. Independent energy suppliers in the smart grid decide whether to sell their energy to the grid according to the energy prices declared by the closed-loop PID controller system. Energy market simulations demonstrate that PID-controlled energy price regulation can effectively maintain an energy balance for hourly demand fluctuations of consumers. - Highlights: • This study presents a control theoretic approach for management of energy balance. • A closed-loop PID controller-based price controlling method is used in smart grid. • The simulation results demonstrate advantages of PID-based energy price control. • This method is appropriate for demand responsive management of smart grid markets

  3. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  4. Optimization of joint energy micro-grid with cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Luo, Simin; Tian, Yan; Chen, Xianda; Xiong, Botao; Zhou, Bowen

    2018-02-01

    To accommodate distributed photovoltaic (PV) curtailment, to make full use of the joint energy micro-grid with cold storage, and to reduce the high operating costs, the economic dispatch of joint energy micro-grid load is particularly important. Considering the different prices during the peak and valley durations, an optimization model is established, which takes the minimum production costs and PV curtailment fluctuations as the objectives. Linear weighted sum method and genetic-taboo Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm are used to solve the optimization model, to obtain optimal power supply output. Taking the garlic market in Henan as an example, the simulation results show that considering distributed PV and different prices in different time durations, the optimization strategies are able to reduce the operating costs and accommodate PV power efficiently.

  5. Analyzing Potential Grid Impacts from Future In-Motion Roadway Wireless Power Transfer Scenarios: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Gonder, Jeffrey; Jorgenson, Jennie; Brooker, Aaron

    2016-08-01

    This work examines the grid impact of in-motion roadway wireless power transfer through the examination of the electrification of high-capacity roadways inside a metropolitan area. The work uses data from a regional travel study and the Federal Highway Administration's Highway Performance Monitoring System to estimate the electrified roadway's hourly power use throughout a week. The data are then combined with hourly grid load estimates for the same metropolitan area to determine the overlay of traditional grid load with additional load from a future electrified roadway.

  6. Assessment of post-Fukushima renewable energy policy in Japan's nation-wide power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript analyzes an optimal power generation mix in Japan's nation-wide power grid by considering the post-Fukushima energy policy which puts a high priority on expanding renewable energy. The study is performed, employing an optimal power generation mix model which is characterized by detailed geographical resolution derived from 135 nodes and 166 high-voltage power transmission lines with 10-min temporal resolution. Simulated results reveal that renewable energy promotion policy underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of inter- or intra-regional power transmission lines in Japan in order to realize economical power system operation. In addition, the results show that the integration of massive variable renewable (VR) such as PV and wind decreases the capacity factor of power plant including ramp generator and possibly affects that profitability, which implies the challenge to ensure power system adequacy enough to control VR variability. - Highlights: • Authors analyze installable potential of renewable by Japan's power grid model. • Power grid of the model includes 135 nodes and 166 power transmission lines. • Renewable promotion underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of power lines. • Unremunerated power plants affect power grid adequacy under extensive renewable.

  7. Data Grids and High Energy Physics: A Melbourne Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Lyle

    2003-04-01

    The University of Melbourne, Experimental Particle Physics group recognises that the future of computing is an important issue for the scientific community. It is in the nature of research for the questions posed to become more complex, requiring larger computing resources for each generation of experiment. As institutes and universities around the world increasingly pool their resources and work together to solve these questions, the need arises for more sophisticated computing techniques. One such technique, grid computing, is under investigation by many institutes across many disciplines and is the focus of much development in the computing community. ‘The Grid’, as it is commonly named, is heralded as the future of computing for research, education, and industry alike. This paper will introduce the basic concepts of grid technologies including the Globus toolkit and data grids as of July 2002. It will highlight the challenges faced in developing appropriate resource brokers and schedulers, and will look at the future of grids within high energy physics.

  8. Vehicle to grid: electric vehicles as an energy storage solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nicholas; Wells, Nicole; Kiamilev, Fouad E.; Kempton, Willett M.

    2013-05-01

    With increased focus on intermittent renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaics, there comes a rising need for large-scale energy storage. The vehicle to grid (V2G) project seeks to meet this need using electric vehicles, whose high power capacity and existing power electronics make them a promising energy storage solution. This paper will describe a charging system designed by the V2G team that facilitates selective charging and backfeeding by electric vehicles. The system consists of a custom circuit board attached to an embedded linux computer that is installed both in the EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment) and in the power electronics unit of the vehicle. The boards establish an in-band communication link between the EVSE and the vehicle, giving the vehicle internet connectivity and the ability to make intelligent decisions about when to charge and discharge. This is done while maintaining compliance with existing charging protocols (SAEJ1772, IEC62196) and compatibility with standard "nonintelligent" cars and chargers. Through this system, the vehicles in a test fleet have been able to successfully serve as portable temporary grid storage, which has implications for regulating the electrical grid, providing emergency power, or supplying power to forward military bases.

  9. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  10. Price-based Energy Control for V2G Networks in the Industrial Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and global warming call for a new industrial revolution in production and distribution of renewable energy. Distributed power generation will be well developed in the new smart electricity distribution grid, in which robust power distribution will be the key technology. In this paper, we present a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G network for energy transfer, in which distributed renewable energy helps the power grid balance demand and supply. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs will act as transporters of electricity for distributed renewable energy dispatching. We formulate and analyze the V2G network within the theoretical framework of complex network. We also employ the generalized synchronization method to study the dynamic behavior of V2G networks. Furthermore, we develop a new price-based energy control method to stimulate the PHEV's behavior of charging and discharging. Simulation results indicate that the V2G network can achieve synchronization and each region is able to balance energy supply and demand through price-based control.

  11. Implications of virtualization on Grids for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, L; Newman, R; Iqbal, S; Pepper, R; Celebioglu, O; Hsieh, J; Mashayekhi, V; Cobban, M

    2006-01-01

    The simulations used in the field of high energy physics are compute intensive and exhibit a high level of data parallelism. These features make such simulations ideal candidates for Grid computing. We are taking as an example the GEANT4 detector simulation used for physics studies within the ATLAS experiment at CERN. One key issue in Grid computing is that of network and system security, which can potentially inhibit the widespread use of such simulations. Virtualization provides a feasible solution because it allows the creation of virtual compute nodes in both local and remote compute clusters, thus providing an insulating layer which can play an important role in satisfying the security concerns of all parties involved. However, it has performance implications. This study provides quantitative estimates of the virtualization and hyper-threading overhead for GEANT on commodity clusters. Results show that virtualization has less than 15% run time overhead, and that the best run time (with the non-SMP licens...

  12. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  13. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2018-04-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  14. Flexible Mode Control of Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion System Using Wavelet

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Bhavna; Singh, Sameer; Jain, Shailendra; Nema, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Small wind turbine systems offer services to critical loads during grid faults and also connected back to grid in normal condition. The connection of a wind energy conversion system to the grid requires a robust phase locked loop (PLL) and continuous monitoring of the grid conditions such as overvoltage, undervoltage, overfrequency, underfrequency, and grid outages. This paper describes a flexible control operation to operate a small wind turbine in both stand-alone mode via planned islanding...

  15. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEM WITH GRID CONNECTED POWER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bharti; Dr. A.K.Sharma

    2017-01-01

    In this paper , we are analyzed about the solar power with grid connection using of various component such as PV Cells battery inverter, and grid power connection , in this way we are connected the grid power and solar power , after that finally we are analyzed the power quality of output with the help of various devices.

  17. Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Joeri; Spaargaren, Gert; Vliet, Bas J.M. van; Horst, Hilje M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Smart energy grids and smart meters are commonly expected to promote more sustainable ways of living. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysing the different ways in which smart grid developments shape – and are shaped by – the everyday lives of residents. Drawing upon theories of social practices and the concept of informational governance, the framework discerns three categories of ‘information flows’: flows between household-members, flows between households and energy service providers, and flows between local and distant households. Based on interviews with Dutch stakeholders and observations at workshops we examine, for all three information flows, the changes in domestic energy practices and the social relations they help to create. The analysis reveals that new information flows may not produce more sustainable practices in linear and predictable ways. Instead, changes are contextual and emergent. Second, new possibilities for information sharing between households open up a terrain for new practices. Third, information flows affect social relationships in ways as illustrated by the debates on consumer privacy in the Netherlands. An exclusive focus on privacy, however, deviates attention from opportunities for information disclosure by energy providers, and from the significance of transparency issues in redefining relationships both within and between households. - Highlights: • Smart grids generate three key new information flows that affect social relations. • Practice theory can reveal the ways in which households handle/govern information. • Householders show ambivalence about the workings of the different information flows. • Policies should account for the ‘bright’ as well as the ‘dark’ sides of information

  18. There is need in new generation smart grid for the space and ground energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to considerate the opportunities of synchronization of the space and ground systems that generate and transfer energy on the basis of new generation smart grid using. The authors substantiate the necessity of new intellectual monitoring services that assess the processes took place in "generation-transportation-distribution-consumption" space and ground systems. This is made in order to improve the dynamic indicators of the energy system and to avoid the emergencies. The authors also give a prognosis of the dynamic indicators of the electric power super-system in analyzing metastable conditions in different energy modes.

  19. National Assessment of Energy Storage for Grid Balancing and Arbitrage: Phase 1, WECC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Balducci, Patrick J.; Colella, Whitney G.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Nguyen, Tony B.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    To examine the role that energy storage could play in mitigating the impacts of the stochastic variability of wind generation on regional grid operation, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) examined a hypothetical 2020 grid scenario in which additional wind generation capacity is built to meet renewable portfolio standard targets in the Western Interconnection. PNNL developed a stochastic model for estimating the balancing requirements using historical wind statistics and forecasting error, a detailed engineering model to analyze the dispatch of energy storage and fast-ramping generation devices for estimating size requirements of energy storage and generation systems for meeting new balancing requirements, and financial models for estimating the life-cycle cost of storage and generation systems in addressing the future balancing requirements for sub-regions in the Western Interconnection. Evaluated technologies include combustion turbines, sodium sulfur (Na-S) batteries, lithium ion batteries, pumped-hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, redox flow batteries, and demand response. Distinct power and energy capacity requirements were estimated for each technology option, and battery size was optimized to minimize costs. Modeling results indicate that in a future power grid with high-penetration of renewables, the most cost competitive technologies for meeting balancing requirements include Na-S batteries and flywheels.

  20. Towards grid parity in insular energy systems: The case of photovoltaics (PV) in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokaides, Paris A.; Kylili, Angeliki

    2014-01-01

    Grid parity is defined as the threshold at which a grid-connected renewable energy sources (RES) system supplies electricity to the end user at the same price as grid-supplied electricity. Predictions from the 2006 time-frame expected retail grid parity for solar in the 2016 to 2020 era, but due to rapid downward pricing changes, more recent calculations have forced dramatic reductions in time scale, and the suggestion that solar has already reached grid parity in a wide variety of locations. This study presents aspects of achieving grid parity in insular energy systems, based on a case study applied in Cyprus. The analysis presents the variation of the manufacturing cost, the selling price of the produced energy, and the performance of the solar panels to examine the conditions of accomplishing grid parity event. It is also concluded that grid parity may be easier achieved in insular energy systems due to the higher cost of primary energy. - Highlights: • This study presents aspects of achieving grid parity in insular energy systems, based on a case study applied in Cyprus. • The impact of the manufacturing cost and the feed in tariff on accomplishing grid parity event is analysed. • A sensitivity analysis is conducted to define the parameters that strongly affect the goal of grid parity. • It is concluded that grid parity may be easier achieved in insular energy systems due to the higher cost of primary energy

  1. An energy management system for off-grid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazo, Daniel [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institute for Systems Theory and Automatic Control, Stuttgart (Germany); Dai, Ran; Mesbahi, Mehran [University of Washington, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Next generation power management at all scales will rely on the efficient scheduling and operation of both generating units and loads to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the demand levels of a subset of loads within a power system can lead to more efficient use of the generating units. These methods become increasingly important for systems that operate independently of the main utility, such as microgrid and off-grid systems. This work extends the principles of unit commitment and economic dispatch problems to off-grid power systems where the loads are also schedulable. We propose a general optimization framework for solving the energy management problem in these systems. An important contribution is the description of how a wide range of sources and loads, including those with discrete states, non-convex, and nonlinear cost or utility functions, can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem using, for example, a shortest path description. Once cast in this way, solution are obtainable using a sub-gradient algorithm that also lends itself to a distributed implementation. The methods are demonstrated by a simulation of an off-grid solar powered community. (orig.)

  2. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen, P; Ing, Wong Kiing; Danquah, Michael Kobina; Sidhu, Amandeep S; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid. (paper)

  3. Using Heat Pump Energy Storages in the Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2011-01-01

    The extensive growth of installed wind energy plants lead to increasing balancing problems in the power grid due to the nature of wind fields and diurnal variations in consumption. One way to overcome these problems is to move consumption to times where wind power otherwise cause overproduction...... and large fluctuations in prices. The paper presents a method which takes advantage of heat capacity in single-family houses using heat pumps which are anticipated to be installed in large numbers in Denmark in next decade. This type of heating gives a large time constant and it is shown possible to move...

  4. Mexico, the challenge of integrating renewable energy into the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Aranda, R.

    2016-01-01

    Mexico is the second largest market in Latin America’s renewable energy sector and the one that offers the highest growth potential. During a time of transition in which the rules of the market are being redefined and technical standards updated, applications for pre-feasibility studies up until 2018 have already exceeded 27,400 MW. For this trend to consolidate, a legal framework and robust technique is critical that satisfies the interests of both the public and the developers, without compromising electrical grid stability. (Author)

  5. Wind energy management for smart grids with storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, Manuel [Universidad de Alicante (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica; Rios, Alberto [Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica

    2012-07-01

    Increasing integration of wind energy into the power system makes the optimal management of different situations that can occur more and more important. The objective of the present study is to replace the power necessary for electrical feed when the wind resources are not available, and to make a continuous demand tracking of the power. The energy storage systems treated in this study are as follows: a fuel cell, flywheel, pump systems and turbine systems, compressed air systems, electrochemical cells, electric vehicles, supercapacitors and superconductors. As a result the maximum benefit of the smart grid is achieved and it includes coexistence of the energy storage systems described and integrated in the numerous microgrids which can form the distribution grid. The current capacity is observed in order to be able to manage the wind generation for short periods of time. This way it is possible to plan the production which would be adjusted to the variations through these storage systems allowing the systems to maintain their constant programming for the base plants, adjusting the variations in these systems in the short term. (orig.)

  6. Intelligent energy systems - Regulating the electricity grid using car batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the electricity supply industry will, in the future, be able to substantially rely on decentrally organised sources of renewable energy. As such forms of power generation are, in part, difficult to plan, the increasing importance of regulating energy is being stressed. The use of the batteries of plug-in hybrid vehicles to provide such regulating power is discussed. So-called smart grids within the framework of a deregulated energy market are discussed and examples of possible configurations are noted. The intelligent control of apparatus and generation and storage facilities is discussed. Individual mobility with lower emissions is examined. New business areas now opening up for the electricity economy and vehicle manufacturers are discussed.

  7. Research and development of fusion grid infrastructure based on atomic energy grid infrastructure (AEGIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Kushida, N.; Kino, C.; Aoyagi, T.; Nakajima, N.; Iba, K.; Hayashi, N.; Ozeki, T.; Totsuka, T.; Nakanishi, H.; Nagayama, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In collaboration with the Naka Fusion Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (NFI/JAEA) and the National Institute for Fusion Science of National Institute of Natural Science (NIFS/NINS), Center for Computational Science and E-systems of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (CCSE/JAEA) aims at establishing an integrated framework for experiments and analyses in nuclear fusion research based on the atomic energy grid infrastructure (AEGIS). AEGIS has been being developed by CCSE/JAEA aiming at providing the infrastructure that enables atomic energy researchers in remote locations to carry out R and D efficiently and collaboratively through the Internet. Toward establishing the integrated framework, we have been applying AEGIS to pre-existing three systems: experiment system, remote data acquisition system, and integrated analysis system. For the experiment system, the secure remote experiment system with JT-60 has been successfully accomplished. For the remote data acquisition system, it will be possible to equivalently operate experimental data obtained from LHD data acquisition and management system (LABCOM system) and JT-60 Data System. The integrated analysis system has been extended to the system executable in heterogeneous computers among institutes

  8. Usage statistics and usage patterns on the NorduGrid: Analyzing the logging information collected on one of the largest production Grids of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Kónya, B; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Hansen, J; Konstantinov, A; Nielsen, J; Ould-Saada, F; Smirnova, O; Wäänänen, A; Erkarslan, U; Pajchel, K

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic Grid facility (NorduGrid [1]) came into operation during summer 2002 when the Scandinavian ATLAS HEP group started to use the Grid for the ATLAS Data Challenges (DC) and was thus the first Grid ever contributing to an ATLAS production. Since then, the Grid facility has been in continuous 24/7 operation. NorduGrid is being used by a growing set of active users from various scientific areas including physics, chemistry, biology and informatics. It has given ma...

  9. Grid Integration Webinars | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Webinars Grid Integration Webinars Watch presentations from NREL analysts on various topics related to grid integration. Wind Curtailment and the Value of Transmission under a 2050 renewable curtailment under these high wind scenarios. Text Version Grid Integration Webinar: Exploring

  10. A Systems Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almajali, Anas; Rice, Eric; Viswanathan, Arun; Tan, Kymie; Neuman, Clifford

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systems analysis approach to characterizing the risk of a Smart Grid to a load-drop attack. A characterization of the risk is necessary for the design of detection and remediation strategies to address the consequences of such attacks. Using concepts from systems health management and system engineering, this work (a) first identifies metrics that can be used to generate constraints for security features, and (b) lays out an end-to-end integrated methodology using separate network and power simulations to assess system risk. We demonstrate our approach by performing a systems-style analysis of a load-drop attack implemented over the AMI subsystem and targeted at destabilizing the underlying power grid.

  11. Smart grids and energy storage. Germany is in a hurry; Smart grids en energieopslag. Duitsland heeft haast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilijamse, J.

    2012-09-15

    Smart grids and energy storage are needed to take care of overload of the grid as mainly wind turbines generate more electricity than is used, or too little. Germany is one of the first countries in the world that actually needs these technological solutions. The reason why is explained in this article [Dutch] Smart grids en energieopslag zijn nodig om overbelasting van het elektriciteitsnet op te vangen als voornamelijk windturbines meer elektriciteit opwekken dan er gebruikt wordt, of juist te weinig. Duitsland is 1 van de eerste landen ter wereld dat deze technologische oplossingen daadwerkelijk nodig heeft. De reden waarom wordt in dit artikel toegelicht.

  12. Renewable energy integration in smart grids-multicriteria assessment using the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    JANJIC, ALEKSANDAR; SAVIC, SUZANA; VELIMIROVIC, LAZAR; NIKOLIC, VESNA

    2015-01-01

    Unlike the traditional way of efficiency assessment of renewable energy sources integration, the smart grid concept is introducing new goals and objectives regarding increased use of renewable electricity sources, grid security, energy conservation, energy efficiency, and deregulated energy market. Possible benefits brought by renewable sources integration are evaluated by the degree of the approach to the ideal smart grid. In this paper, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process methodology for the...

  13. Efficient Double Auction Mechanisms in the Energy Grid with Connected and Islanded Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqiry, Mohammad Nazif

    The future energy grid is expected to operate in a decentralized fashion as a network of autonomous microgrids that are coordinated by a Distribution System Operator (DSO), which should allocate energy to them in an efficient manner. Each microgrid operating in either islanded or grid-connected mode may be considered to manage its own resources. This can take place through auctions with individual units of the microgrid as the agents. This research proposes efficient auction mechanisms for the energy grid, with is-landed and connected microgrids. The microgrid level auction is carried out by means of an intermediate agent called an aggregator. The individual consumer and producer units are modeled as selfish agents. With the microgrid in islanded mode, two aggregator-level auction classes are analyzed: (i) price-heterogeneous, and (ii) price homogeneous. Under the price heterogeneity paradigm, this research extends earlier work on the well-known, single-sided Kelly mechanism to double auctions. As in Kelly auctions, the proposed algorithm implements the bidding without using any agent level private infor-mation (i.e. generation capacity and utility functions). The proposed auction is shown to be an efficient mechanism that maximizes the social welfare, i.e. the sum of the utilities of all the agents. Furthermore, the research considers the situation where a subset of agents act as a coalition to redistribute the allocated energy and price using any other specific fairness criterion. The price homogeneous double auction algorithm proposed in this research ad-dresses the problem of price-anticipation, where each agent tries to influence the equilibri-um price of energy by placing strategic bids. As a result of this behavior, the auction's efficiency is lowered. This research proposes a novel approach that is implemented by the aggregator, called virtual bidding, where the efficiency can be asymptotically maximized, even in the presence of price anticipatory bidders

  14. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  15. Using a Virtual Experiment to Analyze Infiltration Process from Point to Grid-cell Size Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrological science requires the emergence of a consistent theoretical corpus driving the relationships between dominant physical processes at different spatial and temporal scales. However, the strong spatial heterogeneities and non-linearities of these processes make difficult the development of multiscale conceptualizations. Therefore, scaling understanding is a key issue to advance this science. This work is focused on the use of virtual experiments to address the scaling of vertical infiltration from a physically based model at point scale to a simplified physically meaningful modeling approach at grid-cell scale. Numerical simulations have the advantage of deal with a wide range of boundary and initial conditions against field experimentation. The aim of the work was to show the utility of numerical simulations to discover relationships between the hydrological parameters at both scales, and to use this synthetic experience as a media to teach the complex nature of this hydrological process. The Green-Ampt model was used to represent vertical infiltration at point scale; and a conceptual storage model was employed to simulate the infiltration process at the grid-cell scale. Lognormal and beta probability distribution functions were assumed to represent the heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters at point scale. The linkages between point scale parameters and the grid-cell scale parameters were established by inverse simulations based on the mass balance equation and the averaging of the flow at the point scale. Results have shown numerical stability issues for particular conditions and have revealed the complex nature of the non-linear relationships between models' parameters at both scales and indicate that the parameterization of point scale processes at the coarser scale is governed by the amplification of non-linear effects. The findings of these simulations have been used by the students to identify potential research questions on scale issues

  16. Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane; Dudin, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV

  17. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  18. Analyzing the uncertainty of ensemble-based gridded observations in land surface simulations and drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling is one of the primary tools utilized for drought monitoring and drought early warning systems. Several sources of uncertainty in hydrologic modeling have been addressed in the literature. However, few studies have assessed the uncertainty of gridded observation datasets from a drought monitoring perspective. This study provides a hydrologic modeling oriented analysis of the gridded observation data uncertainties over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and its implications on drought assessment. We utilized a recently developed 100-member ensemble-based observed forcing data to simulate hydrologic fluxes at 1/8° spatial resolution using Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and compared the results with a deterministic observation. Meteorological and hydrological droughts are studied at multiple timescales over the basin, and seasonal long-term trends and variations of drought extent is investigated for each case. Results reveal large uncertainty of observed datasets at monthly timescale, with systematic differences for temperature records, mainly due to different lapse rates. The uncertainty eventuates in large disparities of drought characteristics. In general, an increasing trend is found for winter drought extent across the PNW. Furthermore, a ∼3% decrease per decade is detected for snow water equivalent (SWE) over the PNW, with the region being more susceptible to SWE variations of the northern Rockies than the western Cascades. The agricultural areas of southern Idaho demonstrate decreasing trend of natural soil moisture as a result of precipitation decline, which implies higher appeal for anthropogenic water storage and irrigation systems.

  19. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.C.; Fan, C.Y.; Hsieh, K.C.; McCullen, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  20. Coherent error study in a retarding field energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.; Zou, Y.; Reiser, M.; Kishek, R.A.; Haber, I.; Bernal, S.; O'Shea, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    A novel cylindrical retarding electrostatic field energy analyzer for low-energy beams has been designed, simulated, and tested with electron beams of several keV, in which space charge effects play an important role. A cylindrical focusing electrode is used to overcome the beam expansion inside the device due to space-charge forces, beam emittance, etc. In this paper, we present the coherent error analysis for this energy analyzer with beam envelope equation including space charge and emittance effects. The study shows that this energy analyzer can achieve very high resolution (with relative error of around 10 -5 ) if taking away the coherent errors by using proper focusing voltages. The theoretical analysis is compared with experimental results

  1. Towards Efficient Energy Management: Defining HEMS, AMI and Smart Grid Objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    electricity in the grid will also help to reduce the increase of energy consumption in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in home environments, researches have been designing Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). In addition, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and smart grids are also...... being developed to distribute and produce electricity efficiently. This paper presents the high level goals and requirements of HEMS. Additionally, it gives an overview of Advanced Metering Infrastructure benefits and smart grids objectives....

  2. Methodology to determine the technical performance and value proposition for grid-scale energy storage systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Loose, Verne William; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.

    2012-12-01

    As the amount of renewable generation increases, the inherent variability of wind and photovoltaic systems must be addressed in order to ensure the continued safe and reliable operation of the nation's electricity grid. Grid-scale energy storage systems are uniquely suited to address the variability of renewable generation and to provide other valuable grid services. The goal of this report is to quantify the technical performance required to provide di erent grid bene ts and to specify the proper techniques for estimating the value of grid-scale energy storage systems.

  3. Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility | NREL Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration Renewable Electricity-to-Grid Integration NREL works with industry partners to optimize strategies for effectively interconnecting renewable renewable electric grid integration work includes research and development (R&D) on advanced inverters

  4. Vehicle-to-Grid Integration | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicle-to-Grid Integration Vehicle-to-Grid Integration NREL's research stands at the forefront of vehicle charging station Our work focuses on building the infrastructure and integration needed for benefit each other. Electric Vehicles NREL's research on electric vehicle (EV) grid integration examines

  5. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  6. Improving Energy Use Forecast for Campus Micro-grids using Indirect Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Simmhan, Yogesh [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2011-12-11

    The rising global demand for energy is best addressed by adopting and promoting sustainable methods of power consumption. We employ an informatics approach towards forecasting the energy consumption patterns in a university campus micro-grid which can be used for energy use planning and conservation. We use novel indirect indicators of energy that are commonly available to train regression tree models that can predict campus and building energy use for coarse (daily) and fine (15-min) time intervals, utilizing 3 years of sensor data collected at 15min intervals from 170 smart power meters. We analyze the impact of individual features used in the models to identify the ones best suited for the application. Our models show a high degree of accuracy with CV-RMSE errors ranging from 7.45% to 19.32%, and a reduction in error from baseline models by up to 53%.

  7. Role of proactive behaviour enabled by advanced computational intelligence and ICT in Smart Energy Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Croes, R.

    2013-01-01

    Significant increase in renewable energy production and new forms of consumption has enormous impact to the electrical power grid operation. A Smart Energy Grid (SEG) is needed to overcome the challenge of a sustainable and reliable energy supply by merging advanced ICT and control techniques to

  8. Applications of Electronstatic Lenses to Electron Gun and Energy Analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.

    2004-01-01

    Focal properties and geometries are given for several types of electrostatic lens systems commonly needed in electron impact studies. One type is an electron gun which focuses electrons over a wide range of energy onto a fixed point, such as target, and the other type is an analyzer system which focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position, such as the entrance plane of an analyzer. There are many different types and geometries of these lenses for controlling and focusing of the electron beams. In this presentation we discussed the criteria used for the design of the electrostatic lenses associated with the electron gun and energy analyzers and determined the fundamental relationships between the operation and behaviour of multi-element electrostatic lenses, containing five, six and seven elements. The focusing of the electron beam was achieved by applying suitable voltages to the series of these lens elements, Design of the lens system for electron gun was based on our requirements that the beam at the target had a small spot size and zero beam angle, that is, afocal mode. For energy analyzer systems we considered the entrance of the hemispherical analyzer which determines the energy of the electron beam and discussed the focusing condition of this lens systems

  9. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  10. Experimental analysis of a new retarding field energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu-Xiang [Shanghai Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, No. 3888, Yuanjiang Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 201109 (China); Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, North 4th Ring Road West, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Shu-Qing; Li, Xian-Xia; Shen, Hong-Li; Huang, Ming-Guang [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, North 4th Ring Road West, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Pu-Kun, E-mail: pkliu@pku.edu.cn [School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, No. 5, Yiheyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, a new compact retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) is designed for diagnosing electron beams of a K-band space travelling-wave tube (TWT). This analyzer has an aperture plate to sample electron beams and a cylindrical electrode to overcome the defocusing effects. The front end of the analyzer constructed as a multistage depression collector (MDC) structure is intended to shape the field to prevent electrons from being accelerated to escape. The direct-current (DC) beams of the K-band space TWTs with the removing MDC can be investigated on the beam measurement system. The current density distribution of DC beams is determined by the analyzer, while the anode voltage and helix voltage of the TWTs are 7000 V and 6850 V, respectively. The current curve’s slope effect due to the reflection of secondary electrons on the copper collector of the analyzer is discussed. The experimental analysis shows this RFEA has a good energy resolution to satisfy the requirement of beam measurement. - Highlights: • A new retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) is designed to diagnose the electron beam of a K-band space TWT. • The current density distribution of direct-current beam is determined. • The reflection effect of secondary electrons on the copper collector of the analyzer is discussed.

  11. np elastic scattering analyzing power characteristics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Davis, C.A.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Green, P.W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Healey, D.C.; Miller, C.A.; Rodning, N.L.; Wait, G.D.; Ahmad, M.; Cairns, E.B.; Coombes, G.H.; Lapointe, C.; McDonald, W.J.; Moss, G.A.; Roy, G.; Soukup, J.; Tkachuk, R.R.; Ye, Y.; Watson, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    Recent measurements of charge symmetry breaking in the np system at 477 MeV, and of A oonn for np elastic scattering at 220, 325 and 425 MeV also yield accurate analyzing power data. These data allow the energy dependence of the analyzing power zero-crossing angle and the slope of the analyzing power at the zero-crossing to be determined. The incident neutron energies span a region where the zero-crossing angle is strongly energy dependent (Ε n n > 350 MeV). The results are compared to current phase shift analysis predictions, recently published LAMPF data, and the predictions of the Bonn and Paris potentials. (Author) 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Balancing collective and individual interests in transactive energy management of interconnected micro-grid clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yang; Hu, Mengqi

    2016-01-01

    The emerging technology, transactive energy network, can allow multiple interconnected micro-grids (a.k.a. micro-grid clusters) to exchange energy for greater energy efficiency. Existing research has demonstrated that the micro-grid clusters can achieve some collective interests (e.g., minimizing total energy cost). However, some micro-grids may have to make sacrifices of their individual interests (e.g., increasing cost) for collective interests of the clusters. To bridge these research gaps, we propose four different transactive energy management models for micro-grid clusters where each micro-grid is allowed to have energy transactions with others. The first model focuses on maximizing collective interests, both the collective and individual interests are considered in the second model, and the last two models aim to maximize both the collective and individual interests. The performances of the proposed models are evaluated using a cluster of sixteen micro-grids with different energy profiles. It is demonstrated that 1) all of the four models can maximize the collective interests, 2) the third model can maximize the relative individual interests where each micro-grid can achieve the same percentage of cost savings as the clusters, and 3) the fourth model can maximize the absolute individual interests where each micro-grid can achieve the same amount of cost savings. - Highlights: • A modeling framework is developed for transactive energy management of the micro-grid clusters. • Four operation decision models are developed to balance the collective and individual interests. • The prices of local energy transaction are modeled. • The micro-grid clusters can achieve 15.34% energy cost savings.

  13. Study on Differentiation Management of Grid Energy Metering Device under High Permeability by Distributed Energy and Smart Grid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyuan; Huang, Rui; Yang, Maotao; Chen, Hao

    2017-12-01

    At present, the electric energy metering device is classified according to the amount of electric energy and the degree of importance of the measurement object. The measuring device is also selected according to the characteristics of the traditional metering object.With the continuous development of smart grid, the diversification of measurement objects increasingly appear, the traditional measurement object classification has been unable to meet the new measurement object of personalized, differentiated needs.Withal, this paper constructs the subdivision model based on the object feature-system evaluation, classifies according to the characteristics of the measurement object, and carries on the empirical analysis with some kind of measurement object as the research object.The results show that the model works well and can be used to subdivide the metrological objects into different customer groups, which can be reasonably configured and managed for the metering devices. The research of this paper has effectively improved the economy and rationality of the energy metering device management, and improved the working efficiency.

  14. Free neutron-proton analyzing power at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, increasing efforts have been made to measure the nucleon-nucleon polarization parameters. To date, no free neutron-proton spin correlated parameters have been published in the energy range 500 to 800 MeV. Existing analyzing power data is of low precision and in most cases was obtained by quasi-free proton scattering. As a first step in determining the neutron-proton scattering matrix, the free neutron-proton analyzing power has been measured at the Los Alamos Physics Facility as a function of energy and angle. The experiment was performed by scattering a neutron beam from a polarized proton target. The neutron beam was generated by scattering 800 MeV protons from a Beryllium target and using the neutrons produced at 0 degrees. The incident energy ranged from 300 MeV to 800 MeV. The energy spread of the neutron beam made it possible to measure the analyzing power at different energies simultaneously. Angular distributions were taken from 60 to 170 degrees in the center of mass system (c.m.)

  15. Design and Implementation of the Battery Energy Storage System in DC Micro-Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chih Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the battery energy storage system in DC micro-grid systems is demonstrated in this paper. The battery energy storage system (BESS is an important part of a DC micro-grid because renewable energy generation sources are fluctuating. The BESS can provide energy while the renewable energy is absent in the DC micro-grid. The circuit topology of the proposed BESS will be introduced. The design of the voltage controller and the current controller for the battery charger/discharger are also illustrated. Finally, experimental results are provided to validate the performance of the BESS.

  16. Energy dissipation on ion-accelerator grids during high-voltage breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Ponte, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of stored energy in the system capacitance across the accelerator grids during high voltage vacuum breakdown are examined. Measurements were made of the current flow and the energy deposition on the grids during breakdown. It is shown that only a portion (less than or equal to 40 J) of the total stored energy (congruent to 100 J) is actually dissipated on the grids. Most of the energy is released during the formation phase of the vacuum arc and is deposited primarily on the most positive grid. Certain abnormal situations led to energy depositions of about 200 J on the grid, but the ion accelerator endured them without exhibiting any deterioration in performance

  17. Feasibility Study of Grid Connected PV-Biomass Integrated Energy System in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Shimaa; Samy, M. M.; Eteiba, Magdy B.; Wahba, Wael Ismael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) and biomass Integrated renewable energy (IRE) system providing electricity to rural areas in the Beni Suef governorate, Egypt. The system load of the village is analyzed through the environmental and economic aspects. The model has been designed to provide an optimal system configuration based on daily data for energy availability and demands. A case study area, Monshaet Taher village (29° 1' 17.0718"N, 30° 52' 17.04"E) is identified for economic feasibility in this paper. HOMER optimization model plan imputed from total daily load demand, 2,340 kWh/day for current energy consuming of 223 households with Annual Average Insolation Incident on a Horizontal Surface of 5.79 (kWh/m2/day) and average biomass supplying 25 tons / day. It is found that a grid connected PV-biomass IRE system is an effective way of emissions reduction and it does not increase the investment of the energy system.

  18. Managing high penetration of renewable energy in MV grid by electric vehicle storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for dealing with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the medium voltage by intelligently managing electric vehicles (EVs), as one of the grid flexible loads. The MV grid used in this work is a CIGRE benchmark grid. Different...... residential and industrial loads are considered in this grid. The connection of medium voltage wind turbines to the grid is investigated. The solar panels in this study are residential panels. Also, EVs are located among the buses with residential demand. The study is done for different winter and summer...... scenarios, considering typical load profiles in Denmark. Different scenarios have been studied with different penetration level of RESs in the grid. The results show the capability of the proposed algorithm to reduce voltage deviations among the grid buses, as well as to increase the RES penetration...

  19. Effects of intense ultraviolet radiation on electrostatic energy analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, J.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.; Hallock, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ultraviolet radiation from the plasma poses a significant problem for the implementation of heavy ion beam probe diagnostic systems on fusion-oriented confinement devices. The radiation enters the electrostatic energy analyzer used to detect secondary ions, resulting in both a distortion of the electric field inside the analyzer and noise generation in the detector channels. Data acquisition procedures and mechanical design techniques have been developed to significantly reduce these effects. We have also been successful in modelling the electric field distortion and have developed a data correction procedure based on this model. Methods for approaching the problems anticipated in future devices are also suggested

  20. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  1. Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid or the future of power industry; Smart Energy 2011. Smart Grid oder die Zukunft der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for smart grids, energy information networks, smart metering, new tariffs offering incentives for load shifting to household customers and load reduction options to energy providers are discussed increasingly. The privacy protection of customers being threatened by detailed consumption profiles also needs attention. Practitioners and researches from enterprises and research institutions present results from their field of work in nine papers. This book mainly focusses on three topics: 'Energy 2020', 'Data protection and data security within smart grids' and 'Smart grid and energy information networks'. On the one hand this volume addresses researchers and practitioners from enterprises and research institutions, on the other hand teachers and students dealing with questions concerning the energy market of the future. (orig.)

  2. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  3. Smart Grid Communications Security Project, U.S. Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Frank [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    There were four groups that worked on this project in different areas related to Smart Girds and Security. They included faculty and students from electric computer and energy engineering, law, business and sociology. The results of the work are summarized in a verity of reports, papers and thesis. A major report to the Governor of Colorado’s energy office with contributions from all the groups working on this project is given bellow. Smart Grid Deployment in Colorado: Challenges and Opportunities, Report to Colorado Governor’s Energy Office and Colorado Smart Grid Task Force(2010) (Kevin Doran, Frank Barnes, and Puneet Pasrich, eds.) This report includes information on the state of the grid cyber security, privacy, energy storage and grid stability, workforce development, consumer behavior with respect to the smart grid and safety issues.

  4. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devices in the grid to achieve a more desirable aggregate demand profile that meets a particular target of the grid operator such as energy generation cost minimization and carbon emission reduction. Such a pricing scheme can potentially be applied to control the behavior of energy storage devices installed for integration of intermittent renewable energy sources that have permission to grid connection and will have broader applications as an increasing number of novel and low-cost energy storage technologies emerge.

  5. Role of Smart Grids in Integrating Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaffer, W. [Salzburg AG (Austria); Gueran, L. [Fichtner IT Consulting AG, Stutgartt (Germany); Reuter, A. [Fichtner IT Consulting AG, Stutgartt (Germany); Jang, B. [Korea Smart Grid Inst., Seoul (Korea); Widegren, K. [Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)

    2015-05-27

    This report was prepared for the International Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), which periodically publishes briefs and discussion papers on key topics of smart grid development globally. The topic of this report was selected by a multilateral group of national experts participating in ISGAN Annex 4, a working group that aims to produce synthesis insights for decision makers. This report is an update of a 2012 ISGAN Annex 4 report entitled “Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration.” That report and other past publications of ISGAN Annexes can be found at www.iea-isgan.org and at www.cleanenergysolutions.org.

  6. Flexible Mode Control of Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion System Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small wind turbine systems offer services to critical loads during grid faults and also connected back to grid in normal condition. The connection of a wind energy conversion system to the grid requires a robust phase locked loop (PLL and continuous monitoring of the grid conditions such as overvoltage, undervoltage, overfrequency, underfrequency, and grid outages. This paper describes a flexible control operation to operate a small wind turbine in both stand-alone mode via planned islanding and grid connected mode as well. In particular, a proper monitoring and control algorithm is required for transition between the modes. A wavelet based energy function is used for detection of grid disturbances as well as recovery of grid so that transition between the modes is made. To obtain good power quality LCL filter is used to reduce ripples. PLL is used for synchronization whenever mode changes from stand-alone to grid connected. Simulation results from a 10 kW wind energy conversion system are included to show the usefulness of the proposed methods. The control method is tested by generated gate pulses for single phase bridge inverter using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  7. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS): adding functionality while maintaining reliability and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Ward

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the activities and progress made during the US DOE Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) solicitation, while maintaining reliability and economics is provided. The SEGIS R&D opened pathways for interconnecting PV systems to intelligent utility grids and micro-grids of the future. In addition to new capabilities are "value added" features. The new hardware designs resulted in smaller, less material-intensive products that are being viewed by utilities as enabling dispatchable generation and not just unpredictable negative loads. The technical solutions enable "advanced integrated system" concepts and "smart grid" processes to move forward in a faster and focused manner. The advanced integrated inverters/controllers can now incorporate energy management functionality, intelligent electrical grid support features and a multiplicity of communication technologies. Portals for energy flow and two-way communications have been implemented. SEGIS hardware was developed for the utility grid of today, which was designed for one-way power flow, for intermediate grid scenarios, AND for the grid of tomorrow, which will seamlessly accommodate managed two-way power flows as required by large-scale deployment of solar and other distributed generation. The SEGIS hardware and control developed for today meets existing standards and codes AND provides for future connections to a "smart grid" mode that enables utility control and optimized performance.

  8. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity networ...

  9. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N. A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA weather station. For load profile, the information about fishing activities and the amount of subsidy spent by the government were obtained from the interview session with the fishermen and validated with Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM. The results acquired are compared between grid-only and grid-connected RE systems in term of net present cost (NPC, operational cost and payback period. A sensitivity analysis is done to find the minimal Feed-in Tariff (FiT rate that can be implemented in order to encourage the use of RE system in this sector. Then, the relationship between FiT and NPC, payback period and emission of pollutants are analyzed. At current FiT rates RM 0.813/kWh, hybrid grid-PV system manages to achieve its optimal in generating high income from selling the power to the grid with convincing amount of electricity production and short payback period. It is concluded at minimum RM 0.56/kWh of FiT, the grid-connected RE system is possible to be developed because its performance shows better outcome compared to the grid-only system.

  10. Expert energy management of a micro-grid considering wind energy uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motevasel, Mehdi; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper an expert energy management system (EEMS) is presented. • A power forecasting module for wind generation capacity is presented. • The objective functions that must be minimized are operating cost and net emission. • A smart energy storage system (EES) for electrochemical batteries is presented. • A new modified Bacterial Foraging Optimization (MBFO) algorithm is presented. - Abstract: Recently, the use of wind generation has rapidly increased in micro-grids. Due to the fluctuation of wind power, it is difficult to schedule wind turbines (WTs) with other distributed energy resources (DERs). In this paper, we propose an expert energy management system (EEMS) for optimal operation of WTs and other DERs in an interconnected micro-grid. The main purpose of the proposed EEMS is to find the optimal set points of DERs and storage devices, in such a way that the total operation cost and the net emission are simultaneously minimized. The EEMS consists of wind power forecasting module, smart energy storage system (ESS) module and optimization module. For optimal scheduling of WTs, the power forecasting module determines the possible available capacity of wind generation in the micro-grid. To do this, first, an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to forecast wind speed. Then, the obtaining results are used considering forecasting uncertainty by the probabilistic concept of confidence interval. To reduce the fluctuations of wind power generation and improve the micro-grid performances, a smart energy storage system (ESS) module is used. For optimal management of the ESS, the comprehensive mathematical model with practical constraints is extracted. Finally, an efficient modified Bacterial Foraging Optimization (MBFO) module is proposed to solve the multi-objective problem. An interactive fuzzy satisfying method is also used to simulate the trade-off between the conflicting objectives (cost and emission). To evaluate the proposed

  11. The study on the control strategy of micro grid considering the economy of energy storage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Yiqun; Wang, Xin; Li, Bei; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-01

    To optimize the running of micro grid to guarantee the supply and demand balance of electricity, and to promote the utilization of renewable energy. The control strategy of micro grid energy storage system is studied. Firstly, the mixed integer linear programming model is established based on the receding horizon control. Secondly, the modified cuckoo search algorithm is proposed to calculate the model. Finally, a case study is carried out to study the signal characteristic of micro grid and batteries under the optimal control strategy, and the convergence of the modified cuckoo search algorithm is compared with others to verify the validity of the proposed model and method. The results show that, different micro grid running targets can affect the control strategy of energy storage system, which further affect the signal characteristics of the micro grid. Meanwhile, the convergent speed, computing time and the economy of the modified cuckoo search algorithm are improved compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  12. Power transformations improve interpolation of grids for molecular mechanics interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, David D L

    2018-02-18

    A common strategy for speeding up molecular docking calculations is to precompute nonbonded interaction energies between a receptor molecule and a set of three-dimensional grids. The grids are then interpolated to compute energies for ligand atoms in many different binding poses. Here, I evaluate a smoothing strategy of taking a power transformation of grid point energies and inverse transformation of the result from trilinear interpolation. For molecular docking poses from 85 protein-ligand complexes, this smoothing procedure leads to significant accuracy improvements, including an approximately twofold reduction in the root mean square error at a grid spacing of 0.4 Å and retaining the ability to rank docking poses even at a grid spacing of 0.7 Å. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Review of FACTS technologies and applications for power quality in smart grids with renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandoman, Foad H.; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Sharaf, Adel M.

    2018-01-01

    In the last two decades, emerging use of renewable and distributed energy sources in electricity grid has created new challenges for the utility regarding the power quality, voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. Power electronic converters are extensively utilized to interface...... the power quality. Also, distributed FACTSs play an important role in improving the power factor, energy utilization, enhancing the power quality, and ensuring efficient energy utilization and energy management in smart grids with renewable energy sources. This paper presents a literature survey of FACTS...... technology tools and applications for power quality and efficient renewable energy system utilization....

  14. Solar energy grid integration systems : final report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropp, Michael (Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schaffer, Alan (Lakeland Electric Utilities, Lakeland, FL); Katz, Stanley (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Perkinson, Jim (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Bower, Ward Isaac; Prestero, Mark (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Casey, Leo (Satcon Technology Corporation, Boston, MA); Moaveni, Houtan (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Click, David (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Davis, Kristopher (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Reedy, Robert (Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL); Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the program have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding utility-scale penetration and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories have successfully collaborated to complete the work under the third and final stage of the SEGIS initiative. The SEGIS program was a three-year, three-stage project that include conceptual design and market analysis in Stage 1, prototype development and testing in Stage 2, and moving toward commercialization in Stage 3. Under this program, the FSEC SEGIS team developed a comprehensive vision that has guided technology development that sets one methodology for merging photovoltaic (PV) and smart-grid technologies. The FSEC team's objective in the SEGIS project is to remove barriers to large-scale general integration of PV and to enhance the value proposition of photovoltaic energy by enabling PV to act as much as possible as if it were at the very least equivalent to a conventional utility power plant. It was immediately apparent that the advanced power electronics of these advanced inverters will go far beyond conventional power plants, making high penetrations of PV not just acceptable, but desirable. This report summarizes a three-year effort to develop, validate and commercialize Grid-Smart Inverters for wider photovoltaic utilization, particularly in the utility sector.

  15. Optimal Utilization of Microgrids Supplemented with Battery Energy Storage Systems in Grid Support Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a control scheme which minimizes the operating cost of a grid connected micro-grid supplemented by battery energy storage system (BESS). What distinguishes approach presented here from conventional strategies is that not only the price of electricity is considered...

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency of Micro-Networks Connected to a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological development of distribution and transmission grids and building a so called smart grid also enable improving the efficiency of microgrids and microgenerators. Better coordination and scheduling of microgenerators operation make more effective adjustment to local conditions and achieving better overall energy efficiency possible. Due to smart communication interfaces the microgrids and microgenerators can also contribute to ancillary services.

  17. A Thermal grid coordinated by a Multi Agent Energy Management System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kamphuis, V.; Togt, A. van der; Werkman, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the near future an increase of both thermal grids and sustainable suppliers of heat with intermittency behavior, connected to these heat grids, is expected. For smart operation this challenges the current centralized management systems. To deal with this and to optimize cost and energy efficiency

  18. Sensitivity of the dispatch strategy in designing grid integrated hybrid energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Amarasinghage Tharindu Dasun; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Nik, Vahid M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy technologies based on solar PV (SPV) and wind energy in the energy system is challenging due to time dependence of the energy potential for these energy sources. Grid integrated hybrid energy systems combining SPV panels, wind turbines, battery bank and internal combustion generators (ICG) can be used in this regard specially for distributed generation. Energy-economic dispatch strategy plays a vital role in managing the energy flow of the system. However, it is d...

  19. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  20. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  1. Smart market. From smart grid to the intelligent energy market; Smart Market. Vom Smart Grid zum intelligenten Energiemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichele, Christian [Hochschule Kaiserslautern, Zweibruecken (Germany). Fachbereich Betriebswirtschaft; Doleski, Oliver D. (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    Dare more market. - The design of this postulate provides an important contribution to the success of the German energy transition. The Bundesnetzagentur has shown with its highly regarded benchmark paper on smart grids and markets leads the way towards more market in the energy sector. The therein required differentiation in a network and market sphere contributes to greater transparency on the consumer side and enables a gid releaving shift in energy consumption. The book focuses on actors and roles in the modified market circumstances as well as components and products of a future Smart Markets. Finally, to the reader concrete business models are offered. Authors from science and practice give in this book answers on how the interaction of Smart Grid and Smart Market works. [German] Mehr Markt wagen. - Die Ausgestaltung dieses Postulats liefert einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Gelingen der deutschen Energiewende. Die Bundesnetzagentur hat mit ihrem vielbeachteten Eckpunktepapier zu intelligenten Netzen und Maerkten diesen Weg in Richtung mehr Markt in der Energiewirtschaft gewiesen. Die darin geforderte Differenzierung in eine Netz- und Marktsphaere traegt zu mehr Transparenz auf der Verbraucherseite bei und ermoeglicht eine netzentlastende Verlagerung des Energieverbrauchs. Das Buch beleuchtet Akteure und Rollen im geaenderten Marktumfeld ebenso wie Komponenten und Produkte eines zukuenftigen Smart Markets. Schliesslich werden dem Leser konkrete Geschaeftsmodelle angeboten. Autoren aus Wissenschaft und Praxis geben in diesem Buch Antworten darauf, wie das Zusammenspiel von Smart Grid und Smart Market funktioniert.

  2. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  3. Architecture of a micro grid energy manager; Arquitectura de un gestor energetico de microrredes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno-Huarte, J.; Anduaga-Muniozgueren, J.; Oyarzabal-Moreno, J.

    2009-07-01

    Micro grids are defined as a set of aggregated micro generators and loads operating like a unique system. Micro grids need energy management systems in order to coordinate the actions of the elements that compose them. This way, Micro grids provide useful services to connected users as well as to the electrical system. This paper presents the architecture of a Micro grid energy Manager applying multi agent based technologies and communication standards. an application of this architecture to the secondary regulation function has been performed using TECNALIA's Micro grid as validation platform. The implementation of the secondary regulation takes into account economical criteria while the technical restrictions of the controlled equipment are fulfilled. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Design of Energy Storage Management System Based on FPGA in Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafeng; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dexiao

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage system is the core to maintain the stable operation of smart micro-grid. Aiming at the existing problems of the energy storage management system in the micro-grid such as Low fault tolerance, easy to cause fluctuations in micro-grid, a new intelligent battery management system based on field programmable gate array is proposed : taking advantage of FPGA to combine the battery management system with the intelligent micro-grid control strategy. Finally, aiming at the problem that during estimation of battery charge State by neural network, initialization of weights and thresholds are not accurate leading to large errors in prediction results, the genetic algorithm is proposed to optimize the neural network method, and the experimental simulation is carried out. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high precision and provides guarantee for the stable operation of micro-grid.

  5. Indonesia - Green Prosperity: Community-Based Off-Grid Renewable Energy Grant Portfolio

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Taken as a whole, this evaluation aims, to the extent possible, to validate the program logic underlying the portfolio of community-based off-grid renewable energy...

  6. GRID[subscript C] Renewable Energy Data Streaming into Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, V. William; Carpenter, Pam; Lari, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    For years, researchers have shown the value of using real-world data to enhance instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies. In an effort to help develop students' higher-order thinking skills in a data-rich learning environment, Green Research for Incorporating Data in the Classroom (GRID[subscript C]), a National Science…

  7. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This fact sheet overviews the Greening the Grid India grid integration study. The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Thanks to advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration.

  8. Optimal sizing and control strategy of isolated grid with wind power and energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yi; Shi, Lin; Tu, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy storage sizing scheme for wind powered isolated grid is developed. • A bi-level control strategy for wind-battery isolated grid is proposed. • The energy storage type selection method for Nan’ao island grid is presented. • The sizing method and the control strategy are verified based on the Nan’ao island. • The wind-battery demonstration system has great benefit for remote areas. - Abstract: Integrating renewable energy and energy storage system provides a prospective way for power supply of remote areas. Focused on the isolated grids comprising renewable energy generation and energy storage, an energy storage sizing method for taking account of the reliability requirement and a bi-level control strategy of the isolated grids are presented in this paper. Based on comparative analysis of current energy storage characteristics and practicability, Sodium–sulfur battery is recommended for power balance control in the isolated grids. The optimal size of the energy storage system is determined by genetic algorithm and sequential simulation. The annualized cost considering the compensation cost of curtailed wind power and load is minimized when the reliability requirement can be satisfied. The sizing method emphasizes the tradeoff between energy storage size and reliability of power supply. The bi-level control strategy is designed as upper level wide area power balance control in dispatch timescale and lower level battery energy storage system V/f control in real-time range for isolated operation. The mixed timescale simulation results of Nan’ao Island grid verify the effectiveness of the proposed sizing method and control strategy

  9. Integration of renew able energy sources in smart grid: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Nawaz, K.; Naqvi, S.A.R.; Malik, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the existing power grid due to rapid population growth, development in technology, infrastructure and computational tools are the factors that contribute to the need of deployment of smart grid for secure and efficient use of electrical energy. The modernization of electric grids toward a smart grid is being carried out to improve reliability, facilitate integration of renewable energies, and improve power consumption management. Due to continuous depletion of primary fuel resources and global concern about the environmental pollution, the development of smart grids based on renewable energy resources has gained huge strategic significance now a days to resolve the energy crisis. However the intermittent and fluctuating nature of these sources makes the integration a difficult task that needs to be effectively addressed. Firstly this paper briefly discuss the emerging renewable energy resources (RERs) and Energy storage systems (EES). Secondly this work comprehensively reviews the potential challenges in integration of these sources in smart grid along with the applied control strategies for their facilitation and some practical case studies. (author)

  10. Energy analyzer for Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, S.S.; Gorelik, V.A.; Gutenko, V.T.; Protopopov, O.D.; Trubitsin, A.A.; Shuvalova, Z.A.; Yakushev, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Energy analyzer for electron Auger spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy is described. Analyzer presents one-cascade variant of cylindrical mirror with second-order focusing. Energy relative resolution is continuously adjusted within 0.2-1.2% limits. Signal/noise relation by Cu Auger-line at 1 muA current of exciting beam changes upper limit of range 150-450

  11. Croatia's rural areas - renewable energy based electricity generation for isolated grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protic Sonja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Western Balkan states face the consequences of the Yugoslavian war, which left hometowns with dilapidated electricity grid connections, a high average age of power plant capacities and low integration of renewable energy sources, grid bottlenecks and a lack of competition. In order to supply all households with electricity, UNDP Croatia did a research on decentralized supply systems based on renewable energy sources. Decentralized supply systems offer cheaper electricity connections and provide faster support to rural development. This paper proposes a developed methodology to financially compare isolated grid solutions that primarily use renewable energies to an extension of the public electricity network to small regions in Croatia. Isolated grid supply proves to be very often a preferable option. Furthermore, it points out the lack of a reliable evaluation of non-monetizable aspects and promotes a new interdisciplinary approach.

  12. No energy transition without a change of paradigm for electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors first indicate the three main levels of the French electric grid operation (a national transmission grid, regional distribution grids, and distribution to the final user) with their radial or tree-like structure. They briefly analyse the characteristics and impact of the integration of renewable energies: low power installations, wind and solar farms, strengths (close to consumption locations, reduction of grid losses, free primary energy) and raised problems (sizing of distribution networks, intermittency, and influence on conventional production planning). They discuss the implementation of new tools and devices such as the smart meter which can transmit various technical data, or a local steering of distribution networks. Renewable energies could then become a regulating element when they have been considered until now as a disturbing element. The authors finally evoke solutions aimed at reducing the use of peak means: a smoothed consumption, and the use of other production sources

  13. A software application for energy flow simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ayman A.; Alsaad, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer software application was developed to simulate hourly energy flow of a grid connected photovoltaic system. This software application enables conducting an operational evaluation of a studied photovoltaic system in terms of energy exchange with the electrical grid. The system model consists of a photovoltaic array, a converter and an optional generic energy storage component that supports scheduled charging/discharging. In addition to system design parameters, the software uses hourly solar data and hourly load data to determine the amount of energy exchanged with electrical grid for each hour of the simulated year. The resulting information is useful in assessing the impact of the system on demand for electrical energy of a building that uses it. The software also aggregates these hourly results in daily, monthly and full year sums. The software finds the financial benefit of the system as the difference in grid electrical energy cost between two simultaneously considered cases. One is with load supplied only by the electrical grid, while the other is with the photovoltaic system present and contributing energy. The software supports the energy pricing scheme used in Jordan for domestic consumers, which is based on slices of monthly consumption. By projecting the yearly financial results on the system lifetime, the application weighs the financial benefit resulting from using the system against its cost, thus facilitating an economical evaluation.

  14. Online Energy Management System for Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2015-01-01

    A microgrid is an energy subsystem composed of generation units, energy storage, and loads that requires power management in order to supply the load properly according to defined objectives. This paper proposes an online energy management system for a storage based grid-connected microgrid...

  15. α spectrometer of parallel plate grid ionization chamber of high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Boting; Wang Jianqing; Dong Mingli; Tang Peijia; Wang Xiaorong; Lin Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Parallel plate grid ionization chamber with cathode area of 300 cm 2 was developed and applied to detect minimum α-emitters. It consist of a vacuum system, a gas cycle system of the parallel plate grid ionization chamber, electronics (a high voltage supply, a pre-amplifier and a main amplifier) and a computer-multichannel analyzer. The energy resolution is 23 keV FWHM for the 244 Cm electrostatic precipitated source. The integral background is typically 10 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. The detector efficiency is 50%. The minimum detecting activity is 3 x 10 -4 Bq (3σ, 30 hours). This spectrometer is suitable for detecting various samples, such as samples of the soil, water, air, bion, food, structural material, geology, archaeology, α-emitters of after processing and measuring α activity of accounting for and control of nuclear material and monitoring the artificial radioactivity nuclides of environment samples around nuclear facilities. The spectrometer is equipped with apparatus for preparing large area α source by using vacuum deposition or ultrasonic pulverization. The operating program of preparing source is simple. The source thickness can be kept in 40-60 μm/cm 2

  16. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  17. Energy storage at the threshold: Smart mobility and the grid of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, George

    2018-01-01

    Energy storage is poised to drive transformations in transportation and the electricity grid that personalize access to mobility and energy services, not unlike the transformation of smart phones that personalized access to people and information. Storage will work with other emerging technologies such as electric vehicles, ride-sharing, self-driving and connected cars in transportation and with renewable generation, distributed energy resources and smart energy management on the grid to create mobility and electricity as services matched to customer needs replacing the conventional one-size-fits-all approach. This survey outlines the prospects, challenges and impacts of the coming mobility and electricity transformations.

  18. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  19. The CUNY Energy Institute Electrical Energy Storage Development for Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2013-03-31

    1. Project Objectives The objectives of the project are to elucidate science issues intrinsic to high energy density electricity storage (battery) systems for smart-grid applications, research improvements in such systems to enable scale-up to grid-scale and demonstrate a large 200 kWh battery to facilitate transfer of the technology to industry. 2. Background Complex and difficult to control interfacial phenomena are intrinsic to high energy density electrical energy storage systems, since they are typically operated far from equilibrium. One example of such phenomena is the formation of dendrites. Such dendrites occur on battery electrodes as they cycle, and can lead to internal short circuits, reducing cycle life. An improved understanding of the formation of dendrites and their control can improve the cycle life and safety of many energy storage systems, including rechargeable lithium and zinc batteries. Another area where improved understanding is desirable is the application of ionic liquids as electrolytes in energy storage systems. An ionic liquid is typically thought of as a material that is fully ionized (consisting only of anions and cations) and is fluid at or near room temperature. Some features of ionic liquids include a generally high thermal stability (up to 450 °C), a high electrochemical window (up to 6 V) and relatively high intrinsic conductivities. Such features make them attractive as battery or capacitor electrolytes, and may enable batteries which are safer (due to the good thermal stability) and of much higher energy density (due to the higher voltage electrode materials which may be employed) than state of the art secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Of particular interest is the use of such liquids as electrolytes in metal air batteries, where energy densities on the order of 1-2,000 Wh / kg are possible; this is 5-10 times that of existing state of the art lithium battery technology. The Energy Institute has been engaged in the

  20. Intelligent voltage control in a DC micro-grid containing PV generation and energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rouzbehi, Kumars; Miranian, Arash; Candela García, José Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent control scheme for DC voltage regulationin a DC micro-grid integrating photovoltaic (PV) generation, energy storage and electric loads. The maximum power generation of the PV panel is followed using the incremental conductance (IC) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm while a high-performance local linear controller (LLC)is developed for the DC voltage control in the micro-grid.The LLC, as a data-driven control strategy, controls the bidirectional c...

  1. A study of energy resolution in a gridded ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane and tetramethylgermanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Ohnuma, H.; Hoshi, Y.; Yuta, H.; Abe, K.; Suekane, F.; Neichi, M.; Nakajima, T.; Masuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The energy resolutions of 976 keV conversion electrons from a 207 Bi source are measured in a gridded ionization chamber filled with tetramethylsilane (TMS) and tetramethylgermanium (TMG), and are found to be about 5.7 and 5.5% (rms) for TMS and TMG, respectively. We also deduce a simple method of estimating the electron lifetime using a gridded ionization chamber. The electron lifetime, free ion yield and thermalization length for these liquids are measured by this simple method

  2. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...

  3. Home and Building Energy Management Systems | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home and Building Energy Management Systems Home and Building Energy Management Systems NREL researchers are developing tools to understand the impact of changes in home and building energy use and how researchers who received a record of invention for a home energy management system in a smart home laboratory

  4. Vehicle-to-grid power implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett; Tomić, Jasna

    Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) uses electric-drive vehicles (battery, fuel cell, or hybrid) to provide power for specific electric markets. This article examines the systems and processes needed to tap energy in vehicles and implement V2G. It quantitatively compares today's light vehicle fleet with the electric power system. The vehicle fleet has 20 times the power capacity, less than one-tenth the utilization, and one-tenth the capital cost per prime mover kW. Conversely, utility generators have 10-50 times longer operating life and lower operating costs per kWh. To tap V2G is to synergistically use these complementary strengths and to reconcile the complementary needs of the driver and grid manager. This article suggests strategies and business models for doing so, and the steps necessary for the implementation of V2G. After the initial high-value, V2G markets saturate and production costs drop, V2G can provide storage for renewable energy generation. Our calculations suggest that V2G could stabilize large-scale (one-half of US electricity) wind power with 3% of the fleet dedicated to regulation for wind, plus 8-38% of the fleet providing operating reserves or storage for wind. Jurisdictions more likely to take the lead in adopting V2G are identified.

  5. Modeling and simulation for smart grid integration of solar/wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MEKKAOUI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the power grid, in conjunction with the ever increasing demand for electricity, creates the need for efficient analysis and control of the power system. The evolution of the legacy system towards the new smart grid intensifies this need due to the large number of sensors and actuators that must be monitored and controlled, the new types of distributed energy sources that need to be integrated and the new types of loads that must be supported. At the same time, integration of human-activity awareness into the smart grid is emerging and this will allow the system to monitor, share and manage information and actions on the business, as well as the real world. In this context, modelling and simulation is an invaluable tool for system behavior analysis, energy consumption estimation and future state prediction. In this paper, a Smart Grid has been designed by MATLAB/SIMULINK approach for analysis of Active Power. Analysis of active power gives the exact idea to know the range of maximum permissible loads that can be connected to their relevant bus bars. This paper presents the change in the value of Active Power with varying load angle in context with small signal analysis. The Smart Grid, regarded as the next generation power grid, uses two-way flow of electricity and information to create a widely distributed automated energy delivery network.

  6. Energy-efficient three-phase bidirectional converter for grid-connected storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Linares-Mena, Ana-Rosa; Velázquez, Jesús Fernández; Borge-Diez, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Storage control system developed based on AC DC three phase bidirectional converter. • Bidirectional AC DC converter for storage integration into distribution grids. • Efficiencies over 98% for values over 30% of the bidirectional converter rated power. • Sensitivity analysis of the parameters set by the transmission system operator. • Low-cost option for control and integration of new grid-connected storage systems. - Abstract: Grid connected energy storage systems are expected to play an essential role in the development of Smart Grids, providing, among other benefits, ancillary services to power grids. It is therefore crucial to design and develop control and conversion systems that represent the key instrument where intelligence for decision-making is applied, in order to validate and ensure its optimal operation as part and parcel of the electrical system. The present research describes the design and development of a battery energy storage system based on an AC-DC three-phase bidirectional converter capable of operating either in charge mode to store electrical energy, or in discharge mode to supply load demands. The design is modelled with MATLAB® Simulink® environment in order to evaluate the performance during load variations. Moreover, the assessment is complemented by a global sensitivity analysis for variations in the operating parameters set by the transmission system operator. The effectiveness of the simulation is confirmed by implementing the system and carrying out grid connection tests, obtaining efficiencies over 98% for values over the 30% of the bidirectional converter rated power.

  7. Planning for Micro-grid with Static Voltage Stability and Maximizing Renewable Energy Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youfu; Zhang, Yuhong; Lv, Xuehai; Zhang, Wentai; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Changhua; Chen, Xin

    2017-05-01

    The access position and capacity of distribution generation (DG) affect the static voltage stability of micro-grid, thus affecting the renewable energy utilization. In the current reform of the energy supply side, a multi-objective optimization model is established, aiming at the abandoning wind and abandoning light problem. This model has three advantages, which are the largest renewable energy utilization, static voltage stability of micro-grid and the minimum cost of DG investment considering environmental benefits. It can effectively promote the use of wind power, photovoltaic power generation and other renewable energy sources. In this paper, the multi-objective optimization problem is transformed into a single objective programming problem by using the deviation method; the optimal solution of multi-objective function is solved by using particle swarm optimization algorithm, so as to establish the planning scheme of micro-grid. Simulation results prove the correctness and feasibility of the optimization method.

  8. Enhancement of energy quality in the distribution grid; Verbesserung der Energiequalitaet in Verteilungs- und Ortsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Robert; Schroedel, Oliver [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The energy supply is currently undergoing a fundamental change. The generation of energy is changing regarding to the energy sources, size of generation units and the place of generation. These changes have also impacts on the public transportation and distribution networks. The increasing requirement on observability as well as controllability of electrical distribution networks essentially results in the increase of decentralized generation of electrical energy, especially from fluctuating regenerative sources in existing distribution networks and the additional substitution of end application with fossil fuels through electrical applications (e.g. electrical mobility, cold, heat). This technical article shows results of a study which includes a qualitative and quantitative estimation of occurring effects in typical rural- and urban power grids with medium-voltage/- and low voltage level. Furthermore shows it challenges for grid operation, followed by a discussion of possible grid elements for solution. (orig.)

  9. A cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid using intelligent demand-response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safamehr, Hossein; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Providing a cost-efficient and reliable energy is one of the main issues in human societies of the 21st century. In response to this demand, new features of micro grid technology have provided huge potentials, specifically by the capability of having an interactive coordination between energy suppliers and consumers. Accordingly, this paper offers an improved model for achieving an optimal Demand Response programing. To solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and quasi-static technique are utilized. The considered objectives in this paper are minimizing the overall cost of energy consumption and also improving the technical parameters of micro grid over a time horizon. This optimization is subject to several constraints such as satisfying the energy balance and the operating constraints of each energy supply sources. Manageable load or load as source is another enabling feature existing in smart energy networks, which is considered in this paper and its effect on cost reduction and reliability improvement is studied. Trying to examine the performance of the proposed Demand Response Programing in real conditions, the uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods. The results show significant improvements which are obtained by applying just intelligent programming and management. - Highlights: • This paper presents a cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid. • New models of battery and manageable loads are formulated. • Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. • Quasi-static technique is used to simplify the solving procedure. • The uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods.

  10. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  11. Energy Management Systems and tertiary regulation in hierarchical control architectures for islanded micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, Eleonora Riva; Di Silvestre, Maria Luisa; Quang, Ninh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the structure of the highest level of a hierarchical control architecture for micro-grids is proposed. Such structure includes two sub-levels: the Energy Management System, EMS, and the tertiary regulation. The first devoted to energy resources allocation in each time slot based...

  12. Integration of Wave and Offshore Wind Energy in a European Offshore Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Sørensen, H. C.; Korpås, M.

    2010-01-01

    of offshore renewable energy sources. According to this, the paper covers i) public and private initiatives for offshore transmission networks, ii) the synergies between the wave and the offshore wind energy sector within an offshore grid, iii) power transmission options for offshore generation and iv...

  13. Unsupervised energy prediction in a smart grid context using reinforcement cross-buildings transfer learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.; Gibescu, M.

    2016-01-01

    In a future Smart Grid context, increasing challenges in managing the stochastic local energy supply and demand are expected. This increased the need of more accurate energy prediction methods in order to support further complex decision-making processes. Although many methods aiming to predict the

  14. Integrated agent-based home energy management systems for smart grid applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asare-Bediako, B.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    The participation of residential consumers is vital for a successful implementation of the smart grid vision. The installation of smart meters is envisioned to increase residential consumers' involvement in the electric energy sector. The installations of local energy generations (photovoltaic, and

  15. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) and large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources are challenging the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration...

  16. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Western Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  17. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, Joseph D [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McBennett, Brendan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Soonee, Sushil Kumar [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Narasimhan, S. R. [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Joshi, Mohit [Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), New Delhi (India); Sreedharan, Priya [U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: -To better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and - To provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  18. Greening the Grid: Integrating 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid - A Detailed Look at the Southern Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The higher-spatial-resolution model of 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. II - Regional Study' (the Regional Study), which better represents the impact of congestion on least-cost scheduling and dispatch, provides a deeper understanding of the relationship among renewable energy (RE) location, transmission, and system flexibility with regard to RE integration, compared to 'Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study.' The Regional Study validates the relative value of mitigation strategies demonstrated in the National Study - namely, coordinated operations among states reduce production costs, and reducing coal minimum generation levels reduces RE curtailment. Significantly, the Regional Study also highlights a potential barrier to realizing the value of these mitigation strategies: when locations of RE development are planned independently of state-level transmission, intrastate congestion can result in undesirable levels of RE curtailment. Therefore a key objective of this study is to illustrate to state-level power system planners and operators, in particular, how a higher-resolution model, inclusive of intrastate granularity, can be used as a planning tool for two primary purposes: to better anticipate, understand, and mitigate system constraints that could affect RE integration; and to provide a modeling framework that can be used as part of future transmission studies and planning efforts. The Regional Study is not intended to predict precisely how RE will affect state-level operations. There is considerable uncertainty regarding the locations of the RE development, as well as how contract terms can affect access to the inherent physical flexibility of the system. But the scenarios analyzed identify the types of issues that can arise under various RE and transmission

  19. Role of nuclear and other energy sources in the Cuban electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Perez, D.

    2000-01-01

    Energy options to cover electricity demand in Cuba for next years are limited. Expected increase in the oil companion gas, domestic crude oil production and biomass co-generation can not cover the 3-4% growth of the electricity demand. An important option could be the conclusion of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant. The paper presents the country energy supply situation for electricity generation and how can be covered the electricity demand forecast until 2015. A short description of the methodology, to evaluate the expansion of the electricity system using DECADES tools is presented. Results of the optimal expansion plan considering the introduction of NPP in combination with increase in the use of renewable sources is analyzed in the framework of small country electricity grid from economical and environmental point of view. Finally, in the conclusions the paper shows the role of NPP to cover electricity demand and in the reduction of Greenhouse Gas emissions. The contribution of renewable energy sources to these objectives is also presented. (author)

  20. An ontology for modeling flexibility in smart grid energy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Rothengatter, D.C.F.; Rumph, F.J.; Konsman, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources is increasing due to national and international regulations. Such energy sources are less predictable than most of the classical energy production systems, like coal and nuclear power plants. This causes a challenge for balancing the electricity system. A

  1. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    is required. The models developed in this thesis include different features (thermal, mechanical, chemical…) which are not normally considered in the traditional power system modelling. In this sense, they are intended to serve as a reference for the new researchers starting in the field. Moreover, the grid....... In this situation, not only the security and reliability of these networks are in danger, the flexibility offered by the active loads may also be limited. It is then decisive, to understand what is the hosting capability of this networks and their vulnerable points. In this stage of the thesis, a methodology...... commitments, taking advantage of the flexible demand, while ensuring the security and reliability of the LV network each moment of the day. A proper demand response strategy makes possible to obtain economic benefits from the balancing service provision while decongesting the LV network in critical moments....

  2. Using Smart Grids to Enhance Use of Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Paget, Maria L.; Secrest, Thomas J.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-05-10

    This report addresses the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization’s desire to minimize the learning time required to understand the implications of smart-grid concepts so APEC members can advance their thinking in a timely manner and advance strategies regarding smart approaches that can help meet their environmental-sustainability and energy-efficiency policy goals. As significant investments are needed to grow and maintain the electricity infrastructure, consideration needs to be given to how information and communications technologies can be applied to electricity infrastructure decisions that not only meet traditional needs for basic service and reliability, but also provide the flexibility for a changing the mix of generation sources with sensitivity to environmental and societal impacts.

  3. A multi-agent based distributed energy management scheme for smart grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Bharat Menon; Srinivasan, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    A multi-agent system based distributed EMS (energy management system) is proposed in this paper to perform optimal energy allocation and management for grids comprising of renewables, storage and distributed generation. The reliable and efficient operation of smart grids is slackened due to the presence of intermittent renewables. As the load demand and renewables are uncertain throughout the day, an energy management system is essential to ensure grid stability and achieve reductions in operation costs and CO_2 emissions. The main objectives of the proposed algorithm is to maintain power balance in the system and to ensure long cycle life for storage units by controlling their SOC (state of charge). The proposed EMS scheme is tested and validated on a practical test system, which replicates a small-scale smart grid with a variety of distributed sources, storage devices, loads, power electronic converters, and SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. This system is also connected to the utility grid and the power exchange is controlled with the help of a battery system through a fuzzy based decision-making framework. The proposed algorithm is also extensively verified and tested using a series of sensitivity analyses and benchmarking with existing algorithms. - Highlights: • An agent-based decentralized algorithm is proposed to perform energy management. • The multi-agent system approach eliminates the possibility of single point failures. • Adaptive fuzzy systems make the decision making more reliable, flexible and robust. • The algorithm is extensively tested and validated using sensitivity and verification analyses.

  4. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  5. Flexible and Inflexible Energy Engagements – a Study of the Danish Smart Grid Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea; Gad, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced...... by the national Smart Grid Network shows that this vision relies on a techno-centric and rather ‘inflexible’ consumer figuration. However, rather than adopting a conventional social science approach in order to criticize this narrow imaginary, we show that potentials for critique and alternatives can be found...... internally in the Smart Grid Network. Paying attention to different stories, we thus aim to characterize particular forms of ‘infra-critique’ and ‘infra-reflexivity’ emerging from within the field. This mode of reflexivity, we argue, opens up to more flexible and reflexive conceptions of the ‘flexible...

  6. Energy stable and high-order-accurate finite difference methods on staggered grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ossian; Lundquist, Tomas; Dunham, Eric M.; Nordström, Jan

    2017-10-01

    For wave propagation over distances of many wavelengths, high-order finite difference methods on staggered grids are widely used due to their excellent dispersion properties. However, the enforcement of boundary conditions in a stable manner and treatment of interface problems with discontinuous coefficients usually pose many challenges. In this work, we construct a provably stable and high-order-accurate finite difference method on staggered grids that can be applied to a broad class of boundary and interface problems. The staggered grid difference operators are in summation-by-parts form and when combined with a weak enforcement of the boundary conditions, lead to an energy stable method on multiblock grids. The general applicability of the method is demonstrated by simulating an explosive acoustic source, generating waves reflecting against a free surface and material discontinuity.

  7. Efficient Control of Energy Storage for Increasing the PV Hosting Capacity of LV Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    grid is usually limited by overvoltage, and the efficient control of distributed electrical energy storage systems (EESSs) can considerably increase this capacity. In this paper, a new control approach based on the voltage sensitivity analysis is proposed to prevent overvoltage and increase the PV......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are among the renewable sources that electrical energy systems are adopting with increasing frequency. The majority of already-installed PV systems are decentralized units that are usually connected to lowvoltage (LV) distribution grids. The PV hosting capacity of an LV...... hosting capacity of LV grids by determining dynamic set points for EESS management. The method has the effectiveness of central control methods and can effectively decrease the energy storage required for overvoltage prevention, yet it eliminates the need for a broadband and fast communication. The net...

  8. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses...... with heat pumps and floor heating are investigated for storage capability. The aim is to shift energy consumption a few hours in time to mitigate the effect of fluctuating production from wind and other renewable energy sources on the grid. Based on measurements in six inhabited houses for approximately...... a year prediction models are analysed. The main topic of this work is to investigate how behaviour of inhabitants affect the quality of predictions. Unfortunately the output of the models for single inhabited single family houses seems to give large standard deviations of the predictions, and aggregated...

  9. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  10. Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Incorporate Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Speer, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    In the United States and elsewhere, renewable energy (RE) generation supplies an increasingly large percentage of annual demand, including nine U.S. states where wind comprised over 10% of in-state generation in 2013. This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating increasing amounts of variable RE, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration, and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—that can provide a framework for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of RE. There is growing recognition that while technical challenges to variable RE integration are real, they can generally be addressed via a variety of solutions that vary in implementation cost. As a result, limits to RE penetration are primarily economic, driven by factors that include transmission and the flexibility of the power grid to balance supply and demand. This limit can be expressed as economic carrying capacity, or the point at which variable RE is no longer economically competitive or desirable to the system or society.

  11. Survey of Energy Computing in the Smart Grid Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Arun Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    Resource optimization, with advance computing tools, improves the efficient use of energy resources. The renewable energy resources are instantaneous and needs to be conserve at the same time. To optimize real time process, the complex design, includes plan of resources and control for effective utilization. The advances in information communication technology tools enables data formatting and analysis results in optimization of use the renewable resources for sustainable energy solution on s...

  12. Uncertainties in smart grids behavior and modeling: What are the risks and vulnerabilities? How to analyze them?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zio, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.zio@ecp.fr [Ecole Centrale Paris - Supelec, Paris (France); Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Aven, Terje, E-mail: terje.aven@uis.no [University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks into the future world of smart grids from a rather different perspective than usual: that of uncertainties and the related risks and vulnerabilities. An analysis of the foreseen constituents of smart grids and of the technological, operational, economical and policy-driven challenges is carried out to identify and characterize the related uncertainties and associated risks and vulnerabilities. The focus is on the challenges posed to the representation and treatment of uncertainties in the performance assessment of such systems, given their complexity and high-level of integration of novel technologies. A general framework of analysis is proposed. - Highlights: > We have looked into the development and operation of smart grids for power distribution. > We have identified a number of uncertainties, which are expected to play an influential role. > We have provided some guidelines to address these issues, based on probability intervals.

  13. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  14. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, Jannik; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to

  15. Domestic energy management methodology for optimizing efficiency in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of domestic technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. These technologies on their own already improve the efficiency, but more can be

  16. Islanding detection technique using wavelet energy in grid-connected PV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Song

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new islanding detection method using wavelet energy in a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The method detects spectral changes in the higher-frequency components of the point of common coupling voltage and obtains wavelet coefficients by multilevel wavelet analysis. The autocorrelation of the wavelet coefficients can clearly identify islanding detection, even in the variations of the grid voltage harmonics during normal operating conditions. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can detect islanding condition the conventional under voltage/over voltage/under frequency/over frequency methods fail to detect. The theoretical method to obtain wavelet energies is evolved and verified by the experimental result.

  17. A Direct Power Conversion Topology for Grid Integration of Hybrid AC/DC Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiple-input versatile matrix converter (VMC) for integrating hybrid ac/dc energy resources and storages to the power grid. The VMC is developed from the traditional indirect matrix converter but operates in the reverse-boost mode rather than in the forward-buck mode....... The reverse-boost mode is more relevant here since most renewable sources and energy storages have lower voltages than the grid. The eventual VMC developed uses an alternative nine-switch converter, rather than usual six-switch voltage-source converter, for providing six input terminals in total. One three...

  18. The first neighborhood micro-grid of shared energy, RennesGrid: A harbinger of the energy transition at the local level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djahel, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    To develop a concrete policy for saving energy and for the energy transition, the Rennes metropolitan area and Schneider Electric have launched RennesGrid, a 20-year experiment with managing energy consumption at Ker Lann, an urban development zone located in Bruz township, 12 kilometers southwest of Rennes, France. Covering more than 160 hectares, Ker Lann groups: approximately sixty companies specialized in high technology; seventeen establishments of higher education, research and training; and residential units and dormitories for students. RennesGrid will make it less dependent on carbon energy thanks to the production of local, renewable sources using photovoltaic installations. For consumers, the objective is to reduce their energy needs and consume a renewable form of energy produced locally. Planned for operation at the end of 2017 and endowed with a global investment budget of Euro 5.8 million, this experiment is a private business with a hold over three hectares of land under a 20-year concession. Its business model is, however, mainly based on a cooperative approach (in particular with residents of the zone) and on innovative arrangements for participatory funding

  19. Dynamic modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for off-grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasemeyer, Mark David

    The volatile prices of fossil fuels and their contribution to global warming have caused many people to turn to renewable energy systems. Many developing communities are forced to use these systems as they are too far from electrical distribution. As a result, numerous software models have been developed to simulate hybrid renewable energy systems. However almost, if not all, implementations are static in design. A static design limits the ability of the model to account for changes over time. Dynamic modeling can be used to fill the gaps where other modeling techniques fall short. This modeling practice allows the user to account for the effects of technological and economic factors over time. These factors can include changes in energy demand, energy production, and income level. Dynamic modeling can be particularly useful for developing communities who are off-grid and developing at rapid rates. In this study, a dynamic model was used to evaluate a real world system. A non-governmental organization interested in improving their current infrastructure was selected. Five different scenarios were analyzed and compared in order to discover which factors the model is most sensitive to. In four of the scenarios, a new energy system was purchased in order to account for the opening of a restaurant that would be used as a source of local income generation. These scenarios were then compared to a base case in which a new system was not purchased, and the restaurant was not opened. Finally, the results were used to determine which variables had the greatest impact on the various outputs of the simulation.

  20. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an effective energy management system (EMS) for application in integrated building and microgrid system is introduced and implemented as a multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed architecture covers different key modelling aspects such as distributed heat and electricity......’s objectives, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is studied and validated compared to the existing residential EMSs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed EMS has the capability not only to conserve energy in sustainable homes and microgrid system and to reduce energy...

  1. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...

  2. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  3. Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid : The Case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai

    2014-01-01

    Mexico's 2010 national energy strategy aims to promote sustainability and simultaneously increase energy access by increasing the share of renewable resources used to generate energy. The wind farms of La Ventosa, a windy area in the southeastern state of Oaxaca, are a key part of that strategy, which aims to raise the share of renewables in generation to 35 percent by 2024, up from 23.7 percent in 2008. The open season process was a major breakthrough that made possible several agreements to...

  4. Experiences of a grid connected solar array energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymássy, Zoltán; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    Solar energy possibilities of Hungary are higher than in Central Europe generally. The Institute for Land Utilisation, Technology and Regional Development of the University of Debrecen installed a photovoltaic (PV) system. The PV system is structured into 3 subsystems (fields). The first subsystem has 24 pieces of Kyocera KC 120 W type modules, the second subsystem has 72 pieces of Siemens ST 40W, and the remaining has 72 pieces of Dunasolar DS 40W In order to be operable independently of each other three inverter modules (SB 2500) had been installed. The recorder can be connected directly to a desktop PC. Operating and meteorological dates are recorded by MS Excel every 15 minutes. The power plant is connected to a weather station, which contents a PT 100 type temperature and humidity combined measuring instrument, a CM 11 pyranometer, and a wind speed measuring instrument. The produced DC, and AC power, together with the produced energy are as well, and the efficiency can be determined for each used PV technology. The measured operating and meteorological dates are collected by Sunny Boy Control, produced by the SMA. The energy productions of the subsystems are measured continually and the subsystems are measured separately. As an expected, the produced energy of polycrystalline -Si PV module and monocrystalline -Si PV was higher than amorphous-Si PV module. It is well known that energy analysis is more suitable for energy balance when we design a system. The air temperature and the temperature of the panels and the global irradiation conditions were measured. In summertime the panel temperature reaches 60-80 degrees in a sunny day. The panel temperatures are in a spring sunny day approximately 30-40 degrees. It can be concluded that the global irradiation is a major impact feature to influence the amount of energy produced. The efficiency depends on several parameters (spectral distribution of the incoming light, temperature values, etc.). The energy efficiency

  5. A New Pricing Scheme for Controlling Energy Storage Devices in Future Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jingwei; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Du, Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of the overall efficiency of energy infrastructure is one of the main anticipated benefits of the deployment of smart grid technology. Advancement in energy storage technology and two-way communication in the electric network are indispensable components to achieve such a vision, while efficient pricing schemes and appropriate storage management are also essential. In this paper, we propose a universal pricing scheme which permits one to indirectly control the energy storage devic...

  6. Transition towards DC micro grids: From an AC to a hybrid AC and DC energy infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Ploumpidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our electricity is predominantly powered by alternating current (AC, ever since the War of Currents ended in the favor of Nicola Tesla at the end of the 19th century. However, lots of the appliances we use, such as electronics and lights with light-emitting diode (LED technology, work internally on direct current (DC and it is projected that the number of these appliances will increase in the near future. Another contributor to the increase in DC consumption is the ongoing electrification of mobility (Electric Vehicles (EVs. At the same time, photovoltaics (PV generate DC voltages, while the most common storage technologies also use DC. In order to integrate all these appliances and technologies to the existing AC grid, there is a need for converters which introduce power losses. By distributing DC power to DC devices instead of converting it to AC first, it is possible to avoid substantial energy losses that occur every time electricity is converted. This situation initiated the concept for the implementation of the DC-Flexhouse project. A prototype DC installation will be developed and tested in one of the buildings of the developing living lab area called the District of Tomorrow (De Wijk van Morgen which is located in Heerlen, the Netherlands. A neighborhood cooperative (Vrieheide cooperatie is also part of the consortium in order to address the aspect of social acceptance. Although DC seems to be a promising solution for a more sustainable energy system, the business case is still debatable due to both technology- and market-related challenges. The current energy infrastructure is predominantly based on AC, manufacturers produce devices based on AC standards and people are using many AC products across a long life span. This Smart Energy Buildings & Cities (SEB&C PDEng project is a contribution to the DC-Flexhouse project. The aim is to analyze the challenges in the transition to DC micro grids, assess the market potential of DC

  7. Smart grids: Another step towards competition, energy security and climate change objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of smart grids in electricity systems has given rise to much interdisciplinary research. The new technology is seen as an additional instrument available to States to achieve targets for promoting competition, increasing the safety of electricity systems and combating climate change. But the boom in smart grids also raises many economic questions. Public policies will need to be adapted, firstly to make allowance for the potential gains from smart grids and the associated information flow, and secondly to regulate the new networks and act as an incentive for investors. The new competitive offerings and end-user pricing systems will contribute to improving allocative and productive efficiency, while minimizing the risks of market power. With real-time data on output and consumption, generators and consumers will be able to adapt to market conditions. Lastly smart grids will boost the development of renewable energy sources and new technologies, by assisting their integration and optimal use. - Highlights: → Smart grids could promote competition with new offerings and end-user pricing. → New information could induce demand response and demand-side management. → New regulatory policies are needed to favour the deployment of smart grids. → Development of new technologies could be improved.

  8. International Off-grid Renewable Energy Conference 2012: Key Findings and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    IRENA co-organised the International Off-grid Renewable Energy Conference (IOREC) along with the ECOWAS Regional Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) and the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), in Accra, Ghana, on 1-2 November 2012. This report presents the key findings and recommendations that emerged from the roundtable discussions during IOREC. The report highlights that off-grid renewable energy systems, stand-alone and mini-grids, have the potential to play a significant role in achieving the goal of universal electricity access. In recognition of this role, their development needs to be integrated into the mainstream rural electrification strategies. While several successful deployment approaches exist, there is a need to scale up. What is required is a shift from the prevalent project-by-project approach, to one that focusses on the creation of a sustainable environment that facilitates large-scale deployment. Involvement of the private sector, and in particular of local enterprises, will be instrumental in extending electricity access in rural areas, rapidly and sustainably, and hence needs to be promoted. Off-grid renewable energy technologies produce striking synergies with sectors critical for human development, and play an important role in improving access to water supply while also extending healthcare and telecommunication services in rural areas.

  9. Energy management strategies for combined heat and electric power micro-grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy production from variable renewable energy sources such as wind and solar has resulted in several challenges related to the system reliability and efficiency. In order to ensure the supply-demand balance under the conditions of higher variability the micro-grid concept of active distribution networks arising as a promising one. However, to achieve all the potential benefits that micro-gird concept offer, it is important to determine optimal operating strategies for micro-grids. The present paper compares three energy management strategies, aimed at ensuring economical micro-grid operation, to find a compromise between the complexity of strategy and its efficiency. The first strategy combines optimization technique and an additional rule while the second strategy is based on the pure optimization approach. The third strategy uses model based predictive control scheme to take into account uncertainties in renewable generation and energy consumption. In order to compare the strategies with respect to cost effectiveness, a residential micro-grid comprising photovoltaic modules, thermal energy storage system, thermal loads, electrical loads as well as combined heat and power plant, is considered.

  10. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  11. Smart grid, household consumers and asymmetries: Energy visualization and scripting of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken

    This paper will focus on the asymmetries that occur when different consumer groups are presented to the same energy visualisation equipment. The studied technology is home automation/control equipment, designed to contribute to the general set up of smart grid (facilitate a flexible use......-technologies applied in the human actor's homes) and how the consumers interpret the technology (the De-scription of the object). In relation to the general goals of smart grid to change the consumption of electricity into being more flexible, it is relevant to investigate if different consumer groups accept...... of electricity and accommodate demand response). Large smart grid pilot projects suggest that energy visualisation technology will be a common part of households in the future. There exist numerous different visualisation technologies within the area of electricity and private consumers today.This study seeks...

  12. Intelligent battery energy management and control for vehicle-to-grid via cloud computing network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayyam, Hamid; Abawajy, Jemal; Javadi, Bahman; Goscinski, Andrzej; Stojcevski, Alex; Bab-Hadiashar, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The intelligent battery energy management substantially reduces the interactions of PEV with parking lots. • The intelligent battery energy management improves the energy efficiency. • The intelligent battery energy management predicts the road load demand for vehicles. - Abstract: Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) provide new opportunities to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission. PEVs need to draw and store energy from an electrical grid to supply propulsive energy for the vehicle. As a result, it is important to know when PEVs batteries are available for charging and discharging. Furthermore, battery energy management and control is imperative for PEVs as the vehicle operation and even the safety of passengers depend on the battery system. Thus, scheduling the grid power electricity with parking lots would be needed for efficient charging and discharging of PEV batteries. This paper aims to propose a new intelligent battery energy management and control scheduling service charging that utilize Cloud computing networks. The proposed intelligent vehicle-to-grid scheduling service offers the computational scalability required to make decisions necessary to allow PEVs battery energy management systems to operate efficiently when the number of PEVs and charging devices are large. Experimental analyses of the proposed scheduling service as compared to a traditional scheduling service are conducted through simulations. The results show that the proposed intelligent battery energy management scheduling service substantially reduces the required number of interactions of PEV with parking lots and grid as well as predicting the load demand calculated in advance with regards to their limitations. Also it shows that the intelligent scheduling service charging using Cloud computing network is more efficient than the traditional scheduling service network for battery energy management and control

  13. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenlots, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Zhenhua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  14. Conference 'What strategies for an effective grid integration of wind energy? France-Germany crossed views'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschedag, Udo; Lund, Torsten; Sanchez, Louis; Grandidier, Jean-Yves; Meyerjuergens, Tim; Laurent, Severine; Lacoste, Jean; Quitmann, Eckard; Woyte, Achim; De Decker, Jan; De Broe, Alex; Fischer, Lothar; Diwald, Werner

    2009-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the effective grid integration of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than a hundred participants exchanged views on the necessary stabilization and development of power grids for the integration of renewable energy sources. Beside the recent evolutions of regulations in both countries, topics such as the connection of offshore parks, the transient capacity hosting, the wind facilities efficiency and the grid development studies were addressed as well. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Grids development from the point of view of the Federal Ministry of environment - The German law on energy networks development 'Energieleitungsausbaugesetz'. High-voltage grid development in Germany: the impetus of the grid reinforcement law (Udo Paschedag); 2 - Danish experience and plans relating to wind energy integration and underground cables (Torsten Lund); 3 - Development of the French grid: Regional scheme of renewable energies connection (Louis Sanchez); 4 - Wind energy, a major component of the electricity mix for 2020/2030 (Jean-Yves Grandidier); 5 - Challenges of offshore wind parks connection to the German grids (Tim Meyerjuergens); 6 - Connection potentialities: transient production hosting capacities (Severine Laurent); 7 - Wind power plants supply system services - Requirements imposed to grid operators and economic incentives: a wind energy with the same quality as conventional electricity? (Jean Lacoste); 8 - Grid reinforcements and what they are to wind - A European perspective (Alex De Broe); 9 - European Wind Integration Study (EWIIS) - Towards a Successful Integration of Wind Power into European electricity Grids. The EWIS study and expectations about offshore grid development in the North/Baltic Sea area (Lothar Fischer); 10 - Optimization of renewable energies

  15. Presentations given at the Enerplan Conference: facilitating photovoltaic energy integration in the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueth, Thierry; Thomas, Christophe; Loyen, Richard; Masson, Gaetan; Najdawi, Celine; Dubus, Jean-Michel; Carre, Olivier; Resseguier, Stephane de; Alazard, Raymond; Prest, Ignace de; Humez, Herve; Kaiser, Martin; Cassagne, Valerick; Dauphin, Francois; Merley, Jacques; Laffaille, Didier; Gossement, Arnaud; Belon, Daniel; Blanquet, Francois; Bonnet, Jean-Philippe; Sanchez, Louis; Vienot, Raphaelle; Lambert, Karine; Berly, Frederic

    2013-07-01

    Large-scale integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids are present day topics of strategical stakes for the development of the photovoltaic industry and for the success of the energy transition. This conference provided some answers to three main subjects which were the main themes of the 3 round-tables: 1 - Identifying the context elements leading to a large integration of solar energy in Europe and in France; 2 - Identifying the technical solutions facilitating the technical integration of photovoltaic energy in power grids; 3 - Analysing the expected regional schemes for connecting renewable energies to the network, in order to shift from an administrative planning to a dynamical and practical approach profitable to the photovoltaic industry. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) given at the colloquium

  16. The role of electric grids in the European energy policy. Grids development is necessary to supply cleaner and securer electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2009-01-01

    The world is actually entering a new energy era where CO 2 emissions must be reduced. Consequently, the European Union policy includes three goals: a) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; b) to improve the security of energy supply; c) to improve interconnection between regions. In this context, electrical grids play a strategic role. While the overall energy consumption in Europe will decrease, the electricity demand will increase by more than 1% per year. A large part of this increase will be covered by renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. In 2020 the total wind power installed in Europe should be ∼1000 GW, leading to a mean power production of 200-250 GW. This makes necessary an adaptation of electrical grids in order to be able to integrate into the system large power sources of intermittent character, and also to improve the solidarity of the different countries. The interconnection of the grids must be improved in order to balance electricity supply and demand. For the transport of electricity over large distances, developments will take place in three different areas; a) high voltage alternative current for most of the grids; b) high voltage direct current where it is necessary to overpass obstacles (mountains, sounds); c) gaseous insulation technology for underground transport. Local (mostly low voltage) grids must also be adapted: so far, they only carry electricity in one direction, to the customers. With the distributed power production, electricity transport in the reverse direction must also be considered

  17. Power angle control of grid-connected voltage source converter in a wind energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-31

    In this thesis, the connection of a voltage source converter to the grid in a wind energy application is examined. The possibility of using a cheap control system without grid current measurements, is investigated. The control method is based on controlling the voltage angle of the inverter, which governs the active power flow. The highest frequency of the power variation, coming from wind turbine, is approx. 5 Hz. Since the proposed control method easily can handle such power variations it is very well suited for wind turbine applications. The characteristics of the system depend on the DC-link capacitor, the grid filter inductance and resistance. Large values of the resistance damp the system well but increase the energy losses. A high inductance leads to a reduced harmonic level on the grid but makes the system slower. By using feed-forward of the generator/rectifier current signal, the performance is increased compared to an ordinary PI-control. Combining the Linear Quadratic (LQ) control method with Kalman filtered input signals, a robust control method with a good performance is obtained. The LQ controller controls both the phase displacement angle and the modulation index, resulting in higher bandwidth, and the typical power angle resonance at the grid frequency disappears. 22 refs, 109 figs, 14 tabs

  18. A micro-grid operation analysis for cost-effective battery energy storage and RES plants integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Bonucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy is strongly slowed by its characteristic intermittency and fluctuating trend and by the inadequacy of electricity networks. These issues can be addressed through the development of new or improved storage technologies with higher performance, availability, durability, safety and lower costs. In the present work, micro-grids characterized by the presence of different subsections including renewable plants coupled with batteries storage solution are investigated through the development of a suitable code. Several design conditions and features, related to RES plant, storage system and users, were considered in order to realize a sensitivity analysis aimed to examine, on a yearly base and with one minute time step, interactions among the different micro-grid subsections and to identify the best solutions from both economic and energy point of views. - Highlights: • Storage systems coupling to RES plants is investigated for micro-grids. • Interactions between RES plants, storage batteries and users are analyzed. • Self-consumption increases with storage installation. • Investment pay-back analysis is performed varying plant configurations. • Pay-back reduction up to 30–40% for new RES/Storage integrated installations.

  19. Large scale grid integration of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Munoz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book presents comprehensive coverage of the means to integrate renewable power, namely wind and solar power. It looks at new approaches to meet the challenges, such as increasing interconnection capacity among geographical areas, hybridisation of different distributed energy resources and building up demand response capabilities.

  20. Smart Grid Educational Series | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , 2016. Download Presentation PDF Role of Software Defined Networking and WAN Virtualization in Securing (ISO), hosted a webinar on April 27, 2016, on the role of software defined networking and WAN presentation PDF IoT/PowerMatcher Transactive Energy for Smart Cities William J. Miller, President of MaCT USA

  1. Optimized Hybrid Renewable Energy System of Isolated Islands in Smart-Grid Scenario - A Case Study in Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Aurobi Das; V. Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of hybrid renewable energy resources available in remote isolated islands of Sundarban-24 Parganas-South of Eastern part of India to National Grid of conventional power supply to give a Smart-Grid scenario. Before grid-integration, feasibility of optimization of hybrid renewable energy system is monitored through an Intelligent Controller proposed to be installed at Moushuni Island of Sundarban. The objective is to ensure the reliability and efficiency of...

  2. Smart grids at the service of energy transition. Proceedings of the workshop-debate, Tuesday, May 14, 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dognin-Sauze, Karine; Charles, Bruno; Godinot, Sylvain; Nadal, M.; Brousse, Philippe; Terenti, Matthieu; Delassus, Olivier; Reinert, Christophe; Hadj Said, Nouredine; Coron, Yves; Le Guern, Servan; Berau, Francois; Rochette, Jean-Pierre; Lefort, Eymeric; Labranche, Stephane; Gay, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    After an opening speech evoking the challenges related to smart grid experimentation and development, and a brief presentation of the national debate on energy transition, this document reports the content of a round table about the contribution of smart grids to energy transition, notably in the case of the Great Lyons conurbation. A second round table discussed societal implications and consequences of the implementation of smart grids

  3. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth; Ekvall, Thomas; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  4. Revisiting Renewable Energy Map in Indonesia: Seasonal Hydro and Solar Energy Potential for Rural Off-Grid Electrification (Provincial Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyuono Ruri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the acceleration of renewable energy diffusion in Indonesia as well as achieving the national energy mix target, renewable energy map is essential to provide useful information to build renewable energy system. This work aims at updating the renewable energy potential map, i.e. hydro and solar energy potential, with a revised model based on the global climate data. The renewable energy map is intended to assist the design off-grid system by hydropower plant or photovoltaic system, particularly for rural electrification. Specifically, the hydro energy map enables the stakeholders to determine the suitable on-site hydro energy technology (from pico-hydro, micro-hydro, mini-hydro to large hydropower plant. Meanwhile, the solar energy map depicts not only seasonal solar energy potential but also estimated energy output from photovoltaic system.

  5. New techniques for analyzing relationships between energy and water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Water quality data for 65 variables were obtained for the period 1955 to 1977 and aggregated on a county basis. Measurements were taken primarily in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. When a subset of 138 counties with complete data was used, it was found that county aggregation statistical procedures resulted in data still able to describe the chemical characteristics of natural waters. Energy and socioeconomic data were merged with water quality data for these 138 counties. The path analytic methodology used by geneticists was adapted for use with these combined data to investigate for potential interactions between energy-related activities and water quality. A path diagram was proposed to provide insight into the possible causal nature of these interrelations. Direct and indirect pathways from energy production and use were traced to three factors describing functional attributes of water: conductivity, hardness, and dissolved metallic ions. This analysis explained 25 to 40% of the variance in three water quality factors and indicated the applicability of this technique to regional assessments of water quality impacts due to many human activities

  6. A New Hybrid PLL for Interconnecting Renewable Energy Systems to the Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to develop new control strategies for interconnecting renewable energy systems (RESs) to the power grid due to the continuously increasing penetration of RES and, in particular, of wind power systems. The control strategies are typically based on a fast and accurate detection...

  7. Control of a battery energy storage system connected to a low voltage grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, J.J.C.M.; de Groot, Robert; Morren, Johan; Slootweg, Han

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a control algorithm for a battery energy storage system, which is connected to a residential low voltage grid. By predicting future load demand and photovoltaic production within the neighbourhood concerned, flattening of the aggregated neighbourhood

  8. Energy Storage Options for Voltage Support in Low-Voltage Grids with High Penetration of Photovoltaic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Tarek Fawzy, Y.; Bülo, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    to be established. In the long term, these solutions should also aim to allow further more PV installed capacity, while meeting the power quality requirements. In this paper, different concepts of energy storage are proposed to ensure the voltage quality requirements in a LV grid with high PV penetration...

  9. Agent-based control for building energy management in the smart grid framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurtado Munoz, L.A.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Within the smart cities concept, smart buildings and smart grids have emerged as crucial solutions to increase energy efficiency, without jeopardizing the main objectives of such systems. As the power system go through the transition from a "centralized" and "vertical" structure, to a

  10. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability...

  11. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  12. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  13. Introduction of storage integrated PV systems as an enabling technology for smart energy grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Merging advanced control and information and communication technology (ICT) technology with the power grid is an appropriate approach for realizing the promising potential of massive distributed energy resources (DERs) integration, that is necessary for the vision of a sustainable society. This

  14. Sizing of an Energy Storage System for Grid Inertial Response and Primary Frequency Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources in power system leads to the replacement of conventional power plants (CPPs) and consequently challenges in power system reliability and security are introduced. This study is focused on improving the grid frequency response after a contingency ...

  15. From the Building to the Grid: An Energy Revolution and Modeling Challenge; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Komomua, C.; O' Malley, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the workshop entitled: From the Building to the Grid: An Energy Revolution and Modeling Challenge. The first workshop was held May 1-2, 2012 on NREL's campus in Golden, Colorado. The second was held June 6-7, 2012 at the University College Dublin, in Dublin, Ireland.

  16. Microgrid energy management in grid-connected and islanding modes based on SVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Abdelsalam, Abdelazeem A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SVC is used to enhance the performance of a microgrid (MG). • MG performance is measured by some key performance indicators (KPIs). • KPIs comprise power loss, voltage deviation, power factor, THD and v/f deviation. • The microgrid is simulated in grid-connected and islanded modes. • Results show SVC stabilizes voltage, reduce losses and THD and enhance power factor. - Abstract: Microgrids are small scale energy grids that can provide adequate energy supply to cover regional demand by integrating renewable energy generation and storage technologies. This paper develops a high performance dynamic model of a microgrid system comprising a wind turbine, a PV, a fuel cell, a micro gas turbine generator, an energy storage, electric loads with variable load profile and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices. The FACTS devices based on static VAR compensators have been employed as a supervisory controller. Key performance indicators such as microgrid power losses, buses voltage deviations, buses power factor, buses voltage total harmonic distortion and voltage-frequency deviation are used to evaluate the performance of this microgrid in grid-connected and islanding modes. The results obtained from the Matlab/Simulink environment show that the proposed microgrid design with SVC has the ability to meet its special requirements such as bus voltages stabilization, reduction of feeder losses, power factor enhancement and mitigation of total harmonic distortion using SVC in grid-connected and islanding modes

  17. Modeling and control of distributed energy systems during transition between grid connected and standalone modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Md Nayeem

    Distributed generation systems (DGs) have been penetrating into our energy networks with the advancement in the renewable energy sources and energy storage elements. These systems can operate in synchronism with the utility grid referred to as the grid connected (GC) mode of operation, or work independently, referred to as the standalone (SA) mode of operation. There is a need to ensure continuous power flow during transition between GC and SA modes, referred to as the transition mode, in operating DGs. In this dissertation, efficient and effective transition control algorithms are developed for DGs operating either independently or collectively with other units. Three techniques are proposed in this dissertation to manage the proper transition operations. In the first technique, a new control algorithm is proposed for an independent DG which can operate in SA and GC modes. The proposed transition control algorithm ensures low total harmonic distortion (THD) and less voltage fluctuation during mode transitions compared to the other techniques. In the second technique, a transition control is suggested for a collective of DGs operating in a microgrid system architecture to improve the reliability of the system, reduce the cost, and provide better performance. In this technique, one of the DGs in a microgrid system, referred to as a dispatch unit , takes the additional responsibility of mode transitioning to ensure smooth transition and supply/demand balance in the microgrid. In the third technique, an alternative transition technique is proposed through hybridizing the current and droop controllers. The proposed hybrid transition control technique has higher reliability compared to the dispatch unit concept. During the GC mode, the proposed hybrid controller uses current control. During the SA mode, the hybrid controller uses droop control. During the transition mode, both of the controllers participate in formulating the inverter output voltage but with different

  18. Development of a software application to evaluate the performance and energy losses of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo-Montero, D.; Santiago, I.; Luna-Rodriguez, J.J.; Real-Calvo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Software application to perform an automated analysis of grid-connected PV systems. • It integrates data from all devices registering data on typical PV installations. • Flexible to analyze installations with different configurations and components. • An analysis of two grid-connected PV systems located in Andalusia, was performed. • Temperature losses in summer months varying between 15% and 25% of energy production. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to design and develop a software application that enables users to perform an automated analysis of data from the monitoring of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. This application integrates data from all devices already in operation such as environmental sensors, inverters and meters, which record information on typical PV installations. This required the development of a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), consisting of a series of linked databases, enabling all PV system information to be stored; and a software, called S·lar, which enables all information from the monitoring to be automatically migrated to the database as well as determining some standard magnitudes related to performances and losses of PV installation components at different time scales. A visualization tool, which is both graphical and numerical, makes access to all of the information be a simple task. Moreover, the application enables relationships between parameters and/or magnitudes to be easily established. Furthermore, it can perform a preliminary analysis of the influence of PV installations on the distribution grids where the produced electricity is injected. The operation of such a software application was implemented by performing the analysis of two grid-connected PV installations located in Andalusia, Spain, via data monitoring therein. The monitoring took place from January 2011 to May 2012

  19. Energy dependent features of X-ray signals in a GridPix detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, C.; Kaminski, J.; Vafeiadis, T.; Desch, K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the calibration of an argon/isobutane (97.7%/2.3%)-filled GridPix detector with soft X-rays (277 eV to 8 keV) using the variable energy X-ray source of the CAST Detector Lab at CERN. We study the linearity and energy resolution of the detector using both the number of pixels hit and the total measured charge as energy measures. For the latter, the energy resolution σE / E is better than 10% (20%) for energies above 2 keV (0.5 keV). Several characteristics of the recorded events are studied.

  20. Innovation on Smart Grids and energy storage. IA Special; Innovation on Smart Grids and energy storage. IA Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    In this special edition of the Innovation Network Attache a large number of short articles on aspects of ICT aspects of intellligent energy networks, the security and integrity of the use and control of those networks, and energy storage. In this special an overview is given of the most important developments in Israel, Russian Federation, Brazil, Netherlands, France, Germany, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, China, South Korea, India, United States and Canada [Dutch] In deze special van het Innovation Attache Netwerk een groot aantal korte artikelen over de ICT aspecten van intellligente energie netten, de veiligheid en integriteit van het gebruik en sturing ervan, en energie opslag. In de special een overzicht van in het oog springende ontwikkelingen in de landen Israel, Rusland, Brazilie, Nederland, Frankrijk, Duitsland, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, China, Zuid-Korea, India, Verenigde Staten en Canada.

  1. Boosting the adoption and the reliability of renewable energy sources: Mitigating the large-scale wind power intermittency through vehicle to grid technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The integration of wind energy in the electricity sector and the adoption of electric vehicles in the transportation sector both have the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions individually as well as in tandem with Vehicle-to-Grid technology. This study aims to evaluate the greenhouse gas emission savings of mitigating intermittency resulting from the introduction of wind power through Vehicle-to-Grid technologies, as well as the extent to which the marginal electricity consumption from charging an electric vehicle fleet may weaken this overall environmental benefit. To this end, the comparisons are conducted in seven independent system operator regions. The results indicate that, in most cases, the emission savings of a combination of wind power and Vehicle-to-Grid technology outweighs the additional emissions from marginal electricity generation for electric vehicles. In addition, the fluctuations in newly-integrated wind power could be balanced in the future using EVs and V2G technology, provided that a moderate portion of EV owners is willing to provide V2G services. On the other hand, such a combination is not favorable if the Vehicle-to-Grid service participation rate is less than 5% of all electric vehicle owners within a particular region. - Highlights: • The environmental benefit of vehicle to grid systems as grid stabilizer is analyzed. • Emission savings of vehicle to grid and impacts of electric vehicles are compared. • Seven independent system operator regions are studied. • Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are performed through a Monte Carlo Simulation.

  2. Integrative solutions for intelligent energy management. Smart metering, smart home, smart grid; Integrative Loesungsansaetze fuer ein intelligentes Energiemanagement. Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Achim [Hager Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH und Co. KG, Blieskastel (Germany). Marketing

    2011-07-01

    Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Grid - these key words significantly determine the current debate about intelligent energy management, or new energy concepts. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the interactions between Smart Metering, Smart Home and Smart Grids and the technical connection of these interactions. Thus, the compact tebis KNX demovea server connects Windows computer and the Internet with the building automation based on KNX. The technically simple combination of smart metering and smart home via Hager radio tower of the building automation provides an access to key energy data for an intelligent load management.

  3. Analyzing energy-water exchange dynamics in the Thar desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, P.; Singh, Nilendu; Srinivas, C. V.; Singhal, Mohit; Chauhan, Pankaj; Singh, Maharaj; Sinha, N. K.

    2017-07-01

    Regions of strong land-atmosphere coupling will be more susceptible to the hydrological impacts in the intensifying hydrological cycle. In this study, micrometeorological experiments were performed to examine the land-atmosphere coupling strength over a heat low region (Thar desert, NW India), known to influence the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Within the vortex of Thar desert heat low, energy-water exchange and coupling behavior were studied for 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) based on sub-hourly measurements of radiative-convective flux, state parameters and sub-surface thermal profiles using lead-lag analysis between various E-W balance components. Results indicated a strong (0.11-0.35) but variable monsoon season (July-September) land-atmosphere coupling events. Coupling strength declined with time, becomes negative beyond 10-day lag. Evapotranspiration (LE) influences rainfall at the monthly time-scale (20-40 days). Highly correlated monthly rainfall and LE anomalies (r = 0.55, P < 0.001) suggested a large precipitation memory linked to the local land surface state. Sensible heating (SH) during March and April are more strongly (r = 0.6-0.7) correlated to ISM rainfall than heating during May or June (r = 0.16-0.36). Analyses show strong and weak couplings among net radiation (Rn)-vapour pressure deficit (VPD), LE-VPD and Rn-LE switching between energy-limited to water-limited conditions. Consistently, +ve and -ve residual energy [(dE) = (Rn - G) - (SH + LE)] were associated with regional wet and dry spells respectively with a lead of 10-40 days. Dew deposition (18.8-37.9 mm) was found an important component in the annual surface water balance. Strong association of variation of LE and rainfall was found during monsoon at local-scale and with regional-scale LE (MERRA 2D) but with a lag which was more prominent at local-scale than at regional-scale. Higher pre-monsoon LE at local-scale as compared to low and monotonous variation in regional-scale LE led to

  4. The GridShare solution: a smart grid approach to improve service provision on a renewable energy mini-grid in Bhutan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetchenbach, T G; Harper, M J; Jacobson, A E; Robinson IV, J; Hervin, K K; Chase, N A; Dorji, C

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems. (letter)

  5. Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet traffic grows, the energy efficiency gains more attention as a design factor for the planning and operation of telecommunication networks. This paper is devoted to the study of energy efficiency in optical transport networks, comparing the performance of an innovative flexible......-grid network based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with that of conventional fixed-grid Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks with a Single Line Rate (SLR) and with a Mixed Line Rate (MLR) operation. The power consumption values of the network elements are introduced. Energy......-aware heuristic algorithms are proposed for the resource allocation both in static (offline) and dynamic (online) scenarios with time-varying demands for the Elastic-bandwidth OFDM-based network and the WDM networks (with SLR and MLR). The energy efficiency performance of the two network technologies under...

  6. Distributed Energy Systems: Security Implications of the Grid of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamber, Kevin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelic, Andjelka [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Taylor, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are being added to the nation's electric grid, and as penetration of these resources increases, they have the potential to displace or offset large-scale, capital-intensive, centralized generation. Integration of DER into operation of the traditional electric grid requires automated operational control and communication of DER elements, from system measurement to control hardware and software, in conjunction with a utility's existing automated and human-directed control of other portions of the system. Implementation of DER technologies suggests a number of gaps from both a security and a policy perspective. This page intentionally left blank.

  7. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  8. System modelling and energy management for grid connected PV systems associated with storage

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann; DELAILLE , Arnaud; Barruel , Franck; Bacha , Seddik

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the modelling and energy management of a grid connected PV system associatedwith storage. Within the economic, energetic and environmental context, objective of the system is to ensure loadssupply at the least cost by optimising the use of solar power. Therefore, due to the complicated operating patterns, anenergy management system which decides on energy flow for any moment is necessary. First, we present the systemstudied. Based on an AC bus typol...

  9. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Grant Project Technologies: Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of energy storage technologies deployed in the SGIG projects.

  10. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  11. A Stackelberg Game Approach for Energy Outage-Aware Power Distribution of an Off-Grid Base Station over Multiple Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hyun Jeon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of power distribution for an off-grid base station (BS that operates sustainably without an electrical grid. We consider that multiple retailers with heterogeneous renewable energy sources (RESs compete to maximize their revenues by individually setting the unit power price. Energy outages (EOs, which cause the power supply to fall below that which is sufficient for ensuring the traffic arrival rate required for the off-grid BS, critically affect the users’ service quality. To minimize EOs and operational expenditure (OPEX, the off-grid BS manages the power supply by reacting to the retailers’ pricing decisions. We analyze the economic benefits of power distribution to the off-grid BS from the perspective of the retailers’ pricing competition, by designing a hierarchical decision-making scheme as a multi-leader single-follower Stackelberg game. We derive a closed form expression for the optimal behavior of the off-grid BS and retailers, based on well-designed utility functions. Finally, numerical results demonstrate the proposed solution with its practical convergence time.

  12. Assessing Smart Grids contribution to the energy transition with long-term scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouckaert, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of discussions on the energy transition, the general consensus is that part of the solution could come from Smart Grids to deal both with climate and energy issues. Prospective energy systems models may be used to estimate the long-term development of the energy system in order to meet future energy demands while taking into account environmental and technical constraints. These historical models are demand driven and should from now on evolve to considerate future developments of the electricity system. In this study, we have implemented some functionalities related to the concept of Smart Grids in a long-term planning model (demand-side integration, storage, renewable energy). This approach makes it possible to evaluate their benefits separately or collectively, taking into account possible interactions between these functionalities. We have also implemented an indicator reflecting the level of reliability of the electricity system in our model. This additional parameter enables to constrain future electricity systems to ensure a level of reliability identical to the existing one. Our analysis is demonstrated by the case of the Reunion Island, which aims to produce electricity using 100% renewable sources by 2030, and for which Smart Grids functionalities are also potential solutions for reaching this objective. (author) [fr

  13. Investment, firm value, and risk for a system operator balancing energy grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, Engelbert J.; Kucsera, Dénes; Rammerstorfer, Margarethe

    2013-01-01

    With the liberalization of energy markets integrated energy companies have separated into entities that specialize in production and/or transmission of energy. Transmission of energy requires balancing the grid to guarantee system security, which is performed by the (independent) system operator (SO). When the SO faces stochastic demand, grid balancing has sizeable consequences on current and future profits, and hence, on firm value and firm risk. We explore these value and risk consequences with and without an investment option to expand transmission capacity. We show that firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity in place plus the value of a short put and a short call option that are the result of the SO's balancing actions. Firm risk without investment option is non-linear and determined by the short option positions. It is decreasing with increasing energy demand. The existence of an option to expand transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk. - Highlights: ► Grid balancing under stochastic demand affect current and future revenues, and firm value and firm risk. ► Balancing firm value consists of the value of the transmission capacity plus the value of a short strangle. ► Firm risk without investment option is determined by the short strangle and decreasing with increasing energy demand. ► The existence of an expansion option implies that transmission capacity increases firm value and firm risk

  14. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  15. Inverter systems for feeding electrical power of fuel cells in the grid; Stromrichtersysteme zur Netzeinspeisung elektrischer Energie aus Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Malte

    2011-03-04

    Fuel cells represent an important potential alternative to conventional thermal-mechanical- electrical energy transformations due to their highly efficient direct conversion of chemical energy, i.e. hydrogen or natural gas into electrical energy. Inverter systems that feed electrical power from fuel cells into the grid must convert the direct current of the fuel cell into the alternating current of the grid. In addition, these inverters have to adapt the different voltages of the fuel cell system to the grid. Inverter systems for fuel cells can be seen as an own field of research. Only a few results from other fields of research in power electronic circuits in the medium power range - like converters for electrical drives or power supplies - can be applied to inverter systems for fuel cells due to the different technical constraints. In this thesis, different topologies of appropriate inverter systems in the medium power range of 20 kW and higher are analyzed and compared to each other. This study includes transformerless inverters as well as two-stage inverter systems with high frequency transformers (DC/DC converter combined with an inverter). In the beginning, this thesis shows the electrical characteristics of the fuel cell and of the main inverter components like power semiconductors and passive components. In addition, the principles of power semiconductor losses and methods of the semiconductor power loss calculation are shown. This work does not focus on the dimensioning of the passive components like capacitors, chokes and transformers. The main principles of the dimensioning of the passive components are shown but are not analyzed in detail. The summary of the demands of a fuel cell inverter system is followed by the analytical analysis of the different inverter topologies. In addition, the semiconductor loss calculations for the topologies will be derived. To gain practical experience and to verify parts of the theoretical analysis, the converters

  16. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  17. Rare Earths and Clean Energy: analyzing China's upper hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.

    2010-01-01

    An ominous but avoidable resource crunch in the so-called 'rare earth elements' is now threatening the development of a number of key industries from energy to defense to consumer electronics. As key components in the latest generation of technologies, including specialized magnets for windmills and hybrid cars, lasers for range finders and 'smart' munitions, and phosphors for LCD screens, demand for these rare metals is expected to grow rapidly in the years to come. But decades of under-investment in the mining and separation of these elements across the globe has left the industry ill-prepared to meet thi s growing demand. Over the years, only China has recognized the strategic significance of these resources and has succeeded in gaining a near monopoly on production, currently churning out 97% of the world' s rare earth oxides. Faced with problems of its own, and eager to use its resource advantage to master higher levels of value-added production of rare earth-dependent products, China has increasingly limited the rest of the world's access to these raw materials. This only complicates what was already projected to be a problematic resource shortage. This issue demands a higher quality of public debate. Rare earth consuming countries outside of China have only recently become aware of their dependence and started to take stock of the risks. Time is of the essence. Bringing new supplies online to meet growing demand is a long, complicated and risky process but is nevertheless necessary to ensure the development of high tech industries, notably clean energy. Accessible reserves of rare earths do exist outside of China and mitigating the effects of the looming shortage requires opening up these reserves to production. Yet, as the Chinese experience attests, there are substantial risks to the environment associated with mining and separating rare earths. Care must be taken to ensure responsible mining practices across the globe. Longer-term solutions, such as

  18. Measurement and simulation of the performance of high energy physics data grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Paul Andrew

    This thesis describes a study of resource brokering in a computational Grid for high energy physics. Such systems are being devised in order to manage the unprecedented workload of the next generation particle physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider. A simulation of the European Data Grid has been constructed, and calibrated using logging data from a real Grid testbed. This model is then used to explore the Grid's middleware configuration, and suggest improvements to its scheduling policy. The expansion of the simulation to include data analysis of the type conducted by particle physicists is then described. A variety of job and data management policies are explored, in order to determine how well they meet the needs of physicists, as well as how efficiently they make use of CPU and network resources. Appropriate performance indicators are introduced in order to measure how well jobs and resources are managed from different perspectives. The effects of inefficiencies in Grid middleware are explored, as are methods of compensating for them. It is demonstrated that a scheduling algorithm should alter its weighting on load balancing and data distribution, depending on whether data transfer or CPU requirements dominate, and also on the level of job loading. It is also shown that an economic model for data management and replication can improve the efficiency of network use and job processing.

  19. Short Term Energy Storage for Grid Support in Wind Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina; Diosi, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The penetration of wind power into the power system has been increasing in the recent years. Therefore, a lot of concerns related to the reliable operation of the power system have been addressed. An attractive solution to minimize the limitations faced by the wind power grid integration, and thus...... to increase the power system stability and the energy quality, is to integrate energy storage devices into wind power plants. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art short-term energy storage devices and presents several applications which can be provided by the energy storage device - wind power...

  20. Challenges and prospects for wind energy to attain 20% grid penetration by 2020 in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Natarajan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    With wind energy being the most realistic large-scale renewable energy source in the near future, we examine the target for wind energy penetration in India for 2020. Achieving the target set by the Indian Wind Power Association of 20% wind power grid penetration by 2020 will act as a lighthouse......-scale integration of wind power. In the article, we discuss the trends in the development of wind energy and the factors which we consider decisive for the development of wind power in India. Experiences and policies from Europe and Denmark, where wind power already today contributes 20% to the total electricity...

  1. Viability of using energy storage for frequency regulation on power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. S.; Hau, L. C.; Loh, K. Y.; Lim, K. Y.; Lyons, P. F.; Taylor, P. C.

    2018-05-01

    This project is about the development and integration of a real-time network simulator in the laboratory using hardware in the loop (HIL) for the purpose of frequency regulation. Frequency regulation is done using the energy storage system (ESS) and a real-time network test bed developed in the smart energy laboratory in Newcastle University. An IEEE Test System was built in the OPAL-RT network simulator to mimic the power grid with renewable energy sources. The study demonstrates the viability of using an ESS to regulate the frequency under an increased penetration of renewable energy sources.

  2. Energy Link Optimization in a Wireless Power Transfer Grid under Energy Autonomy Based on the Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimization method is proposed for the energy link in a wireless power transfer grid, which is a regional smart microgrid comprised of distributed devices equipped with wireless power transfer technology in a certain area. The relevant optimization model of the energy link is established by considering the wireless power transfer characteristics and the grid characteristics brought in by the device repeaters. Then, a concentration adaptive genetic algorithm (CAGA is proposed to optimize the energy link. The algorithm avoided the unification trend by introducing the concentration mechanism and a new crossover method named forward order crossover, as well as the adaptive parameter mechanism, which are utilized together to keep the diversity of the optimization solution groups. The results show that CAGA is feasible and competitive for the energy link optimization in different situations. This proposed algorithm performs better than its counterparts in the global convergence ability and the algorithm robustness.

  3. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  4. About the Need of Combining Power Market and Power Grid Model Results for Future Energy System Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Denis; Böttger, Diana; Löwer, Lothar; Becker, Holger; Akbulut, Alev; Stock, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    The European power grid infrastructure faces various challenges due to the expansion of renewable energy sources (RES). To conduct investigations on interactions between power generation and the power grid, models for the power market as well as for the power grid are necessary. This paper describes the basic functionalities and working principles of both types of models as well as steps to couple power market results and the power grid model. The combination of these models is beneficial in terms of gaining realistic power flow scenarios in the grid model and of being able to pass back results of the power flow and restrictions to the market model. Focus is laid on the power grid model and possible application examples like algorithms in grid analysis, operation and dynamic equipment modelling.

  5. Imaging properties and energy aberrations of a double-pass cylindrical-mirror electron energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, N.E.; Powell, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The imaging properties and energy aberrations of a commercial double-pass cylindrical-mirror analyzer have been characterized using an extension of the method recently reported by Seah and Mathieu. The electron beam from the coaxial electron gun was rastered across a test surface and the intensity of either elastically scattered electrons or of electrons at other selected energies was stored in a computer as a function of beam position on the specimen and other experimental parameters. The intensity data were later plotted to provide an ''image'' of the detected intensity. Images of this type are presented for electron energies of 100, 500, and 1000 eV and for the application of small offset voltages (typically between -1 and +5 V) between the analyzer and the gun cathode with the instrument operated in conditions appropriate for XPS or AES. Small offset voltages ( or approx. =5 V) lead to image shapes similar to those for the elastic peak but with 20%--40% increased widths. Deflection of the incident beam by up to 2 mm from the axis caused variations of up to +-0.15 eV in the measured positions of the elastic peak. Our observations can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of the known relationship between detected signal and combinations of position of electron emission from the specimen, angle of emission, and electron energy. The images obtained with elastically and inelastically scattered electrons provide a convenient and quantitative means of assessing instrument performance and of defining the specimen area being analyzed for the particular combination of instrument operating conditions and the energy width of AES or XPS features from the specimen

  6. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced. PMID:29315250

  7. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Claudia; Cioara, Tudor; Antal, Marcel; Anghel, Ionut; Salomie, Ioan; Bertoncini, Massimo

    2018-01-09

    In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.). In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  8. Blockchain Based Decentralized Management of Demand Response Programs in Smart Energy Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the use of decentralized blockchain mechanisms for delivering transparent, secure, reliable, and timely energy flexibility, under the form of adaptation of energy demand profiles of Distributed Energy Prosumers, to all the stakeholders involved in the flexibility markets (Distribution System Operators primarily, retailers, aggregators, etc.. In our approach, a blockchain based distributed ledger stores in a tamper proof manner the energy prosumption information collected from Internet of Things smart metering devices, while self-enforcing smart contracts programmatically define the expected energy flexibility at the level of each prosumer, the associated rewards or penalties, and the rules for balancing the energy demand with the energy production at grid level. Consensus based validation will be used for demand response programs validation and to activate the appropriate financial settlement for the flexibility providers. The approach was validated using a prototype implemented in an Ethereum platform using energy consumption and production traces of several buildings from literature data sets. The results show that our blockchain based distributed demand side management can be used for matching energy demand and production at smart grid level, the demand response signal being followed with high accuracy, while the amount of energy flexibility needed for convergence is reduced.

  9. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  10. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  11. Analysis Tools for Sizing and Placement of Energy Storage for Grid Applications - A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sadovsky, Artyom; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-09-24

    The purpose of this report was to review pertinent literature and studies that might reveal models capable of optimizing the siting, sizing and economic value of energy storage in the future smart grid infrastructure. Energy storage technology and utility system deployment have been subjects of intense research and development for over three decades. During this time, many models have been developed that consider energy storage implementation in the electric power industry and other applications. Nevertheless, this review of literature discovered no actual models and only a few software tools that relate specifically to the application environment and expected requirements of the evolving smart grid infrastructure. This report indicates the existing need for such a model and describes a pathway for developing it.

  12. Energy Efficient Refrigeration and Flexible Power Consumption in a Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Halvgaard, Rasmus; Larsen, Lars F.S.

    2011-01-01

    . With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices...... are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus...... is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation...

  13. A network approach to decentralized coordination of energy production-consumption grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Energy grids are facing a relatively new paradigm consisting in the formation of local distributed energy sources and loads that can operate in parallel independently from the main power grid (usually called microgrids). One of the main challenges in microgrid-like networks management is that of self-adapting to the production and demands in a decentralized coordinated way. Here, we propose a stylized model that allows to analytically predict the coordination of the elements in the network, depending on the network topology. Surprisingly, almost global coordination is attained when users interact locally, with a small neighborhood, instead of the obvious but more costly all-to-all coordination. We compute analytically the optimal value of coordinated users in random homogeneous networks. The methodology proposed opens a new way of confronting the analysis of energy demand-side management in networked systems.

  14. Development of an Advanced Grid-Connected PV-ECS System Considering Solar Energy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Yamashiro, Susumu; Nakamura, Koichi

    In this paper, the development and the performance of a viable distributed grid-connected power generation system of Photovoltaic-Energy Capacitor System (PV-ECS) considering solar energy estimation have been described. Instead of conventional battery Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are used as storage device and Photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate power from solar energy. The system can generate power by PV, store energy when the demand of load is low and finally supply the stored energy to load during the period of peak demand. To realize the load leveling function properly the system will also buy power from grid line when load demand is high. Since, the power taken from grid line depends on the PV output power, a procedure has been suggested to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. In order to set the optimum value of the buy power, a simulation program has also been developed. Performance of the system has been studied for different load patterns in different weather conditions by using the estimated PV output power with the help of the simulation program.

  15. 17. Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Structures and grids for the future energy supply; 17. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Strukturen und Netze fuer die Energieversorgung von Morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 17th Kassel symposium from 11th to 12th October, 2012, in Kassel (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) E-Energy - the art of flexibilization between market and regulation (Michael Wedler); (2) The model region Harz (Florian Schloegl); (3) The role of IKT at the transformation of the energy supply - Chances for new business ideas (Arnold Picot); (4) Standardized connection of plants to IEC 61850 (Martin Winter); (5) Implementation of a IKT infrastructure for a virtual power plant in the model region Harz (Manuel Wickert); (6) OGEMA2.0 - Smart grid meets smart home (David Nestle); (7) Evaluation of the grid stability of a purely regenerative power supply (Kaspar Knorr); (8) Biogas plants and storage for the integration of renewable energies (Patrick Hochloff); (9) moma Architecture and functions in the intelligent energy system (Andreas Kiessling); (10) Power hub - showing the full potential of the VPP technology (Andreas Bjerre); (11) Implementation of electricity grids, heat grids and traffic grids - Potentials, requirements and efficiencies (Wolfram Wellssow); (12) Exploration of the regional distribution grid as a basis for the implementation of smart grids using the RegModHarz project as an example (Christian Roehrig); (13) New design and works management of distribution grids in decentralized supply structures (Martin Braun); (14) Advantages and challenges of the coupling of natural gas distribution systems and power distribution systems (Herbert Bauer); (15) Acceptance of renewable energies in the region Harz (Amelie Fechner); (16) Business models for a future 100 per cent supply of renewable energies (Peer Ritter).

  16. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  17. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  18. Evaluating the Potential of Variable Renewable Energy for a Balanced Isolated Grid: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a global push to develop renewable energy to further a low-carbon society. However, the nature of variable renewable energy (VRE sources such as wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV systems may create problems because electricity grids require a stable power supply to match demand. To evaluate the potential capacity of VREs that may be installed, we develop an optimized model that balances power supply and demand and also considers grid balancing by battery storage and load frequency control. The model was applied to a case study of an isolated grid on a remote Japanese island. When set to optimize the grid in terms of lowest cost, the model suggested that, compared with the base case, the capacity of wind power should be increased by a factor of 1.7 and 15.8 for situations without and with battery storage, respectively. Since it was always considered to be more expensive than wind power, no change in solar PV capacity was observed. These approaches resulted in a decrease in the total power generation cost of 2% and 24%, respectively, while total CO2 emissions fell by 3% and 52%, primarily driven by decreased used of the existing fossil-fueled thermal plant.

  19. An Active Power Sharing Method among Distributed Energy Sources in an Islanded Series Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Man Yang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Active power-sharing among distributed energy sources (DESs is not only an important way to realize optimal operation of micro-grids, but also the key to maintaining stability for islanded operation. Due to the unique configuration of series micro-grids (SMGs, the power-sharing method adopted in an ordinary AC, DC, and hybrid AC/DC system cannot be directly applied into SMGs. Power-sharing in one SMG with multiple DESs involves two aspects. On the one hand, capacitor voltage stability based on an energy storage system (ESS in the DC link must be complemented. Actually, this is a problem of power allocation between the generating unit and the ESS in the DES; an extensively researched, similar problem has been grid-off distributed power generation, for which there are good solutions. On the other hand, power-sharing among DESs should be considered to optimize the operation of a series micro-grid. In this paper, a novel method combining master control with auxiliary control is proposed. Master action of a quasi-proportional resonant controller is responsible for stability of the islanded SMG; auxiliary action based on state of charge (SOC realizes coordinated allocation of load power among the source. At the same time, it is important to ensure that the auxiliary control does not influence the master action.

  20. Development of a Hydrogen Energy System as a Grid Frequency Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Mitch [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Rocheleau, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen [U.S. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Virji, Meheboob [GRandalytics, Honolulu, HI (United States); Randolph, Guenter [Hydrogen Renewable Energy System Analysis, Pickering, ON (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    The Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is conducting research to assess the technical potential of using an electrolyzer-based hydrogen (H2) production and storage system as a grid demand response tool using battery data from a 200 MW grid to show the kind of response required. The hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer is used for transportation. A 65 kg/day hydrogen energy system (HES) consisting of a PEM electrolyzer, 35 bar buffer tank, 450 bar compressor, and associated chiller systems was purchased and installed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Laboratory Hawaii Authority (NELHA) to demonstrate long-term durability of the electrolyzer under cyclic operation required for frequency regulation on an island grid system. The excess hydrogen was stored for use by three fuel-cell buses to be operated at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) and by the County of Hawai‘i Mass Transit Agency (MTA). This paper describes the site selection and equipment commissioning, plus a comprehensive test plan that was developed to characterize the performance and durability of the electrolyzer under dynamic load conditions. The controls were modified for the operating envelope and dynamic limits of the electrolyzer. While the data showed these modifications significantly improved the system response time, it is not fast enough to match a BESS response time for grid frequency management. The electrolyzer can only be used for slower acting changes (1 to 0.5 Hz). A potential solution is to design an electrolyzer/BESS hybrid system and develop a modeling program to find the optimum mix of battery and electrolyzer to provide the maximum grid regulation services at minimum cost.

  1. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  2. CERISE - Combining energy and spatial information standards as enabler for smart grids - TKI smart grid project : TKISG01010 - D4.1 Semantic mappings to harmonize energy, geo and government-related information models. Work package 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Knibbe, F.; Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Stap, R.; Daniele, L.

    2015-01-01

    Version 1.0 - Final The CERISE-SG project (Combining Energy and Geo information standards as enabler for Smart Grids) focuses on interoperability with a special interest in the information exchanges between smart grids and their surroundings. We hereby focus on the exchange of information to and

  3. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    A preliminary feasibility analysis of a grid-connected ICES in the City of Independence, Missouri, is presented. It is found that the ICES concept can be made feasible in Independence by employing a 20-MW coal-fired boiler and turbine and using waste heat to provide the energy for heating and cooling commercial facilities with over 3 million square feet of floor space. When fully loaded thermally, the ICES results in favorable fuel utilization and energy conservation in comparison to conventional energy systems. The City of Independence is experienced with all of the institutional factors that may impact the ICES Demonstration Project.

  4. Design, architecture and implementation of a residential energy box management tool in a SmartGrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioakimidis, Christos S.; Oliveira, Luís J.; Genikomsakis, Konstantinos N.; Dallas, Panagiotis I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the EB (energy box) concept in the context of the V2G (vehicle-to-grid) technology to address the energy management needs of a modern residence, considering that the available infrastructure includes micro-renewable energy sources in the form of solar and wind power, the electricity loads consist of “smart” and conventional household appliances, while the battery of an EV (electric vehicle) plays the role of local storage. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective DSP (dynamic stochastic programming) model in order to maximize comfort and lifestyle preferences and minimize cost. Combining the DSP model that controls the EB operation with a neural network based approach for simulating the thermal model of a building, a set of scenarios are examined to exemplify the applicability of the proposed energy management tool. The EB is capable of working under real-time tariff and placing bids in electricity markets both as a stand-alone option and integrated in a SmartGrid paradigm, where a number of EBs are managed by an aggregator. The results obtained for the Portuguese tertiary electricity market indicate that this approach has the potential to compete as an ancillary service and sustain business with benefits for both the microgrid and residence occupants. - Highlights: • The energy box is a residential energy management tool in the context of V2G (vehicle-to-grid). • Multi-objective dynamic stochastic programming is used to model the energy box. • The energy box is working under real-time electricity pricing. • The proposed implementation is capable of placing bids in electricity markets. • The results indicate its potential to compete in the Portuguese tertiary market

  5. Competitive energy consumption under transmission constraints in a multi-supplier power grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Ivan; Krylatov, Alexander; Zakharov, Victor; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Power grid architectures need to be revised in order to manage the increasing number of producers and, more generally, the decentralisation of energy production and distribution. In this work, we describe a multi-supplier multi-consumer congestion model of a power grid, where the costs of consumers depend on the congestion in nodes and arcs of the power supply network. The consumer goal is both to meet their energy demand and to minimise the costs. We show that the methods of non-atomic routing can be applied in this model in order to describe current distribution in the network. We formulate a consumer cost minimisation game for this setting, and discuss the challenges arising in equilibrium search for this game.

  6. Direct AC–AC grid interface converter for ocean wave energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel power grid interface converter for ocean wave energy system. • Unlike conventional approach, generator output is directly converted into fixed frequency AC for synchronous connection. • High conversion efficient and power quality could be achieved. - Abstract: Ocean wave energy is very promising. However, existing systems are using rectifying circuits to convert variable voltage and variable frequency output of electric generator into DC voltage and then use grid-tied inverter to connect to the power grid. Such arrangement will not only reduce the overall efficient but also increase the cost of the system. A direct AC–AC converter is a desirable solution. In this paper, a six-switch AC–AC converter has been proposed as a single phase grid-connected interface. New switching scheme has been derived for the converter such that the virtual input AC–DC conversion and the output DC–AC conversion can be decoupled. State-space averaging model and pulse width modulation scheme have been derived for the converter. As the input and the output operations can be decoupled, two independent controllers have been designed to handle the input AC–DC regulation and the output DC–AC regulation. The proposed scheme demands for two separate duty ratios and novel switching scheme has been derived to realize the combined duty ratios in one switching cycle. Power regulation, harmonics elimination and power factor correction control algorithms have also been derived for the converter when it is connected to the supply grid. Experimental results of a small scale model are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed switching and control schemes

  7. The potential of energy behaviours in a smart(er) grid: Policy implications from a Portuguese exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Marta A.R.; Antunes, Carlos Henggeler; Janda, Kathryn B.; Peixoto, Paulo; Martins, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The transition to smart grids is an on-going process that may both shape and be shaped by end-users' energy behavioural adaptations. This study explores current and potential energy behavioural adaptations in Portugal during the smart grid transition process. A web-based survey was made to a representative sample of a specific segment of Portuguese residential end-users. The survey evaluated current energy behaviours and hypothetical future behaviours in a dynamic pricing scenario. Results sh...

  8. U.S. Laws and Regulations for Renewable Energy Grid Interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geller, Nina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly declining costs of wind and solar energy technologies, increasing concerns about the environmental and climate change impacts of fossil fuels, and sustained investment in renewable energy projects all point to a not-so-distant future in which renewable energy plays a pivotal role in the electric power system of the 21st century. In light of public pressures and market factors that hasten the transition towards a low-carbon system, power system planners and regulators are preparing to integrate higher levels of variable renewable generation into the grid. Updating the regulations that govern generator interconnections and operations is crucial to ensure system reliability while creating an enabling environment for renewable energy development. This report presents a chronological review of energy laws and regulations concerning grid interconnection procedures in the United States, highlighting the consequences of policies for renewable energy interconnections. Where appropriate, this report places interconnection policies and their impacts on renewable energy within the broader context of power market reform.

  9. Evaluating the benefits of an electrical energy storage system in a future smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, N.S.; Taylor, P.C.; Lang, P.D.; Jones, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in electrical energy storage systems is increasing as the opportunities for their application become more compelling in an industry with a back-drop of ageing assets, increasing distributed generation and a desire to transform networks into Smart Grids. A field trial of an energy storage system designed and built by ABB is taking place on a section of 11 kV distribution network operated by EDF Energy Networks in Great Britain. This paper reports on the findings from simulation software developed at Durham University that evaluates the benefits brought by operating an energy storage system in response to multiple events on multiple networks. The tool manages the allocation of a finite energy resource to achieve the most beneficial shared operation across two adjacent areas of distribution network. Simulations account for the key energy storage system parameters of capacity and power rating. Results for events requiring voltage control and power flow management show how the choice of operating strategy influences the benefits achieved. The wider implications of these results are discussed to provide an assessment of the role of electrical energy storage systems in future Smart Grids.

  10. Next generation molten NaI batteries for grid scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leo J.; Eccleston, Alexis; Lamb, Joshua; Read, Andrew C.; Robins, Matthew; Meaders, Thomas; Ingersoll, David; Clem, Paul G.; Bhavaraju, Sai; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2017-08-01

    Robust, safe, and reliable grid-scale energy storage continues to be a priority for improved energy surety, expanded integration of renewable energy, and greater system agility required to meet modern dynamic and evolving electrical energy demands. We describe here a new sodium-based battery based on a molten sodium anode, a sodium iodide/aluminum chloride (NaI/AlCl3) cathode, and a high conductivity NaSICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) ceramic separator. This NaI battery operates at intermediate temperatures (120-180 °C) and boasts an energy density of >150 Wh kg-1. The energy-dense NaI-AlCl3 ionic liquid catholyte avoids lifetime-limiting plating and intercalation reactions, and the use of earth-abundant elements minimizes materials costs and eliminates economic uncertainties associated with lithium metal. Moreover, the inherent safety of this system under internal mechanical failure is characterized by negligible heat or gas production and benign reaction products (Al, NaCl). Scalability in design is exemplified through evolution from 0.85 to 10 Ah (28 Wh) form factors, displaying lifetime average Coulombic efficiencies of 99.45% and energy efficiencies of 81.96% over dynamic testing lasting >3000 h. This demonstration promises a safe, cost-effective, and long-lifetime technology as an attractive candidate for grid scale storage.

  11. A methodology for analysis of impacts of grid integration of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Mel; Banerjee, Rangan

    2011-01-01

    Present electricity grids are predominantly thermal (coal, gas) and hydro based. Conventional power planning involves hydro-thermal scheduling and merit order dispatch. In the future, modern renewables (hydro, solar and biomass) are likely to have a significant share in the power sector. This paper presents a method to analyse the impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. A load duration curve based approach has been developed. Renewable energy sources have been treated as negative loads to obtain a modified load duration curve from which capacity savings in terms of base and peak load generation can be computed. The methodology is illustrated for solar, wind and biomass power for Tamil Nadu (a state in India). The trade-offs and interaction between renewable sources are analysed. The impacts on capacity savings by varying the wind regime have also been shown. Scenarios for 2021-22 have been constructed to illustrate the methodology proposed. This technique can be useful for power planners for an analysis of renewables in future electricity grids. - Research highlights: → A new method to analyse impacts of renewables in the electricity grid. → Effects of wind, solar PV and biomass power on load duration curve and capacity savings are shown. → Illustration of intermittent renewables and their interplay for sites in India and the UK. → Future scenarios constructed for generation expansion planning with higher levels of renewable.

  12. Shining the light on smart grid investments : a Duke energy case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Utilities and other agencies must fully consider the costs, benefits, and strategies required for smart grid implementation. While pilot programs are useful for evaluating the features of utility smart grid applications, they do not provide an accurate account of peak period load savings for utility service areas over time. In addition, many factors are likely to influence peak hour electricity in the future, and may also influence smart grid savings projections. In this study, the market analysis and information system (MAISY) residential agent-based model was used to simulate a smart grid program at the individual customer level by smoothing individual central air conditioner and heating hourly loads over peak hours. The model was developed to reflect utility and customer-sited control technologies as well as reductions in electricity use based on price responsiveness. The model provided a more reliable simulation approach than aggregate elasticity modelling methods as it was able to estimate hourly load reductions based on real end use data. A case study of the Duke Energy Indiana service area was used to demonstrate the model. 3 figs.

  13. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...

  14. Blockchain for Smart Grid Resilience: Exchanging Distributed Energy at Speed, Scale and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylrea, Michael E.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2017-09-18

    Blockchain may help solve several complex problems related to integrity and trustworthiness of rapid, distributed, complex energy transactions and data exchanges. In a move towards resilience, blockchain commoditizes trust and enables automated smart contracts to support auditable multiparty transactions based on predefined rules between distributed energy providers and customers. Blockchain based smart contracts also help remove the need to interact with third-parties, facilitating the adoption and monetization of distributed energy transactions and exchanges, both energy flows as well as financial transactions. This may help reduce transactive energy costs and increase the security and sustainability of distributed energy resource (DER) integration, helping to remove barriers to a more decentralized and resilient power grid.

  15. Potential Evaluation of Energy Supply System in Grid Power System, Commercial, and Residential Sectors by Minimizing Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If the economic activity in the commercial and residential sector continues to grow, improvement in energy conversion efficiencies of energy supply systems is necessary for CO2 mitigation. In recent years, the electricity driven hot water heat pump (EDHP) and the solar photo voltaic (PV) are commercialized. The fuel cell (FC) of co-generation system (CGS) for the commercial and residential sector will be commercialized in the future. The aim is to indicate the ideal energy supply system of the users sector, which both manages the economical cost and CO2 mitigation, considering the grid power system. In the paper, cooperative Japanese energy supply systems are modeled by linear-programming. It includes the grid power system and energy systems of five commercial sectors and a residential sector. The demands of sectors are given by the objective term for 2005 to 2025. 24 hours load for each 3 annual seasons are considered. The energy systems are simulated to be minimize the total cost of energy supply, and to be mitigate the CO2 discharge. As result, the ideal energy system at 2025 is shown. The CGS capacity grows to 30% (62GW) of total power system, and the EDHP capacity is 26GW, in commercial and residential sectors.

  16. Renewable generation and demand response integration in micro-grids. Development of a new energy management and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Bel, C.; Escriva-Escriva, G.; Alcazar-Ortega, M. [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this research resides in the development of an energy management and control system to control a micro-grid based on the use of renewable generation and demand resources to introduce the application of demand response concepts to the management of micro-grids in order to effectively integrate the demand side as an operation resource for the grid and improve energy efficiency of the elements. As an additional result, the evaluation of reductions in the total amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere due to the improvement of the energy efficiency of the system is assessed.

  17. Sustainable Development of Renewable Energy Mini-grids for Energy Access: A Framework for Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gambhir, Ashwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We emphasize the importance of concurrently considering all components of a mini-grid policy, designing each component through the lenses of different stakeholders, and fostering mini-grids as an integral part of a country’s electricity access efforts. Policymakers have multiple options, and it is the combination of these in the institutional and financial capacity of the government context that will decide the success of the program. There are no silver bullet solutions, but a thorough understanding of the existing technical and institutional capacities, as well as the stakeholders’ interests and sociocultural context will enable the design of an effective policy instrument.

  18. A manganese-hydrogen battery with potential for grid-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Guodong; Pei, Allen; Li, Yuzhang; Liao, Lei; Wang, Hongxia; Wan, Jiayu; Liang, Zheng; Chen, Guangxu; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jiangyan; Cui, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Batteries including lithium-ion, lead-acid, redox-flow and liquid-metal batteries show promise for grid-scale storage, but they are still far from meeting the grid's storage needs such as low cost, long cycle life, reliable safety and reasonable energy density for cost and footprint reduction. Here, we report a rechargeable manganese-hydrogen battery, where the cathode is cycled between soluble Mn2+ and solid MnO2 with a two-electron reaction, and the anode is cycled between H2 gas and H2O through well-known catalytic reactions of hydrogen evolution and oxidation. This battery chemistry exhibits a discharge voltage of 1.3 V, a rate capability of 100 mA cm-2 (36 s of discharge) and a lifetime of more than 10,000 cycles without decay. We achieve a gravimetric energy density of 139 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 210 Wh l-1), with the theoretical gravimetric energy density of 174 Wh kg-1 (volumetric energy density of 263 Wh l-1) in a 4 M MnSO4 electrolyte. The manganese-hydrogen battery involves low-cost abundant materials and has the potential to be scaled up for large-scale energy storage.

  19. North-East Asian Super Grid: Renewable energy mix and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Christian; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Komoto, Keiichi; Ehara, Tomoki; Song, Jinsoo; Enebish, Namjil

    2015-08-01

    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and country-wide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW·h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30-40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources-based energy system is THE real policy option.

  20. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  1. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA.Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40 and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well-being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  2. Public acceptance and preferences related to renewable energy and grid expansion policy: Empirical insights for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Valentin; Hall, Margeret; Weinhardt, Christof; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of renewable energy sources (RES) in many European countries brings about transmission grid expansion requirements. While the transition towards RES-based energy systems is largely perceived positively in general, locally both RES and grid expansion are often confronted with a lack of public acceptance. Using Germany as a case study, we analyse public acceptance of energy infrastructure and its main drivers on local vs. national levels. For this purpose, we conducted a nationally representative survey. Our results show that, on a national level, the acceptance of RES is very high and there is also a high acceptance of grid expansion if it helps to increase the share of RES in the system. In terms of local acceptance problems that may arise for most considered technologies, concerns about landscape modification turn out to be the main driving factor. Moreover, the distance between places of residence and places of energy infrastructure construction is crucial. While acceptance or rejection of technologies will never be entirely tangible or explicable, we find the explicability of rejections to be lowest for new technologies. Finally, age and education turn out to be the most relevant socio-demographic variables determining the participants' acceptance. - Highlights: • A survey to understand drivers of energy technology acceptance was conducted. • Participants were asked to rank energy policy objectives. • Strong differences between acceptance on a national vs. a local level were found. • Landscape modification is the most important factor driving the local acceptance. • Age and education turned out to be the most relevant socio-demographic factors.

  3. A 100% Renewable Energy Scenario for the Java-Bali Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Guenther

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many countries try to satisfy their energy needs with an increasing usage of renewable resources. The general motivations, with varying weighting in the different countries, are ecological reasons, concerns about energy security, and economical considerations. A for now rather theoretical question, although interesting for opening a long-term perspective, is how an energy supply from exclusively renewable energy resources could look like. This question has to be answered individually for any specific energy supply system. The present paper has the objective to present and evaluate a scenario for an electricity supply only from renewable energy resources for the Java-Bali grid. After designing a load time series for the year 2050 for the Java-Bali grid, a scenario is developed how to cover the load with electricity from renewable energy resources alone. Assumptions about the usable energy sources are made as well as assumptions about the available power plant capacity or energy potential. A specific challenge is the fact that solar energy must be the main source in such a renewable-energy based system, which comes with the need for a large storage capacity to match the power supply at any time with the load. Several possibilities are presented how to bring down the storage capacity: the increment of the installed PV capacity, the usage of bioenergy for seasonal balancing, and the complementation of the proposed short-term storage with an additional long-term storage. The study shows some of the specific challenges that a gradual transformation of the current electricity supply system on Java and Bali into a renewable-energy-based one would face and gives some hints about how to cope with these challenges. Scenarios like the one designed in this study are an important tool for decision-makers who face the task to scrutinize the consequences of choosing between different development paths.   Article History: Received: August 15th 2017

  4. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Sonnenschein@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Lünsdorf, Ontje, E-mail: Ontje.Luensdorf@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany); Bremer, Jörg, E-mail: Joerg.Bremer@Uni-Oldenburg.DE [University of Oldenburg, Department of Computing Science, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Tröschel, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Troeschel@OFFIS.DE [OFFIS Institute for Information Technology, Escherweg 2, D-26121 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  5. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  6. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    electricity market and diminish the business cases for these technologies by increasing the costs of their electricity consumption. With the present tariff structure, only a very small part of the flexibility potential is deployed or operated flexible. In this paper we compare two different grid tariff...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  7. Sizing Study of Second Life Li-ion Batteries for Enhancing Renewable Energy Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    Renewable power plants must comply with certain codes and requirements to be connected to the grid, being the ramp rate compliance one of the most challenging requirements, especially for photovoltaic or wind energy generation plants. Battery based energy storage systems represent a promising...... economically viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal sizing of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS). SLBESS performance is also validated and, as an ultimate step, the power exchanged with the batteries...... solution due to the fast dynamics of electrochemical storage systems, besides their scalability and flexibility. However, large-scale battery energy storage systems are still too expensive to be a mass market solution for the renewable energy resources integration. Thus, in order to make battery investment...

  8. The strategic role of power grids in the implementation of a European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of low carbon and renewable energies, the World is living a third energy revolution. In this new context, the European Union has adopted an ambitious energy policy with a triple objective: reducing the volume of carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere in order to fight against a possible disastrous climatic change, increasing the security of its energy supplies by limiting its fossil fuels dependence and by reinforcing the solidarity between member states in particular during crisis situation, and completing the building up of domestic electricity and gas markets by a better integration of these markets at the European scale and in relation with neighboring areas (Mediterranean region, Russia). This article explains the key of success of such a policy: a prominent part of electricity in the European energy mix, with a strategic role given to power grids

  9. High-Capacity Hydrogen-Based Green-Energy Storage Solutions For The Grid Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Screnci, A.

    One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they still represent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is today achievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs. Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has been emerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU.

  10. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  11. 75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-9-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind, and the Massachusetts... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, (2010...

  12. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  13. VDE congress 2012 Smart Grid. Intelligent energy supply of the future. Lectures; VDE-Kongress 2012 Smart Grid. Intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft. Kongressbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The optimal design of the process of energy production and power distribution conserving resources requires an intensive interdisciplinary cooperation between engineers of different disciplines. A major challenge for a functioning, nationwide infrastructure comes along that will result in new business models and business processes. The VDE Congress 'Smart Grids' on 5th to 6th November 2012 at the International Congress Center Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) enables an intensive knowledge exchange due to the following six topics: Smart home; intelligent load management; smart metering and business models; network infrastructure; smart grid applications / services; society and resources. The range of presentations from overview lectures to specialist presentations on important aspects of the smart grid is a particular feature of this event.

  14. Development of a secondary electron energy analyzer for a transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magara, Hideyuki; Tomita, Takeshi; Kondo, Yukihito; Sato, Takafumi; Akase, Zentaro; Shindo, Daisuke

    2018-04-01

    A secondary electron (SE) energy analyzer was developed for a transmission electron microscope. The analyzer comprises a microchannel plate (MCP) for detecting electrons, a coil for collecting SEs emitted from the specimen, a tube for reducing the number of backscattered electrons incident on the MCP, and a retarding mesh for selecting the energy of SEs incident on the MCP. The detection of the SEs associated with charging phenomena around a charged specimen was attempted by performing electron holography and SE spectroscopy using the energy analyzer. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain the energy spectra of SEs using the analyzer and the charging states of a specimen by electron holography simultaneously.

  15. Shapley Value-Based Payment Calculation for Energy Exchange between Micro- and Utility Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Pilling

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, microgrids have developed as important parts of power systems and have provided affordable, reliable, and sustainable supplies of electricity. Each microgrid is managed as a single controllable entity with respect to the existing power system but demands for joint operation and sharing the benefits between a microgrid and its hosting utility. This paper is focused on the joint operation of a microgrid and its hosting utility, which cooperatively minimize daily generation costs through energy exchange, and presents a payment calculation scheme for power transactions based on a fair allocation of reduced generation costs. To fairly compensate for energy exchange between the micro- and utility grids, we adopt the cooperative game theoretic solution concept of Shapley value. We design a case study for a fictitious interconnection model between the Mueller microgrid in Austin, Texas and the utility grid in Taiwan. Our case study shows that when compared to standalone generations, both the micro- and utility grids are better off when they collaborate in power exchange regardless of their individual contributions to the power exchange coalition.

  16. Distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency as alternatives to grid capacity enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2014-01-01

    The need for investment in capital intensive electricity networks is on the rise in many countries. A major advantage of distributed resources is their potential for deferring investments in distribution network capacity. However, utilizing the full benefits of these resources requires addressing several technical, economic and regulatory challenges. A significant barrier pertains to the lack of an efficient market mechanism that enables this concept and also is consistent with business model of distribution companies under an unbundled power sector paradigm. This paper proposes a market-oriented approach termed as “contract for deferral scheme” (CDS). The scheme outlines how an economically efficient portfolio of distributed generation, storage, demand response and energy efficiency can be integrated as network resources to reduce the need for grid capacity and defer demand driven network investments. - Highlights: • The paper explores a practical framework for smart electricity distribution grids. • The aim is to defer large capital investments in the network by utilizing and incentivising distributed generation, demand response, energy efficiency and storage as network resources. • The paper discusses a possible new market model that enables integration of distributed resources as alternative to grid capacity enhancement

  17. Smart thermal grid with integration of distributed and centralized solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Libing; Entchev, Evgueniy; Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Smart thermal grids (STGs) are able to perform the same function as classical grids, but are developed in order to make better use of distributed, possibly intermittent, thermal energy resources and to provide the required energy when needed through efficient resources utilization and intelligent management. District heating (DH) plays a significant role in the implementation of future smart energy systems. To fulfil its role, DH technologies must be further developed to integrate renewable resources, create low-temperature networks, and consequently to make existing or new DH networks ready for integration into future STGs. Solar heating is a promising option for low-temperature DH systems. Thermal energy storage (TES) can make the availability of the energy supply match the demand. An integration of centralized seasonal and distributed short-term thermal storages would facilitate an efficient recovery of the solar energy. This study, through modelling and simulation, investigates the impacts of such integration on the overall performance of a community-level solar DH system. The performance analysis results show that the solar DH system with integration of distributed and centralized seasonal TESs improves system overall efficiency, and reduces DH network heat losses, primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, in comparison to the one without integration. - Highlights: • STG should be designed to store energy in the most efficient way at the most effective location. • Integration of centralized seasonal and distributed TESs in a solar DH system is proposed. • Performance of such integrated solar DH system is evaluated and compared to the one without. • The integration results in reduction of primary energy consumption and GHG emission. • The integration improves the overall efficiency of the total solar energy system.

  18. Flowable Conducting Particle Networks in Redox-Active Electrolytes for Grid Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributions (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Furthermore, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.

  19. A hybrid renewable energy system for a North American off-grid community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Khan, Md. Mohib-Ul-Haque; Ullah, Mohammad Ahsan; Zhang, Xiaolei; Kumar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Canada has many isolated communities that are not connected to the electrical grid. Most of these communities meet their electricity demand through stand-alone diesel generators. Diesel generators have economic and environmental concerns that can be minimized by using hybrid renewable energy technologies. This study aims to assess the implementation of a hybrid energy system for an off-grid community in Canada and to propose the best hybrid energy combination to reliably satisfy electricity demand. Seven scenarios were developed: 1) 100% renewable resources, 2) 80% renewable resources, 3) 65% renewable resources, 4) 50% renewable resources, 5) 35% renewable resources, 6) 21% renewable resources, and 7) battery-diesel generators (0% renewable resources). A case study for the remote community of Sandy Lake, Ontario, was conducted. Hybrid systems were chosen to meet the requirements of a 4.4 MWh/day primary load with a 772 kW peak load. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to assess the impact of solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price, CO 2 penalty cost, and project interest rate on optimum results. A GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement cost was assessed for each scenario. Considering GHG emission penalty cost, the costs of electricity for the seven scenarios are $1.48/kWh, $0.62/kWh, $0.54/kWh, $0.42/kWh, $0.39/kWh, $0.37/kWh, and $0.36/kWh. - Highlights: • Modeling of hybrid renewable energy systems for an off-grid community. • Seven scenarios were developed based on various renewable energy fractions. • Cost of electricity is the highest for 100% renewable fraction scenario. • CO 2 emissions are reduced by 1232 tonnes/yr by switching from diesel to renewables. • The electricity cost is most sensitive to diesel price based on sensitivity analysis.

  20. From the Web to the Grid and beyond computing paradigms driven by high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Federico; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    Born after World War II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has found itself limited ever since by available accelerator, detector and computing technologies. Accordingly, HEP has made significant contributions to the development of these fields, more often than not driving their innovations. The invention of the World Wide Web at CERN is merely the best-known example out of many. This book is the first comprehensive account to trace the history of this pioneering spirit in the field of computing technologies. It covers everything up to and including the present-day handling of the huge demands imposed upon grid and distributed computing by full-scale LHC operations - operations which have for years involved many thousands of collaborating members worldwide and accordingly provide the original and natural testbed for grid computing concepts. This book takes the reader on a guided tour encompassing all relevant topics, including programming languages, software engineering, large databases, the ...

  1. McRunjob: A High Energy Physics Workflow Planner for Grid Production Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, G E; Bertram, I; Graham, Gregory E.; Evans, Dave; Bertram, Iain

    2003-01-01

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described at CHEP 2001, McRunjob converts core metadata into jobs submittable in a variety of environments. The powerful core metadata description language includes methods for converting the metadata into persistent forms, job descriptions, multi-step workflows, and data provenance information. The language features allow for structure in the metadata by including full expressions, namespaces, functional dependencies, site specific parameters in a grid environment, and ontological definitions. It also has simple control structures for parallelization of large jobs. McRunjob features a modular design which allows for easy expansion to new job d...

  2. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable.

  3. Smart electric grids, a market on the edge of energy and domotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    'Intelligence' - a word derived from intelligentia in Latin, made up of the prefix inte- ('between') and the root legere ('choose, pick') or ligare ('link') - refers to all thought processes that enable a living being to adapt to new situations, to learn or understand and, above all, to act. Intelligence without action is futile. Artificial intelligence is now being installed on everyday objects. Everything is becoming 'smart': homes, buildings, grids... and, above all, the energy sector. Using the example of smart electric grids, this article establishes a few links between information and communication technology and the environmental transition in order to show that, if these two trends converge. A new type of economy - perhaps a smart economy - could emerge

  4. The evolution of the electric power grid within the energy transition. Breakfast of 8 February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Katrien; ); Bendtsen, Bendt; ); Derdevet, Michel; Duerr, Matthias; Laffaye, Herve

    2017-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions, questions and answers of a meeting gathering French and Danish representatives of political parties, electric utilities and European bodies which addressed issues related to the evolution of the electric power grid within a context of energy transition. Several issues have been addressed. First, the approach adopted by institutional actors like the European Commission and Parliament with a priority given to grid infrastructures to ensure interconnection between all member States, a financial support for the associated investments, and a European governance. Second, the approach adopted by operators in charge of networks, transport and distribution to face a change in the business model, an increasing financial burden, the issue of acceptability of works, future evolutions and innovations, and a closer collaboration

  5. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  6. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  7. Analyzing grid extension and stand-alone photovoltaic systems for the cost-effective electrification of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne; Pachauri, Shonali; Schmid, Erwin; Schmidt, Johannes; Worrell, Ernst|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106856715; Morawetz, Ulrich B.

    2015-01-01

    The declaration of 2014-2024 as the Decade of Sustainable Energy for All has catalyzed actions towards achieving universal electricity access. The high costs of building electric infrastructure are a major impediment to improved access, making stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems an attractive

  8. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  9. Smart grids: A paradigm shift on energy generation and distribution with the emergence of a new energy management business model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Jesus Alvaro

    An energy and environmental crisis will emerge throughout the world if we continue with our current practices of generation and distribution of electricity. A possible solution to this problem is based on the Smart grid concept, which is heavily influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although the electricity industry is mostly regulated, there are global models used as roadmaps for Smart Grids' implementation focusing on technologies and the basic generation-distribution-transmission model. This project aims to further enhance a business model for a future global deployment. It takes into consideration the many factors interacting in this energy provision process, based on the diffusion of technologies and literature surveys on the available documents in the Internet as well as peer-reviewed publications. Tariffs and regulations, distributed energy generation, integration of service providers, consumers becoming producers, self-healing devices, and many other elements are shifting this industry into a major change towards liberalization and deregulation of this sector, which has been heavily protected by the government due to the importance of electricity for consumers. We propose an Energy Management Business Model composed by four basic elements: Supply Chain, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Stakeholders Response, and the resulting Green Efficient Energy (GEE). We support the developed model based on the literature survey, we support it with the diffusion analysis of these elements, and support the overall model with two surveys: one for peers and professionals, and other for experts in the field, based on the Smart Grid Carnegie Melon Maturity Model (CMU SEI SGMM). The contribution of this model is a simple path to follow for entities that want to achieve environmental friendly energy with the involvement of technology and all stakeholders.

  10. The energy market model. What is the space for smart grid service concepts; Het energiemarktmodel. Wat is de ruimte voor smart grid dienstverleningsconcepten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, A.; Niesten, E.; Alkemade, F. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Maandag, M. [DNV Kema, Arnhem (Netherlands); Van Melle, T.; Haaksma, V. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Beek, K. [Stedin, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The report provides starters in the Dutch energy market an overview of how the current model, focusing on centralized power generation, works. The report also shows how the energy market model should work to promote decentralized renewable electricity production and new smart grid services. It also discusses in detail questions about the energy market model various actors might have [Dutch] Het rapport geeft starters op de Nederlandse energiemarkt een overzicht hoe het huidige model, gericht op centrale elektriciteitsproductie, in elkaar steekt. Ook laat het rapport zien hoe het energiemarktmodel zou moeten werken om decentrale duurzame elektriciteitsproductie en nieuwe smart grid diensten te bevorderen. Daarbij wordt uitgebreid ingegaan op vragen over het energiemarktmodel die leven bij verschillende actoren.

  11. On the way towards smart energy supply in cities: The impact of interconnecting geographically distributed district heating grids on the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, D. F.; Bačeković, I.; Sveinbjörnsson, D.

    2017-01-01

    assessed. Moreover, the impact of industrial waste heat on the DH supply was also assessed. In the reference year (2013) two out of four interconnections proved to be economically viable. The results for the future energy system (2029) showed that interconnecting geographically distributed DH grids reduces...... of the future energy supply system with interconnected DH grids and installed industrial waste heat recuperation results in the lowest primary energy demand, emissions and costs. Finally, the benefits of the interconnected DH grid, in terms of system flexibility, CO2 emissions, total costs and energy efficiency...... primary energy supply by 9.5%, CO2 emissions by 11.1% and total system costs by 6.3%. Inclusion of industrial waste heat in the fully interconnected DH grid reduced primary energy supply for an additional 3%, CO2 emissions for an additional 2.2% and total system costs for an additional 1.3%. The case...

  12. Wholesale energy market in a smart grid. Dynamic modeling, stability, and robustness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiani Bejestani, Arman

    2013-01-24

    The recent paradigm shift in the architecture of the smart grid is driven by the need to integrate Renewable Energy Resources (RER), the availability of information through communication networks, and an emerging policy of demand that is intertwined with pricing. A major component of this architecture is the design of electricity markets, which pertains to the optimal scheduling of power generation and reserve requirements. The challenge is to carry out this scheduling with a high level of integration of renewable generation sources, a formidable task due to intermittency and uncertainty. Introducing huge intermittency and uncertainty in the smart grid will demand a dynamic framework for addressing the operation, scheduling and financial settlements in the uncertain environment. The temporal components in scheduling generation are necessary due to increasing penetration of renewable sources, and increasing potential of adjustable demand via Demand Response (DR). The former brings issues of strong intermittency and uncertainty, and the latter brings a feedback structure, where demand can be modulated over a range of time-scales. Both of these components are dictating a new look at market mechanisms, with a controls viewpoint enabling a novel framework for analysis and synthesis. This dissertation provides static and dynamic models that capture the various aspects of electrical power systems, including the dynamics of market participants, the physical and technical constraints of power systems, and the uncertainty of RER. The proposed models shed new light on wholesale electricity market design, allowing an understanding to be gained of how to create markets, which enhance the stability of price profiles, and efficiency of the power systems, in the presence of uncertain demand and intermittent resources. The notion of market equilibrium in the presence of RER and DR is presented. The effects of uncertainties due to forecast errors in RER and variations due to DR on

  13. On the contribution of renewable energies for feeding a high altitude Smart Mini Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proietti, Stefania; Sdringola, Paolo; Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Off-grid renewable power generation in a smart mini-grid perspective. • Direct measurements and CFD simulation for energy resources and consumption. • Detailed distribution of wind resource in the Khumbu Valley, Everest region, Nepal. • PV/wind system with storage device, for emergency and permanent scenarios. • Important wind contribution to the energy balance and positive environmental assessment. - Abstract: Governments around the world strive to achieve ambitious targets of incorporating considerable amounts of distributed renewable generation and combined heat and power, in response to the climate-change challenge and the need to enhance fuel diversity. The scientific interest is moving toward off-grid power generation systems, based on conventional and/or renewable sources, often coupled with storage devices, which distribute power through a local grid network. This approach, applied to increase electricity access especially in remote areas, is effective to reduce poverty, mitigate climate change and improve the resilience. In this framework, the paper presents the assessment of different renewable sources for power generation in Nepal, aimed to (i) optimize the energy fluxes, (ii) evaluate the long term energy balance by comparing productions and consumption, (iii) preliminary size a multiple input/output storage device on the basis of specific boundary conditions. The study is geographically set within the Khumbu Valley, in the central part of the Himalayan Range, East Region of Nepal, recently damaged by severe seismic events causing serious consequences on population and territory. The specific features of the reference context have been assessed from different points of view, focusing on climate data, energy consumption, and available resources. Wind potential in several spots around Namche Bazar region was estimated using CFD methods, and a customized micro wind turbine – projected by University of Perugia – has been

  14. Renewable energy technology for off-grid power generation solar hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Abd Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Off-grid power generation is meant to supply remote or rural area, where grid connection is almost impossible in terms of cost and geography, such as island, aborigine's villages, and areas where nature preservation is concern. Harnessing an abundance renewable energy sources using versatile hybrid power systems can offer the best, least-cost alternative solution for extending modern energy services to remote and isolated communities. The conventional method for off-grid power generation is using diesel generator with a renewable energy (RE) technology utilizing solar photovoltaic, wind, biomass, biogas and/or mini/micro hydro. A hybrid technology is a combination of multiple source of energy; such as RE and diesel generator and may also include energy storage such as battery. In our design, the concept of solar hybrid system is a combination of solar with diesel genset and battery as an energy storage. The main objective of the system are to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance, cost of logistic and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission. The operational concept of solar hybrid system is that solar will be the first choice of supplying load and excess energy produced will be stored in battery. Genset will be a secondary source of energy. The system is controlled by a microprocessor-based controlled to manage the energy supplied and load demand. The solar hybrid system consists of one or two diesel generator with electronic control system, lead-acid battery system, solar PV, inverter module and system controller with remote monitoring capability. The benefits of solar hybrid system are: Improved reliability, Improved energy services, reduced emissions and pollution, provide continuous power supply, increased operational life, reduced cost, and more efficient use of power. Currently, such system has been installed at Middle and Top Station of Langkawi Cable Car, Langkawi and Aborigines Village Kg Denai, Rompin, Pahang. The technology is considered new in Malaysia

  15. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  16. Energy efficient refrigeration and flexible power consumption in a smart grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.; Larsen, Lars F.S. (Danfoss Refrigeration and A/C Controls, Nordborg (Denmark)); Halvgaard, R.; Bagterp Joergensen, J. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU). DTU Informatics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    Refrigeration and heating systems consume substantial amounts of energy worldwide. However, due to the thermal capacity there is a potential for storing 'coldness' or heat in the system. This feature allows for implementation of different load shifting and shedding strategies in order to optimize the operation energywise, but without compromising the original cooling and indoor climate quality. In this work we investigate the potential of such a strategy and its ability to significantly lower the cost related to operating systems such as supermarket refrigeration and heat pumps for residential houses. With modern Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods we make use of weather forecasts and predictions of varying electricity prices to apply more load to the system when the thermodynamic cycle is most efficient, and to consume larger shares of the electricity when the demand and thereby the prices are low. The ability to adjust power consumption according to the demands on the power grid is a highly wanted feature in a future Smart Grid. Efficient utilization of greater amounts of renewable energy calls for solutions to control the power consumption such that it increases when an energy surplus is available and decreases when there is a shortage. This should happen almost instantly to accommodate intermittent energy sources as e.g. wind turbines. We expect our power management solution to render systems with thermal storage capabilities suitable for flexible power consumption. The aggregation of several units will contribute significantly to the shedding of total electricity demand. Using small case studies we demonstrate the potential for utilizing daily variations to deliver a power efficient cooling or heating and for the implementation of Virtual Power Plants in Smart Grid scenarios. (Author)

  17. A decision support technique for the analysis of autonomous and grid-connected renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiki, Hadi Boulos

    1996-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in using novel methods to generate electrical energy using wind and solar energy sources. Unfortunately, such energy sources are intermittent, and, therefore, conventional sources must still be available to meet demand during critical periods. In addition, renewable energy technologies are still expensive in general, although extensive research programs are being conducted to overcome this disadvantage. Hence, reliability, economic assessment and environmental impacts are three objectives to be satisfied simultaneously when designing either an autonomous or a grid-connected hybrid power generation system. The installation of any of these two systems should, undoubtedly, be preceded by an assessment of the available resources at the candidate site. In addition, many other factors are to be studied, including economics of transmission lines, site constraints, distances etc. In this thesis, the subjective judgments of various experts, related to the overall approach, are quantified and prioritized using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Two systems have been considered, an autonomous wind-solar-diesel-battery system and a grid-connected system composed of wind, solar, battery and a grid option. The trade-off/risk method, which is a multi objective planning technique under uncertainty, is used to optimize the size of the system components, so as to give a robust design. A reasonable compromise among the conflicting design objectives in 3-D is sought, under most foreseeable conditions and uncertainties, but with the cost being the dominating objective. Finally, hedging analysis to reduce risk is conducted to cope with the occurrence of any risky future. (author)

  18. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements

  19. Distributed Generation Integration in the Electric Grid: Energy Storage System for Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Delfanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years generation from renewable energy sources (RESs has grown considerably in European electrical networks. Transmission system operators are greatly concerned about the impact of RESs on the operational security and efficiency of their networks and more in general of the ENTSO-E interconnected system. Grid codes are to be revised in order to harmonise the rules regarding the connection of RES power plants. A main issue concerns frequency control: frequency is greatly affected by RESs intermittency and its deviations must be limited as much as possible in order to guarantee a suitable level of power quality. To improve frequency stability, in the future, Grid codes could extend frequency control requirements also to RES units, whereas today they are applied only to conventional power plants. Energy storage systems can be a possible solution to increase the flexibility and performance of RES power plants: they allow generators to modulate their power injections without wasting renewable energy. In this paper, the authors studied the suitability of extending frequency control to RES units integrating them with energy storage systems. In particular, the paper focuses on the impact of frequency control on the storage lifetime by analysing the power charge/discharge in response to real frequency oscillations.

  20. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H; Ferroukhi, R [et al.; IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Si and SiC Power Devices on a Grid-Tie Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    In renewable energy applications power conversion efficiency is major concern. This is especially true for grid-tie energy storage systems based on bidirectional dc-dc and dc-ac converters where power flows through these system components. Latest developments in power semiconductors technology......-tie energy storage systems. Results highlight dc-dc conversion efficiencies up to 98.2% with an isolated topology and dc-ac conversion efficiencies up to 97.7%. Overall system efficiency improvements above 1% are achieved compared to traditional Si devices. Results on efficiency improvement are analyzed...

  2. Dispatch of distributed energy resources to provide energy and reserve in smart grids using a particle swarm optimization approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    are recognized. The increasing integration of demand response and distributed generation resources, all of them mostly with small scale distributed characteristics, leads to the need of aggregating entities such as Virtual Power Players. The operation business models become more complex in the context of smart......The smart grid concept is a key issue in the future power systems, namely at the distribution level, with deep concerns in the operation and planning of these systems. Several advantages and benefits for both technical and economic operation of the power system and of the electricity markets...... grid operation. Computational intelligence methods can be used to give a suitable solution for the resources scheduling problem considering the time constraints. This paper proposes a methodology for a joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation to provide energy and reserve...

  3. Theoretical study of cylindrical energy analyzers for MeV range heavy ion beam probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-07-01

    A cylindrical energy analyzer with drift spaces is shown to have a second order focusing for beam incident angle when the deflection angle is properly chosen. The analyzer has a possibility to be applied to MeV range heavy ion beam probes, and will be also available for accurate particle energy measurements in many other fields. (author)

  4. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels

  5. A high energy hemispherical analyzer for experimental station of PES beamline at Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannath; Sharma, R.K.; Goutam, U.K.; Mithal, N.; Sule, U.S.; Gadkari, S.C.; Yakhmi, J.V.; Sahni, V.C.

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the design and development of Hemispherical Deflector Analyzer that is especially designed to analyze high kinetic energy electrons (up to 15 keV) with an energy resolution (ΔE/E) of the order of ∼10 -4 for experimental station of PES beamline (BL-14) on Indus-2, a third generation synchrotron source at RRCAT, Indore. With such a high KE analyzing capacity, this analyzer facilitates to measure bulk electronic properties of solids by the Photoemission Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Radiation preserving an energy resolution comparable to modern surface sensitive photoemission spectra. In order to attain better energy resolution over a wider kinetic energy range of electrons, we have designed and constructed a dedicated input lens system for the analyzer. It is further connected with a high stability power supplies, a low dark-count delay line detector and read-out electronics. The system has been designed and fabrication work is almost complete for testing. (author)

  6. From the web to the grid and beyond. Computing paradigms driven by high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Rene; Carminati, Federico; Galli Carminati, Giuliana

    2012-01-01

    Born after World War II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has found itself limited ever since by available accelerator, detector and computing technologies. Accordingly, HEP has made significant contributions to the development of these fields, more often than not driving their innovations. The invention of the World Wide Web at CERN is merely the best-known example out of many. This book is the first comprehensive account to trace the history of this pioneering spirit in the field of computing technologies. It covers everything up to and including the present-day handling of the huge demands imposed upon grid and distributed computing by full-scale LHC operations - operations which have for years involved many thousands of collaborating members worldwide and accordingly provide the original and natural testbed for grid computing concepts. This book takes the reader on a guided tour encompassing all relevant topics, including programming languages, software engineering, large databases, the Web, and grid- and cloud computing. The important issue of intellectual property regulations for distributed software engineering and computing is also addressed. Aptly, the book closes with a visionary chapter of what may lie ahead. Approachable and requiring only basic understanding of physics and computer sciences, this book is intended for both education and research. (orig.)

  7. From the web to the grid and beyond. Computing paradigms driven by high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Rene; Carminati, Federico [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Galli Carminati, Giuliana (eds.) [Hopitaux Universitaire de Geneve, Chene-Bourg (Switzerland). Unite de la Psychiatrie du Developpement Mental

    2012-07-01

    Born after World War II, large-scale experimental high-energy physics (HEP) has found itself limited ever since by available accelerator, detector and computing technologies. Accordingly, HEP has made significant contributions to the development of these fields, more often than not driving their innovations. The invention of the World Wide Web at CERN is merely the best-known example out of many. This book is the first comprehensive account to trace the history of this pioneering spirit in the field of computing technologies. It covers everything up to and including the present-day handling of the huge demands imposed upon grid and distributed computing by full-scale LHC operations - operations which have for years involved many thousands of collaborating members worldwide and accordingly provide the original and natural testbed for grid computing concepts. This book takes the reader on a guided tour encompassing all relevant topics, including programming languages, software engineering, large databases, the Web, and grid- and cloud computing. The important issue of intellectual property regulations for distributed software engineering and computing is also addressed. Aptly, the book closes with a visionary chapter of what may lie ahead. Approachable and requiring only basic understanding of physics and computer sciences, this book is intended for both education and research. (orig.)

  8. A Novel Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm for Home Energy Management System in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is an effective method to lower peak-to-average ratio of demand, facilitate the integration of renewable resources (e.g., wind and solar and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and strengthen the reliability of power system. In smart grid, implementing DR through home energy management system (HEMS in residential sector has a great significance. However, an algorithm that only optimally controls parts of HEMS rather than the overall system cannot obtain the best results. In addition, single objective optimization algorithm that minimizes electricity cost cannot quantify user’s comfort level and cannot take a tradeoff between electricity cost and comfort level conveniently. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes a framework of HEMS that consists of grid, load, renewable resource (i.e., solar resource, and battery. In this framework, a user has the ability to sell electricity to utility grid for revenue. Different comfort level indicators are proposed for different home appliances according to their characteristics and user preferences. Based on these comfort level indicators, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization algorithm for HEMS that minimizes electricity cost and maximizes user’s comfort level simultaneously. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm can reduce user’s electricity cost significantly, ensure user’s comfort level, and take a tradeoff between the cost and comfort level conveniently.

  9. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebec, Gaelle; Moisan, Francois; Gioria, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  10. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    project (Flex-ChEV) supported by the ERA-Net Smart Grid FP7 program. The principal asset of the proposed charging station (CS) is a dedicated Energy Storage System (ESS) to compensate for adverse effects on the grid caused by peak charging demand and which could impose severe trials for the local DSO....... Furthermore, CS of this kind could serve multiple business purposes in a smart grid. It can serve as a hub for seamless integration of local renewable and distributed energy resources, it can provide added flexibility for the local grid through different ancillary services and it can act as an efficient......This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  11. Maghreb: from the interconnection of power grids to energetic integration. Energy supply in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramane, Abdelnour

    2015-10-01

    In a first article, the author first comments the levels of electricity production and consumption in Maghreb, and how this production is distributed among different sources in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. He comments how electric power utilities in these countries decided to collaborate to create common bodies and to implement an interconnection between their power grids, but also with Libya and Spain. He outlines that the three countries aim at creating a common Maghreb market of electricity and then at being integrated into the European market. The author then discusses the planned evolution of the energy mix, and more particularly the role different energies (hydrocarbons, coal, nuclear, renewable energies) may have in the future. He finally discusses the challenges and issues associated with a passage from collaboration to integration. In the second article, the author proposes an overview of energy supply in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. He comments data related to primary energy consumption, to the prevalence of fossil energies, to the marginal share of renewable energies, to energy efficiency, and to carbon footprint. For some of these issues, data are given for 2000 and 2011, for each country, for the three countries together and for the world. The author comments trends, evolutions and perspectives for the different energy resources: hydrocarbons and renewable sources

  12. Critical Factors Influencing Viability of Wave Energy Converters in Off-Grid Luxury Resorts and Small Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Botne Sandberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines technical and non-technical factors that are critical to the viability of commercialization of wave energy converters in off-grid luxury resorts and small utilities. Critical factors are found by investigating Levelized Cost of Energy, and using the tools PESTEL and Porter’s five competitive forces. Identified factors are then applied on three business cases to investigate their impact on viability. The results show that one of the main challenges facing off-grid commercialization is the few wave energy converter units installed per location, negating the economy of scale that large wave energy farms count on to achieve competitive cost levels. In addition, factors like current cost of energy, available wave resources, distance from shore, infrastructure, supply chain logistics, and electricity demand are found to be deciding factors for viability. Despite these challenges, it is found that there are potentially viable off-grid business cases for commercialization of wave energy converters.

  13. Prototyping a Web-of-Energy Architecture for Smart Integration of Sensor Networks in Smart Grids Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Víctor; Vernet, David; Zaballos, Agustín; Corral, Guiomar

    2018-01-30

    Sensor networks and the Internet of Things have driven the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as Smart Grid. However, the different elements that compose the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) layer of a Smart Grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures which are hard to interoperate, manage, and to adapt to new situations. If the Smart Grid paradigm has to be presented as a solution to the demand for distributed and intelligent energy management system, it is necessary to deploy innovative IT infrastructures to support these smart functions. One of the main issues of Smart Grids is the heterogeneity of communication protocols used by the smart sensor devices that integrate them. The use of the concept of the Web of Things is proposed in this work to tackle this problem. More specifically, the implementation of a Smart Grid's Web of Things, coined as the Web of Energy is introduced. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of Web of Energy by means of the Actor Model paradigm to address the latent deployment and management limitations of Smart Grids. Smart Grid designers can use the Actor Model as a design model for an infrastructure that supports the intelligent functions demanded and is capable of grouping and converting the heterogeneity of traditional infrastructures into the homogeneity feature of the Web of Things. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.

  14. A demand response modeling for residential consumers in smart grid environment using game theory based energy scheduling algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, demand response modeling scheme is proposed for residential consumers using game theory algorithm as Generalized Tit for Tat (GTFT Dominant Game based Energy Scheduler. The methodology is established as a work flow domain model between the utility and the user considering the smart grid framework. It exhibits an algorithm which schedules load usage by creating several possible tariffs for consumers such that demand is never raised. This can be done both individually and among multiple users of a community. The uniqueness behind the demand response proposed is that, the tariff is calculated for all hours and the load during the peak hours which can be rescheduled is shifted based on the Peak Average Ratio. To enable the vitality of the work simulation results of a general case of three domestic consumers are modeled extended to a comparative performance and evaluation with other algorithms and inference is analyzed.

  15. Advances in electrostatic energy analyzers for ion beam probe diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, L.A.; Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two new concepts are discussed for feedback controlled electrostatic energy analyzers; a dual gain analyzer for current density measurements, and bottom plate coupling to provide dc stability and better frequency response. An analyzer incorporating both of these concepts was built and preliminary measurements of its performance were made. These measurements are not reported here. (U.S.)

  16. A mass and energy conserving spectral element atmospheric dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M A; Edwards, J; Thomas, S; Nair, R

    2007-01-01

    We present results from a conservative formulation of the spectral element method applied to global atmospheric circulation modeling. Exact local conservation of both mass and energy is obtained via a new compatible formulation of the spectral element method. Compatibility insures that the key integral property of the divergence and gradient operators required to show conservation also hold in discrete form. The spectral element method is used on a cubed-sphere grid to discretize the horizontal directions on the sphere. It can be coupled to any conservative vertical/radial discretization. The accuracy and conservation properties of the method are illustrated using a baroclinic instability test case

  17. SUNSEED — An evolutionary path to smart grid comms over converged telco and energy provider networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Jorguseski, Ljupco

    2014-01-01

    of energy distribution service operators (DSO) and telecom operators (telco) for the future smart grid operations and services. To achieve this objective, SUNSEED proposes an evolutionary approach to converge existing DSO and telco networks, consisting of six steps: overlap, interconnect, interoperate......SUNSEED, “Sustainable and robust networking for smart electricity distribution”, is a 3-year project started in 2014 and partially funded under call FP7-ICT-2013-11. The project objective is to research, design and implement methods for exploitation of existing communication infrastructure...

  18. McRunjob: A High Energy Physics Workflow Planner for Grid Production Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, G E; Evans, D; Bertram, I

    2003-01-01

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described at CHEP 2001, McRunjob converts core metadata into jobs submittable in a variety of environments. The powerful core...

  19. Calculation of the energy-dependent efficiency of gridded 3He fast-neutron ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prussin, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Research and development activities under this contract proceeded along several lines, including development of a gas jet facility for the transport and isolation of fission product activities with half lives in the range T/sub 1/2/ less than or equal to 2 sec, studies on the factors affecting the energy and timing resolution of gridded 3 He ionization detectors for delayed neutron spectroscopy and the development of simple models for calculation of the beta-decay characteristics of short-lived fission products near A = 90. Brief outlines of the activities in the areas are given

  20. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  1. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  2. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  3. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  4. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  5. Energy-aware virtual network embedding in flexi-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongping; Luo, Shan; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Virtual network embedding (VNE) problem is to map multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VN) on a shared substrate network, which mitigate the ossification of the substrate network. Meanwhile, energy efficiency has been widely considered in the network design. In this paper, we aim to solve the energy-aware VNE problem in flexi-grid optical networks. We provide an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to minimize the power increment of each arriving VN request. We also propose a polynomial-time heuristic algorithm where virtual links are embedded sequentially to keep a reasonable acceptance ratio and maintain a low energy consumption. Numerical results show the functionality of the heuristic algorithm in a 24-node network.

  6. Demand-Side Energy Management Based on Nonconvex Optimization in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Demand-side energy management is used for regulating the consumers’ energy usage in smart grid. With the guidance of the grid’s price policy, the consumers can change their energy consumption in response. The objective of this study is jointly optimizing the load status and electric supply, in order to make a tradeoff between the electric cost and the thermal comfort. The problem is formulated into a nonconvex optimization model. The multiplier method is used to solve the constrained optimization, and the objective function is transformed to the augmented Lagrangian function without constraints. Hence, the Powell direction acceleration method with advance and retreat is applied to solve the unconstrained optimization. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the balance between the electric supply and demand, and the optimization variables converge to the optimum.

  7. Improving energy efficiency and smart grid program analysis with agent-based end-use forecasting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Electric utilities and regulators face difficult challenges evaluating new energy efficiency and smart grid programs prompted, in large part, by recent state and federal mandates and financial incentives. It is increasingly difficult to separate electricity use impacts of individual utility programs from the impacts of increasingly stringent appliance and building efficiency standards, increasing electricity prices, appliance manufacturer efficiency improvements, energy program interactions and other factors. This study reviews traditional approaches used to evaluate electric utility energy efficiency and smart-grid programs and presents an agent-based end-use modeling approach that resolves many of the shortcomings of traditional approaches. Data for a representative sample of utility customers in a Midwestern US utility are used to evaluate energy efficiency and smart grid program targets over a fifteen-year horizon. Model analysis indicates that a combination of the two least stringent efficiency and smart grid program scenarios provides peak hour reductions one-third greater than the most stringent smart grid program suggesting that reductions in peak demand requirements are more feasible when both efficiency and smart grid programs are considered together. Suggestions on transitioning from traditional end-use models to agent-based end-use models are provided.

  8. An Efficient Demand Side Management System with a New Optimized Home Energy Management Controller in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional power grid is inadequate to overcome modern day challenges. As the modern era demands the traditional power grid to be more reliable, resilient, and cost-effective, the concept of smart grid evolves and various methods have been developed to overcome these demands which make the smart grid superior over the traditional power grid. One of the essential components of the smart grid, home energy management system (HEMS enhances the energy efficiency of electricity infrastructure in a residential area. In this aspect, we propose an efficient home energy management controller (EHEMC based on genetic harmony search algorithm (GHSA to reduce electricity expense, peak to average ratio (PAR, and maximize user comfort. We consider EHEMC for a single home and multiple homes with real-time electricity pricing (RTEP and critical peak pricing (CPP tariffs. In particular, for multiple homes, we classify modes of operation for the appliances according to their energy consumption with varying operation time slots. The constrained optimization problem is solved using heuristic algorithms: wind-driven optimization (WDO, harmony search algorithm (HSA, genetic algorithm (GA, and proposed algorithm GHSA. The proposed algorithm GHSA shows higher search efficiency and dynamic capability to attain optimal solutions as compared to existing algorithms. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm GHSA outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of reduction in electricity cost, PAR, and maximize user comfort.

  9. Intergration of decentralized power generation by smart grids. 'Internet of energy'; Einbindung dezentraler Energieerzeugung durch intelligente Netze. 'Internet der Energie'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Reinhard [Process Management Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    The deregulation of the energy market has had its effects on power generation, metering and control. New solutions must be developed for ensuring future power supply. Smart grids are an option for integrating the various sectors. (orig.)

  10. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  11. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    The goal of providing universal energy access to all by 2030 under the UN-led SE4ALL initiative calls for new and innovative solutions to rural electrification and is fuelling the recent interest in mini-grids. Mini-grid solutions are emerging as a third alternative to rural electrification, coming...... between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... electrification and the challenges identified in the literature, the study concludes by proposing three avenues for further research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website....

  12. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Renewable Energy Unit, 2749 via Enrico Fermi, TP450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Moner-Girona, M, E-mail: Sandor.Szabo@ec.europa.eu [UNEP Energy Branch Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, 15 rue de Milan, F-75441, Paris CEDEX09 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  13. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S; Bodis, K; Huld, T; Moner-Girona, M

    2011-01-01

    Three rural electrification options are analysed showing the cost optimal conditions for a sustainable energy development applying renewable energy sources in Africa. A spatial electricity cost model has been designed to point out whether diesel generators, photovoltaic systems or extension of the grid are the least-cost option in off-grid areas. The resulting mapping application offers support to decide in which regions the communities could be electrified either within the grid or in an isolated mini-grid. Donor programs and National Rural Electrification Agencies (or equivalent governmental departments) could use this type of delineation for their program boundaries and then could use the local optimization tools adapted to the prevailing parameters.

  14. Efficient Energy Distribution in a Smart Grid using Multi-Player Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brihaye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms and models based on game theory have nowadays become prominent techniques for the design of digital controllers for critical systems. Indeed, such techniques enable automatic synthesis: given a model of the environment and a property that the controller must enforce, those techniques automatically produce a correct controller, when it exists. In the present paper, we consider a class of concurrent, weighted, multi-player games that are well-suited to model and study the interactions of several agents who are competing for some measurable resources like energy. We prove that a subclass of those games always admit a Nash equilibrium, i.e. a situation in which all players play in such a way that they have no incentive to deviate. Moreover, the strategies yielding those Nash equilibria have a special structure: when one of the agents deviate from the equilibrium, all the others form a coalition that will enforce a retaliation mechanism that punishes the deviant agent. We apply those results to a real-life case study in which several smart houses that produce their own energy with solar panels, and can share this energy among them in micro-grid, must distribute the use of this energy along the day in order to avoid consuming electricity that must be bought from the global grid. We demonstrate that our theory allows one to synthesise an efficient controller for these houses: using penalties to be paid in the utility bill as an incentive, we force the houses to follow a pre-computed schedule that maximises the proportion of the locally produced energy that is consumed.

  15. Distribution grid automation as the basis for the smart energy system of the future; Verteilnetzautomatisierung als Grundlage fuer die intelligente Energieversorgung der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattabi, Mariam; Braun, Martin [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany); Huebner, Christian [ifak e.V., Magdeburg (Germany); Kiessling, Andreas [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The increasing penetration of decentralized generation at the distribution grid level causes a wide variety of grid related problems. A decentralized energy management could be one of many answers to efficiently solve these problems in order to continue to provide a stable high quality Power Supply System. New rules for market participants and grid operators need therefore to be defined in order to ensure proactive grid stability. Not only the supply side, but also the consumer side should be considered in order to maximize the energy supply from renewable energy and to solve related critical grid situations. This paper presents a short term interaction between available potential from generators and loads/storages in order to optimize their interaction with the grid as well as their financial benefit. The method is extended in order to allow for available potential at the distribution grid level to be used by higher grids for instance for frequency control. (orig.)

  16. Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of two-way communication infrastructure and bidirectional energy trading between utility companies and customers in the future smart grid (SG, autonomous energy management programs become crucial to the demand-side management (DSM. Most of the existing autonomous energy management schemes are for the scenario with a single utility company or the scenario with one-way energy trading. In this paper, an autonomous household energy management system with multiple utility companies and multiple residential customers is studied by considering the bidirectional energy trading. To minimize the overall costs of both the utility companies and the residential customers, the energy management system is formulated as a double cooperative game. That is, the interaction among the residential users is formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the customers and the strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances; and the interaction among the utility companies is also formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the suppliers and the strategies are the proportions of the daily total energy they provide for the customers. Without loss of generality, the bidirectional energy trading in the double cooperative game is formulated by allowing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs to discharge and sell energy back. Two distributed algorithms will be provided to realize the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs, which can be guaranteed at the Nash equilibriums of the formulated cooperative games. Finally, simulation results illustrated that the proposed double cooperative game can benefit both the utility companies and residential users significantly.

  17. e-Highway2050: to prepare the european grid for a low-carbon energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisey, N.; Sanchis, G.; Balea, L.

    2017-01-01

    The European energy policy favors an important development of renewable energies on a medium-term perspective and the managers of the national power networks that compose the european power grid have to anticipate changes and needs in terms of infrastructures. The e-Highway2050 is a European project involving 38 partners whose aim is to determine the adequate investments necessary for adapting the European power grid to a massive and delocalized production of green power. 5 scenarios have been taken into account and simulations have been performed. It appears that whatever the scenario, some infrastructures have to be developed: the axis from Ireland and Great-Britain towards Spain via France, and the axis linking Scandinavian countries to Italy and Greece, via Baltic countries, Poland and Germany. The necessary investments range between 10 and 20 billion euros a year according to the scenario. The expected benefit for Europe is far more important between 14 and 55 billions euros a year in terms of fuel cost savings, less CO 2 release and less industrial-scale power plants. (A.C.)

  18. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cao, Ziwei [SunPower Corporation; Roc, Albert [SunPower Corp.

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  19. Off-grid community electrification projects based on wind and solar energies: A case study in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Domenech, Bruno; Reyes, Gustavo Alberto; Ferrer Martí, Laia; Pastor Moreno, Rafael; García Villoria, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite various institutional efforts, about 22% of the total Nicaraguan population still do not have access to electricity. Due to the dispersed nature of many rural inhabitants, off-grid electrification systems that use renewable energy sources are a reliable and sustainable option to provide electricity to isolated communities. In this study, the design of an off-grid electrification project based on hybrid wind-photovoltaic systems in a rural community of Nicaragua is developed. Firstly t...

  20. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  1. A Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverter with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñambres-Marcos, Víctor Manuel; Guerrero-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Barrero-González, Fermín; Milanés-Montero, María Isabel

    2017-08-11

    The power generation from renewable power sources is variable in nature, and may contain unacceptable fluctuations, which can be alleviated by using energy storage systems. However, the cost of batteries and their limited lifetime are serious disadvantages. To solve these problems, an improvement consisting in the collaborative association of batteries and supercapacitors has been studied. Nevertheless, these studies don't address in detail the case of residential and large-scale photovoltaic systems. In this paper, a selected combined topology and a new control scheme are proposed to control the power sharing between batteries and supercapacitors. Also, a method for sizing the energy storage system together with the hybrid distribution based on the photovoltaic power curves is introduced. This innovative contribution not only reduces the stress levels on the battery, and hence increases its life span, but also provides constant power injection to the grid during a defined time interval. The proposed scheme is validated through detailed simulation and experimental tests.

  2. Energy-aware virtual network embedding in flexi-grid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongping; Luo, Shan; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Sheng

    2017-11-27

    Network virtualization technology has been proposed to allow multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VNs) to coexist on a shared substrate network, which increases the utilization of the substrate network. Efficiently mapping VNs on the substrate network is a major challenge on account of the VN embedding (VNE) problem. Meanwhile, energy efficiency has been widely considered in the network design in terms of operation expenses and the ecological awareness. In this paper, we aim to solve the energy-aware VNE problem in flexi-grid optical networks. We provide an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to minimize the electricity cost of each arriving VN request. We also propose a polynomial-time heuristic algorithm where virtual links are embedded sequentially to keep a reasonable acceptance ratio and maintain a low electricity cost. Numerical results show that the heuristic algorithm performs closely to the ILP for a small size network, and we also demonstrate its applicability to larger networks.

  3. RAE: The Rainforest Automation Energy Dataset for Smart Grid Meter Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Makonin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Datasets are important for researchers to build models and test how well their machine learning algorithms perform. This paper presents the Rainforest Automation Energy (RAE dataset to help smart grid researchers test their algorithms that make use of smart meter data. This initial release of RAE contains 1 Hz data (mains and sub-meters from two residential houses. In addition to power data, environmental and sensor data from the house’s thermostat is included. Sub-meter data from one of the houses includes heat pump and rental suite captures, which is of interest to power utilities. We also show an energy breakdown of each house and show (by example how RAE can be used to test non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM algorithms.

  4. Study of tensions on network- and grid-based energies during the winter consumption peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaignan, Benoit; Wilmotte, Jean-Yves; Gault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This document first proposes an analysis of an historical example of a consumption peak (8 February 2012) and of its impacts. It indicates temperatures and consumptions, discusses the level of supply safety on that day (shares of different available energy sources), outlines some peculiarities of a grid-based (electricity) or network-based (gas) energy system and issues related to supply safety, and describes how energy demand varies during the day and with respect to the season. The second part addresses the issue of thermal sensitivity, i.e. an analysis of the relationship between the energy system and the temperature: usages depend on the outdoor temperature; as far as heating is concerned, this sensitivity depends on thermal characteristics of heated buildings; housing heating with fixed equipment represents less than a half of this electrical thermal-sensitivity; electricity demand peak increased of several GW while the share of thermal sensitivity of housing heating decreased; thermal sensitivity of gas increased during the last four years. The third part addresses heating modes, outlines the challenges in terms of CO_2 emissions, notices the benefits of the present energy mix in terms of hydrocarbon use, trade balance and emissions, outlines that households using electric heating do not pay more and are less represented in households suffering of energy poverty

  5. The compatibility of off-grid technologies in the rehabilitation of energy network of minor historical centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Marchionni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research links the issue of recovery of the small Italian historic centres to the environmental issue, proposing the sustainable recovery as opportunity to carry out a virtuous action in the territory. The study of these territories, particularly the inner area of Abruzzo Region affected by the earthquake of April 6, 2009, offers the opportunity to carry out a research that aims to redevelop a heritage abandoned for year, now further compromised by the earthquake. An operational methodology aimed at energetic rehabilitation of the minor centres has been drawn up, which starts from an in-depth knowledge of the investigation area, identifying its peculiarity. Then we analyzed the intervention area and highlighted the applicable technologies through a careful “process of compatibility” (Zordan et al., 2002 with the context. In the present study there is an interest in the topic of energy networks, in their state of use and deterioration and possibility of renewable energy sources integration. In particular, we examine/analyze the off-grid technological systems potentiality and criticality, identifying the possibility of their application in the minor centres.

  6. Enedis observatory. French people, the production of renewable energy, and the connection to the general grid. Detailed note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavernhe, Laurence; Levy, Jean-Daniel

    2017-11-01

    This publication briefly comments and presents under the form of graphs and tables results of a survey performed in France on various energy production issues. The first issue has been the perception of a home-based production of renewable energy, and, the reasons for the choice for such a production or for unwillingness to do so. It also addressed the opinion on the connection to the grid in terms of perception of the difficulty of the procedure to obtain a connection. The last addressed topic has been the priorities for the grid future: connection of households producing renewable energies, development of infrastructures for the reloading of electric vehicles

  7. Energy Management of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Micro Energy Grid Based on Leader-Follower Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a general model and solution algorithm for the energy management of combined cooling, heating, and power micro energy grid (MEG under the game theory framework. An innovative dynamic leader-follower game strategy is proposed in this paper to balance the interactions between MEG and user. We show that such game between MEG and user has a unique Nash equilibrium (NE, and in order to quantify the user’s expenditure and dissatisfaction, we model them and adopt the fuzzy bi-objective algorithm. For more details in the proposed game model, the MEG leads the game by deciding energy sales prices and optimizing the power, cooling and heating outputs according to the user’s load plan to maximize its own profit. With the prices being released by MEG, user’s adjustment of energy consumption follows and is again fed to MEG. In practice, we initialize simulations with daily loads of a typical community. As the numerical results demonstrate, MEG is proficient in consumption capacity of renewable energy and energy optimization. It also shows that the user achieves his economic optimum with experience of energy usage taken into account.

  8. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...

  9. A Study of Energy Management Systems and its Failure Modes in Smart Grid Power Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Aatif

    The subject of this thesis is distribution level load management using a pricing signal in a smart grid infrastructure. The project relates to energy management in a spe-cialized distribution system known as the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. Energy management through demand response is one of the key applications of smart grid. Demand response today is envisioned as a method in which the price could be communicated to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods. The development and deployment of the FREEDM system necessitates controls of energy and power at the point of end use. In this thesis, the main objective is to develop the control model of the Energy Management System (EMS). The energy and power management in the FREEDM system is digitally controlled therefore all signals containing system states are discrete. The EMS is modeled as a discrete closed loop transfer function in the z-domain. A breakdown of power and energy control devices such as EMS components may result in energy con-sumption error. This leads to one of the main focuses of the thesis which is to identify and study component failures of the designed control system. Moreover, H-infinity ro-bust control method is applied to ensure effectiveness of the control architecture. A focus of the study is cyber security attack, specifically bad data detection in price. Test cases are used to illustrate the performance of the EMS control design, the effect of failure modes and the application of robust control technique. The EMS was represented by a linear z-domain model. The transfer function be-tween the pricing signal and the demand response was designed and used as a test bed. EMS potential failure modes were identified and studied. Three bad data detection meth-odologies were implemented and a voting policy was used to declare bad data. The run-ning mean and standard deviation analysis method proves to be

  10. Final Scientific/ Technical Report. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weinkauf, Don [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Khan, Mushtaq [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Helgeson, Wes [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weedeward, Kevin [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); LeClerc, Corey [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Fuierer, Paul [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-06-30

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are; Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers; Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents; Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development; Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV

  11. A study of non-ideal focus properties of 30deg parallel plate energy analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Hamada, Y.

    1993-12-01

    A succinct model is proposed to describe non-ideal characteristics owing to electric field penetration into the drift region in actual parallel plate energy analyzers. A good agreement has been obtained between the theoretically expected and experimentally observed focus properties of the 30deg parallel plate analyzer. (author)

  12. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Fathima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The integrated system is then tested with an efficient battery management strategy which prevents overcharging/discharging of the battery. In the study, five major types of battery systems are considered and analyzed. They are evaluated and compared based on technoeconomic and environmental metrics as per Indian power market scenario. Technoeconomic analysis of the battery is validated by simulations, on a proposed wind-photovoltaic system in a wind site in Southern India. Environmental analysis is performed by evaluating the avoided cost of emissions.

  13. Optimal probabilistic energy management in a typical micro-grid based-on robust optimization and point estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Seyed Arash; Ahmadian, Ali; Aliakbar-Golkar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management is necessary in the active distribution network to reduce operation costs. • Uncertainty modeling is essential in energy management studies in active distribution networks. • Point estimate method is a suitable method for uncertainty modeling due to its lower computation time and acceptable accuracy. • In the absence of Probability Distribution Function (PDF) robust optimization has a good ability for uncertainty modeling. - Abstract: Uncertainty can be defined as the probability of difference between the forecasted value and the real value. As this probability is small, the operation cost of the power system will be less. This purpose necessitates modeling of system random variables (such as the output power of renewable resources and the load demand) with appropriate and practicable methods. In this paper, an adequate procedure is proposed in order to do an optimal energy management on a typical micro-grid with regard to the relevant uncertainties. The point estimate method is applied for modeling the wind power and solar power uncertainties, and robust optimization technique is utilized to model load demand uncertainty. Finally, a comparison is done between deterministic and probabilistic management in different scenarios and their results are analyzed and evaluated

  14. Tunable Reaction Potentials in Open Framework Nanoparticle Battery Electrodes for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin D.

    2012-02-28

    The electrical energy grid has a growing need for energy storage to address short-term transients, frequency regulation, and load leveling. Though electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries offer an attractive solution, current commercial battery technology cannot provide adequate power, and cycle life, and energy efficiency at a sufficiently low cost. Copper hexacyanoferrate and nickel hexacyanoferrate, two open framework materials with the Prussian Blue structure, were recently shown to offer ultralong cycle life and high-rate performance when operated as battery electrodes in safe, inexpensive aqueous sodium ion and potassium ion electrolytes. In this report, we demonstrate that the reaction potential of copper-nickel alloy hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles may be tuned by controlling the ratio of copper to nickel in these materials. X-ray diffraction, TEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and galvanostatic electrochemical cycling of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate reveal that copper and nickel form a fully miscible solution at particular sites in the framework without perturbing the structure. This allows copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate to reversibly intercalate sodium and potassium ions for over 2000 cycles with capacity retentions of 100% and 91%, respectively. The ability to precisely tune the reaction potential of copper-nickel hexacyanoferrate without sacrificing cycle life will allow the development of full cells that utilize the entire electrochemical stability window of aqueous sodium and potassium ion electrolytes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle

  16. A model system for analyzing the interrelations between the energy sector and the whole economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubegger, M.; Messner, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces an instrument for the analysis of interactions between economy, private consumption and the energy sector. It is realized as an integrated model system that helps to analyze scenarios concerning future developments of the energy system and the economy for their internal consistency. This model system could provide a methodological basis for rationalizing the present debates on the economic consequences of different energy supply strategies. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Energy Storage on the Grid and the Short-term Variability of Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric Stephen

    Wind generation presents variability on every time scale, which must be accommodated by the electric grid. Limited quantities of wind power can be successfully integrated by the current generation and demand-side response mix but, as deployment of variable resources increases, the resulting variability becomes increasingly difficult and costly to mitigate. In Chapter 2, we model a co-located power generation/energy storage block composed of wind generation, a gas turbine, and fast-ramping energy storage. A scenario analysis identifies system configurations that can generate power with 30% of energy from wind, a variability of less than 0.5% of the desired power level, and an average cost around $70/MWh. While energy storage technologies have existed for decades, fast-ramping grid-level storage is still an immature industry and is experiencing relatively rapid improvements in performance and cost across a variety of technologies. Decreased capital cost, increased power capability, and increased efficiency all would improve the value of an energy storage technology and each has cost implications that vary by application, but there has not yet been an investigation of the marginal rate of technical substitution between storage properties. The analysis in chapter 3 uses engineering-economic models of four emerging fast-ramping energy storage technologies to determine which storage properties have the greatest effect on cost-of-service. We find that capital cost of storage is consistently important, and identify applications for which power/energy limitations are important. In some systems with a large amount of wind power, the costs of wind integration have become significant and market rules have been slowly changing in order to internalize or control the variability of wind generation. Chapter 4 examines several potential market strategies for mitigating the effects of wind variability and estimate the effect that each strategy would have on the operation and

  18. Assessment of instruments in facilitating investment in off-grid renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng; Liu, Xiying; Yao, Lixia

    2016-01-01

    Renewable off-grid solution plays a critical role in supporting rural electrification. However, off-grid Renewable Energy (OGRE) project financing faces significant challenges due to limited financing access, low affordability of consumers, high transactions costs and etc. Various supporting instruments have been implemented to facilitate OGRE investment. This study assesses the effectiveness of those instruments with a framework consists of three dimensions: feasibility, sustainability and replicability. The weights of each dimension in the framework and the scores of each instrument are assessed by expert surveys based on the Delphi method. It is suggested that all the three dimensions should be taken into consideration while assessing the instruments, among which feasibility and sustainability are considered as the most important dimensions in the assessment framework. Furthermore, the top-5 most effective instruments in facilitating OGRE investment are local engagement in operation and maintenance, loan guarantee, start-up grant, end user financing, and concessional finance. Developing countries that need to increase electrification, such as most of the ASEAN member states, could use these top scored instruments despite of their limited amount of public finance. - Highlights: •Assess the effectiveness of instruments for promoting financing for OGRE projects. •A three-dimension assessment framework: feasibility, sustainability, replicability. •Use online surveys and the Delphi method to collect experts’ assessment. •The most effective instruments: local engagement, loan guarantee, and start-up grant.

  19. MCRUNJOB: A High energy physics workflow planner for grid production processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described at CHEP 2001, McRunjob converts core metadata into jobs submittable in a variety of environments. The powerful core metadata description language includes methods for converting the metadata into persistent forms, job descriptions, multi-step workflows, and data provenance information. The language features allow for structure in the metadata by including full expressions, namespaces, functional dependencies, site specific parameters in a grid environment, and ontological definitions. It also has simple control structures for parallelization of large jobs. McRunjob features a modular design which allows for easy expansion to new job description languages or new application level tasks

  20. Energy Management Strategy for Grid-tied Microgrids considering the Energy Storage Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ji; Xing, Xiaowen; Liu, Xingtao

    2018-01-01

    developed based on the scheduled power. Experiments are conducted to verify the relationship between battery energy storage efficiency and charging/discharging current of the lithium-ion battery. Moreover, the proposed energy management strategy is validated by the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiments...

  1. Power control based on particle swarm optimization of grid-connected inverter for hybrid renewable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Triviño, Pablo; Gil-Mena, Antonio José; Llorens-Iborra, Francisco; García-Vázquez, Carlos Andrés; Fernández-Ramírez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three PSO-based PI controllers for a grid-connected inverter were presented. • Two online PSO-based PI controllers were compared with an offline PSO-tuned PI. • The HRES and the inverter were evaluated under power changes and grid voltage sags. • Online ITAE-based PSO reduced ITAE (current THD) by 15.24% (5.32%) versus offline one. - Abstract: This paper is focused on the study of particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based PI controllers for the power control of a grid-connected inverter supplied from a hybrid renewable energy system. It is composed of two renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic – PV – solar panels) and two energy storage systems (battery and hydrogen system, integrated by fuel cell and electrolyzer). Three PSO-based PI controllers are implemented: (1) conventional PI controller with offline tuning by PSO algorithm based on the integral time absolute error (ITAE) index; (2) PI controllers with online self-tuning by PSO algorithm based on the error; and (3) PI controllers with online self-tuning by PSO algorithm based on the ITAE index. To evaluate and compare the three controllers, the hybrid renewable energy system and the grid-connected inverter are simulated under changes in the active and reactive power values, as well as under a grid voltage sag. The results show that the online PSO-based PI controllers that optimize the ITAE index achieves the best response

  2. A TOU Pricing Mechanism to Promote Renewable Energy Consumption: The Case of the Western Inner Mongolia Grid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-xiu He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The curtailment of wind power and photovoltaic power is becoming increasingly serious from the year 2012 to present in China. And the small installed capacity captive coal-fired power plants have been developed rapidly aiming to cut production costs. Therefore, by the substitution of renewable energy for captive coal-fired power plants, this paper establishes a time-of-use (TOU pricing mechanism with a linkage between the supply side and the demand side to promote renewable energy consumption, which is applied to the Western Inner Mongolia grid in China. The results show that the benefits to the grid company, electricity users, renewable energy producers, and social environment are influenced by the quantity of renewable energy purchased in the market, the market price for renewable energy, the quantity of electricity from grid to peak shaving, the carbon price, and the quantity of electricity generated by captive coal-fired power plants shifting to grid, in which the first factor has the greatest influence on the benefits of stakeholders. Furthermore, improving the accuracy of renewable energy generation forecast and optimizing using electricity behaviors by considering the renewable energy generation characteristics could ensure the TOU mechanism implementation successfully.

  3. EcoGrid.dk Phase I. Steps towards a Danish power system with 50 % wind energy. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); OEstergaard, J.; Lind, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), CET, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Bach, P.-F. (Fredericia (Denmark)); Soerensen, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Tennbakk, B. (Econ Poeyry AS, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Togeby, M. (EA Energy Analyses a/s, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Ackermann, T. (Energynautics GmbH (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In the EcoGrid project phase I a unique combination of scientists, experts and industry stakeholders with different backgrounds and experiences were put together to work towards one common objective: Develop new long-term technologies for the power grid and system that can contribute to realizing the Danish Energy Policy goal of 50% wind energy by 2025. The specific task of the EcoGrid phase I report was to make a general description and analyses of demand and development of the Danish power system with increased volumes of renewable energy. The report describes different solutions with respect to new power system architecture; examine the consequences of future market developments and identify new measures ('building blocks') to support the overall goals and functions of the future power system. The main report includes five work-packages.

  4. Real-Time Dynamic Simulation of Korean Power Grid for Frequency Regulation Control by MW Battery Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hwan Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a real-time dynamic simulator of a power grid with power plant and battery model. The simulator was used to investigate the frequency control characteristics of a megawatt-scale high-capacity energy storage system connected to the electric power grid. In this study, a lithium-ion secondary battery was chosen as one of the batteries for a grid-connected model. The dynamics of the model was analysed in both steady and transient states. The frequency control system of the battery model plays a role in regulating the grid frequency by controlling the power of energy storage systems according to process variables and grid frequencies. The power grid model based on the current power network of South Korea, included power plants, substations and power demands. The power supply is classified by the type of turbine generator as thermal, nuclear, hydro power, pumped power storage, combined power plants, and batteries, including high-capacity energy storage systems rated for a maximum of 500 MW. This study deals with an installed capacity of 87.17 GW and peak load of 77.30 GW in the Korean power grid. For 24 hours of operation, the maximum and minimum power outputs were simulated as 61.59 GW and 46.32 GW, respectively. The commercialized real-time dynamic simulation software ProTRAX was used. The simulation was conducted to observe the operation characteristics of the frequency control system during a breakdown of power plants, as well as under governor-free operation, auto generation control operation, and with the battery energy storage system connected. The results show that the model is valid for each power plant breakdown simulation. They also confirm that the output power and frequency controls of the battery operated well during simulations.

  5. The role of the state in sustainable energy transitions: A case study of large smart grid demonstration projects in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Wu, Yun-Ying; Ip, Jasper Chi-man; Hills, Peter Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Smart grids represent one of the most significant evolutionary changes in energy management systems as they enable decentralised energy systems, the use of large-scale renewable energy as well as major improvements in demand-side-management. Japan is one of the pioneers in smart grid deployment. The Japanese model is characterised by a government-led, community-oriented, and business-driven approach with the launch of four large-scale smart-community demonstration projects. Our case study of large smart grid demonstration projects in Japan found that the Japanese government has demonstrated its high governing capacity in terms of leadership, recombinative capacity, institutional capacity, enabling capacity, and inducement capacity. However, the major limitations of the government in introducing some critical regulatory changes have constrained the smart grid deployment from advancing to a higher-order form of smart grid developments. This paper calls for more attention to be given to the importance of regulatory changes that are essential to overcome the technological lock-in, and the complementary roles of non-state actors such as the business sector and consumers to strengthen the governing capacity of the state. - Highlights: • Smart grids introduce evolutionary changes in energy management systems. • The Japanese model is government-led, community-oriented, and business-driven. • The Japanese government has demonstrated its high governing capacity. • But the limitations of the government have constrained the smart grid developments. • More attention needs to be given to regulatory changes and non-state actors

  6. Load management as a smart grid concept for sizing and designing of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamaly, Ali M.; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Al-Saud, M. S.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2017-10-01

    Optimal sizing of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) to satisfy load requirements with the highest reliability and lowest cost is a crucial step in building HRESs to supply electricity to remote areas. Applying smart grid concepts such as load management can reduce the size of HRES components and reduce the cost of generated energy considerably. In this article, sizing of HRES is carried out by dividing the load into high- and low-priority parts. The proposed system is formed by a photovoltaic array, wind turbines, batteries, fuel cells and a diesel generator as a back-up energy source. A smart particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm using MATLAB is introduced to determine the optimal size of the HRES. The simulation was carried out with and without division of the load to compare these concepts. HOMER software was also used to simulate the proposed system without dividing the loads to verify the results obtained from the proposed PSO algorithm. The results show that the percentage of division of the load is inversely proportional to the cost of the generated energy.

  7. Nutrients and Energy Balance Analysis for a Conceptual Model of a Three Loops off Grid, Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Yogev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food security, specifically in water scarce regions, is an increasing local and global challenge. Finding new ways to increase agricultural production in a sustainable manner is required. The current study suggests a conceptual model to integrate established recirculating aquaculture practices into a near-zero discharge aquaponic system that efficiently utilizes water, excreted nutrients and organic matter for energy. The suggested model allows to significantly extend the planted area and recover energy in the form of biogas to operate the system off-grid. A mass balance model of nitrogen, carbon and energy was established and solved, based on data from the literature. Results demonstrate that a fish standing stock of about 700 kg would produce 3.4 tons of fish annually and enough nutrients to grow about 35 tons of tomatoes per year (chosen as a model plant and recover sufficient energy (70 kWh/day to run the system on biogas and use less water. If proven successful, this approach may play a major role in sustainably enhancing food security in rural and water scarce regions.

  8. Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June S. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids.

  9. Hourly energy management for grid-connected wind-hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a complete technical-economic analysis of the hourly energy management of the energy generated in wind-hydrogen systems. Wind power generation depends on the unpredictable nature of the wind. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will be necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve, consisting of the generation of hydrogen and storing it in a hydrogen tank during off-peak (low demand) hours, while during the rest of the hours (peak hours, high demand) the stored hydrogen can be used to generate electricity. After revising the results obtained in this paper, for the current values of efficiency of the electricity-hydrogen-electricity conversion (approximately 30%) and due to the high cost of the hydrogen components, for a wind-hydrogen system to be economically viable the price of the sale of the energy generated by the fuel cell would be very high (approximately 171 cEUR/kWh). (author)

  10. Matching indices taking the dynamic hybrid electrical and thermal grids information into account for the decision-making of nZEB on-site renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Sunliang; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use dynamic hourly-based grid information (PEF/CEF/tariffs) in nZEB control. • Hourly dynamic primary energy factor, CO 2 factor and tariffs for hybrid grids. • Methodology which links the on-site matching with dynamic grid information. • Multi-objective control indicators reflects both matching and grid information. • The influence of the dynamic grid information on the energy/environment/cost. - Abstract: Future nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs) will be involved with the twofold problem of on-site matching and hybrid–grid interactions. Theoretically, the hybrid grids’ information is dynamic, such as primary energy factors, equivalent CO 2 emission factors, and grid tariffs. Regarding primary energy consumption, equivalent CO 2 emissions or the grid cost of the nZEB, the significance of specific aspects of the matching capability, such as on-site energy faction (OEF) and on-site energy matching (OEM), will also become dynamic and variable with respect to the evolution of the grid information. Therefore, the primary goal is to develop a methodology as a multi-objective control criterion for the nZEB energy system, which can reflect both the on-site matching capability and dynamic grid information of environmental or economic impacts. The developed methodology is to quantitatively link the dynamic grid information with the weighting factors of the weighted matching index (WMI), following the monotone relationships between the extended matching indices and grid information. The methodology is implemented in this study to control an nZEB energy system with hybrid grid connections. The results show that the developed methodology can seek an optimised balance between the objectives of maximising the matching capability and minimising the environmental/economic load

  11. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  12. Proceedings of the Ninth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Restructuring, Privatisation and Market Changes of Grid-bound Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Restructuring, privatisation and market changes of grid-bound energy systems present processes that characterise the energy sector of today, and the achieved level of these processes vary considerably from one country to another and there is no ideal model. Therefore, the exchange of experiences and broad co-operation in the field is of vital importance. For the first time the concept of the future Croatian energy legislation, presently in the focus of domestic energy related attention, will be introduced. Restructuring includes the changes in organisation anbd economic relations in order to enhance efficiency and reduce operational costs, in keeping with the market trends. Privatisation is a process that should enable the creation of markets and competition. When defining the concept of privatisation, we should primarily design the market, determine the position of individual functioning during market creation, and then determine the course of privatisation. Experiences of developed countries tell us that it is necessary to find a balance between markets and state interventions, as well as among technological-technical, economic and social aspects of energy use

  13. Modeling and simulation of grid connected permanent magnet generator based small wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifujjaman, Md.

    2011-07-01

    In order to recover the maximum energy from small scale wind turbine systems many parameters have to be controlled. The aim of this paper is to propose a control strategy for the grid connected PMG-based small wind turbine systems. A mathematical model of small wind turbine systems was developed and the system simulated. Results show demonstrated that the control strategy is highly efficient. Sure enough it reduces the dependence on system variables, diminishes the system complexity, its furling and maximum power point controllers are efficient and it provides a stable operation for multiple wind speeds. This study developed a modeling and control strategy which was proved to be feasible by simulation results.

  14. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  15. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  16. An Attack-Resilient Middleware Architecture for Grid Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yifu; Mendis, Gihan J.; He, Youbiao; Wei, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-05-04

    In recent years, the increasing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) has made an impact on the operation of the electric power systems. In the grid integration of DERs, data acquisition systems and communications infrastructure are crucial technologies to maintain system economic efficiency and reliability. Since most of these generators are relatively small, dedicated communications investments for every generator are capital cost prohibitive. Combining real-time attack-resilient communications middleware with Internet of Things (IoTs) technologies allows for the use of existing infrastructure. In our paper, we propose an intelligent communication middleware that utilizes the Quality of Experience (QoE) metrics to complement the conventional Quality of Service (QoS) evaluation. Furthermore, our middleware employs deep learning techniques to detect and defend against congestion attacks. The simulation results illustrate the efficiency of our proposed communications middleware architecture.

  17. Real goods solar living sourcebook your complete guide to living beyond the grid with renewable energy technologies and sustainable living

    CERN Document Server

    Schaeffer, John

    2014-01-01

    What book would you want if you were stranded on a desert island? Widely regarded as the ""bible"" of off-grid living, Real Goods Solar Living Source Book might be your best choice. With over six hundred thousand copies in print worldwide, it is the most comprehensive resource available for anyone interested in lessening their environmental footprint or increasing their energy independence. The Solar Living Sourcebook, Fourteenth Edition is the ultimate guide to renewable energy, sustainable living, natural and green building, off-grid living, and alternative transporta

  18. Energy indicators series: analyzing the energy-related evidence of economic transition in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paga, Enrique; Birol, Fatih

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused upon the Asian Pacific countries as constituting an economic 'miracle' over the last two decades. Economic growth in the Pacific Rim has been higher than in any other area of the world. The rapid industrialization process and its impact on the economies of these countries, at both macro and micro levels, are discussed widely in the economic literature. Of particular interest are the fundamental structural changes these countries have experienced in their transition to industrialized economies. This instalment of the annual 'Energy indicators' series concentrates on Pacific Rim countries, namely Hong Kong, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Similar to other experiences, rapid economic growth in these countries has been accompanied by 'spectacular' growth in demand for energy. Therefore, this year's paper not only underlines certain trends in these six energy markets but also attempts to test the phenomenon 'threshold country', i.e., shifting from the developing to the industrialized world by using common indicators and methodologies. The analysis starts with a comparison of energy intensities. Section 2 provides an overview of the socio-economic and energy indicators of the Pacific Rim countries. Section 3 introduces a standard econometric model on the most dynamic consuming sector, namely transport. Section 4 presents the projections of consumption in this sector and discusses policy issues. Some concluding remarks in Section 6 complete the paper. (author)

  19. Grid-connected integrated community energy system. Phase II, Stage 2, final report. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The University of Minnesota Grid-ICES was divided into four identifiable programs in order to study the feasibility of each of the parts of the ICES independently. The total program involves cogeneration, fuel conversion, fuel substitution, and energy conservation by system change. This Phase II report substantiates the theory that the Basic Grid ICES is not only energy-effective, but it will become cost effective as unit operating costs adjust to supply and demand in the 1980's. The Basic Program involves the cogeneration of steam and electricity. The University of Minnesota has been following an orderly process of converting its Central Heating Plant from gas-oil to 100% coal since 1973. The first step in the transition is complete. The University is presently 100% on coal, and will begin the second step, the test burning of low Btu Western coal during the spring, summer, and fall, and high Btu Eastern coal during the high thermal winter period. The final step to 100% Western coal is planned to be completed by 1980. In conjunction with the final step a retired Northern States Power generating plant has been purchased and is in the process of being retrofitted for topping the existing plant steam output during the winter months. The Basic Plan of ICES involves the add-on work and expense of installing additional boiler capacity at Southeast Steam and non-condensing electric generating capability. This will permit the simultaneous generation of electricity and heat dependent upon the thermal requirements of the heating and cooling system in University buildings. This volume presents an overview of the Community and the ICES. (MCW)

  20. Operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Hurng-Liahng; Chang, Yi-Hao; Wu, Jinn-Chang; Wu, Kuen-Der

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation strategy for grid-connected PV generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed. • The PV system is composed of an inverter and two DC-DC converter. • The negative impact of grid-connected PV generation systems on the grid can be alleviated by integrating a battery. • The operation of the developed system can be divided into nine modes. - Abstract: The operation strategy for a lab-scale grid-connected photovoltaic generation system integrated with battery energy storage is proposed in this paper. The photovoltaic generation system is composed of a full-bridge inverter, a DC–DC boost converter, an isolated bidirectional DC–DC converter, a solar cell array and a battery set. Since the battery set acts as an energy buffer to adjust the power generation of the solar cell array, the negative impact on power quality caused by the intermittent and unstable output power from a solar cell array is alleviated, so the penetration rate of the grid-connected photovoltaic generation system is increased. A lab-scale prototype is developed to verify the performance of the system. The experimental results show that it achieves the expected performance

  1. Optimisation of energy supply at off-grid healthcare facilities using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Pérez-Cebollada, Eduardo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.; Martínez-Ruiz, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the application of renewable energies in a hospital located in Kalonge. • A stochastic approach is developed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. • We propose adding PV panels to improve the supply of electrical energy. • The results show that optimal design could achieve 28% reduction in the LCE. • Furthermore, we discuss possible improvements to the telecommunications of the hospital. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a methodology for the optimisation of off-grid hybrid systems (photovoltaic–diesel–battery systems). A stochastic approach is developed by means of Monte Carlo simulation to consider the uncertainties of irradiation and load. The optimisation is economic; that is, we look for a system with a lower net present cost including installation, replacement of the components, operation and maintenance, etc. The most important variable that must be estimated is the batteries lifespan, which depends on the operating conditions (charge/discharge cycles, corrosion, state of charge, etc.). Previous works used classical methods for the estimation of batteries lifespan, which can be too optimistic in many cases, obtaining a net present cost of the system much lower than in reality. In this work, we include an advanced weighted Ah-throughput model for the lead-acid batteries, which is much more realistic. The optimisation methodology presented in this paper is applied in the optimisation of the electrical supply for an off-grid hospital located in Kalonge (Democratic Republic of the Congo). At the moment, the power supply relies on a diesel generator; batteries are used in order to ensure the basic supply of energy when the generator is unavailable (night hours). The optimisation includes the possibility of adding solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to improve the supply of electrical energy. The results show that optimal design could achieve a 28% reduction in the levelised cost of energy and a 54% reduction in the diesel fuel

  2. Smart Grids for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES): a case study for the Amsterdam Zuidas district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Rostampour, Vahab

    2017-04-01

    In the context of increasingly strict requirements for building energy efficiency, Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems have emerged as an effective means to reduce energy demand for space heating and cooling in larger buildings. In the Netherlands, over 2000 systems are currently active, which has already raised issues with spatial planning in some areas; current planning schemes may lack the flexibility to properly address variations in ATES operation, which are driven by uncertainties across a broad range of time scales - from daily changes in building energy demand, to decadal trends for climate or groundwater conditions. This work is therefore part of a broader research effort on ATES Smart Grids (ATES-SG), which has focused on more adaptive methods for ATES management and control. In particular, improved control schemes which allow for coordination between neighboring ATES systems may offer more robust performance under uncertainty (Rostampour & Keviczky, 2016). The case studies for the ATES-SG project have so far focused on idealized cases, and on a historical simulation of ATES development in the city center of Utrecht. This poster will present an additional case study for the city center of Amsterdam, which poses several geohydrological challenges for ATES: for instance, variable density flow due to salinity gradients in the local aquifer, and varying depths for ATES systems due to the thickness of the aquifer. To study the effect of these conditions, this case uses an existing 15-layer geohydrological model of the Amsterdam region, cropped to an area of 4500m x 2500m around the Amsterdam Zuidas district. This rapidly developing business district is one of the densest areas of ATES use in Amsterdam, with 32 well doublets and 53 monowells currently registered. The geohydrological model is integrated with GIS data to accurately represent ATES spatial planning; simulated well flows are provided by a model predictive control component. This model is

  3. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh N. A. S.; Muda W. M. W.

    2017-01-01

    In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE) technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sul...

  4. Optimized Sizing, Selection, and Economic Analysis of Battery Energy Storage for Grid-Connected Wind-PV Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Hina; Palanisamy, K.

    2015-01-01

    Energy storages are emerging as a predominant sector for renewable energy applications. This paper focuses on a feasibility study to integrate battery energy storage with a hybrid wind-solar grid-connected power system to effectively dispatch wind power by incorporating peak shaving and ramp rate limiting. The sizing methodology is optimized using bat optimization algorithm to minimize the cost of investment and losses incurred by the system in form of load shedding and wind curtailment. The ...

  5. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  6. 13{sup th} Kassel symposium energy systems technology. Power converters in grids. Proceedings; 13. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik. Stromrichter in Netzen. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Increasingly static converters are used for the integration of distributed power generators into the grid, e.g. photovoltaic systems and speed-variable wind energy converters. Also other power generators, storage systems and electrical loads are integrated via power electronics. A variety of product specific standards had been developed for integrating converters into the grid. These standards had emerged parallel to each other as a result of the demands of different forms of energy for the feed-in and consumption of electrical power. Meanwhile it became clear that applications which are sometimes very similar are determined differently by these standards. A further demand for harmonisation arises naturally in the international standardisation. In the run-up to the Symposium the second DERlab workshop 'European DERlab Workshop on Grid Inverters' will be held to prepare an international white book. The white book will be titled 'International White Book on Grid Inverters' and will describe medium to long-term tasks for the standardisation of grid-coupled converters. The 13th Kassel Symposium will give an overview of the wide range of applications of power electronic converters in the grid. Hereby similarities and differences should be disclosed, which will create a basis for further expert talks about the transition of our power supply to an increasing share of grid-coupled converters. Questions which will be discussed include: - What does a high share of converters mean for stability, safety and quality of the grid? - Is it necessary to adapt power system protection technology and safety regulations? - How shall converters act in the future, what is technically feasible, what is economically reasonable? - Are all converter-coupled systems able to provide ancillary services? - How will the grid codes change? Most of the presentations will be in German, simultaneous interpretation will be available. This book is prepared to give you a survey on

  7. Economic Evaluation of Energy Storage Systems and their Impact on Electricity Markets in a Smart-grid Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Dennis

    which cannot be internalized by a private agent. Therefore, only commercial applications for energy storage will be considered. In the following, storage dispatch algorithms and an evaluation framework are developed. This allows defining the benefits that a storage device can provide, including barriers and drivers to its deployment. In order to consider uncertainty in the evaluation process, several assessment methodologies are introduced and adapted to the respective context. Furthermore, the impact of storage systems on the electric grid as well as on electricity markets is analyzed. The results of this research do not only provide a better understanding about potential business cases and related income streams of storage devices to investors, but also provide deep insights into the associated risks of such an investment. Furthermore, the results allow policy makers to identify the relevant parameters for promoting storage in order to facilitate the integration of additional renewable generation capacity. Last, this document gives traditional power producers as well as grid operators a better understanding about the impact of storage installations on generation and demand patterns as well as on the possible impacts on electricity markets. None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None

  8. A proposed strategy for power optimization of a wind energy conversion system connected to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taraft, S.; Rekioua, D.; Aouzellag, D.; Bacha, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind energy conversion based doubly fed induction generator controlled by matrix converter. • Operation at both sub and super-synchronous regions is possible with the proposed drive system. • Double the power generated by the DFIG at a twice of speed rated. • Sliding mode control is used to achieve active and reactive power control. - Abstract: Many strategies have been developed in last decade to optimize power extracted from wind energy conversion system where many of them can produce only 30% more than the rated power. With the considered strategy, the generated wind power can reach twice its nominal value using a fast and reliable fully rugged electrical control. Indeed, by employing a suitable control technique where the produced power in super-synchronous mode is derived from both the stator and the rotor. Also, the rotor provided power in this case grows up 100% comparing to stator rated power. However, this solution permits to maintain the wind energy conversion system operation in its stable area. The considered system consists of a double fed induction generator whose stator is connected directly to the grid and its rotor is supplied by matrix converter. In this paper, the sliding mode approach to achieve active and reactive power control is used. This latter is combined with de Perturbation and Observation Maximum Power Point Tracking used in the second operation zone. The obtained simulations results are assessed and carried out using Matlab/Simulink package and show the performance and the effectiveness of the proposed control

  9. Decentralized Control Strategy for Optimal Energy Management in Grid-Connected and Islanded DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a decentralized control technique to minimize the total operation cost of a DC microgrid in both grid-connected and islanded modes. In this study, a cost-based droop control scheme based on the hourly bids of all participant distributed generators (DGs and the hourly energy price of the utility is presented. An economic power sharing technique among various types of DG units is adopted to appropriately minimize the daily total operation cost of DC microgrid without a microgrid central controller. The DC microgrid may include non-dispatchable DG units (such as photovoltaic systems and dispatchable generation units. Unlike other energy management techniques, the proposed method suffers neither from forecasting errors for both load demand and renewable energy power prediction modules, nor from complicated optimization techniques. In the proposed method, all DGs and the utility are classified in a sorting rule based on their hourly bids and open market price, and then the droop parameters are determined. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results show that the proposed strategy is able to be implemented in various operation conditions of DC microgrid with resistance to uncertainties.

  10. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, C.; Saez-de-Ibarra, A.; Martinez-Laserna, E.

    2015-01-01

    of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) and secondly, to obtain the power exchange and battery state of charge profiles during the operation. These will constitute the cycling patterns for testing batteries and studying the ageing effect of this specific application. Real data from the Spanish...... electricity market for a whole year are used for validating the results....

  11. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  12. Mass, momentum and energy conserving (MaMEC) discretizations on general grids for the compressible Euler and shallow water equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, Bas van’t; Veldman, Arthur E.P.

    2012-01-01

    The paper explains a method by which discretizations of the continuity and momentum equations can be designed, such that they can be combined with an equation of state into a discrete energy equation. The resulting ‘MaMEC’ discretizations conserve mass, momentum as well as energy, although no explicit conservation law for the total energy is present. Essential ingredients are (i) discrete convection that leaves the discrete energy invariant, and (ii) discrete consistency between the thermodynamic terms. Of particular relevance is the way in which finite volume fluxes are related to nodal values. The method is an extension of existing methods based on skew-symmetry of discrete operators, because it allows arbitrary equations of state and a larger class of grids than earlier methods. The method is first illustrated with a one-dimensional example on a highly stretched staggered grid, in which the MaMEC method calculates qualitatively correct results and a non-skew-symmetric finite volume method becomes unstable. A further example is a two-dimensional shallow water calculation on a rectilinear grid as well as on an unstructured grid. The conservation of mass, momentum and energy is checked, and losses are found negligible up to machine accuracy.

  13. A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Apelfröjd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.

  14. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  15. Static and Dynamic Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, V.

    2011-01-01

    of the Smart Grids (SGs). A SG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid or in islanded mode. This paper presents experimental tests for static and dynamic stability analysis carried out in a dedicated laboratory for research in distributed control and smart grid with a high share of renewable......The distributed energy resources (DER) contains several technologies, such as diesel engines, small wind turbines, photovoltaic inverters, etc. The control of DER components with storage devices and (controllable) loads, such as batteries, capacitors, dump loads, are central to the concept...... energy production. Moreover to point out, on a laboratory scale, the coupling between DR and storage and to effectively compensate wind fluctuations a number of tests have been done. In order to find out the parameters of various types of DER components for dynamic simulation models a number of tests...

  16. Energy Stability Analysis of Some Fully Discrete Numerical Schemes for Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i.e., the linear implicit scheme for time discretization with the finite difference method (FDM) on staggered grids for spatial discretization, pressure-correction schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations, and pressure-stabilization schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations. The energy stability estimates are obtained for the above each fully discrete scheme. The upwind scheme is used in the discretization of the convection term which plays an important role in the design of unconditionally stable discrete schemes. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  17. Analytical framework for analyzing the energy conversion efficiency of different hybrid electric vehicle topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of the components and applied control strategy. There are many available patterns of combining the power flows to meet load requirements making it difficult to analyze and evaluate a newly designed HEV. In order to enhance design of HEVs, the paper provides a stand alone analytical framework for evaluating energy conversion phenomena of different HEV topologies. Analytical analysis is based on the energy balance equations and considers the complete energy path in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. The analytical framework enables structuring large amount of data in physically meaningful energy flows and associated energy losses, and therefore provides insightful information for HEV optimization. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components, since it reveals and quantifies the instruments that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The analytical framework is also applicable for correcting the energy consumption of the HEV to the value corresponding to balanced energy content of the electric storage devices.

  18. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  19. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  20. Angle-averaged effective proton-carbon analyzing powers at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Berg, A.M. van den; Hunyadi, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Woertche, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The angle-averaged effective analyzing powers, A-bar c , for proton-carbon inclusive scattering were measured as a function of the kinetic energy of protons in a double scattering experiment. The measurements were performed in the kinetic energy range of 44.8-136.5MeV at the center of 1-5cm thick graphite analyzers using a polarized proton beam on a CH 2 film or liquid hydrogen serving as target for the primary scattering. These data can be used for measuring the polarization of protons emerging from other reactions such as H(d-bar ,p-bar )d