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Sample records for green river downstream

  1. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  2. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05–25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%–89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire

  3. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen; Dhaini, Ahmad R.; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem; Shen, Gangxiang; Lin, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green

  4. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  5. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  6. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors

  7. From gravel to sand. Downstream fining of bed sediments in the lower river Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frings, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    A common characteristic of many rivers is the tendency for bed sediments to become finer in downstream direction. This phenomenon, which is generally known as downstream fining, has a strong effect on the morphologic and hydrodynamic behaviour of a river. The fundamental causes of downstream

  8. Hydrological Effects of Chashm Dam on the Downstream of Talar River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khaleghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last century, dams have constructed with the objective of water supplies for agriculture, drinking water and industry. However, the results from the performance review of dams show adverse effects on the downstream environment and the availability of water resources. The purpose of the Chashm dam construction on the TalarRiver's tributaries is the water supply for Semnan city. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in TalarRiver watershed. TalarRiveroriginatesfrom AlborzMountains in Mazandaran province, in the southern Caspian Sea basin, in north of Iran and flows parallel with the Firouzkooh-Ghaemshahr road and it arrives to the Caspian beach area in the Malek Kala village. In order to supply the water requirements of Semnan city, the construction of Chashm dam on the TalarRiver's tributaries placed on the agenda of the Ministry of Energy. However, because of the uncontrolled exploitation of agricultural streams and invasion of privacy riverbed, the TalarRiver has acute and critical conditions from the point of hydrologic and environmental. To study the hydrological impacts of Chashm dam, Talar watershed was considered with an area of approximately 1057 square kilometers of the Pole Sefid gauging station using a rainfall-runoff model. Results and Discussion: Simulation of the study area hydrological behavior shows that the Chashm Dam average water discharge is near to 8.6 million m3. This figure will be significant changes during wet and droughtperiods. The minimum and maximum monthly discharge of the Chashm Dam watershed in August and February is equal to 0.31 and 0.55 m3/s respectively. The minimum and maximum monthly water demand in turn in October and August is equal to 0.015 and 0.4 m3/s respectively and this shows that the river discharge in June is lower than the downstream water demand. Based on confirmed studies of the Kamandab Consulting Engineers, drinking water requirement of Semnan province, water

  9. Tidal Influence on Water Quality of Kapuas Kecil River Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnaini, Rizki; Sudarmadji; Purwono, Suryo

    2018-02-01

    The Kapuas Kecil River is strongly influenced by tidal, in the dry season the intrusion of surface water is often a problem for the WTP because it causes the change of raw water quality to be processed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sea tides on water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River. The study was conducted in Kapuas River downstream along ± 30 km from the upper boundary to the estuary. Water sampling is carried out during the dry and rainy season, when the tidal conditions at 7 (seven) locations of the monitoring station. Descriptive analysis methods and regression-correlation statistics are used to determine the effect of tides on water quality in Kapuas River downstream. In general, the water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River has exceeded the criteria of first class water quality, ie water that can be used for drinking water. The status of water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River based on the pollution index calculation shows the condition of the river is "mild to medium pollutants". The result of multiple linear regression analysis got the value of coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) = 0,760, which in whole show that independent variable (tidal and distance) influence to dependent variable (value of TDS) equal to 76%.

  10. Monitoring Thermal Pollution in Rivers Downstream of Dams with Landsat ETM+ Thermal Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dams play a significant role in altering the spatial pattern of temperature in rivers and contribute to thermal pollution, which greatly affects the river aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the temporal and spatial variation of thermal pollution caused by dams is important to prevent or mitigate its harmful effect. Assessments based on in-situ measurements are often limited in practice because of the inaccessibility of water temperature records and the scarcity of gauges along rivers. By contrast, thermal infrared remote sensing provides an alternative approach to monitor thermal pollution downstream of dams in large rivers, because it can cover a large area and observe the same zone repeatedly. In this study, Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ thermal infrared imagery were applied to assess the thermal pollution caused by two dams, the Geheyan Dam and the Gaobazhou Dam, located on the Qingjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River downstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir in Central China. The spatial and temporal characteristics of thermal pollution were analyzed with water temperatures estimated from 54 cloud-free Landsat ETM+ scenes acquired in the period from 2000 to 2014. The results show that water temperatures downstream of both dams are much cooler than those upstream of both dams in summer, and the water temperature remains stable along the river in winter, showing evident characteristic of the thermal pollution caused by dams. The area affected by the Geheyan Dam reaches beyond 20 km along the downstream river, and that affected by the Gaobazhou Dam extends beyond the point where the Qingjiang River enters the Yangtze River. Considering the long time series and global coverage of Landsat ETM+ imagery, the proposed technique in the current study provides a promising method for globally monitoring the thermal pollution caused by dams in large rivers.

  11. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  12. Evaluating the Effects of Dam Construction on the Morphological Changes of Downstream Meandering Rivers (Case Study: Karkheh River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Liaghat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of stability in rivers is dependent on a variety of factors, and yet the established stability can be interrupted at any moment or time. One factor that can strongly disrupt the stability of rivers is the construction of dams. For this study, the identification and evaluation of morphological changes occurring to the Karkheh River, before and after the construction of the Karkheh Dam, along with determining the degree of changes to the width and length of the downstream meanders of the river, have been performed with the assistance of satellite images and by applying the CCHE2D hydrodynamic model. Results show that under natural circumstances the width of the riverbed increases downstream parallel to the decrease in the slope angle of the river. The average width of the river was reduced from 273 meters to 60 meters after dam construction. This 78% decrease in river width has made available 21 hectares of land across the river bank per kilometer length of the river. In the studied area, the average thalweg migration of the river is approximately 340 meters, while the minimum and maximum of river migration measured 53 and 768 meters, respectively. Evaluations reveal that nearly 56% of the migrations pertain to the western side of the river, while over 59% of these migrations take place outside the previous riverbed. By average, each year, the lateral migration rate of the river is 34 meters in the studied area which signifies the relevant instability of the region.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Missouri River Bed Evolution Downstream of Gavins Point Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Z. A.; Blum, M. D.; Lephart, G.; Viparelli, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Missouri River originates in the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and joins the Mississippi River near Saint Louis, Missouri. In the 1900s dam construction and river engineering works, such as river alignment, narrowing and bank protections were performed in the Missouri River basin to control the flood flows, ensure navigation and use the water for agricultural, industrial and municipal needs, for the production of hydroelectric power generation and for recreation. These projects altered the flow and the sediment transport regimes in the river and the exchange of sediment between the river and the adjoining floodplain. Here we focus on the long term effect of dam construction and channel narrowing on the 1200 km long reach of the Missouri River between Gavins Point Dam, Nebraska and South Dakota, and the confluence with the Mississippi River. Field observations show that two downstream migrating waves of channel bed degradation formed in this reach in response to the changes in flow regime, sediment load and channel geometry. We implemented a one dimensional morphodynamic model for large, low slope sand bed rivers, we validated the model at field scale by comparing the numerical results with the available field data and we use the model to 1) predict the magnitude and the migration rate of the waves of degradation at engineering time scales ( 150 years into the future), 2) quantify the changes in the sand load delivered to the Mississippi River, where field observations at Thebes, i.e. downstream of Saint Louis, suggest a decline in the mean annual sand load in the past 50 years, and 3) identify the role of the main tributaries - Little Sioux River, Platte River and Kansas River - on the wave migration speed and the annual sand load in the Missouri River main channel.

  14. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  15. Large Dam Effects on Flow Regime and Hydraulic Parameters of river (Case study: Karkheh River, Downstream of Reservoir Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Azarang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The critical role of the rivers in supplying water for various needs of life has led to engineering identification of the hydraulic regime and flow condition of the rivers. Hydraulic structures such dams have inevitable effects on their downstream that should be well investigated. The reservoir dams are the most important hydraulic structures which are the cause of great changes in river flow conditions. Materials and Methods: In this research, an accurate assessment was performed to study the flow regime of Karkheh river at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam as the largest dam in Middle East. Karkheh River is the third waterful river of Iran after Karun and Dez and the third longest river after the Karun and Sefidrud. The Karkheh Dam is a large reservoir dam built in Iran on the Karkheh River in 2000. The Karkheh Reservoir Dam is on the Karkheh River in the Northwestern Khouzestan Province, the closest city being Andimeshk to the east. The part of Karkheh River, which was studied in this research is located at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam. This interval is approximately 94 km, which is located between PayePol and Abdolkhan hydrometric stations. In this research, 138 cross sections were used along Karkheh River. Distance of cross sections from each other was 680m in average. The efficient model of HEC-RAS has been utilized to simulate the Karkheh flow conditions before and after the reservoir dam construction using of hydrometric stations data included annually and monthly mean discharges, instantaneous maximum discharges, water surface profiles and etc. Three defined discharges had been chosen to simulate the Karkheh River flow; maximum defined discharge, mean defined discharge and minimum defined discharge. For each of these discharges values, HEC-RAS model was implemented as a steady flow of the Karkheh River at river reach of study. Water surface profiles of flow, hydraulic parameters and other results of flow regime in

  16. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  17. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  18. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  19. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  20. Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Downstream Transport of Water, Heat, and Solutes in a Hydropeaked River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, S. B.; Cardenas, M. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Watson, J.

    2017-12-01

    A majority of the world's largest river systems are regulated by dams. In addition to being used for water resources management and flood prevention, many large dams are also used for hydroelectric power generation. In the United States, dams account for 7% of domestic electricity, and hydropower accounts for 16% of worldwide electricity production. To help meet electricity demand during peak usage times, hydropower utilities often increase their releases of water during high demand periods. This practice, termed hydropeaking, can cause large transient flow regimes downstream of hydroelectric dams. These transient flow increases can result in order of magnitude daily fluctuations in discharge, and the released water can have different thermal and chemical properties than ambient river water. As hydropeaking releases travel downstream, the temporary rise in stage and increase in discharge can enhance surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) exchange between the river and its alluvial aquifer. This dam-induced SW-GW exchange, combined with hydrodynamic attenuation and heat exchange processes, result in complex responses downstream. The dam-regulated Lower Colorado River downstream of Austin, TX was used as a natural laboratory to observe SW-GW interactions and downstream transport of water, heat, and solutes under hydropeaking conditions. To characterize SW-GW interactions, well transects were installed in the banks of the river to observe exchanges between the river and alluvial aquifer. The well transects were installed at three different distances from the dam (15km, 35km, and 80km). At each well transect conductivity, temperature, and pressure sensors were deployed in the monitoring wells and in the channel. Additional conductivity and temperature sensors were deployed along the study reach to provide a more detailed record of heat and solute transport during hydropeaking releases. The field data spans over two months of daily dam releases that were punctuated by two

  1. How have the river discharges and sediment loads changed in the Changjiang River basin downstream of the Three Gorges Dam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Leicheng; Su, Ni; Zhu, Chunyan; He, Qing

    2018-05-01

    Streamflow and sediment loads undergo remarkable changes in worldwide rivers in response to climatic changes and human interferences. Understanding their variability and the causes is of vital importance regarding river management. With respect to the Changjiang River (CJR), one of the largest river systems on earth, we provide a comprehensive overview of its hydrological regime changes by analyzing long time series of river discharges and sediment loads data at multiple gauge stations in the basin downstream of Three Gorges Dam (TGD). We find profound river discharge reduction during flood peaks and in the wet-to-dry transition period, and slightly increased discharges in the dry season. Sediment loads have reduced progressively since 1980s owing to sediment yield reduction and dams in the upper basin, with notably accelerated reduction since the start of TGD operation in 2003. Channel degradation occurs in downstream river, leading to considerable river stage drop. Lowered river stages have caused a 'draining effect' on lakes by fostering lake outflows following TGD impoundments. The altered river-lake interplay hastens low water occurrence inside the lakes which can worsen the drought given shrinking lake sizes in long-term. Moreover, lake sedimentation has decreased since 2002 with less sediment trapped in and more sediment flushed out of the lakes. These hydrological changes have broad impacts on river flood and drought occurrences, water security, fluvial ecosystem, and delta safety.

  2. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L, total sulphide (TS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and total phosphorus (TP. Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly.

  3. 78 FR 21839 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0041] RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA... drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridges across Green River, mile 79.6, Small- house, KY and Black...

  4. Habitat quality and recruitment success of cui-ui in the Truckee River downstream of Marble Bluff Dam, Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Salgado, J. Antonio; Harry, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    We compared cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) recruitment from two reaches of the Truckee River with histories of severe erosional downcutting caused by a decline in Pyramid Lake surface elevation. In 1975, Marble Bluff Dam (MBD) was constructed 5 kilometers upstream of the extant mouth of the Truckee River to stabilize the upstream reach of the river; the downstream reach of the river remained unstable and consequently unsuitable for cui-ui recruitment. By the early 2000s, there was a decrease in the Truckee River’s slope from MBD to Pyramid Lake after a series of wet years in the 1990s. This was followed by changes in river morphology and erosion abatement. These changes led to the question as to cui-ui recruitment potential in the Truckee River downstream of MBD. In 2012, more than 7,000 cui-ui spawners were passed upstream of MBD, although an indeterminate number of cui-ui spawned downstream of MBD. In this study, we compared cui-ui recruitment upstream and downstream of MBD during a Truckee River low-flow year (2012). Cui-ui larvae emigration to Pyramid Lake began earlier and ended later downstream of MBD. A greater number of cui-ui larvae was produced downstream of MBD than upstream. This also was true for native Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) and Lahontan redside (Richardsonius egregius). The improved Truckee River stability downstream of MBD and concomitant cui-ui recruitment success is attributed to a rise in Pyramid Lake's surface elevation. A decline in lake elevation may lead to a shift in stream morphology and substrate composition to the detriment of cui-ui reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of other native fishes.

  5. Seasonal Changes and Spatial Variation in Water Quality of a Large Young Tropical Reservoir and Its Downstream River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the water quality of the large young tropical Bakun hydroelectric reservoir in Sarawak, Malaysia, and the influence of the outflow on the downstream river during wet and dry seasons. Water quality was determined at five stations in the reservoir at three different depths and one downstream station. The results show that seasons impacted the water quality of the Bakun Reservoir, particularly in the deeper water column. Significantly lower turbidity, SRP, and TP were found during the wet season. At 3–6 m, the oxygen content fell below 5 mg/L and hypoxia was also recorded. Low NO2--N, NO3--N, and SRP and high BOD5, OKN, and TP were observed in the reservoir indicating organic pollution. Active logging activities and the dam construction upstream resulted in water quality deterioration. The outflow decreased the temperature, DO, and pH and increased the turbidity and TSS downstream. Elevated organic matter and nutrients downstream are attributable to domestic discharge along the river. This study shows that the downstream river was affected by the discharge through the turbines, the spillway operations, and domestic waste. Therefore, all these factors should be taken into consideration in the downstream river management for the health of the aquatic organisms.

  6. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  7. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  8. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  9. Downstream Yangtze River levels impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Gleason, Colin J; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze level regime downstream from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the Yangtze estuary in the East China Sea as a combined result of (i) TGD’s flow regulation and (ii) Yangtze channel erosion due to reduced sediment load. During the average annual cycle of TGD’s regular flow control in 2009–2012, downstream Yangtze level variations were estimated to have been reduced by 3.9–13.5% at 15 studied gauging stations, manifested as evident level decrease in fall and increase in winter and spring. The impacts on Yangtze levels generally diminished in a longitudinal direction from the TGD to the estuary, with a total time lag of ∼9–12 days. Chronic Yangtze channel erosion since the TGD closure has lowered water levels in relation to flows at most downstream stations, which in turn counteracts the anticipated level increase by nearly or over 50% in winter and spring while reinforcing the anticipated level decrease by over 20% in fall. Continuous downstream channel erosion in the near future may further counteract the benefit of increased Yangtze levels during TGD’s water supplement in winter and accelerate the receding of inundation areas/levels of downstream lakes in fall. (letter)

  10. Use of multispectral satellite remote sensing to assess mixing of suspended sediment downstream of large river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    Although past work has noted that contrasts in turbidity often are detectable on remotely sensed images of rivers downstream from confluences, no systematic methodology has been developed for assessing mixing over distance of confluent flows with differing surficial suspended sediment concentrations (SSSC). In contrast to field measurements of mixing below confluences, satellite remote-sensing can provide detailed information on spatial distributions of SSSC over long distances. This paper presents a methodology that uses remote-sensing data to estimate spatial patterns of SSSC downstream of confluences along large rivers and to determine changes in the amount of mixing over distance from confluences. The method develops a calibrated Random Forest (RF) model by relating training SSSC data from river gaging stations to derived spectral indices for the pixels corresponding to gaging-station locations. The calibrated model is then used to predict SSSC values for every river pixel in a remotely sensed image, which provides the basis for mapping of spatial variability in SSSCs along the river. The pixel data are used to estimate average surficial values of SSSC at cross sections spaced uniformly along the river. Based on the cross-section data, a mixing metric is computed for each cross section. The spatial pattern of change in this metric over distance can be used to define rates and length scales of surficial mixing of suspended sediment downstream of a confluence. This type of information is useful for exploring the potential influence of various controlling factors on mixing downstream of confluences, for evaluating how mixing in a river system varies over time and space, and for determining how these variations influence water quality and ecological conditions along the river.

  11. Longitudinal distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera) downstream from a dam in a neotropical river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinha, G D; Aviz, D; Lopes Filho, D R; Petsch, D K; Marchese, M R; Takeda, A M

    2013-08-01

    The damming of a river causes dangerous consequences on structure of the environment downstream of the dam, modifying the sediment composition, which impose major adjustments in longitudinal distribution of benthic community. The construction of Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Dam in the Upper Paraná River has caused impacts on the aquatic communities, which are not yet fully known. This work aimed to provide more information about the effects of this impoundment on the structure of Chironomidae larvae assemblage. The analysis of data of physical and chemical variables in relation to biological data of 8 longitudinal sections in the Upper Paraná River showed that composition of Chironomidae larvae of stations near Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Dam differed of the other stations (farther of the Dam). The predominance of coarse sediments at stations upstream and finer sediments further downstream affected the choice of habitat by different morphotypes of Chironomidae and it caused a change in the structure of this assemblage in the longitudinal stretch.

  12. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  13. Use of pre-industrial floodplain lake sediments to establish baseline river metal concentrations downstream of Alberta oil sands: a new approach for detecting pollution of rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Johan A; Hall, Roland I; Farwell, Andrea J; George Dixon, D; Wolfe, Brent B; Edwards, Thomas WD

    2014-01-01

    In the Alberta oil sands region, insufficient knowledge of pre-disturbance reference conditions has undermined the ability of the Regional Aquatics Monitoring Program (RAMP) to detect pollution of the Athabasca River, because sampling began three decades after the industry started and the river naturally erodes oil-bearing strata. Here, we apply a novel approach to characterize pre-industrial reference metal concentrations in river sediment downstream of Alberta oil sands development by analyzing metal concentrations in sediments deposited in floodplain lakes of the Athabasca Delta during 1700–1916, when they were strongly influenced by Athabasca River floodwaters. We compared results to metal concentrations in surficial bottom sediments sampled by RAMP (2010–2013) at downstream sites of the Athabasca River and distributaries. When normalized to lithium content, concentrations of vanadium (a metal of concern in the oil sands region) and other priority pollutants (Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in nearly all of the RAMP river sediment samples lie below the upper 95% prediction interval linearly extrapolated from the river-derived lake sediments. Assuming the RAMP protocols obtained recently deposited sediment, this indicates that the metal concentrations in downstream Athabasca River sediment have not increased above pre-disturbance levels. Reference conditions derived from the lake sediment data were used to develop profiles of metal residual concentrations versus time for the RAMP river sediment data, which provides an excellent tool for decision-makers to identify and quantify levels of metal pollution for any given sample, and to monitor for future trends. We recommend that the approach be applied to resurrect the utility of RAMP data at other river sampling locations closer to the development, and for ongoing risk assessment. The approach is also readily transferable to other rivers where insufficient pre-disturbance reference data impairs an ability to

  14. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  15. Multiyear Downstream Response to Dam Removal on the White Salmon River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The 2011 removal of the 38 m tall Condit Dam on the White Salmon River, Washington was one of the largest dam removals to date, in terms of both dam height and sediment release. We examined the multiyear geomorphic response to this event, through 2015, including in a bedrock-confined canyon and in a less-confined, backwater-influenced pool reach near the river's mouth, to the large, rapid influx of fine reservoir sediment produced by the breach and to subsequent sediment transfer in the free-flowing White Salmon River. In the canyon reach, aggraded sediments were rapidly eroded from riffles, returning them toward pre-breach bed elevations within weeks, but pool aggradation persisted for longer. The downstream, less-confined reach transformed from a deep pool to a narrower pool-riffle channel with alternate bars; multiyear observations showed persistence of bars and of this new and distinct morphology. This downstream reach marks a rare case in post-dam removal channel response; in most dam removals, channels have rapidly reverted toward pre-removal morphology, as in the canyon reach here. Comparison of the multiyear geomorphic evolution of the White Salmon River to other recent large dam removals in the U.S. allows evaluation of the relative influences of antecedent channel morphology, post-breach hydrology, and dam removal style, as well as providing a basis for predicting responses to future dam removals.

  16. Oldman river dam mitigation program downstream vegetation project report, Volume II: The potential effects of an operating plan for the Oldman River dam on Riparian cottonwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive cottonwood (poplar) forests exist in the Oldman River valley downstream of the Oldman River dam. Studies of similar forests in nearby river valleys and elsewhere on the western prairies have found significant declines of some riparian forests following river damming. This investigation was initiated to determine the causes of cottonwood forest decline downstream from existing dams in southern Alberta; inventory the existing river valley forests in the Oldman Basin; establish study sites in the Oldman River forests to monitor changes in forest status following commissioning of the Oldman River dam, and evaluate the probable impact of proposed operating plans for the Oldman River dam and associated water control structures on downstream forests. This report summarizes the progress made in the analyses of the probable effects on the survival of the forests, including a discussion of the hydrological conditions essential for cottonwood forest regeneration and an explanation of the effects of altering these characteristics on riparian forests; the hydrological alterations expected along various river reaches in the Oldman Basin with the implementation of the proposed OD05 Oldman Dam operating plan; and preliminary analyses of the problem impacts of the OD05 operating plan on the cottonwood forests along these reaches.

  17. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes

  18. Potential effects of elevated base flow and midsummer spike flow experiments on riparian vegetation along the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program has requested experimental flow releases from Flaming Gorge Dam for (1) elevated summer base flows to promote larval endangered Colorado pikeminnow, and (2) midsummer spike flows to disadvantage spawning invasive smallmouth bass. This white paper explores the effects of these proposed flow modifications on riparian vegetation and sediment deposition downstream along the Green River. Although modest in magnitude, the elevated base flows and possible associated reductions in magnitude or duration of peak flows would exacerbate a long-term trend of flow stabilization on the Green River that is already leading to proliferation of vegetation including invasive tamarisk along the channel and associated sediment deposition, channel narrowing and channel simplification. Midsummer spike flows could promote establishment of late-flowering plants like tamarisk. Because channel narrowing and simplification threaten persistence and quality of backwater and side channel features needed by endangered fish, the proposed flow modifications could lead to degradation of fish habitat. Channel narrowing and vegetation encroachment could be countered by increases in peak flows or reductions in base flows in some years and by prescription of rapid flow declines following midsummer spike flows. These strategies for reducing vegetation encroachment would need to be balanced with flow

  19. Linking Three Gorges Dam and downstream hydrological regimes along the Yangtze River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, X.; Dai, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Gao, J.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of anthropogenic influence, especially dam regulation, on hydrological system is of scientific and practical value for large river management. As the largest dam in the world by far, Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is expected to be a strong evidence on dam impacts on downstream hydrological

  20. Assessing geomorphic change along the Trinity River downstream from Lewiston Dam, California, 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Wright, Scott A.; Minear, Justin T.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2015-01-01

    The Trinity River Restoration Program, one of the nation’s largest adaptively managed river restoration programs, requires periodic assessment to determine the effectiveness of management actions in restoring channel dynamics and habitat features. This study documents riparian and channel changes along an intensively managed 65-kilometer reach of the Trinity River in California, downstream from Lewiston Dam. The two primary periods of interest, from 1980 to 2001 and from 2001 to 2011, are separated by a shift in restoration activities mandated by the U.S. Department of the Interior December 2000 Record of Decision. The post-2001 restoration strategy increased managed-flow releases, gravel augmentation, watershed restoration, and mechanical channel rehabilitation.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  2. Remedial action at the Green River uranium mill tailings site, Green River, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The inactive Green River uranium mill tailings site is one mile southeast of Green River, Utah. The existing tailings pile is within the floodplain boundaries of the 100-year and 500-year flood events. The 48-acre designated site contains eight acres of tailings, the mill yard and ore storage area, four main buildings, a water tower, and several small buildings. Dispersion of the tailings has contaminated an additional 24 acres surrounding the designated site. Elevated concentrations of molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha activity exceed background levels and the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits in the groundwater in the unconsolidated alluvium and in the shallow shales and limestones beneath the alluvium at the mill tailings site. The contamination is localized beneath, and slightly downgradient of, the tailings pile. The proposed action is to relocate the tailings and associated contaminated materials to an area 600 feet south of the existing tailings pile where they would be consolidated into one, below-grade disposal cell. A radon/infiltration barrier would be constructed to cover the stabilized pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to ensure the long-term stability of the stabilized pile. 88 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  3. 78 FR 31454 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that governs the highway bridge (Troy Green Island) across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy... the regulations for the 112th Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been...

  4. Long-Term Downstream Effects of a Dam on a Lowland River Flow Regime: Case Study of the Upper Narew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Marcinkowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Most European riverine ecosystems suffer from the negative influence of impoundments on flow regime. Downstream effects of dams lead to a number of environmental and socioeconomic risks and, therefore, should be thoroughly examined in specific contexts. Our study aims to quantify the downstream effects of the Siemianówka Reservoir (Upper Narew, Poland, using statistical analysis of key elements of the river’s flow regime, such as the flow duration and recurrence of floods and droughts. In a comparative study on control catchments not influenced by impoundments (the Supraśl and Narewka Rivers, we revealed the following downstream effects of the analyzed dam: significant shortening of spring floods, reduction of the duration and depth of summer droughts, decrease of the maximum discharge, and homogenization of the discharge hydrographs. Although we determined a significant decrease in the duration of summer floods in the “before” and “after” dam function periods, we showed that this issue is regional, climate-related, and replicated in control catchments, rather than an evident downstream effect of the dam. We conclude that significant hydrological downstream effects of the Siemianówka dam–reservoir system could have been the main driver inducing the deterioration of the anastomosing stretch of the Narew River downstream of the dam.

  5. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... operation of the highway bridge across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York... Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been converted to a fixed bridge. It is...

  6. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  7. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  8. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  9. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations , the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance (Option I); improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash (Option II); and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements (Option III). All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  10. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights

  11. Analysis of the effects of human activities on the hydromorphological evolution channel of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from La Gabelle dam (Quebec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadnais, Marie-Ève; Assani, Ali A.; Landry, Raphaëlle; Leroux, Denis; Gratton, Denis

    2012-11-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, many hydroelectric facilities were built in the Saint-Maurice River watershed, followed by other human activities in the second half of the century (pleasure boating, boom dismantling, urbanization, etc.). The goal of the study is to constrain the effects of these various types of human activities, particularly those of the many dams in the watershed, on the hydromorphological evolution of the Saint-Maurice River downstream from the La Gabelle (dam) power plant (43,000 km2). Comparison of specific discharge in this river with streamflow measured in a natural river setting reveals a significant decrease in seasonal maximum flows, aside from winter, when daily maximum flows increased significantly. Also, unlike natural rivers, the long-term trend in spring flows is not characterized by a significant change in mean downstream from the La Gabelle plant. These hydrological changes are linked to the inversion-type management mode of the reservoirs built downstream from the plant. As for the morphological evolution, the longitudinal variability of bankfull width downstream from the plant shows two significant shifts in mean: the first, which was quasi-abrupt, took place downstream of the des Forges rapid; and the second, which was gradual, occurred upstream from the confluence of the Saint-Maurice River with the St. Lawrence River, above the point where the Saint-Maurice splits into two branches. Comparison of aerial photographs taken at various times (1948, 1964, 1975, 1996, and 2008) reveals no significant change in the mean of bankfull width over time. However, a significant increase in the surface area of islets located at the confluence was observed, which is caused by sediment accumulation. These sediments were likely derived from local bank erosion resulting from anthropogenic changes.

  12. Polar constituents isolated from Green River oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The mass spectrometric, ir absorption, and NMR data were interpreted for 22 compounds obtained from a polar fraction of Green River shale. The major constituents analyzed are believed to be of the following compositional types: C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O (cyclohexanols and chain isoprenoid ketones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-10/O (tetralones and indanones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-7/N (tetrahydroquinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-11/N(quinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-1/NO (alkoxypyrrolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-5/NO/sub 2/ (maleimides), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-8/ (tetralins), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-12/ (naphthalenes) and C/sub n/H/sub 2n-14/ (benzylbenzenes). This work expands the present information about nitrogen, oxygen and aromatic constituents indigenous to Green River shale.

  13. River flow availability for environmental flow allocation downstream of hydropower facilities in the Kafue Basin of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalumba, Mulenga; Nyirenda, Edwin

    2017-12-01

    The Government of the Republic Zambia (GRZ) will install a new hydropower station Kafue Gorge Lower downstream of the existing Kafue Gorge Station (KGS) and plans to start operating the Itezhi-Tezhi (ITT) hydropower facility in the Kafue Basin. The Basin has significant biodiversity hot spots such as the Luangwa National park and Kafue Flats. It is described as a Man-Biosphere reserve and the National Park is a designated World Heritage Site hosting a variety of wildlife species. All these natural reserves demand special protection, and environmental flow requirements (e-flows) have been identified as a necessary need to preserve these ecosystems. Implementation of e-flows is therefore a priority as Zambia considers to install more hydropower facilities. However before allocation of e-flows, it is necessary to first assess the river flow available for allocation at existing hydropower stations in the Kafue Basin. The river flow availability in the basin was checked by assessing the variability in low and high flows since the timing, frequency and duration of extreme droughts and floods (caused by low and high flows) are all important hydrological characteristics of a flow regime that affects e-flows. The river flows for a 41 year monthly time series data (1973-2014) were used to extract independent low and high flows using the Water Engineering Time Series Processing Tool (WETSPRO). The low and high flows were used to construct cumulative frequency distribution curves that were compared and analysed to show their variation over a long period. A water balance of each hydropower station was used to check the river flow allocation aspect by comparing the calculated water balance outflow (river flow) with the observed river flow, the hydropower and consumptive water rights downstream of each hydropower station. In drought periods about 50-100 m3/s of riverflow is available or discharged at both ITT and KGS stations while as in extreme flood events about 1300-1500 m3/s

  14. Comprehensive flood mitigation and management in the Chi River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Suryadi, F.X.; Corzo, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe flooding of the flat downstream area of the Chi River Basin occurs frequently. This flooding is causing catastrophic loss of human lives, damage and economic loss. Effective flood management requires a broad and practical approach. Although flood disasters cannot completely be prevented, major part of potential loss of lives and damages can be reduced by comprehensive mitigation measures. In this paper, the effects of river normalisation, reservoir operation, green river (bypass), and ...

  15. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Processesof Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Adam S; Cooper, David J

    2006-06-01

    Significant ecological, hydrologic, and geomorphic changes have occurred during the 20th century along many large floodplain rivers in the American Southwest. Native Populus forests have declined, while the exotic Eurasian shrub, Tamarix, has proliferated and now dominates most floodplain ecosystems. Photographs from late 19th and early 20th centuries illustrate wide river channels with largely bare in-channel landforms and shrubby higher channel margin floodplains. However, by the mid-20th century, floodplains supporting dense Tamarix stands had expanded, and river channels had narrowed. Along the lower Green River in eastern Utah, the causal mechanism of channel and floodplain changes remains ambiguous due to the confounding effects of climatically driven reductions in flood magnitude, river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam, and Tamarix invasion. This study addressed whether Tamarix establishment and spread followed climate- or dam-induced reductions in annual peak flows or whether Tamarix was potentially a driver of floodplain changes. We aged 235 Tamarix and 57 Populus individuals, determined the hydrologic and geomorphic processes that controlled recruitment, identified the spatial relationships of germination sites within floodplain stratigraphic transects, and mapped woody riparian vegetation cohorts along three segments of the lower Green River. The oldest Tamarix established along several sampling reaches in 1938, and 1.50-2.25 m of alluvium has accreted above their germination surfaces. Nearly 90% of the Tamarix and Populus samples established during flood years that exceeded the 2.5-year recurrence interval. Recruitment was most common when large floods were followed by years with smaller peak flows. The majority of Tamarix establishment and Green River channel narrowing occurred long before river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam. Tamarix initially colonized bare instream sand deposits (e.g., islands and bars), and most channel and floodplain changes

  17. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  19. The Colorado River and its deposits downstream from Grand Canyon in Arizona, California, and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Block, Debra L.; Felger, Tracey J.; House, P. Kyle; Pearthree, Philip A.; Gootee, Brian F.; Youberg, Ann M.; Howard, Keith A.; Beard, L. Sue

    2018-02-05

    Understanding the evolution of the Colorado River system has direct implications for (1) the processes and timing of continental-scale river system integration, (2) the formation of iconic landscapes like those in and around Grand Canyon, and (3) the availability of groundwater resources. Spatial patterns in the position and type of Colorado River deposits, only discernible through geologic mapping, can be used to test models related to Colorado River evolution. This is particularly true downstream from Grand Canyon where ancestral Colorado River deposits are well-exposed. We are principally interested in (1) regional patterns in the minimum and maximum elevation of each depositional unit, which are affected by depositional mechanism and postdepositional deformation; and (2) the volume of each unit, which reflects regional changes in erosion, transport efficiency, and accommodation space. The volume of Colorado River deposits below Grand Canyon has implications for groundwater resources, as the primary regional aquifer there is composed of those deposits. To this end, we are presently mapping Colorado River deposits and compiling and updating older mapping. This preliminary data release shows the current status of our mapping and compilation efforts. We plan to update it at regular intervals in conjunction with ongoing mapping.

  20. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0374] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... from the regulation governing the operation of the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River...

  1. Convective nature of the planimetric instability in meandering river dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2006-02-01

    The convective nature of the linear instability of meandering river dynamics is analytically demonstrated and the corresponding Green's function is derived. The wave packet due to impulsive disturbance migrates along a river either downstream or upstream, depending on the subresonant or superresonant conditions. The influence of the parameters that govern the meandering process is shown and the role of the fluid dynamic detail used to describe the morphodynamic problem is discussed. A numerical simulation of the river planimetry is also developed.

  2. The fate of copepod populations in the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil, downstream from the Jurumirim dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuka Patricia Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes in the structure of copepod populations were examined during the dry and rainy seasons in a 42 km stretch of the Paranapanema River downstream from the dam of the Jurumirim Reservoir. Samples were taken in the "lacustrine" zone of the reservoir near the dam, and also at 12 stations distributed in the middle and the lateral regions of the channel of the Paranapanema River downstream from the dam. The following species of Cyclopoida were found at the sites: Thermocyclops decipiens, Thermocyclops minutus, Paracyclops sp., Tropocyclops sp and Mesocyclops sp., and of Calanoida: Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, Notodiaptomus iheringi and Notodiaptomus conifer. In the reservoir sampling station, the copepod abundance during the dry and rainy seasons corresponded to 41 and 51% of the total zooplankton, respectively. This difference could be related to the rainfall and water level variations, and especially to the influence of variables such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a contents. No significant differences in organism numbers were recorded among samples of zooplankton taken in the middle and near-bank parts of the river. In relation to longitudinal variation in the Paranapanema River stretch, a significant decrease in density and disappearance of some species were recorded 11km downstream of the dam during the dry season. At the stations 32km from the dam, a drastic reduction in copepod abundance was observed in the rainy season. These observations could be linked not only to environmental changes from lentic to lotic conditions, but also to the combination of certain factors such as current velocity, water outflow of the reservoir, and rainfall.

  3. Summary of sediment data from the Yampa river and upper Green river basins, Colorado and Utah, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John G.; Anders, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Upper Colorado River Basin have been extensively developed for water supply, irrigation, and power generation through water storage in upstream reservoirs during spring runoff and subsequent releases during the remainder of the year. The net effect of water-resource development has been to substantially modify the predevelopment annual hydrograph as well as the timing and amount of sediment delivery from the upper Green River and the Yampa River Basins tributaries to the main-stem reaches where endangered native fish populations have been observed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to identify sediment source reaches in the Green River main stem and the lower Yampa and Little Snake Rivers and to identify sediment-transport relations that would be useful in assessing the potential effects of hydrograph modification by reservoir operation on sedimentation at identified razorback spawning bars in the Green River. The need for additional data collection is evaluated at each sampling site. Sediment loads were calculated at five key areas within the watershed by using instantaneous measurements of streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, and bedload. Sediment loads were computed at each site for two modes of transport (suspended load and bedload), as well as for the total-sediment load (suspended load plus bedload) where both modes were sampled. Sediment loads also were calculated for sediment particle-size range (silt-and-clay, and sand-and-gravel sizes) if laboratory size analysis had been performed on the sample, and by hydrograph season. Sediment-transport curves were developed for each type of sediment load by a least-squares regression of logarithmic-transformed data. Transport equations for suspended load and total load had coefficients of determination of at least 0.72 at all of the sampling sites except Little Snake River near

  4. Oldest new genus of Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Green River Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-10-20

    Epignopholeon sophiae gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Green River Formation (Colorado, U.S.A.). It represents the oldest confident record of the family. The new genus is remarkable in that tergite 7 of the female is much shorter than its long sternite 7. The preserved wing venation shows that the genus belongs to the subfamily Myrmeleontinae, and most probably to the tribe Gnopholeontini. The discovery of this species is consistent with estimations of relatively dry and warm conditions during deposition of the upper Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation.

  5. DOWNSTREAM ECOCIDE FROM UPSTREAM WATER PIRACY

    OpenAIRE

    Miah Muhammad Adel

    2012-01-01

    Upstream India and downstream Bangladesh share more than 50 international rivers. India has set up water diversion constructions in more than 50% of these rivers, the largest one being on the Bangladeshâs northwest upon the Ganges River, puts Bangladeshâs Gangetic ecosystem at stake. In some border rivers, India has set up groins on her side of river banks. Also, Indian side pumps Bangladesh river water stealthily from border-rivers. Further, India is constructing another dam and reservoir up...

  6. Downstream passage and impact of turbine shutdowns on survival of silver American Eels at five hydroelectric dams on the Shenandoah River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Sheila; Welsh, Stuart A.; Smith, David R.; Rockey, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams impact the downstream migrations of silver American Eels Anguilla rostrata via migratory delays and turbine mortality. A radiotelemetry study of American Eels was conducted to determine the impacts of five run-of-the-river hydroelectric dams located over a 195-km stretch of the Shenandoah River, Virginia–West Virginia, during fall 2007–summer 2010. Overall, 96 radio-tagged individuals (mean TL = 85.4 cm) migrated downstream past at least one dam during the study. Most American Eels passed dams relatively quickly; over half (57.9%) of the dam passage events occurred within 1 h of reaching a dam, and most (81.3%) occurred within 24 h of reaching the dam. Two-thirds of the dam passage events occurred via spill, and the remaining passage events were through turbines. Migratory delays at dams were shorter and American Eels were more likely to pass via spill over the dam during periods of high river discharge than during low river discharge. The extent of delay in migration did not differ between the passage routes (spill versus turbine). Twenty-eight American Eels suffered turbine-related mortality, which occurred at all five dams. Mortality rates for eels passing through turbines ranged from 15.8% to 40.7% at individual dams. Overall project-specific mortality rates (with all passage routes combined) ranged from 3.0% to 14.3%. To protect downstream-migrating American Eels, nighttime turbine shutdowns (1800–0600 hours) were implemented during September 15–December 15. Fifty percent of all downstream passage events in the study occurred during the turbine shutdown period. Implementation of the seasonal turbine shutdown period reduced cumulative mortality from 63.3% to 37.3% for American Eels passing all five dams. Modifying the turbine shutdown period to encompass more dates in the spring and linking the shutdowns to environmental conditions could provide greater protection to downstream-migrating American Eels.

  7. Summary of the Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. The services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance; improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash; and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements. All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  8. Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs to a River Basin and Their Impacts on Phosphorus Fluxes Along Its Upstream-Downstream Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangshou; Swaney, Dennis P.; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing trend in riverine phosphorus (P) loads resulting from anthropogenic inputs has gained wide attention because of the well-known role of P in eutrophication. So far, however, there is still limited scientific understanding of anthropogenic P inputs and their impacts on riverine flux in river reaches along the upstream-to-downstream continuum. Here we investigated P budgets in a series of nested watersheds draining into Hongze Lake of China and developed an empirical function to describe the relationship between anthropogenic inputs and riverine P fluxes. Our results indicated that there are obvious gradients regarding P budgets in response to changes in human activities. Fertilizer application and food and feed P import was always the dominant source of P inputs in all sections, followed by nonfood P. Further interpretation using the model revealed the processes of P loading to the lake. About 2%-9% of anthropogenic P inputs are transported from the various sections into the corresponding tributaries of the river systems, depending upon local precipitation rates. Of this amount, around 41%-95% is delivered to the main stem of the Huai River after in-stream attenuation in its tributaries. Ultimately, 55%-86% of the P loads delivered to different locations of the main stem are transported into the receiving lake of the downstream, due to additional losses in the main stem. An integrated P management strategy that considers the gradients of P loss along the upstream-to-downstream continuum is required to assess and optimize P management to protect the region's freshwater resource.

  9. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  10. Anthropogenic phosphorus (P) inputs to a river basin and their impacts on P fluxes along its upstream-downstream continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangshou; Swaney, Dennis; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) originating from anthropogenic sources as a pollutant of surface waters has been an environmental issue for decades because of the well-known role of P in eutrophication. Human activities, such as food production and rapid urbanization, have been linked to increased P inputs which are often accompanied by corresponding increases in riverine P export. However, uneven distributions of anthropogenic P inputs along watersheds from the headwaters to downstream reaches can result in significantly different contributions to the riverine P fluxes of a receiving water body. So far, there is still very little scientific understanding of anthropogenic P inputs and their impacts on riverine flux in river reaches along the upstream to downstream continuum. Here, we investigated P budgets in a series of nested watersheds draining into Hongze Lake of China, and developed a simple empirical function to describe the relationship between anthropogenic inputs and riverine TP fluxes. The results indicated that an average of 1.1% of anthropogenic P inputs are exported into rivers, with most of the remainder retained in the watershed landscape over the period studied. Fertilizer application was the main contributor of P loading to the lake (55% of total loads), followed by legacy P stock (30%), food and feed P inputs (12%) and non-food P inputs (4%). From 60% to 89% of the riverine TP loads generated from various locations within this basin were ultimately transported into the receiving lake of the downstream, with an average rate of 1.86 tons P km-1 retaining in the main stem of the inflowing river annually. Our results highlight that in-stream processes can significantly buffer the riverine P loading to the downstream receiving lake. An integrated P management strategy considering the influence of anthropogenic inputs and hydrological interactions is required to assess and optimize P management for protecting fresh waters.

  11. Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy

  12. Distribution Pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca Elements as Particle Size Function in the Code River Sediments from Upstream to Downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Muzakky

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements concentration of granular sediment from upstream to downstream of Code river has been done. The aim of this research is to know the influence of particle size on the concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream and its distribution pattern. The instrument used was x-ray fluorescence with Si(Li) detector. Analysis results show that more Fe and Sr elements are very much found in 150 - 90 μm particle size, while Zr and Ca elements are very much found in < 90 μm particle size. Distribution pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements distribution in Code river sediments tends to increase relatively from upstream to downstream following its conductivity. The concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements are 1.49 ± 0.03 % - 5.93 ± 0.02 % ; 118.20 ± 10.73 ppm - 468.21 ± 20.36 ppm; 19.81 ppm ± 0.86 ppm - 76.36 ± 3.02 ppm and 3.22 ± 0.25 % - 11.40 ± 0.31 % successively. (author)

  13. Rapid reservoir erosion, hyperconcentrated flow, and downstream deposition triggered by breaching of 38 m tall Condit Dam, White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; O'Connor, James E.; Major, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Condit Dam on the White Salmon River, Washington, a 38 m high dam impounding a large volume (1.8 million m3) of fine-grained sediment (60% sand, 35% silt and clay, and 5% gravel), was rapidly breached in October 2011. This unique dam decommissioning produced dramatic upstream and downstream geomorphic responses in the hours and weeks following breaching. Blasting a 5 m wide hole into the base of the dam resulted in rapid reservoir drawdown, abruptly releasing ~1.6 million m3 of reservoir water, exposing reservoir sediment to erosion, and triggering mass failures of the thickly accumulated reservoir sediment. Within 90 min of breaching, the reservoir's water and ~10% of its sediment had evacuated. At a gauging station 2.3 km downstream, flow increased briefly by 400 m3 s−1during passage of the initial pulse of released reservoir water, followed by a highly concentrated flow phase—up to 32% sediment by volume—as landslide-generated slurries from the reservoir moved downstream. This hyperconcentrated flow, analogous to those following volcanic eruptions or large landslides, draped the downstream river with predominantly fine sand. During the ensuing weeks, suspended-sediment concentration declined and sand and gravel bed load derived from continued reservoir erosion aggraded the channel by >1 m at the gauging station, after which the river incised back to near its initial elevation at this site. Within 15 weeks after breaching, over 1 million m3 of suspended load is estimated to have passed the gauging station, consistent with estimates that >60% of the reservoir's sediment had eroded. This dam removal highlights the influence of interactions among reservoir erosion processes, sediment composition, and style of decommissioning on rate of reservoir erosion and consequent downstream behavior of released sediment.

  14. River-bed erosion due to changing boundary conditions: performance of a protective measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Termini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the introduction of man-made sediment barriers along a river, the amount of sediment load entering the downstream river reach is different to that leaving the reach, and erosion processes occur downstream of the barrier itself. Designers are often required to take into account the scouring process and to include adequate protective measures against the local scour. This paper addresses the performance of bio-engineering protective measures against the erosion process. In particular, a green carpet, realized with real flexible vegetation, has been used as the protective measure against erosion processes downstream of a rigid bed. Analyses are based on experimental work carried out in a straight channel constructed at the laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aereospaziale, dei Materiali, Palermo University (Italy.

  15. 78 FR 33049 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Green River/Tusher Diversion Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., Salt Lake City, Utah 84138-1100, or via email at bronson.smart@ut.usda.gov . Information may also be... publicly available at any time during the EIS process. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bronson Smart... held on November 15, 2012 at Green River City Hall in Green River, Utah. Through additional...

  16. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  17. Hourly Water Quality Dynamics in Rivers Downstream of Urban Areas: Quantifying Seasonal Variation and Modelling Impacts of Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; McGrane, S. J.; Miller, J. D.; Hitt, O.; Bowes, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of water flows and quality is invaluable in improving understanding of the influence of urban areas on river health. When used to inform predictive modelling, insights can be gained as to how urban growth may affect the chemical and biological quality of rivers as they flow downstream into larger waterbodies. Water flow and quality monitoring in two urbanising sub-catchments (long term flow records are available, but particular focus is given to monitoring of an extended set of sites during prolonged winter rainfall. In the Ray sub-catchment streams were monitored in which urban cover varied across a range of 7-78%. A rural-urban gradient in DO was apparent in the low flow period prior to the storms. Transient low DO (works (STW). In this respect temperature- and respiration-driven DO sags in summer were at least if not more severe than those driven by the winter storms. Likewise, although winter storm NH4 concentrations violated EU legislation downstream of the STW, they were lower than summer concentrations in pollutant flushes following dry spells. In contrast the predominant phenomenon affecting water quality in the Cut during the storms was dilution. Here, a river water quality model was calibrated and applied over the course of a year to capture the importance of periphyton photosynthesis and respiration cycles in determining water quality and to predict the influence of hypothetical urban growth on downstream river health. The periods monitored intensively, dry spells followed by prolonged rainfall, represent: (i) marked changes in conditions likely to become more prevalent in future, (ii) situations under which water quality in urban areas is likely to be particularly vulnerable, being influenced for example by first flush effects followed by capacity exceedance at STW. Despite this, whilst being somewhat long lasting in places, impacts on DO were not severe.

  18. Sources of suspended-sediment loads in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary, south Texas, 1958–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District; City of Corpus Christi; Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority; San Antonio River Authority; and San Antonio Water System, developed, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) watershed model to simulate streamflow and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during 1958-2010 in the lower Nueces River watershed, downstream from Lake Corpus Christi to the Nueces Estuary in south Texas. Data available to simulate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads consisted of historical sediment data collected during 1942-82 in the study area and suspended-sediment concentration data collected periodically by the USGS during 2006-7 and 2010 at three USGS streamflow-gaging stations (08211000 Nueces River near Mathis, Tex. [the Mathis gage], 08211200 Nueces River at Bluntzer, Tex. [the Bluntzer gage], and 08211500 Nueces River at Calallen, Tex. [the Calallen gage]), and at one ungaged location on a Nueces River tributary (USGS station 08211050 Bayou Creek at Farm Road 666 near Mathis, Tex.). The Mathis gage is downstream from Wesley E. Seale Dam, which was completed in 1958 to impound Lake Corpus Christi. Suspended-sediment data collected before and after completion of Wesley E. Seale Dam provide insights to the effects of the dam and reservoir on suspended-sediment loads transported by the lower Nueces River downstream from the dam to the Nueces Estuary. Annual suspended-sediment loads at the Nueces River near the Mathis, Tex., gage were considerably lower for a given annual mean discharge after the dam was completed than before the dam was completed.

  19. Cs-137 and Co-60 concentrations in water from the Savannah River and water-treatment plants downstream of SRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In preparation for restart of L-Reactor, a comprehensive environmental sampling and analysis program was initiated in March 1983 to determine Cs-137 concentrations in off-site water downstream from Savannah River Plant (SRP). Concentrations of Co-60 also are determined in this sampling and analysis program. This report summarizes the first three months of results. Cesium-137 concentrations are reported for finished water from the Beaufort-Jasper, Port Wentworth and North Augusta water treatment plants for weekly continuous samples during April through June 1983. The very low concentrations of cesium-137 in finished water from downstream water treatment plants showed significant changes during this time. The changes in concentration occurred smoothly and correlate with changes in river flow. No changes in concentration during April through June can be attributed to L-Reactor's only cold water test which occurred June 8 and 9. No Co-60 was observed in any samples

  20. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  1. Characterization of the Kootenai River Algae Community and Primary Productivity Before and After Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2004–2007 [Chapter 2, Kootenai River Algal Community Characterization, 2009 KTOI REPORT].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holderman, Charlie [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Bonners Ferry, ID; Anders, Paul [Cramer Fish Sciences; Moscow, ID; Shafii, Bahman [Statistical Consulting Services; Clarkston, WA

    2009-07-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem (spelled Kootenay in Canada) has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam on the river near Libby Montana, completed in 1972. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel downstream in Idaho and British Columbia (B.C.) severely reducing natural biological productivity and habitat diversity crucial to large river-floodplain ecosystem function. Libby Dam greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches, and dam operations cause large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows. These and other changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to large scale loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the North Arm of Kootenay Lake in 1992, in the South Arm of Kootenay Lake in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes baseline chlorophyll concentration and accrual (primary productivity) rates and diatom and algal community composition and ecological metrics in the Kootenai River for four years, one (2004) before, and three (2005 through 2007) after nutrient addition. The study area encompassed a 325 km river reach from the upper Kootenay River at Wardner, B.C. (river kilometer (rkm) 445) downstream through Montana and Idaho to Kootenay Lake in B.C. (rkm 120). Sampling reaches included an unimpounded reach furthest upstream and four reaches downstream from Libby Dam affected by impoundment: two in the canyon reach (one with and one without nutrient addition), a braided reach

  2. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  3. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  4. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  5. Snowmelt runoff in the Green River basin derived from MODIS snow extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. S.; Hall, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Green River represents a vital water supply for southwestern Wyoming, northern Colorado, eastern Utah, and the Lower Colorado River Compact states (Arizona, Nevada, and California). Rapid development in the southwestern United States combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply of the Colorado River system, and concurrently increased the interest in long-term variations in stream flow. Modeling of snowmelt runoff represents a means to predict flows and reservoir storage, which is useful for water resource planning. An investigation is made into the accuracy of the Snowmelt Runoff Model of Martinec and Rango, driven by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow maps for predicting stream flow within the Green River basin. While the moderate resolution of the MODIS snow maps limits the spatial detail that can be captured, the daily coverage is an important advantage of the MODIS imagery. The daily MODIS snow extent is measured using the most recent clear observation for each 500-meter pixel. Auxiliary data used include temperature and precipitation time series from the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) networks as well as from National Weather Service records. Also from the SNOTEL network, snow-water equivalence data are obtained to calibrate the conversion between snow extent and runoff potential.

  6. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brottet, D.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author)

  7. Community and Ecosystem-Level Impacts of an Emergent Macrophyte on the Ventura River, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; Leydecker, A.; Melack, J.

    2005-05-01

    Ludwigia hexapetala is a pervasive, emergent vascular plant on the lower Ventura River. Presence of this plant appears to facilitate growth of shade-tolerant diatoms, while indirectly inhibiting filamentous green macroalgae. Four sites on the river were monitored during 2003; three downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, where Ludwigia is present, and one upstream site where it is absent. Filamentous algae occurred at all four sites, but declined rapidly at the below-treatment plant sites as growth and cover of vascular plants increased. By late summer, percent cover at these sites was dominated by Ludwigia, while the upstream site was consistently dominated by green macroalgae. Submerged plant parts provided substrate for diatom colonization, roughly doubling benthic diatom biomass (measured as chlorophyll a) at the downstream sites. Presence of the Ludwigia population also had strong ecosystem-level effects. The wastewater effluent produced typical stream water nitrate concentrations of 100-200 uM. Nitrate uptake rates downstream of the treatment plant inputs averaged 5 kg N/km/day, and direct uptake by Ludwigia could account for 20-40% of this nitrate drawdown. Further nitrate removal from the water column may be indirectly facilitated by the presence of Ludwigia through facilitation of diatom population growth.

  8. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  9. Mercury exposure in terrestrial birds far downstream of an historical point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Allyson K., E-mail: allyson.jackson@briloon.org [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Evers, David C.; Folsom, Sarah B. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); Condon, Anne M. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Diener, John; Goodrick, Lizzie F. [Biodiversity Research Institute, 19 Flaggy Meadow Road, Gorham, ME 04038 (United States); McGann, Andrew J. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Schmerfeld, John [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 6669 Short Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061 (United States); Cristol, Daniel A. [Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, PO Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Historical Hg contamination in rivers can impact the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but there is little known about how far downstream this contamination persists. In 2009, we sampled terrestrial forest songbirds at five floodplain sites up to 137 km downstream of an historical source of Hg along the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers (Virginia, USA). We found that blood total Hg concentrations remained elevated over the entire sampling area and there was little evidence of decline with distance. While it is well known that Hg is a pervasive and long-lasting aquatic contaminant, it has only been recently recognized that it also biomagnifies effectively in floodplain forest food webs. This study extends the area of concern for terrestrial habitats near contaminated rivers for more than 100 km downstream from a waterborne Hg point source. - Highlights: > We report blood mercury levels for terrestrial songbirds downstream of contamination. > Blood mercury levels remain elevated above reference for at least 137 km downstream. > Trends vary based on foraging guild and migration strategy. > Mercury affects terrestrial biota farther downstream than previously documented. - Blood mercury levels of forest songbirds remain elevated above reference levels for at least 137 km downstream of historical point source.

  10. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  11. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1991-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1990 through March 1991 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from NcNary Dam; to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam; to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams; and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights of results of this work in the Dalles, Bonneville and John Day reservoirs are included in the four pages included in this report

  12. Surface-Water and Groundwater Interactions along the Withlacoochee River, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Yobbi, D.K.; McBride, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    flow in the aquifer did not vary greatly from season to season during the study. Potentiometric contours indicate groundwater discharge to the river in the vicinity of Dade City and Lake Panasoffkee. During dry periods, groundwater from the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer contributed to the flow in the river. During wet periods, streamflow had additional contributions from runoff and input from tributaries. Groundwater has a greater effect on streamflow downstream from the Dade City station than upstream from the Dade City station because confinement between surficial deposits and the Upper Floridan aquifer is greater in the Green Swamp area than in downstream areas. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses were made along the Withlacoochee River during base-flow conditions in May 2004, April 2005, and April 2006. Base flow was higher in April 2005 than in May 2004 and April 2006. Consistent net seepage gains were identified in 16 of 20 subreaches analyzed during all seepage runs. The direction of exchange was variable in the remaining four subreaches. Low specific conductance, pH, and calcium concentrations in water from the Withlacoochee River near the headwater area indicated a surface-water system not directly connected to the Upper Floridan aquifer. Downstream from the Dade City station, higher specific conductance, pH, and calcium concentrations in the river water indicated an increasing influence of groundwater, and were similar to groundwater during low-flow conditions. Strontium isotope ratios indicate groundwater originates from shallow parts of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the upper reaches of the river, and from increasingly deeper parts of the aquifer in the downstream direction. Mean annual base-flow estimates also indicate increasing groundwater discharge to the river in the downstream direction. Mean annual base flow estimated using standard hydrograph separation method assumptions ranged from about 4.7 to 5.1 inches per year

  13. Opposite hysteresis of sand and gravel transport upstream and downstream of a bifurcation during a flood in the River Rhine, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Wilbers, A.W.E.; Brinke, W.B.M. ten

    2007-01-01

    At river bifurcations water and sediment is divided among the downstream branches. Prediction of the sediment transport rate and divisionthereof at bifurcations is of utmost importance for understanding the evolution of the bifurcates for short-term management purposes and forlong-term fluvial plain

  14. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  15. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Spring Hollow (backwater effects from Green River), Pitman Creek (backwater effects from Green River... (backwater effects from Green River), Pipe Spring Hollow (backwater effects from Green River), Pitman Creek... Butler County. to approximately 1,550 feet downstream of G. Southerland Road. Pipe Spring Hollow...

  16. Downstream processing of Isochrysis galbana: a step towards microalgal biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert-López, B.; Mendiola, J.A.; Fontecha, J.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Sijtsma, L.; Cifuentes, A.; Herrero, M.; Ibáñez, E.

    2015-01-01

    An algae-based biorefinery relies on the efficient use of algae biomass through its fractionation of several valuable/bioactive compounds that can be used in industry. If this biorefinery includes green platforms as downstream processing technologies able to fulfill the requirements of green

  17. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  18. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl

    2015-07-14

    In cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, groundwater levels in wells located in the northern Green River Basin in Wyoming, an area of ongoing energy development, were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2010 to 2014. The wells were completed in the uppermost aquifers of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, which is a complex regional aquifer system that provides water to most wells in the area. Except for near perennial streams, groundwater-level altitudes in most aquifers generally decreased with increasing depth, indicating a general downward potential for groundwater movement in the study area. Drilled depth of the wells was observed as a useful indicator of depth to groundwater such that deeper wells typically had a greater depth to groundwater. Comparison of a subset of wells included in this study that had historical groundwater levels that were measured during the 1960s and 1970s and again between 2012 and 2014 indicated that, overall, most of the wells showed a net decline in groundwater levels.

  19. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  20. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  1. Mercury exposure in terrestrial birds far downstream of an historical point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Folsom, Sarah B.; Condon, Anne M.; Diener, John; Goodrick, Lizzie F.; McGann, Andrew J.; Schmerfeld, John; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental contaminant found in many freshwater and marine ecosystems. Historical Hg contamination in rivers can impact the surrounding terrestrial ecosystem, but there is little known about how far downstream this contamination persists. In 2009, we sampled terrestrial forest songbirds at five floodplain sites up to 137 km downstream of an historical source of Hg along the South and South Fork Shenandoah Rivers (Virginia, USA). We found that blood total Hg concentrations remained elevated over the entire sampling area and there was little evidence of decline with distance. While it is well known that Hg is a pervasive and long-lasting aquatic contaminant, it has only been recently recognized that it also biomagnifies effectively in floodplain forest food webs. This study extends the area of concern for terrestrial habitats near contaminated rivers for more than 100 km downstream from a waterborne Hg point source. - Highlights: → We report blood mercury levels for terrestrial songbirds downstream of contamination. → Blood mercury levels remain elevated above reference for at least 137 km downstream. → Trends vary based on foraging guild and migration strategy. → Mercury affects terrestrial biota farther downstream than previously documented. - Blood mercury levels of forest songbirds remain elevated above reference levels for at least 137 km downstream of historical point source.

  2. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake caused a massive landslide (Madison Slide) that dammed the Madison River and formed Earthquake Lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers excavated a spillway through the Madison Slide to permit outflow from Earthquake Lake. In June 1970, high streamflows on the Madison River severely eroded the spillway channel and damaged the roadway embankment along U.S. Highway 287 downstream from the Madison Slide. Investigations undertaken following the 1970 flood events concluded that substantial erosion through and downstream from the spillway could be expected for streamflows greater than 3,500 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Accordingly, the owners of Hebgen Dam, upstream from Earthquake Lake, have tried to manage releases from Hebgen Lake to prevent streamflows from exceeding 3,500 ft3/s measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station 0638800 Madison River at Kirby Ranch, near Cameron, Montana. Management of flow releases from Hebgen Lake to avoid exceeding the threshold streamflow at USGS gaging station 06038800 is difficult, and has been questioned for two reasons. First, no road damage was reported downstream from the Earthquake Lake outlet in 1993, 1996, and 1997 when streamflows exceeded the 3,500-ft3/s threshold. Second, the 3,500-ft3/s threshold generally precludes releases of higher flows that could be beneficial to the blue-ribbon trout fishery downstream in the Madison River. In response to concerns about minimizing streamflow downstream from Earthquake Lake and the possible armoring of the spillway, the USGS, in cooperation with the Madison River Fisheries Technical Advisory Committee (MADTAC; Bureau of Land Management; Montana Department of Environmental Quality; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; PPL-Montana; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service - Gallatin National Forest; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), conducted a study to determine movement of the Madison River channel downstream from Earthquake Lake

  3. Radioactive contamination of filamentous green algae in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, E.; Sztanyik, L.B.; Vanicsek, L.

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Hungarian nuclear power program, river water monitoring techniques should be developed. From among algae of various species of river Danube the localized and well-propagating filamentous green algae (Cladophora sp.; Vaucheria sp.) were investigated. The activity concentration of gamma-radiating nuclides absorbed by algae was determined with a Canberra 8100 type Ge(Li)-spectrometer. This apparatus facilitated radioactivity measurements on wet samples or samples subjected to simple physical preparation. The metabolic character and accumulative abilities of filamentous green algae showed that they are suitable indicators of radionuclide contamination of the water ecosystem. 131 I nuclide at min. 72.5 mBq/g to max. 5440.0 mBq/g, and other fission products from 55 mBq/g to 929 mBq/g were observed. (author)

  4. Radioactive contamination of filamentous green algae in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, E.; Sztanyik, L.B.; Vanicsek, L. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Hungarian nuclear power program, river water monitoring techniques should be developed. From among algae of various species of river Danube the localized and well-propagating filamentous green algae (Cladophora sp.; Vaucheria sp.) were investigated. The activity concentration of gamma-radiating nuclides absorbed by algae was determined with a Canberra 8100 type Ge(Li)-spectrometer. This apparatus facilitated radioactivity measurements on wet samples or samples subjected to simple physical preparation. The metabolic character and accumulative abilities of filamentous green algae showed that they are suitable indicators of radionuclide contamination of the water ecosystem. /sup 131/I nuclide at min. 72.5 mBq/g to max. 5440.0 mBq/g, and other fission products from 55 mBq/g to 929 mBq/g were observed.

  5. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: Supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunink, J.E.; Droogers, P.; Kauffman, J.H.; Mwaniki, B.M.; Bouma, J.

    2012-01-01

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to

  6. Reservoir impacts downstream in highly regulated river basins: the Ebro delta and the Guadalquivir estuary in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Polo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation by reservoirs affects both the freshwater regime and the sediment delivery at the area downstream, and may have a significant impact on water quality in the final transitional water bodies. Spain is one the countries with more water storage capacity by reservoirs in the world. Dense reservoir networks can be found in most of the hydrographic basins, especially in the central and southern regions. The spatial redistribution of the seasonal and annual water storage in reservoirs for irrigation and urban supply, mainly, has resulted in significant changes of water flow and sediment load regimes, together with a fostered development of soil and water uses, with environmental impacts downstream and higher vulnerability of these areas to the sea level rise and drought occurrence. This work shows these effects in the Guadalquivir and the Ebro River basins, two of the largest regulated areas in Spain. The results show a 71 % decrease of the annual freshwater input to the Guadalquivir River estuary during 1930–2014, an increase of 420 % of the irrigated area upstream the estuary, and suspended sediment loads up to 1000 % the initial levels. In the Ebro River delta, the annual water yield has decreased over a 30 % but, on the contrary, the big reservoirs are located in the main stream, and the sediment load has decreased a 99 %, resulting in a delta coastal regression up to 10 m per year and the massive presence of macrophytes in the lower river. Adaptive actions proposed to face these impacts in a sea level rise scenario are also analyzed.

  7. Synthesis of downstream fish passage information at projects owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Amy C.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates the Willamette Valley Project (Project) in northwestern Oregon, which includes a series of dams, reservoirs, revetments, and fish hatcheries. Project dams were constructed during the 1950s and 1960s on rivers that supported populations of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and other anadromous fish species in the Willamette River Basin. These dams, and the reservoirs they created, negatively affected anadromous fish populations. Efforts are currently underway to improve passage conditions within the Project and enhance populations of anadromous fish species. Research on downstream fish passage within the Project has occurred since 1960 and these efforts are documented in numerous reports and publications. These studies are important resources to managers in the Project, so the USACE requested a synthesis of existing literature that could serve as a resource for future decision-making processes. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive literature review on downstream fish passage studies within the Project. We identified 116 documents that described studies conducted during 1960–2016. Each of these documents were obtained, reviewed, and organized by their content to describe the state-of-knowledge within four subbasins in the Project, which include the North Santiam, South Santiam, McKenzie, and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers. In this document, we summarize key findings from various studies on downstream fish passage in the Willamette Project. Readers are advised to review specific reports of interest to insure that study methods, results, and additional considerations are fully understood.

  8. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  9. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  10. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  11. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  12. Zoning Of Pollutant Dispersion Came From IJEN Crater In The Downstream Region Of BANYUPUTIH River Using Oxygen-18 (18O) Natural Isotope Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susiati, Heni; Yarianto, S.B.S.; Sjarmufni, A.; Suprijadi; Wibagyo

    2002-01-01

    The research should be arranged for natural isotope composition of Oxygen-18 ( 18 O) in the water catchments of Banyupahit -Banyuputih river. Aim of the research are determine zoning of pollutant dispersion and be clarified that the pollution really come from lien crater as more surely above mentioned by the result of investigation previously. Research method be used field survey and characteristic analysis of Oksigen-18 isotope. Zoning of pollutant dispersion in the downstream side covers settlement. agricultural, plantation, and sugar factory area have conducted by analyzing Oksigen-18 isotope characteristic. Based on the result of the research pollutant dispersion area in the downstream region. the Eastern side of water catchments area were categorized as pollution level l was more dominant rather than in the Western side and pollution level II came from water pound area of Banyuputih. This phenomena caused of an irrigation system using by Liwung Water Pound of Banyuputih river which should be polluted by Sulfur. Geological factor in the Eastern (lithology) were most of sand rock also induce the dispersion of Sulfur rather than in the Western area. Present research has clarified previous investigation that Banyupahit river were polluted by Sulfur as a result of ijen crater leakage

  13. Rainfall-runoff modelling of the Okavango River catchment to assess impacts of land use change on runoff and downstream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milzow, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The competition between human water use and ecosystem water use is one of the major challenges for water resources management at the global scale. We analyse the situation for the Okavango River basin of southern Africa. The Okavango River is representative for many large rivers throughout the developing world in that it is ungauged and poorly studied. The Okavango basin - spanning over Angola, Namibia and Botswana - represents a multi-objective problem in an international setting. Economic benefits of agricultural development and conservation of ecosystem services call for opposed actions. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model of the Okavango catchment is set up using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model is sufficiently physically based to simulate the impact on runoff of extent of agricultural use, crop types and management practices. Precipitation and temperature inputs are taken from datasets covering large parts of the globe. The methodology can thus easily be applied for other ungauged catchments. For temperature we use the ERA-Interim reanalysis product of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and for precipitation the Famine Early Warning Systems Network data (FEWS-Net). Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data resulted in poor model performance compared to the FEWS-Net data. Presently, the upstream catchment in Angola is largely pristine and agriculture is basically restricted to dry land subsistence farming. But economic growth in Angola is likely to result in agricultural development and consequent impacts on catchment runoff. Land use scenarios that are simulated include large scale irrigated agriculture with water extractions from the river and the shallow aquifer. Climate change impacts are also studied and compared to land use change impacts. The downstream part of the basin consists of the large Okavango Wetlands, which are a biodiversity hotspot of global importance and, through tourism, an important

  14. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  15. Long-range downstream effects of urban runoff and acid mine drainage in the Debed River, Armenia: insights from lead isotope modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkjian, Robert; Dunlap, Charles; Flegal, A. Russell

    2004-01-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured along 80 km of the Debed River in the Republic of Armenia provide new insights into the geochemical and physical controls on riparian Pb transport by allowing comparison of the long-range, downstream impacts of acid mine drainage with runoff from an industrialized city. The modern background Pb concentration in Armenian surface waters is estimated to be ∼0.01 μg/L, based on analyses of remote alpine rivers in Armenia. The lead concentration in the Debed River is 8 μg/L (800 times background) after passing through Vanadzor, the second largest industrial city in Armenia; it then decreases to 1 μg/L before the Debed River flows into the Alaverdi mining district. There, the Debed River receives waters from two mining drainage streams with Pb concentrations >3000 μg/L, but those concentrations decrease 3 orders of magnitude to ∼3 μg/L by the time the river exits Armenia and flows into the Republic of Georgia. Isotope mixing plots show shifts in Pb isotope composition as the river flows out of Vanadzor, evidencing the mixture of an average terrestrial Pb composition ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 1.17; 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ∼ 2.45) with past leaded gasoline and other industrial Pb emissions retained in the river's sediments within that region ( 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≤ 2.45). The isotopic composition again shifts (e.g., 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ≥ 2.46) as the river passes through the Alaverdi mining district, where isotopic ratios in the water are characteristic of Pb in the area's massive sulfide deposits. Modeling both downstream elemental concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions further resolves the physical and chemical behavior of the contaminants in the river system. A multi-element model of concentration gradients in the acid mine drainage streams indicates Pb is attenuated by Al(OH) 3 precipitation (54% of the loss) and by adsorption onto other particles settling out of the water column (46% of the loss). Modeling of Pb

  16. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, M.; Russell, R.; Zillman, D.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area

  17. Balancing hydropower production and river bed incision in operating a run-of-river hydropower scheme along the River Po

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaro, Simona; Dinh, Quang; Bizzi, Simone; Bernardi, Dario; Pavan, Sara; Castelletti, Andrea; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation, and flood risk mitigation. Reservoir operations are commonly planned in order to maximize these objectives. However reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes causing sediment deficit downstream, altering the flow regime, leading, often, to process of river bed incision: for instance the variations of river cross sections over few years can notably affect hydropower production, flood mitigation, water supply strategies and eco-hydrological processes of the freshwater ecosystem. The river Po (a major Italian river) has experienced severe bed incision in the last decades. For this reason infrastructure stability has been negatively affected, and capacity to derive water decreased, navigation, fishing and tourism are suffering economic damages, not to mention the impact on the environment. Our case study analyzes the management of Isola Serafini hydropower plant located on the main Po river course. The plant has a major impact to the geomorphic river processes downstream, affecting sediment supply, connectivity (stopping sediment upstream the dam) and transport capacity (altering the flow regime). Current operation policy aims at maximizing hydropower production neglecting the effects in term of geomorphic processes. A new improved policy should also consider controlling downstream river bed incision. The aim of this research is to find suitable modeling framework to identify an operating policy for Isola Serafini reservoir able to provide an optimal trade-off between these two conflicting objectives: hydropower production and river bed incision downstream. A multi-objective simulation-based optimization framework is adopted. The operating policy is parameterized as a piecewise linear function and the parameters optimized using an interactive response surface approach. Global and local

  18. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  19. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation

  20. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1989 through March 1990 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Study objectives addressed by each agency are to describe the life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults between Bonneville and McNary dams and evaluate the need and identify potential methods for protecting, mitigating and enhancing populations downstream from McNary Dam, to describe the white sturgeon recreational fishery between Bonneville and McNary dams, describe reproductive and early life history characteristics downstream from Bonneville Dam and describe life history and population dynamics of subadults and adults downstream from Bonneville Dam, to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available between Bonneville and McNary dams, and to describe reproduction and early life history characteristics, define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing and quantify extent of habitat available downstream from Bonneville Dam. Our approach is to work concurrently downstream and upstream from Bonneville Dam. Upstream from Bonneville Dam we began work in the Dalles Reservoir in 1987 and expanded efforts to Bonneville Reservoir in 1988 and John Day Reservoir in 1989. Highlights from this work is also included. 47 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  1. Downstream ecological effects of dams: A geomorphic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, F.K.; Dietrich, W.E.; Trush, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The damming of a river changes the flow of water, sediment, nutrients, energy, and biota, interrupting and altering most of a river's ecological processes. This article discusses the importance of geomorphological analysis in river conservation and management. To illustrate how subtle geomorphological adjustments may profoundly influence the ecological relationships downstream from dames, three case studies are presented. Then a geomorphically based approach for assessing and possibly mitigating some of the environmental effects of dams by tailoring dam designed and operation is outlined. The cases are as follows: channel simplification and salmon decline on the McKenzie River in Oregon; Channel incision and reduced floodplain inundation on the Oconee river in Georgia; Increased stability of a braided river in New Zealand's south island. 41 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  2. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R"2 0.796, L/D ratio with R"2 -0868 and sinuosity with R"2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  3. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.

    2012-01-01

    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  4. Effects of dams on downstream molluscan predator-prey interactions in the Colorado River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jansen A; Handley, John C; Dietl, Gregory P

    2018-05-30

    River systems worldwide have been modified for human use and the downstream ecological consequences are often poorly understood. In the Colorado River estuary, where upstream water diversions have limited freshwater input during the last century, mollusc remains from the last several hundred years suggest widespread ecological change. The once abundant clam Mulinia modesta has undergone population declines of approximately 94% and populations of predators relying on this species as a food source have probably declined, switched to alternative prey species or both. We distinguish between the first two hypotheses using a null model of predation preference to test whether M. modesta was preyed upon selectively by the naticid snail, Neverita reclusiana , along the estuary's past salinity gradient. To evaluate the third hypothesis, we estimate available prey biomass today and in the past, assuming prey were a limiting resource. Data on the frequency of drill holes-identifiable traces of naticid predation on prey shells-showed several species, including M. modesta , were preferred prey. Neverita reclusiana was probably able to switch prey. Available prey biomass also declined, suggesting the N. reclusiana population probably also declined. These results indicate a substantial change to the structure of the benthic food web. Given the global scale of water management, such changes have probably also occurred in many of the world's estuaries. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. The river as a chemostat: fresh perspectives on dissolved organic matter flowing down the river continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; McKnight, Diane M.; Pellerin, Brian; Green, Mark B.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Aiken, George R.; Burns, Douglas A.; Findlay, Stuart E G; Shanley, James B.; Striegl, Robert G.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Clow, David W.; Laudon, Hjalmar; McGlynn, Brian L.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Smith, Richard A.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding is needed of how hydrological and biogeochemical processes control dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from headwaters downstream to large rivers. We examined a large DOM dataset from the National Water Information System of the US Geological Survey, which represents approximately 100 000 measurements of DOC concentration and DOM composition at many sites along rivers across the United States. Application of quantile regression revealed a tendency towards downstream spatial and temporal homogenization of DOC concentrations and a shift from dominance of aromatic DOM in headwaters to more aliphatic DOM downstream. The DOC concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships at each site revealed a downstream tendency towards a slope of zero. We propose that despite complexities in river networks that have driven many revisions to the River Continuum Concept, rivers show a tendency towards chemostasis (C-Q slope of zero) because of a downstream shift from a dominance of hydrologic drivers that connect terrestrial DOM sources to streams in the headwaters towards a dominance of instream and near-stream biogeochemical processes that result in preferential losses of aromatic DOM and preferential gains of aliphatic DOM.

  6. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  7. C, N, P export regimes from headwater catchments to downstream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, R.; Musolff, A.; Jawitz, J. W.; Rao, P. S.; Jaeger, C. G.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Rode, M.; Borchardt, D.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive amounts of nutrients and dissolved organic matter in freshwater bodies affect aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability in nitrate (NO3), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was analyzed in the Selke river continuum from headwaters draining 1 - 3 km² catchments to downstream reaches representing spatially integrated signals from 184 - 456 km² catchments (part of TERENO - Terrestrial Environmental Observatories, in Germany). Three headwater catchments were selected as archetypes of the main landscape units (land use x lithology) present in the Selke catchment. Export regimes in headwater catchments were interpreted in terms of NO3, DOC and SRP land-to-stream transfer processes. Headwater signals were subtracted from downstream signals, with the differences interpreted in terms of in-stream processes and contribution of point-source emissions. The seasonal dynamics for NO3 were opposite those of DOC and SRP in all three headwater catchments, and spatial differences also showed NO3 contrasting with DOC and SRP. These dynamics were interpreted as the result of the interplay of hydrological and biogeochemical processes, for which riparian zones were hypothesized to play a determining role. In the two downstream reaches, NO3 was transported almost conservatively, whereas DOC was consumed and produced in the upper and lower river sections, respectively. The natural export regime of SRP in the three headwater catchments mimicked a point-source signal, which may lead to overestimation of domestic contributions in the downstream reaches. Monitoring the river continuum from headwaters to downstream reaches proved effective to investigate jointly land-to-stream and in-stream transport and transformation processes.

  8. Comparison of hyporheic flow and water quality in open and tree-covered banks downstream of Xin'an River dam, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    Plants, especially trees, in the riparian zone may have a significant impact on the flow rate, temperature and chemical properties of groundwater. A field study was conducted in the downstream bank of the Xin'an River dam, Zhejiang, China. In the field, two areas of about 20 meters apart were chosen, of which one was a open place and the other was covered with many orange trees. Comparison of hyporheic flow and water quality in the open and tree-covered banks were made by monitoring the water level, water temperature, water chemistry (March, 2015) along the cross sections perpendicular to the river. The analyses indicated that water level around the trees was relatively low in the day and high in the evening, thus changed the direction and magnitude of the natural groundwater flow velocity, totally strengthened the hyporheic exchange between the groundwater and river. The trees also changed the temperature distribution of the natural river bank, and induced the wider infiltration range of the low-temperature water. The temperature around the trees was relatively low in the day, yet it was high in the evening. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and electricity conductivity (EC) around the trees were significantly increased, yet the pH was almost unaffected.

  9. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  10. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  11. [Seasonal variation in the absorption and fluorescence characteristics of CDOM in downstream of Liaohe River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tian-Tian; Zhao, Ying; Song, Kai-Shan; Du, Jia; Ding, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is an important part of dissolved organic matter (DOM), is considered as the largest storage of dissolved organic carbon in the aquatic environment. Liaohe River is the seventh largest river in China with annual runoff of 1.48 billion m3. As a result, studying on CDOM of Liaohe River is very important in estimating the organic carbon flux into sea. Seasonal optical characteristics of CDOM in the downstream of Liaohe River were investigated using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm [aCDOM (355)] in spring was lower than that in autumn and winter while low molecular weight substances were found in autumn and high molecular weight substances in spring based on the absorption coefficient and absorption slope (S) of CDOM. Samples in different seasons all exhibited fairly strong protein-like fluorophore (fluorophore B and fluorophore T) in the EEMs but the values showed apparent temporal variations. Based on the analysis of the relationships between different fluorophores, strong correlations (R2 > 0. 9) were observed between fluorophore A and C in spring, fluorophore B and T in autumn and winter, which illustrated that they had similar CDOM originalsources. However, a weak relationship (R2 = 0.21) was found between fluorophore B and T in spring, demonstrating the complexity and diversity of CDOM sources. Starting from autumn to winter and the subsequent spring, humic-like fluorophores exhibited enhanced fluorescent intensity, which could be ascribed to exogenous input. Furthermore, linear relationship between aCDOM (355) and Fn (355) in different seasons was examined in the study, and the strongest relationship was obtained in winter (R2 = 0.75), followed by autumn (R2 = 0.48) and spring (R2 = 0.01). This study indicated that fluorophore B in autumn and winter (R = 0.66; R = 0.89) as well as humic-like fluorophores (A and C, R = 0.74; R = 0

  12. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fraction less than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  13. Annual and seasonal variations In the gamma activities in Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of NPP Krsko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Results of the five years monitoring of artificial and natural occurring radionuclides in the Sava river sediments are presented. Measurements were conducted as a part of the regular Krsko Nuclear Power Plant radioactivity control and the independent supervisions of the input of radionuclides into larger environment (immission). In order to estimate seasonal variations samples were taken from seven locations (one upstream and five downstream of the Krsko NPP) during four sampling period (seasonal) in each year. Selected radionuclides in the sediment fractiess than 0.5 mm were determined with gamma spectrometer equipped with BE3830 model High Purity Ge detector with 30% relative efficiency. (authors)

  14. SOLUTION FOR ICHTHYOFAUNA MIGRATION UPSTREAM- DOWNSTREAM OF THE TWO SPILLWAYS LOCATED NEAR MANASTUR DAM ON THE SOMESUL MIC RIVER IN THE CLUJ NAPOCA CITY (ROMÂNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers.Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III and barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD are blocked but the Hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams etc located across the watercourse Somes Mic River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Someşul Mic River in the Manastur neighborhood. România is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004. This engineering solution for fish fauna migration upstream – downstream of the spillways supports the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  15. Survival of juvenile chinook salmon and coho salmon in the Roza Dam fish bypass and in downstream reaches of the Yakima River, Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Hansen, Amy C.

    2016-12-22

    Estimates of juvenile salmon survival are important data for fishery managers in the Yakima River Basin. Radiotelemetry studies during 2012–14 showed that tagged juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that passed through the fish bypass at Roza Dam had lower survival than fish that passed through other routes at the dam. That study also identified flow-survival relationships in the reaches between the Roza Dam tailrace and Sunnyside Dam. During 2012–14, survival also was estimated through reaches downstream of Sunnyside Dam, but generally, sample sizes were low and the estimates were imprecise. In 2016, we conducted an evaluation using acoustic cameras and acoustic telemetry to build on information collected during the previous study. The goal of the 2016 research was to identify areas where mortality occurs in the fish bypass at Roza Dam, and to estimate reach-specific survival in reaches downstream of the dam. The 2016 study included juvenile Chinook salmon and coho salmon (O. kisutch).Three acoustic cameras were used to observe fish behavior (1) near the entrances to the fish bypass, (2) at a midway point in the fish bypass (convergence vault), and (3) at the bypass outfall. In total, 504 hours of acoustic camera footage was collected at these locations. We determined that smolt-sized fish (95–170 millimeters [mm]) were present in the highest proportions at each location, but predator-sized fish (greater than 250 mm) also were present at each site. Fish presence generally peaked during nighttime hours and crepuscular periods, and was low during daytime hours. In the convergence vault, smolt-sized fish exhibited holding behavior patterns, which may explain why some fish delayed while passing through the bypass.Some of the acoustic-tagged fish were delayed in the fish bypass following release, but there was no evidence to suggest that they experienced higher mortality than fish that were released at the bypass outfall or downstream of the dam

  16. Occurrence and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in the Paraná River, downstream of the Yacyretá dam (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastier, Marina Elizabet; Zalocar, Yolanda; Andrinolo, Dario; Domitrovic, Hugo Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria constitute the main toxin producers in inland water ecosystems and have extensive global distribution. The presence of hepatotoxins in aquatic environments is hazardous to human and animal health; even though the presence and identification of hepatotoxic microcystins in rivers and reservoirs of the world have been confirmed by several studies in the last few years. Herein, we studied the abundance and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa in the Argentine section of the Paraná River at the beginning of the Middle Paraná (Corrientes Hydrometer), near Corrientes city (27º28´ S - 58º51´ W) and approximately 220 km downstream of the Yacyretá dam (High Paraná). The Paraná River basin, with a drainage area of 3.1 x 10(6) km(2) and 3 965 km in length, is the second largest catchment of South America, after that of the Amazon. The Paraná River is the main source of drinking water supply for the Northeastern Argentine region. Phytoplankton samples were collected and environmental variables were measured in a monthly basis (exceptionally fortnightly), from March 2004 to June 2008. Fifty-eight samples were analyzed for phytoplankton density and biomass. Five samples were used for toxicity testing; the latter were obtained during the cyanobacteria blooms from 2005 to 2008. Phytoplankton counts were performed with an inverted microscope, and biomass was expressed as biovolume. Bioassays with mice and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were performed to evaluate the presence of cyanotoxins. Phytoplankton mainly consisted of Cryptophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Microcystis aeruginosa was identified during the warmer months each year (November to March). Density varied between 189 and 25 027 cells/mL (1-10 colonies/mL) and biomass from 0.34 to 44 mm(3)/L. Taking into account the number of cells, the highest abundance occurred in April 2004 (25 027 cells/mL), coinciding with the largest biovolume (44 mm(3)/L). All mice subjected to

  17. Long-term geomorphic response to flow regulation in a 10-km reach downstream of the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent study reported considerable sediment trapping by three large channel bars downstream 18–28 km of the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River diversion (commonly known as the Old River Control Structure, ORCS during the 2011 Mississippi River flood. In this study, we analyzed 3-decadal morphological changes of the 10-km river channel and the three bars to elucidate the long-term effects of river engineering including diversion, revetment and dike constructions. Satellite images captured between 1985 and 2015 in approximate 5-year intervals were selected to estimate the change of channel morphology and bar surface area. The images were chosen based on river stage heights at the time when they were captured to exclude the temporal water height effect on channel and bar morphology. Using a set of the satellite images captured during the period of 1984–1986 and of 2013–2014, we developed rating curves of emerged bar surface area with the corresponding river stage height for determining the change in bar volume from 1985 to 2013. Two of the three bars have grown substantially in the past 30 years, while one bar has become braided and its surface area has shrunken. As a whole, there were a net gain of 4,107,000 m2 in surface area and a net gain of 30,271,000 m3 in volume, an equivalent of approximately 36 million metric tons of sediment assuming a bulk density of 1.2 t/m3. Sediment trapping on the bars was prevalent during the spring floods, especially during the period of 1990–1995 and of 2007–2011 when large floods occurred. The results suggest that although revetments and dikes have largely changed the morphology of the channel and the bars, they seem to have a limited impact on the overwhelming trend of sediment deposition caused by the river diversion.

  18. Regional Hydrology of the Green River-Moab Area, Northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with...

  19. Hazard assessment of inorganics to three endangered fish in the Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with three life stages of Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gila elegans) in a reconstituted water quality simulating the middle part of the Green River of Utah. Tests were conducted with boron, lithium, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The overall rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages combined from most to least toxic was vanadium = zinc > selenite > lithium = uranium > selenate > boron. There was no difference between the three species in their sensitivity to the seven inorganics based on a rank-order evaluation at the species level. Colorado squawfish were 2-5 times more sensitive to selenate and selenite at the swimup life stage than older stages, whereas razorback suckers displayed equal sensitivity among life stages. Bonytail exhibited equal sensitivity to selenite, but were five times more sensitive to selenate at the swimup life stage than the older stages. Comparison of 96-hr LC50 values with a limited number of environmental water concentrations in Ashley Creek, Utah, which receives irrigation drainwater, revealed moderate hazard ratios for boron, selenate, selenite, and zinc, low hazard ratios for uranium and vanadium, but unknown ratios for lithium. These inorganic contaminants in drainwaters may adversely affect endangered fish in the Green River.

  20. Tailings transport and deposition downstream of the Northern Hercules (Moline) mine in the catchment of the Mary River, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cull, R.F.; East, T.J.; Marten, R.; Murray, A.S.; Duggan, K.

    1986-01-01

    Milling of uraniferous and other metalliferous ores at the Northern Hercules (Moline) Mine near Pine Creek produced some 246,000 tonnes of tailings between 1959 and the closure of the mill in 1972. During this period tailings were contained by several bunds which later failed resulting in the erosion and transport of tailings by tributaries of the Mary River. Suspended sediment concentrations as high as 94 g/L were recorded in Tailings Creek immediately downstream of the eroding tailings pile during the 1984/85 wet season and the total yield was equivalent to a mean erosion rate for the tailings area of 4 mm/yr. This erosion rate is about two orders of magnitude higher than natural rates in the Pine Creek area. Erosion rates of the tailings pile have, however, decreased perhaps by as much as a factor of eight since the last bund was breached. Radioactive dose rates recorded along a series of transects across floodplains downstream of the mill are consistently related to the sedimentary environment. The main channel is associated with low dose rates, and the relatively low energy environments of backswamps and flood bypass channels are characterised by higher dose rates. Longitudinally, dose rates on the floodplain generally decrease with distance downstream although the rate of decrease is not constant, and appears to be dependent upon the hydrological and geomorphic character of the catchment

  1. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1982-12-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7800 square kilometers or about 25% of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges have been identified

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  4. Modeling hydrodynamics, water temperature, and water quality in the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Wellman, Roy E.; Stewart, Marc A.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    . * Water temperatures ranged from near freezing in winter to near 30 degrees C at some locations and periods in summer; seasonal water temperature patterns were similar at the inflow and outflow. Although vertical temperature stratification was not present at most times and locations, weak stratification could persist for periods up to 1-2 weeks, especially in the downstream parts of the reach. Thermal stratification was important in controlling vertical variations in water quality. * The specific conductance, and thus density, of tributaries within the reach usually was higher than that of the river itself, so that inflows tended to sink below the river surface. This was especially notable for inflows from the Klamath Straits Drain, which tended to sink to the bottom of the Klamath River at its confluence and not mix vertically for several miles downstream. * The model was able to capture most of the seasonal changes in the algal population by modeling that population with three algal groups: blue-green algae, diatoms, and other algae. The blooms of blue-green algae, consisting mostly of Aphanizomenon flos aquae that entered from Upper Klamath Lake, were dominant, dwarfing the populations of the other two algae groups in summer. A large part of the blue-green algae population that entered this reach from upstream tended to settle out, die, and decompose, especially in the upper part of the Link-Keno reach. Diatoms reached a maximum in spring and other algae in midsummer. * Organic matter, occurring in both dissolved and particulate forms, was critical to the water quality of this reach of the Klamath River, and was strongly tied to nutrient and dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Dissolved and particulate organic matter were subdivided into labile (quickly decaying) and refractory (slowing decaying) groups for modeling purposes. The particulate matter in summer, consisting largely of dead blue-green algae, decayed quickly. Consequently, this particulate matt

  5. Evaluating the Invasion of Red Cedar (Juniperus viriginiana) Downstream of Gavins Point Dam, Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, S.; Knox, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Gavins Point Dam, the final dam on the main-stem Missouri River, alters downstream river form and function. Throughout a 59-mile downstream reach, the dam reduces overbank flooding and lowers the water surface by 1-3 meters. Under the dam-created hydro-geomorphic conditions, native cottonwood trees are unable to regenerate. The limited regeneration of native riparian cottonwoods, the lowered water surface, and the reduced overbank flooding creates a terrace environment within the riparian habitat. Consequently, red cedars, a native upland tree, are invading this new terrace-like riparian environment. To this end, we apply Bayesian statistical models to investigate patterns of red cedar riparian invasion and assess ecosystem function patterns along this flow-regulated reach. We set up plots within cottonwood stands along a 59-km reach downstream of Gavins Point Dam. Within each plot, we collected soil samples, litter samples, stem densities of trees, and collected cores of the largest cottonwood and largest red cedar in each plot. To assess influences of red cedar on soil indicators of ecosystem function and general patterns of ecosystem function within the study area, we measured organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity, and hydrophobicity. To determine drivers and patterns of invasion and ecosystem function we conducted Bayesian linear regressions and means comparison tests. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation. However, according to our tree age data and stem density data red cedars existed at a lower population than today. We found that 2 out of 565 red cedars established before the dam was completed. Also, we found no significant difference in soil properties between soils with established red cedar and soils with established cottonwood. By studying soil texture data, and interpreting fluvial geomorphic surfaces in the field and via aerial photography, we found soil texture generally reflects the type of fluvial surface

  6. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu

    2017-06-01

    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  7. Physical modeling of river spanning rock structures: Evaluating interstitial flow, local hydraulics, downstream scour development, and structure stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K.L.; Thornton, C.I.; Mefford, B.; Holmquist-Johnson, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Rock weir and ramp structures uniquely serve a necessary role in river management: to meet water deliveries in an ecologically sound manner. Uses include functioning as low head diversion dams, permitting fish passage, creating habitat diversity, and stabilizing stream banks and profiles. Existing information on design and performance of in-stream rock structures does not provide the guidance necessary to implement repeatable and sustainable construction and retrofit techniques. As widespread use of rock structures increases, the need for reliable design methods with a broad range of applicability at individual sites grows as well. Rigorous laboratory testing programs were implemented at the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and at Colorado State University (CSU) as part of a multifaceted research project focused on expanding the current knowledge base and developing design methods to improve the success rate of river spanning rock structures in meeting project goals. Physical modeling at Reclamation is being used to measure, predict, and reduce interstitial flow through rock ramps. CSU is using physical testing to quantify and predict scour development downstream of rock weirs and its impact on the stability of rock structures. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  8. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in

  10. Influences of body size and environmental factors on autumn downstream migration of bull trout in the Boise River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, L.; Dunham, J.B.; Hoem, T.; Koetsier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fishes migrate extensively through stream networks, yet patterns are commonly described only in terms of the origin and destination of migration (e.g., between natal and feeding habitats). To better understand patterns of migration in bull trout,Salvelinus confluentus we studied the influences of body size (total length [TL]) and environmental factors (stream temperature and discharge) on migrations in the Boise River basin, Idaho. During the autumns of 2001-2003, we tracked the downstream migrations of 174 radio-tagged bull trout ranging in size from 21 to 73 cm TL. The results indicated that large bull trout (>30 cm) were more likely than small fish to migrate rapidly downstream after spawning in headwater streams in early autumn. Large bull trout also had a higher probability of arriving at the current terminus of migration in the system, Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of migration by small bull trout was more variable and individuals were less likely to move into Arrowrock Reservoir. The rate of downstream migration by all fish was slower when stream discharge was greater. Temperature was not associated with the rate of migration. These findings indicate that fish size and environmentally related changes in behavior have important influences on patterns of migration. In a broader context, these results and other recent work suggest, at least in some cases, that commonly used classifications of migratory behavior may not accurately reflect the full range of behaviors and variability among individuals (or life stages) and environmental conditions. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  11. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  12. Persistent Hg contamination and occurrence of Hg-methylating transcript (hgcA) downstream of a chlor-alkali plant in the Olt River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Andrea G; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Dranguet, Perrine; Makri, Stamatina; Björn, Erik; Ungureanu, Viorel Gh; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    Chlor-alkali plants using mercury (Hg) cell technology are acute point sources of Hg pollution in the aquatic environment. While there have been recent efforts to reduce the use of Hg cells, some of the emitted Hg can be transformed to neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Here, we aimed (i) to study the dispersion of Hg in four reservoirs located downstream of a chlor-alkali plant along the Olt River (Romania) and (ii) to track the activity of bacterial functional genes involved in Hg methylation. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in water and sediments decreased successively from the initial reservoir to downstream reservoirs. Suspended fine size particles and seston appeared to be responsible for the transport of THg into downstream reservoirs, while macrophytes reflected the local bioavailability of Hg. The concentration and proportion of MeHg were correlated with THg, but were not correlated with bacterial activity in sediments, while the abundance of hgcA transcript correlated with organic matter and Cl(-) concentration, indicating the importance of Hg bioavailability in sediments for Hg methylation. Our data clearly highlights the importance of considering Hg contamination as a legacy pollutant since there is a high risk of continued Hg accumulation in food webs long after Hg-cell phase out.

  13. Regulation causes nitrogen cycling discontinuities in Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schiller, Daniel; Aristi, Ibon; Ponsatí, Lídia; Arroita, Maite; Acuña, Vicenç; Elosegi, Arturo; Sabater, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    River regulation has fundamentally altered large sections of the world's river networks. The effects of dams on the structural properties of downstream reaches are well documented, but less is known about their effect on river ecosystem processes. We investigated the effect of dams on river nutrient cycling by comparing net uptake of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), phosphorus (TDP) and organic carbon (DOC) in river reaches located upstream and downstream from three reservoir systems in the Ebro River basin (NE Iberian Peninsula). Increased hydromorphological stability, organic matter standing stocks and ecosystem metabolism below dams enhanced the whole-reach net uptake of TDN, but not that of TDP or DOC. Upstream from dams, river reaches tended to be at biogeochemical equilibrium (uptake≈release) for all nutrients, whereas river reaches below dams acted as net sinks of TDN. Overall, our results suggest that flow regulation by dams may cause relevant N cycling discontinuities in rivers. Higher net N uptake capacity below dams could lead to reduced N export to downstream ecosystems. Incorporating these discontinuities could significantly improve predictive models of N cycling and transport in complex river networks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Surface water - groundwater relationship in the downstream part of the Komadougou Yobe River (Eastern Sahelian Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Luxereau, A.; Descloîtres, M.; Moumouni Moussa, A.; Abdou, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Komadougou Yobe (KY) is a temporary river meandering on nearly 100 km along the Niger/Nigeria border in its lower part, before reaching the endoreic Lake Chad. There, seasonal flow from July to January is related to rainfall amount on the upstream Jos Plateau, Nigeria. In the semi-arid downstream area (350 mm annual rainfall in Diffa, Niger) the KY is the main source of recharge for the sandy quaternary aquifer which is used both for irrigation and for drinking water supply. The borders of the KY in Niger are subjected to an agricultural development involving intensive irrigated cropping of sweet pepper mainly produced for sale in Nigeria. Irrigation waters are mainly extracted from the KY, and therefore irrigation must stop when the River runs dry, but irrigation from wells is now developing with an increased risk of soil salinization. The flow rate of the KY has been impacted both by the 80s and 90s droughts, also underwent by the entire Sahel, and by the building up of a series of dams starting from the 70s in Nigeria. Therefore the KY and its relations with the underlying groundwaters should be carefully monitored to provide guidelines for policy makers in charge of the development of this area. However, in this remote area, data are scarce and often discontinuous : there are for example no continuous groundwater level data from before the drought. As part of the Lake Chad French IRD project, series of campaigns involving water level, exploration geophysics, gravity, soil sampling and social studies have been carried out between 2008 and 2011. They allowed to build a numerical model for groundwater-river interactions which in some instances has been compared with previously recorded data. This model is then forced with theoretical climatic senarii based on humid 60s data and data from the drought period. This allows discussing the relationships between the river and groundwaters in a changing climate. Our results militate for the setting up of a limited

  15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.4 Adoption of Green River Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    Adoption of Green River Project Fish Farming Technologies by Farmers in Niger. Delta Region of ... Majority of the respondents adopted fish farm management ... is a decision of full use of an innovation as the best course of action available. ... It is also important to develop sustainable financing option, use well trained and.

  16. Effects of urbanization on river morphology of the Talar River, Mazandarn Province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Navratil, Oldrich; Hooke, Janet

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization growth on river morphology in the downstream part of Talar River, east of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Morphological and morphometric parameters in 10 equal sub-reaches were defined along a 11.5 km reach of the Talar River after land

  17. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  18. Do river channels decrease in width downstream on Distributive Fluvial Systems? An evaluation of modern mega-fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, T. N.; Scuderi, L. A.; Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on aggradational continental sedimentary basins globally show that fluvial deposits in most modern sedimentary basins are dominated Distributive Fluvial Systems (DFS). DFS's are identified by: (1) pattern of channels and floodplain deposits that radiate outward from an apex located where the river enters the sedimentary basin, (2) deposition where an alluvial system becomes unconfined upon entering the sedimentary basin, (3) broadly fan shaped deposit that is convex upward across the DFS and concave upward down-fan, and (4) if the DFS is incised, an intersection point above which the alluvial system is held in an incised valley and below which it distributes sediment across an active depositional lobe. Several papers about DFS hypothesized that rivers on DFS decrease in size down-fan. We are testing this hypothesis through evaluation of LANDSAT and STRM data from large DFS described by Hartley et al (2010). We use ArcGIS to: (1) open the images and merge them together if there are more than one image corresponding to the DFS being studied, (2) use a Maximum Likelihood Analysis in six classes to segment different features on the DFS (e.g. exposed sands, water, vegetation, and other fan environments), (3) isolate the classes that correspond to the active channel belt (e.g., exposed sand bars and water), (4) divide the active channel belt into 1000 m long sections, (5) determine the area of active channel belt in each section, and (6) calculate the average width of the river in each section (e.g., W = area/1000m). We present our result for each DFS river on a graph that shows the change in width downstream. Our final product will be a dataset that contains width versus distance down-fan from the apex for as many of the large DFS from Hartley et al (2010) as possible. If the hypothesis is supported, the decrease in width could have a substantial predictive significance on sandstone geometry in fluvial successions.

  19. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included

  20. Model of Ciliwung River Flood Diversion Tunnel Using HEC-RAS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Joko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a coastal city which lies in lowland area, Jakarta is prone to flooding. One major river which flow through Jakarta is Ciliwung River. There are alternatives to reduce flood risk, such as: river capacity improvement, existing natural reservoir and polder system improvement, upstream reservoir construction, city drainage improvement, flood channel construction and flood diversion. This paper presents capacity analysis of a proposed flood diversion of Ciliwung River to Cipinang River. Cipinang River has its downstream end at Eastern Flood Canal (Kanal Banjir Timur, KBT. This diversion is based on the available capacity of KBT. A 1-D numerical hydraulic model using HEC-RAS based on a proposed design is used to assess the performance of the diversion system in any combination of upstream and downstream boundary condition. Simulations were done for steady condition. The results show that capacity of the system can be achieved for certain condition at upstream and downstream boundary. The effects at the downstream reach of Ciliwung and Cipinang River due to the diversion are also obtained.

  1. Characterization of sediment transport upstream and downstream from Lake Emory on the Little Tennessee River near Franklin, North Carolina, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Brad A.; Hazell, William F.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2017-09-06

    Federal, State, and local agencies and organizations have expressed concerns regarding the detrimental effects of excessive sediment transport on aquatic resources and endangered species populations in the upper Little Tennessee River and some of its tributaries. In addition, the storage volume of Lake Emory, which is necessary for flood control and power generation, has been depleted by sediment deposition. To help address these concerns, a 2-year study was conducted in the upper Little Tennessee River Basin to characterize the ambient suspended-sediment concentrations and suspended-sediment loads upstream and downstream from Lake Emory in Franklin, North Carolina. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Duke Energy. Suspended-sediment samples were collected periodically, and time series of stage and turbidity data were measured from December 2013 to January 2016 upstream and downstream from Lake Emory. The stage data were used to compute time-series streamflow. Suspended-sediment samples, along with time-series streamflow and turbidity data, were used to develop regression models that were used to estimate time-series suspended-sediment concentrations for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. These concentrations, along with streamflow data, were used to compute suspended-sediment loads. Selected suspended-sediment samples were collected for analysis of particle-size distribution, with emphasis on high-flow events. Bed-load samples were also collected upstream from Lake Emory.The estimated annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the upstream site for the 2014 and 2015 calendar years were 27,000 short tons (92 short tons per square mile) and 63,300 short tons (215 short tons per square mile), respectively. The annual suspended-sediment loads (yields) for the downstream site for 2014 and 2015 were 24,200 short tons (75 short tons per square mile) and 94,300 short tons (292 short tons per square mile), respectively. Overall, the

  2. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  3. Water quality of Cisadane River based on watershed segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Muslimah, Sri; Mursalin

    2018-05-01

    The growth of population and industrialization combined with land development along river cause water pollution and environmental deterioration. Cisadane River is one of the river in Indonesia where urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural are extremely main sources of pollution. Cisadane River is an interesting case for investigating the effect of land use to water quality and comparing water quality in every river segment. The main objectives with this study were to examine if there is a correlation between land use and water quality in Cisadane River and there is a difference in water quality between the upstream section of Cisadane River compared with its downstream section. This study compared water quality with land use condition in each segment of river. Land use classification showed that river segment that has more undeveloped area has better water quality compared to river segment with developed area. in general, BOD and COD values have increased from upstream to downstream. However, BOD and COD values do not show a steady increase in each segment Water quality is closely related to the surrounding land use.Therefore, it can not be concluded that the water quality downstream is worse than in the upstream area.

  4. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijun, Zhou [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guang-guo.ying@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jianliang, Zhao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jifeng, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Li, Wang; Bin, Yang; Shan, Liu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: > Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. > Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. > Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. > High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. > River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  5. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

  6. Control of Delta Avulsion by Downstream Sediment Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Gerard; Paola, Chris; Voller, Vaughan R.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how fluxes are partitioned at delta bifurcations is critical for predicting patterns of land loss and gain in deltas worldwide. Although the dynamics of river deltas are influenced from both upstream and downstream, previous studies of bifurcations have focused on upstream controls. Using a quasi-1-D bifurcation model, we show that flow switching in bifurcations is strongly influenced by downstream sediment sinks. We find that coupling between upstream and downstream feedbacks can lead to oscillations in water and sediment flux partitioning. The frequency and initial rate of growth/decay of the oscillations depend on both upstream and downstream conditions, with dimensionless bifurcate length and bypass fraction emerging as key downstream parameters. With a strong offshore sink, causing bypass in the bifurcate branches, we find that bifurcation dynamics become "frozen"; that is, the bifurcation settles on a permanent discharge ratio. In contrast, under depositional conditions, we identify three dynamical regimes: symmetric; soft avulsion, where both branches remain open but the dominant branch switches; and full avulsion. Finally, we show that differential subsidence alters these regimes, with the difference in average sediment supply to each branch exactly compensating for the difference in accommodation generation. Additionally, the model predicts that bifurcations with shorter branches are less asymmetric than bifurcations with longer branches, all else equal, providing a possible explanation for the difference between backwater length distributaries, which tend to be avulsive, and relatively stable mouth-bar-scale networks. We conclude that bifurcations are sensitive both quantitatively and qualitatively to downstream sinks.

  7. Responses of Vegetation Growth to Climatic Factors in Shule River Basin in Northwest China: A Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghui Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation response to climatic factors is a hot topic in global change research. However, research on vegetation in Shule River Basin, which is a typical arid region in northwest China, is still limited, especially at micro scale. On the basis of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data and daily meteorological data, employing panel data models and other mathematical models, the aim of this paper is to reveal the interactive relationship between vegetation variation and climatic factors in Shule River Basin. Results show that there is a widespread greening trend in the whole basin during 2000–2015, and 80.28% of greening areas (areas with vegetation improvement are distributed over upstream region, but the maximum vegetation variation appears in downstream area. The effects of climate change on NDVI lag about half to one month. The parameters estimated using panel data models indicate that precipitation and accumulated temperature have positive contribution to NDVI. With every 1-mm increase in rainfall, NDVI increases by around 0.223‰ in upstream area and 0.6‰ in downstream area. With every 1-°C increase in accumulated temperature, NDVI increases by around 0.241‰ in upstream area and 0.174‰ in downstream area. Responses of NDVI to climatic factors are more sensitive when these factors are limiting than when they are not limiting. NDVI variation has performance in two seasonal and inter-annual directions, and the range of seasonal change is far more than that of inter-annual change. The inverted U-shaped curve of the variable intercepts reflects the seasonal change. Our results might provide some scientific basis for the comprehensive basin management.

  8. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  9. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  10. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  11. Monitoring riparian-vegetation composition and cover along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.; Johnson, Taylor C.

    2018-06-05

    Vegetation in the riparian zone (the area immediately adjacent to streams, such as stream banks) along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, supports many ecosystem and societal functions. In both Glen Canyon and Grand Canyon, this ecosystem has changed over time in response to flow alterations, invasive species, and recreational use. Riparian-vegetation cover and composition are likely to continue to change as these pressures persist and new ones emerge. Because this system is a valuable resource that is known to change in response to flow regime and other disturbances, a long-term monitoring protocol has been designed with three primary objectives:Annually measure and summarize the status (composition and cover) of native and non-native vascular-plant species within the riparian zone of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.At 5-year intervals, assess change in vegetation composition and cover in the riparian zone, as related to geomorphic setting and dam operations, particularly flow regime.Collect data in a manner that can be used by multiple stakeholders, particularly the basinwide monitoring program overseen by the National Park Service’s Northern Colorado Plateau Network Inventory and Monitoring program.A protocol for the long-term monitoring of riparian vegetation is described in detail and standard operating procedures are included herein for all tasks. Visual estimates of foliar and ground covers are collected in conjunction with environmental measurements to assess correlations of foliar cover with abiotic and flow variables. Sample quadrats are stratified by frequency of inundation, geomorphic feature, and by river segment to account for differences in vegetation type. Photographs of sites are also taken to illustrate qualitative characteristics of the site at the time of sampling. Procedures for field preparation, generating random samples, data collection, data management, collecting and managing unknown

  12. 'Greening' Ralco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, Robert; Duran, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Chile's biggest ever hydro power plant is due to be completed and come on line in 2002. The 570MW Ralco plant (on the river Rio Biobio) will supply 15% of the total electricity produced in Chile to the national grid. A comprehensive environmental impact statement was prepared and accepted in 1997. Four of the environmental concerns that must be addressed in hydro electric project planning are discussed briefly as are the effects on the downstream river regime, water quality, vegetation, terrestrial and aquatic fauna, landscape, social impacts and resettlement. (UK)

  13. Algal-mediated ecosystem exchanges in the Eel River drainage network: towards photogrammetric mapping of color to function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M. E.; Welter, J.; Furey, P.; Lowe, R.; Finlay, J. C.; Hondzo, M.; Limm, M.; Bode, C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonal algal proliferations in river networks are typically short-lived (weeks-months) but spatially extensive. They mediate important ecological and biogeochemical exchanges within and between ecosystems. We are investigating correspondence of assemblage color with ecosystem function in the nitrogen-limited Eel River of northern California. During summer base flow following winter floods, Eel algal assemblages are dominated by the green macroalga Cladophora glomerata. New growths are green, but blooms turn yellow as Cladophora filaments are colonized by epiphytic diatoms (Cocconeis spp.). Later, proliferations turn rust colored as epiphytic assemblages became dominated by Epithemia spp., diatoms that contain nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterial endosymbionts. Epithemia-encrusted Cladophora occurs at and downstream of reaches draining > 100 km2 (where summer inundated average channel widths > 25 m), coinciding with a threshold increase in concentration of total dissolved nitrogen. Areal nitrogen fixation rates are 14x higher in rusty algal proliferations than in green, and 3-4x higher than in yellow Cladophora mats. Corresponding increases in insect emergence suggest that nitrogen fixed by cyanobacterial endosymbionts is highly edible. Rates of biomass emergence from rusty Cladophora mats are 12-17 times greater than from green mats, and 8-10 times greater from rusty than from yellow Cladophora mats, because larger taxa emerge from rusty mats (Chironominae versus Ceratopogonidae in yellow mats). Photogrammetric detection of spatial coverage and color changes in algal proliferations may help us track nitrogen fluxes they mediate (riverine loading from the atmosphere via fixation, river to the watershed return via insect emergence) that link riverine to aerial, watershed, and potentially nearshore marine ecosystems at reach to basin scales.

  14. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  15. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lijun; Ying Guangguo; Zhao Jianliang; Yang Jifeng; Wang Li; Yang Bin; Liu Shan

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of four classes of 17 commonly used antibiotics (including fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, sulfonamides, and macrolides) was investigated in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Higher concentrations were detected for most antibiotics in the sediments of the Hai River than in the sediments of the other rivers. Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline in the three rivers were most frequently detected with concentrations up to 5770, 1290, 653 and 652 ng/g, respectively. High frequencies and concentrations of the detected antibiotics were often found in the downstream of large cities and areas influenced by feedlot and fish ponds. Good fitted linear regression equations between antibiotic concentration and sediment physicochemical properties (TOC, texture and pH) were also found, indicating that sediment properties are important factors influencing the distribution of antibiotics in the sediment of rivers. - Highlights: → Presence of four classes of commonly used antibiotics in the river sediments. → Higher concentrations in the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River. → Norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline most frequently detected. → High antibiotic concentrations often found in the downstream of large cities. → River sediments are an important reservoir of antibiotics. - Higher concentrations of selected antibiotics were determined in the sediments of the Hai River than in the Liao River and Yellow River.

  16. The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW, the consumed green water (CGW, and the utilizable green water (UGW. The results show that (1 the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2 according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3 in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas.

  17. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  18. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Wen Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes seems less affected by the typhoon Soulik, because the shortest distance of typhoon Soulik is 250 km away from Green Island and wind speed near Green Island is small. Moreover, Kuroshio currents increase when flow is in the same direction as the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon, and vice versa. This finding is in favorable agreement with the TOROS (Taiwan Ocean Radar Observing System observed data. Simulations of Kuroshio and Holland’s typhoon model successfully reproduces the downstream recirculation and vortex street. Numerical results reveal that the slow moving typhoon has a more significant impact on the Kuroshio and downstream Green Island wakes than the fast moving typhoon does. The rightward bias phenomenon is evident—Kuroshio currents increase (decrease in the right (left of the moving typhoon’s track, due to the counterclockwise rotation of typhoon.

  19. A coupled modelling effort to study the fate of contaminated sediments downstream of the Coles Hill deposit, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Castro-Bolinaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a coupled modelling effort to study the fate of tailings (radioactive waste-by product downstream of the Coles Hill uranium deposit located in Virginia, USA. The implementation of the overall modelling process includes a one-dimensional hydraulic model to qualitatively characterize the sediment transport process under severe flooding conditions downstream of the potential mining site, a two-dimensional ANSYS Fluent model to simulate the release of tailings from a containment cell located partially above the local ground surface into the nearby streams, and a one-dimensional finite-volume sediment transport model to examine the propagation of a tailings sediment pulse in the river network located downstream. The findings of this investigation aim to assist in estimating the potential impacts that tailings would have if they were transported into rivers and reservoirs located downstream of the Coles Hill deposit that serve as municipal drinking water supplies.

  20. Modulation of Extreme Flood Levels by Impoundment Significantly Offset by Floodplain Loss Downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Darby, Stephen E.; Gao, Shu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    River flooding—the world's most significant natural hazard—is likely to increase under anthropogenic climate change. Most large rivers have been regulated by damming, but the extent to which these impoundments can mitigate extreme flooding remains uncertain. Here the catastrophic 2016 flood on the Changjiang River is first analyzed to assess the effects of both the Changjiang's reservoir cascade and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydraulic engineering project on downstream flood discharge and water levels. We show that the Changjiang's reservoir cascade impounded over 30.0 × 103 m3/s of flow at the peak of the flood on 25 July 2016, preventing the occurrence of what would otherwise have been the second largest flood ever recorded in the reach downstream of the TGD. Half of this flood water storage was retained by the TGD alone, meaning that impoundment by the TGD reduced peak water levels at the Datong hydrometric station (on 25 July) by 1.47 m, compared to pre-TGD conditions. However, downstream morphological changes, in particular, extensive erosion of the natural floodplain, offset this reduction in water level by 0.22 m, so that the full beneficial impact of floodwater retention by the TGD was not fully realized. Our results highlight how morphological adjustments downstream of large dams may inhibit their full potential to mitigate extreme flood risk.

  1. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  2. Large-scale dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington, USA: river channel and floodplain geomorphic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Pess, George R.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Logan, Joshua; Randle, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Minear, Justin T.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Liermann, Martin C.; McHenry, Michael L.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial increase in fluvial sediment supply relative to transport capacity causes complex, large-magnitude changes in river and floodplain morphology downstream. Although sedimentary and geomorphic responses to sediment pulses are a fundamental part of landscape evolution, few opportunities exist to quantify those processes over field scales. We investigated the downstream effects of sediment released during the largest dam removal in history, on the Elwha River, Washington, USA, by measuring changes in riverbed elevation and topography, bed sediment grain size, and channel planform as two dams were removed in stages over two years.

  3. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  4. Physical and Chemical Connectivity of Streams and Riparian Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams, riparian areas, floodplains, alluvial aquifers, and downstream waters (e.g., large rivers, lakes, and oceans) are interconnected by longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of water, other materials, and energy. Collectively, these interconnected waters are called fluv...

  5. Gene expression programming for prediction of scour depth downstream of sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryLocal scour is crucial in the degradation of river bed and the stability of grade control structures, stilling basins, aprons, ski-jump bucket spillways, bed sills, weirs, check dams, etc. This short communication presents gene-expression programming (GEP), which is an extension to genetic programming (GP), as an alternative approach to predict scour depth downstream of sills. Published data were compiled from the literature for the scour depth downstream of sills. The proposed GEP approach gives satisfactory results (R2 = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.088) compared to the existing predictors (Chinnarasri and Kositgittiwong, 2008) with R2 = 0.87 and RMSE = 2.452 for relative scour depth.

  6. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  7. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  8. The relationship of mineral and geochemical composition to artificial radionuclide partitioning in Yenisei river sediments downstream from Krasnoyarsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Lydia

    2012-06-01

    Discharges from the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom, downstream from Krasnoyarsk, resulted in radioactive contamination of sediments of the River Yenisei. The concentration of artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides ((137)Cs, (60)Co, (152)Eu, and (241)Am) was determined with the objective to analyze the migration processes leading to the transport of these radionuclides. The content of artificial radionuclides in the surface layers of the study area varied in wide ranges: (137)Cs-318-1,800 Bq/kg, (60)Co-87-720 Bq/kg, (152)Eu-12-287 Bq/kg and (241)Am-6-76 Bq/kg. There was a sequence of migration of radionuclides investigated in the surface layer of sediments that were collected in the near zone of influence of the MCC: (241)Am ≈ (152)Eu > (60)Co > (137)Cs. Radionuclide species have been found to be directly related to sediment structure and composition.

  9. Alpine hydropower schemes and their 'remote influence' on lakes and rivers downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the effect that alpine dams and reservoirs have on lakes and rivers in the lowlands. Not only the contribution of Swiss alpine hydropower installations to Switzerland's electricity generation capacity is mentioned, but also the way they 'export' ecological deficits to lower-lying regions. Examples of this are quoted, including, for example, the filtering-out of around 50% of water-borne particles in the river Rhone by the dams in its catchment area. The consequences of such effects for the ecology of lakes and rivers are discussed. Further examples of how the alpine dams hold back nutrients and regulate the flow and temperature of rivers are given and the resulting ecological effects are commented on

  10. Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River Formation of Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.H.

    1931-01-01

    The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins, the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northwestern Utah. The ancient lakes apparently were shallow and had a large area, compared with depth. The abundance of organisms and the decaying organic matter produced a strongly reducing environment. Mechanical and chemical action, such as the mastication and digestion of the organic material by bottom-living organisms, caused disintegration of the original organic matter. After most of the oil shale was deposited, the lake reverted nearly to the conditions that prevailed during its early stage, when the marlstone and low-grade oil shale of the basal member were formed. Microgranular calcite and dolomite are the predominant mineral constituents of most of the oil shale. The microflora of the Green River formation consist of two forms that have been referred to as bacteria and many fungi spores. Two kinds of organic matter are seen in thin sections of the oil shale; one is massive and structureless and is the matrix of the other, which has definite form and consists of organisms or fragments of organisms. Most structureless organic matter is isotropic (there are two anisotropic varieties) and makes up the greater part of the total organic material.

  11. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  12. An interesting new genus of Berothinae (Neuroptera: Berothidae) from the early Eocene Green River Formation, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-01-30

    Xenoberotha angustialata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Berothidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to Berothinae as an oldest known member of the subfamily based on the presence of scale-like setae on the foreleg coxae. Distal crossveins of the fourth (outer) gradate series which are located very close to the wing margin in Xenoberotha gen. nov. is a character state previously unknown in Berothinae.

  13. Long-term nitrate and phosphate loading of river water in the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High nitrate and phosphate concentrations were recorded directly downstream of residential, municipal and industrial areas suggesting that these were the major sources of the pollutants found in the river water. For example, phosphate concentration at 2 sites along Mukuvisi River (downstream of domestic and industrial ...

  14. Downstream Yangtze River Levels Impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Gleason, C.J.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze

  15. A modified hydrodynamic model for routing unsteady flow in a river having piedmont zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patowary Sudarshan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Existence of piedmont zone in a river bed is a critical parameter from among numerous variations of topographical, geological and geographical conditions that can significantly influence the river flow scenario. Downstream flow situation assessed by routing of upstream hydrograph may yield higher flow depth if existence of such high infiltration zone is ignored and therefore it is a matter of concern for water resources planning and flood management. This work proposes a novel modified hydrodynamic model that has the potential to accurately determine the flow scenario in presence of piedmont zone. The model has been developed using unsteady free surface flow equations, coupled with Green-Ampt infiltration equation as governing equation. For solution of the governing equations Beam and Warming implicit finite difference scheme has been used. The proposed model was first validated from the field data of Trout Creek River showing excellent agreement. The validated model was then applied to a hypothetical river reach commensurate with the size of major tributaries of Brahmaputra Basin of India. Results indicated a 10% and 14% difference in the maximum value of discharge and depth hydrograph in presence and absence of piedmont zone respectively. Overall this model was successfully used to accurately predict the effect of piedmont zone on the unsteady flow in a river.

  16. Water temperature effects from simulated changes to dam operations and structures in the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.

    2017-05-31

    Green Peter and Foster Dams on the Middle and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon, have altered the annual downstream water temperature profile (cycle). Operation of the dams has resulted in cooler summer releases and warmer autumn releases relative to pre-dam conditions, and that alteration can hinder recovery of various life stages of threatened spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha) and winter steelhead (O. mykiss). Lake level management and the use of multiple outlets from varying depths at the dams can enable the maintenance of a temperature regime more closely resembling that in which the fish evolved by releasing warm surface water during summer and cooler, deeper water in the autumn. At Green Peter and Foster Dams, the outlet configuration is such that temperature control is often limited by hydropower production at the dams. Previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 water temperature models of Green Peter and Foster Lakes were used to simulate the downstream thermal effects from hypothetical structures and modified operations at the dams. Scenarios with no minimum power production requirements allowed some releases through shallower and deeper outlets (summer and autumn) to achieve better temperature control throughout the year and less year-to-year variability in autumn release temperatures. Scenarios including a hypothetical outlet floating 1 meter below the lake surface resulted in greater ability to release warm water during summer compared to existing structures. Later in Autumn (October 15–December 31), a limited amount of temperature control was realized downstream from Foster Dam by scenarios limited to operational changes with existing structures, resulting in 15-day averages within 1.0 degree Celsius of current operations.

  17. The impact of a tributary that carries high amounts of bed-load on the deposition of sediment downstream of a run-of river plant; Die Auswirkungen eines Geschiebe fuehrenden Zubringers auf die Verlandungssituation im Unterwasser eines Laufkraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Josef; Sindelar, Christine; Feldbacher, Rupert; Knoblauch, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

    2011-07-01

    For guaranteeing a sustainable sediment management on a chain of run-of river plants in the Salzach valley in Austria nearly annual flushings have been performed. The sediments that are removed out of the reservoirs tend to deposit immediately downstream of the dams mainly at the outlet of the turbines due to widening or reduced slope. During the physical model tests, which were performed for the hydro power plant St. Veit, it could be observed that the boundary conditions were obviously wrong because in the prototype much more sediment was settled as in the model. A downstream located tributary was found responsible because of its dumping of high amounts of bed load into the river Salzach. This led to a backwater flow respectively reduced shear stresses. Further model tests resulted in a successful solution which mitigates the situation substantially. (orig.)

  18. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  19. Suspended sediments from upstream tributaries as the source of downstream river sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the efficiency with which sediment eroded from different sources is transported to the catchment outlet is a key knowledge gap that is critical to our ability to accurately target and prioritise management actions to reduce sediment delivery. Sediment fingerprinting has proven to be an efficient approach to determine the sources of sediment. This study examines the suspended sediment sources from Emu Creek catchment, south eastern Queensland, Australia. In addition to collect suspended sediments from different sites of the streams after the confluence of tributaries and outlet of the catchment, time integrated suspended samples from upper tributaries were used as the source of sediment, instead of using hillslope and channel bank samples. Totally, 35 time-integrated samplers were used to compute the contribution of suspended sediments from different upstream waterways to the downstream sediment sites. Three size fractions of materials including fine sand (63-210 μm), silt (10-63 μm) and fine silt and clay (<10 μm) were used to find the effect of particle size on the contribution of upper sediments as the sources of sediment after river confluences. And then samples were analysed by ICP-MS and -OES to find 41 sediment fingerprints. According to the results of Student's T-distribution mixing model, small creeks in the middle and lower part of the catchment were major source in different size fractions, especially in silt (10-63 μm) samples. Gowrie Creek as covers southern-upstream part of the catchment was a major contributor at the outlet of the catchment in finest size fraction (<10 μm) Large differences between the contributions of suspended sediments from upper tributaries in different size fractions necessitate the selection of appropriate size fraction on sediment tracing in the catchment and also major effect of particle size on the movement and deposition of sediments.

  20. The role of baseflow in dissolved solids delivery to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, C.; Miller, M. P.; Schwarz, G. E.; Susong, D.

    2017-12-01

    Salinity has a major effect on water users in the Colorado River Basin, estimated to cause almost $300 million per year in economic damages. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program implements and manages projects to reduce salinity (dissolved solids) loads, investing millions of dollars per year in irrigation upgrades, canal projects, and other mitigation strategies. To inform and improve mitigation efforts, there is a need to better understand sources of salinity to streams and how salinity has changed over time. This study explores salinity in baseflow, or groundwater discharge to streams, to assess whether groundwater is a significant contributor of dissolved solids to streams in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Chemical hydrograph separation was used to estimate long-term mean annual baseflow discharge and baseflow dissolved solids loads at stream gages (n=69) across the UCRB. On average, it is estimated that 89% of dissolved solids loads originate from the baseflow fraction of streamflow. Additionally, a statistical trend analysis using weighted regressions on time, discharge, and season was used to evaluate changes in baseflow dissolved solids loads in streams with data from 1987 to 2011 (n=29). About two-thirds (62%) of these streams showed statistically significant decreasing trends in baseflow dissolved solids loads. At the two most downstream sites, Green River at Green River, UT and Colorado River at Cisco, UT, baseflow dissolved solids loads decreased by a combined 780,000 metric tons, which is approximately 65% of the estimated basin-scale decrease in total dissolved solids loads in the UCRB attributed to salinity control efforts. Results indicate that groundwater discharged to streams, and therefore subsurface transport processes, play a large role in delivering dissolved solids to streams in the UCRB. Decreasing trends in baseflow dissolved solids loads suggest that salinity mitigation projects, changes in land use, and/or climate are

  1. Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mujeriego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water sources. Average river flows at the Sant Joan Despí measurement section increased from 400,000 m3/d (2007 to 864,000 m3/d (2008 and to 931,000 m3/d (2013, while treated effluent discharges upstream of that section ranged from 109,000 m3/d to 114,000 m3/d in those years. The highest degree of IPR occurs downstream of the Abrera and Sant Joan Despí flow measurement sections, from where about half of the drinking water supplied to the Barcelona Metropolitan Area is abstracted. Based on average annual flows, the likelihood that drinking water produced from that river stretch contained treated effluent varied from 25% (2007 to 13% (2008 and to 12% (2013. Water agencies and drinking water production utilities have strived for decades to ensure that drinking water production satisfies applicable quality requirements and provides the required public health protection.

  2. Sediment Transport Over Run-of-River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Dams have numerous documented effects that can degrade river habitat downstream. One significant effect of large dams is their ability to trap sediment delivered from upstream. This trapping can alter sediment transport and grain size downstream - effects that often motivate dam removal decisions. However, recent indirect observations and modeling studies indicate that small, run-of-river (ROR) dams, which do not impede discharge, may actually leak sediment downstream. However, there are no direct measurements of sediment flux over ROR dams. This study investigates flow and sediment transport over four to six different New England ROR dams over a summer-fall field season. Sediment flux was measured using turbidity meters and tracer (RFID) cobbles. Sediment transport was also monitored through an undammed control site and through a river where two ROR dams were recently removed. These data were used to predict the conditions that contribute to sediment transport and trapping. Year 1 data show that tracer rocks of up to 61 mm were transported over a 3 m ROR dam in peak flows of 84% of bankfull stage. These tracer rocks were transported over and 10 m beyond the dam and continue to move downstream. During the same event, comparable suspended sediment fluxes of up to 81 g/s were recorded both upstream and downstream of the dam at near-synchronous timestamps. These results demonstrate the potential for sediment transport through dammed rivers, even in discharge events that do not exceed bankfull. This research elucidates the effects of ROR dams and the controls on sediment transport and trapping, contributions that may aid in dam management decisions.

  3. Downstream mixing of sediment and tracers in agricultural catchments: Evidence of changing sediment sources and fluvial processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Timothy; Wethered, Adam; Smith, Hugh; Heijnis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Land clearance, soil tillage and grazing in agricultural catchments have liberated sediment and altered hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and channels, leading to increased sediment availability, mobilisation and delivery to rivers. The type and amount of sediment supplied to rivers is critical for fluvial geomorphology and aquatic ecosystem health. Contemporary sediment dynamics are routinely investigated using environmental radionuclides such as caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex), which can provide information regarding sediment source types and fluvial processes if sediment sources can be distinguished from one another and mixing models applied to representative samples. However, downstream transport, mixing and dilution of radionuclide-labelled sediment (especially from sources with low initial concentrations) can obliterate the tracer signal; sometimes before anything of geomorphological importance happens in the catchment. Can these findings be used as evidence of sediment source variations and fluvial processes when the limits of detection (of Cs-137 in particular) are being exceeded so rapidly downstream? Sediment sources and downstream sediment dynamics were investigated in Coolbaggie Creek, a major supplier of sediment to the Macquarie River in an agricultural catchment with temperate to semi-arid climate in Australia. Radionuclides were used to discriminate between the banks and gullies (Cs-137 1.45 +/- 0.47 Bq/kg; Pb-210ex 4.67 +/- 1.93 Bq/kg). Within the trunk stream, suspended sediment, organic matter and Cs-137 and Pb-210ex concentrations declined downstream. Results from a mixing model suggest that agricultural topsoils account for 95% of fine sediment entering the channel in the upper reach (200 m2) downstream, with channel expansion and gullies contributing fine sediment to the system. A lack of topsoil being supplied to the channel suggests minimal lateral connectivity between the catchment and the trunk stream in all

  4. Analyses of flow modification on water quality on Nechako River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.C.; James, C.B.; Edinger, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd. initiated construction of the final phase of the Kemano Completion Project in north-central British Columbia to divert additional water from the Nechako Reservoir to the existing powerhouse. The Nechako Reservoir was created by the construction of the Kenney Dam in Nechako Canyon, a natural barrier to salmon migration. The Nechako River downstream of Nechako Canyon supports important runs of sockeye and chinook salmon. This additional diversion of Nechako River flow creates the potential of high water temperatures and increased thermal stress to migrating sockeye salmon enroute to their spawning grounds in Nechako River tributaries. To achieve specific downstream water temperature objectives during sockeye salmon migration each summer, a two-level outlet facility adjacent to Kenney Dam is to be constructed to release cooling water at 10 C to the Nechako River. Results of mathematical modeling of Nechako River water temperatures show that, based on specified design criteria, a maximum Kenney Dam release of 167 m 3 /s at 10 C would be required to meet the downstream water temperature objectives

  5. Downstream impacts of dams: shifts in benthic invertivorous fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzotti, Rafaela Vendrametto; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, Angelo A.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Impoundments alter connectivity, sediment transport and water discharge in rivers and floodplains, affecting recruitment, habitat and resource availability for fish including benthic invertivorous fish, which represent an important link between primary producers and higher trophic levels in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We investigated long-term changes to water regime, water quality, and invertivorous fish assemblages pre and post impoundment in three rivers downstream of Porto Primavera Reservoir in south Brazil: Paraná, Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Impacts were distinct in the Paraná River, which is fully obstructed by the dam, less evident in the Baía River which is partially obstructed by the dam, but absent in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime were reflected mainly as changes in water-level fluctuation with little effect on timing. Water transparency increased in the Paraná River post impoundment but did not change in the Baía and Ivinhema rivers. Changes in fish assemblages included a decrease in benthic invertivorous fish in the Paraná River and a shift in invertivorous fish assemblage structure in the Baía and Paraná rivers but not in the unimpounded Ivinhema River. Changes in water regime and water transparency, caused by impoundment, directly or indirectly impacted invertivorous fish assemblages. Alterations of fish assemblages following environmental changes have consequences over the entire ecosystem, including a potential decrease in the diversity of mechanisms for energy flow. We suggest that keeping existing unimpounded tributaries free of dams, engineering artificial floods, and intensive management of fish habitat within the floodplain may preserve native fish assemblages and help maintain functionality and ecosystem services in highly impounded rivers.

  6. Nutrient Reduction in Agricultural Green Infrastructure: An Analysis of the Raccoon River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Canning

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has had the undesirable effect of degrading water quality throughout the United States. Nitrate pollution presents a difficult problem for rural and urban communities, and it contributes to the immense Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone. Current U.S. policy prohibits regulation of agricultural runoff because it is a nonpoint source. The Raccoon River Watershed upstream of Des Moines, Iowa, USA has some of the highest nitrate levels in the nation, and the drinking water utility in Des Moines unsuccessfully pursued litigation against drainage districts in the watershed. We propose a cooperative solution between urban residents and upstream rural residents—namely, the installation of agricultural green infrastructure in the form of riparian buffers throughout the watershed enabled by the principles of water quality trading. We compare this distributed, green approach with a centralized, gray approach (i.e., building a new nitrate removal facility at the drinking water utility. Using terrain analysis, we determined that first-order streams are the most fitting location for riparian buffers. We estimate the buffer installation to cost between $155–$185 million; maintenance of the current nitrate removal facility will cost $72 million, while a new facility could cost up to $184 million. Riparian buffer installation offers more indirect, non-quantified benefits than maintaining or building new centralized, gray treatment (e.g., living-wage jobs and in-stream water quality improvement. Our analysis could act as a model for water quality trading and distributed agricultural green infrastructure in other communities facing similar water quality challenges.

  7. Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23–26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22–24. A breach of the Lake Delhi Dam on July 24 aggravated flooding on the Maquoketa River. Rain gages at Manchester and Strawberry Point, Iowa, recorded 72-hour-rainfall amounts of 7.33 and 12.23 inches, respectively, on July 24. The majority of the rainfall occurred during a 48-hour period. Within the Little Maquoketa River Basin, a peak-discharge estimate of 19,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 4 to 10 percent) at the discontinued 05414500 Little Maquoketa River near Durango, Iowa streamgage on July 23 is the sixth largest flood on record. Within the Maquoketa River Basin, peak discharges of 26,600 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 0.2 to 1 percent) at the 05416900 Maquoketa River at Manchester, Iowa streamgage on July 24, and of 25,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 1 to 2 percent) at the 05418400 North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton, Iowa streamgage on July 24 are the largest floods on record for these sites. A peak discharge affected by the Lake Delhi Dam breach on July 24 at the 05418500 Maquoketa River near Maquoketa, Iowa streamgage, located downstream of Lake Delhi, of 46,000 cubic feet per second on July 26 is the third highest on record. High-water marks were measured at five locations along the Little Maquoketa and North Fork Little Maquoketa Rivers between U.S. Highway 52 near Dubuque and County Road Y21 near Rickardsville, a distance of 19 river miles. Highwater marks were measured at 28 locations along the Maquoketa River between U.S. Highway 52 near Green Island and State Highway 187 near Arlington, a distance of 142 river miles. High-water marks were measured at 13 locations along the North Fork Maquoketa River between

  8. Bank erosion along the dam-regulated lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, C.R.; Schenk, E.R.; Richter, J.M.; Peet, Robert K.; Townsend, Phil A.

    2009-01-01

    Dam construction and its impact on downstream fluvial processes may substantially alter ambient bank stability and erosion. Three high dams (completed between 1953 and 1963) were built along the Piedmont portion of the Roanoke River, North Carolina; just downstream the lower part of the river flows across largely unconsolidated Coastal Plain deposits. To document bank erosion rates along the lower Roanoke River, >700 bank-erosion pins were installed along 66 bank transects. Additionally, discrete measurements of channel bathymetry, turbidity, and presence or absence of mass wasting were documented along the entire study reach (153 km). A bank-erosion- floodplain-deposition sediment budget was estimated for the lower river. Bank toe erosion related to consistently high low-flow stages may play a large role in increased mid- and upper-bank erosion. Present bank-erosion rates are relatively high and are greatest along the middle reaches (mean 63 mm/yr) and on lower parts of the bank on all reaches. Erosion rates were likely higher along upstream reaches than present erosion rates, such that erosion-rate maxima have since migrated downstream. Mass wasting and turbidity also peak along the middle reaches; floodplain sedimentation systematically increases downstream in the study reach. The lower Roanoke River isnet depositional (on floodplain) with a surplus of ??2,800,000 m3yr. Results suggest that unmeasured erosion, particularly mass wasting, may partly explain this surplus and should be part of sediment budgets downstream of dams. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  10. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  11. Alleviating dam impacts along the transboundary Se San River in northeast Cambodia : a review of the rapid environmental impact assessment on the Cambodian part of the Se San River due to hydropower development in Vietnam (July 2007 version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Probe International has reviewed 2 reports regarding the environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the Cambodian part of the Se San River resulting from hydropower development in Vietnam. Both reports were prepared for Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), the project owner and developer. The operation of 3 large hydro dams on the upper Se San River has disrupted flow in downstream Cambodia where more than 28,000 people depend on the river for drinking water, irrigation, fishing, livestock watering and transportation. Probe International's focus is on mitigating and compensating for affected communities in downstream Cambodia. Their review of the EIAs recommends that Electricity of Vietnam consider switching from peaking to base load operations at its upper Se San hydro dams to mitigate the impacts in downstream Cambodia. The downstream impacts of EVN dams on the Se San River include loss of life, property, livelihood and habitat; malnutrition; loss of wet season rice production; reduced fish catches; food security at risk; loss of fish protein; loss of river bank agriculture; reduced availability of plants for food and medicine; river bank erosion; reservoir erosion and downstream turbidity; increased transportation risks; loss of fisheries habitat; increased pressure on upland forests; disrupted riverine ecosystem; and disrupted fish migration. The EIA recommendations include the re-regulation of the Se San 4A reservoir; operational changes to reduce downstream fluctuations and erosion; monitoring impact of operations on water quantity and quality downstream; algal monitoring; establishment of early warning system for spillway release; prolonging the wet season filling of the reservoir; reducing nutrient inputs to the rivers and reservoirs and a fish stocking program. 6 figs., 1 appendix.

  12. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A.C.; Aubry, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeo...

  13. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter

    2015-02-15

    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  15. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  16. Sediment Size Distribution at Three Rivers with Different Types of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    sediment size distribution based on land use is very crucial in river maintenance. ... a basis for river catchment management study and can be used by river management .... small. In this case, the difference between upstream and downstream ...

  17. Simulation of hanging dams downstream of Ossauskoski power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, J.; Huokuna, M. [Finnish Environment Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Severinkangas, K.; Talvensaari, M. [Kemijoki Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    Sixteen power plants have been constructed along Finland's Kemijoki River for hydroelectric power production. The Ossauskoski facility has recently undergone major renovations and upgrade, making it the sixth largest hydroelectric power plant in Finland, with a new capacity of 124 MW and an annual energy output of 501 GWh. The increase in power output and discharge may cause changes in ice conditions downstream of the power plant. The section of the river is already subjected to frazil ice problems and hanging dam formation. Discharges and adverse effects of frazil ice phenomena are likely to increase due to climate change, resulting in harm for hydropower production and the environment, particularly in flow regulated rivers where winter discharges are higher than natural discharges. As such, a study was launched to investigate a dredge plan suggested by by the electric utility Kemijoki Oy. The project involved mapping the river bed topography to identify the location and extent of hanging dams. A sounding device and ground penetrating radar was used to find the thaw regions in the ice cover. The JJT numerical river ice model was effectively used to study the effect of hanging dams on water levels. However, the ice bridging phenomena was not modelled in a reliable way by the JJT model and will be modelled in the future using the CRISSP2D numerical model. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Flood recovery maps for the White River in Bethel, Stockbridge, and Rochester, Vermont, and the Tweed River in Stockbridge and Pittsfield, Vermont, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    From August 28 to 29, 2011, Tropical Storm Irene delivered rainfall ranging from about 4 inches to more than 7 inches in the White River Basin. The rainfall resulted in severe flooding throughout the basin and significant damage along the White River and Tweed River. In response to the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, conducted a new flood study to aid in the flood recovery and restoration. This flood study includes a 20.7-mile reach of the White River from the downstream end at about 2,000 feet downstream from the State Route 107 bridge in the Village of Bethel, Vermont, to the upstream end at about 1,000 feet upstream from the River Brook Drive bridge in the Village of Rochester, Vt., and a 7.9-mile reach of the Tweed River from its mouth in Stockbridge, Vt., to the confluence of the West and South Branches of the Tweed River and continuing upstream on the South Branch Tweed River to the Pittsfield, Vt., town line.

  19. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  20. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  1. Interactions between Channel Morphology and the Propagation of Coarse Sediment Augmentations Downstream from Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeuman, D. A.; Dickenson, S.; Pyles, M.

    2009-12-01

    considerably higher (88%), suggesting that average burial depths decrease as the deposition front moves downstream. In addition, about one quarter of the tracers that were missing in 2008 were recovered in 2009, indicating that some of the particles buried during the first flood season were exhumed the following year. Changes in bed topography downstream from a gravel augmentation in the Trinity River provide additional evidence that the presence of discrete deposition zones in stream channels tends to suppress gravel dispersion. Repeat bathymetric surveys conducted in the Trinity River before and after placement of 1000 tons of gravel during a 2008 high-flow event show that a quantity of gravel equivalent to the augmentation volume was deposited on the first bar downstream from the augmentation point.

  2. Research on the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Fang, D., VI; Xu, J.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancang-Mekong River is an important international river, cascaded hydropower stations development in which attracts the attention of downstream countries. In this paper, we proposed a coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation to relieve the conflict of upstream and downstream countries. Firstly, analyze the benefits and risks caused by the cascaded hydropower stations development and the evolution process of water resources use conflict between upstream and downstream countries. Secondly, evaluate the benefits and risks of flood control, water supply, navigation and power generation based on the energy theory of cascaded hydropower stations development in Lancang-Mekong River. Thirdly, multi-agent cooperation motivation and cooperation conditions between upstream and downstream countries in Lancang-Mekong River is given. Finally, the coordination framework for water resources utilization on the interests of mutual compensation in Lancang-Mekong River is presented. This coordination framework for water resources utilization can increase comprehensive benefits in Lancang-Mekong River.

  3. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  4. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  5. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  6. Suspended-sediment transport from the Green-Duwamish River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington, 2013–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Craig A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.

    2018-02-28

    The Green-Duwamish River transports watershed-derived sediment to the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site near Seattle, Washington. Understanding the amount of sediment transported by the river is essential to the bed sediment cleanup process. Turbidity, discharge, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle-size data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from February 2013 to January 2017 at the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (USGS streamgage 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). This report quantifies the timing and magnitude of suspended-sediment transported in the Duwamish River. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity and SSC and discharge to estimate 15- minute SSC. Suspended-sediment loads were calculated from the computed SSC and time-series discharge data for every 15-minute interval during the study period. The 2014–16 average annual suspended-sediment load computed was 117,246 tons (106,364 metric tons), of which 73.5 percent or (86,191 tons; 78,191 metric tons) was fine particle (less than 0.0625 millimeter in diameter) suspended sediment. The seasonality of this site is apparent when you divide the year into "wet" (October 16– April 15) and "dry" (April 16–October 15) seasons. Most (97 percent) of the annual suspended sediment was transported during the wet season, when brief periods of intense precipitation from storms, large releases from the Howard Hanson Dam, or a combination of both were much more frequent.

  7. Mechanisms of carbon storage in mountainous headwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Wohl; Kathleen Dwire; Nicholas Sutfin; Lina Polvi; Roberto Bazan

    2012-01-01

    Published research emphasizes rapid downstream export of terrestrial carbon from mountainous headwater rivers, but little work focuses on mechanisms that create carbon storage along these rivers, or on the volume of carbon storage. Here we estimate organic carbon stored in diverse valley types of headwater rivers in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA. We show that...

  8. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

  9. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  10. Impact of chirano gold mines operations on levels of As, Pb, Hg and Cd in the suraw river and the possible health implications on downstream communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppong, Kyekyeku

    2011-07-01

    Suraw River water quality awareness and preference survey conducted in five immediate downstream communities indicated that the residents were very much aware of the changes that have occurred since the commencement of active mining by CGML last quarter in 2004. Notwithstanding the residents overwhelming preference for the borehole water for their basic water needs including drinking, some people still rely on the River water when they go to their farms. Suraw River which principally drains the surface waters of Chirano Gold Mines operational area was investigated to assess the levels of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in the River water, bottom sediments and community borehole water using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP – OES) for the water and sediments respectively. The results of the study generally showed low to below laboratory detection levels for the four heavy metals under investigation. The occurrence of Arsenic in more than half of the sampling sites in both the Suraw River and the community boreholes and particularly its detection at S1 in the surface water samples are most probably as a result of natural background levels. Except Cadmium which exceeded the Lowest Effect Level (LEL) in the sediment samples, the concentration of As, Pb and Hg were below the LEL of toxicity. The concentration of Cd also exceeded the Threshold Effect and the Probable Effect Levels but lower than the Severe Effect Level of sediment toxicity at five of the six sampling sites. The study has shown that the concentration of the four heavy metals investigated in both the Suraw River and the community borehole water were lower than expected compared with WHO/GWCL Drinking Water Standards and were within acceptable limits for potable water and therefore do not pose any immediate health risk to residents and settler farmers who still depend on the River water for their basic water needs. Apart from the concentration of Cd

  11. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  12. Ecology of common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) in the Tarawera and Rangitiki rivers : isolation by inland distance or anthropogenic discharge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleackley, N.A.; Landman, M.J.; Ling, N.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has identified distinct genetic, life-history and reproductive differences between populations of common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus) upstream and downstream of a pulp and paper mill outfall on the Tarawera River in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. This study investigated the distribution of common bully in the Tarawera River by examining fish collected from upstream (37 km inland) and downstream (20 km inland) locations and comparing them to fish from similar inland locations (40 km and 17 km inland, respectively) in the nearby Rangitaiki River. Reproductive divergence was observed between upstream and downstream sites of both rivers by differing annual trends in gonadosomatic index. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes confirmed residency at each sampling site and otolith microchemistry demonstrated different life-history strategies between upstream and downstream populations. Diadromous recruits dominated in both downstream river populations, with a general disappearance of diadromy upstream. A mixture of diadromous and non-diadromous fish were found in the upstream Rangitaiki River, whereas diadromous recruits were absent in the upstream Tarawera River. A reduction in oculoscapular canal structures also coincided with loss of diadromy in fish from both rivers. A behavioural study to determine whether pulp and paper mill effluent may deter fish migration within the Tarawera River demonstrated a strong avoidance of effluent, but only at concentrations (>25%) greater than those that naturally occur in the river (<15%). The results of this study suggest that combinations of influences coupled with inland distance are likely to be responsible for the isolation of common bully subpopulations within the Tarawera River. (author). 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Seasonal variation of sediment toxicity in the Rivers Dommel and Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.; Matthaei, A.; Heise, S.; Ahlf, W.

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated sediment in the river basin has become a source of pollution with increasing importance to the aquatic ecosystem downstream. To monitor the temporal changes of the sediment bound contaminants in the River Elbe and the River Dommel monthly toxicity tests were applied to layered sediment and river water samples over the course of 10 months. There is an indication that contaminated sediments upstream adversely affected sediments downstream, but this process did not cause a continuous increase of sediment toxicity. A clear decrease of toxic effects in water and upper layer sediment was observed at the River Elbe station in spring related to high water discharge and algal blooms. The less obvious variation of sediment toxicity in the River Dommel could be explained by stable hydrological conditions. Future monitoring programmes should promote a more frequent and intensive sampling regime during these particular events for ecotoxicological evaluation. - Significant impacts of hydrological and biological factors on the ecotoxicological quality in two European rivers (Elbe and Dommel)

  14. The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Moore, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    40% in fourth- and higher-order rivers that include navigable waters and their tributaries. These results underscore the profound influence that headwater areas have on shaping downstream water quantity and water quality. The results have relevance to water-resource management and regulatory decisions and potentially broaden understanding of the spatial extent of Federal CWA jurisdiction in U.S. waters. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  15. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  16. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  17. Water - The radiological health of rivers: releases are very much controlled downstream power plants. What do hospital releases represent? The Seine reserves a surprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the role of the IRSN in the control of the radioactivity present in waters and in the control and follow-up of all sources of radioactivity, a first article briefly present the hydro-collector network, indicates that some point samplings of sediment and aquatic species are performed, that a national network of beacons for a continuous radioactivity measurement is installed in the main French rivers, downstream nuclear installations, and that advanced measurement techniques are used to detect very small level of tritium. Maps giving a brief indication of the radiological condition of the Loire and Rhone are provided. A second article addresses the control of releases downstream power plants, and evokes the legal context and the associated objectives and produced documents. The third article discusses the risk associated with hospital wastes and releases (liquid and solid effluents), how radioactivity is controlled between the hospital and tap water distribution. The last article reports and comments the results obtained by an analysis of historical pollutions trapped in the sediments of the Seine: 40 year-old traces of plutonium have been discovered, due to an accidental release from a CEA installation in Fontenay-aux-Roses, with no detrimental impact on population or on sewer workers

  18. Geomorphic status of regulated rivers in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Besné, P; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A; Aristi, I; Díez, J R; Ibisate, A; Larrañaga, A; Elosegi, A; Batalla, R J

    2015-03-01

    River regulation by dams modifies flow regimes, interrupts the transfer of sediment through channel networks, and alters downstream bed dynamics, altogether affecting channel form and processes. So far, most studies on the geomorphic impacts of dams are restricted to single rivers, or even single river stretches. In this paper we analyse the geomorphic status of 74 river sites distributed across four large basins in the Iberian Peninsula (i.e. 47 sites located downstream of dams). For this purpose, we combine field data with hydrological data available from water agencies, and analyse historical (1970) and current aerial photographs. In particular, we have developed a Geomorphic Status (GS) index that allows us to assess the physical structure of a given channel reach and its change through time. The GS encompasses a determination of changes in sedimentary units, sediment availability, bar stability and channel flow capacity. Sites are statistically grouped in four clusters based on contrasted physical and climate characteristics. Results emphasise that regulation changes river's flow regime with a generalized reduction of the magnitude and frequency of floods (thus flow competence). This, in addition to the decrease downstream sediment supply, results in the loss of active bars as they are encroached by vegetation, to the point that only reaches with little or no regulation maintain exposed sedimentary deposits. The GS of regulated river reaches is negatively correlated with magnitude of the impoundment (regulation). Heavily impacted reaches present channel stabilization and, in contrast to the hydrological response, the distance and number of tributaries do not reverse the geomorphic impact of the dams. Stabilization limits river dynamics and may contribute to the environmental degradation of the fluvial ecosystem. Overall, results describe the degree of geomorphological alteration experienced by representative Iberian rivers mostly because of regulation

  19. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in 226 Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 μR/hr

  20. Phytoplankton Regulation in a Eutrophic Tidal River (San Joaquin River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Jassby

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many U.S. estuaries, the tidal San Joaquin River exhibits elevated organic matter production that interferes with beneficial uses of the river, including fish spawning and migration. High phytoplankton biomass in the tidal river is consequently a focus of management strategies. An unusually long and comprehensive monitoring dataset enabled identification of the determinants of phytoplankton biomass. Phytoplankton carrying capacity may be set by nitrogen or phosphorus during extreme drought years but, in most years, growth rate is light-limited. The size of the annual phytoplankton bloom depends primarily on river discharge during late spring and early summer, which determines the cumulative light exposure in transit downstream. The biomass-discharge relationship has shifted over the years, for reasons as yet unknown. Water diversions from the tidal San Joaquin River also affect residence time during passage downstream and may have resulted in more than a doubling of peak concentration in some years. Dam construction and accompanying changes in storage-and-release patterns from upstream reservoirs have caused a long-term decrease in the frequency of large blooms since the early 1980s, but projected climate change favors a future increase. Only large decreases in nonpoint nutrient sources will limit phytoplankton biomass reliably. Growth rate and concentration could increase if nonpoint source management decreases mineral suspensoid load but does not decrease nutrient load sufficiently. Small changes in water storage and release patterns due to dam operation have a major influence on peak phytoplankton biomass, and offer a near-term approach for management of nuisance algal blooms.

  1. Operating multireservoir hydropower systems for downstream water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Hydropower reservoir operations often impact tailwater quality and water quality in the stream or river below the impoundment for many miles. Determining optimal operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs involves solving a highly dimensional nonlinear, nonconvex optimization problem. This research adds the additional complexities of downstream water quality considerations within the optimization formulation to determine operating strategies for a system of hydropower reservoirs operating in series (tandem) or parallel. The formulation was used to determine operating strategies for six reservoirs of the upper Cumberland river basin in Tennessee and Kentucky. Significant dissolved oxygen (DO) violations occur just upstream of Nashville, Tennessee below Old Hickory dam during the months of August and September. Daily reservoir releases were determined for the period of June through September which would produce the maximum hydropower revenue while meeting downstream water quality objectives. Optimal releases for three operational strategies were compared to historical operations for the years 1985, 1986, and 1988. These strategies included: spilling as necessary to meet water quality criteria, near normal operation (minimal spills), and drawdown of reservoirs as necessary to meet criteria without spills. Optimization results showed an 8% to 15% hydropower loss may be necessary to meet water quality criteria through spills and a 2% to 9% improvement in DO below Old Hickory may be possible without significant spills. Results also showed that substantial increases in initial headwater elevations would be necessary to meet daily DO criteria and avoid spills. The optimal control theory algorithm used to solve the problem proved to be an efficient and robust solver of this large optimization problem

  2. Bed Degradation and Sediment Export from the Missouri River after Dam Construction and River Training: Significance to Lower Mississippi River Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M. D.; Viparelli, E.; Sulaiman, Z. A.; Pettit, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    More than 40,000 dams have been constructed in the Mississippi River drainage basin, which has had a dramatic impact on suspended sediment load for the Mississippi delta. The most significant dams were constructed in the 1950s on the Missouri River in South Dakota, after which total suspended loads for the lower Mississippi River, some 2500 km downstream, were cut in half: gauging station data from the Missouri-Mississippi system show significant load reductions immediately after dam closure, followed by a continued downward trend since that time. The delta region is experiencing tremendous land loss in response to acceleration of global sea-level rise, and load reductions of this magnitude may place severe limits on mitigation efforts. Here we examine sediment export from the Missouri system due to bed scour. The US Army Corps of Engineers has compiled changes in river stage at constant discharge for 8 stations between the lowermost dam at Yankton, South Dakota and the Missouri-Mississippi confluence at St. Louis (a distance of 1250 river km), for the period 1930-2010, which we have updated to 2015. These data show two general reaches of significant bed degradation. The first extends from the last major dam at Yankton, South Dakota downstream 300 km to Omaha, Nebraska, where degradation in response to the dam exceeds 3 m. The second reach, with >2.5 m of degradation, occurs in and around Kansas City, Missouri, and has been attributed to river training activities. The reach between Omaha and Kansas City, as well as the lower Missouri below Kansas City, show River due to bed scour following dam construction and river training. This number equates to 20-25 million tons per year, which is sufficient to account for 30% of the total Missouri River load, and 15% of the total post-dam annual sediment load for the lower Mississippi River. For perspective, the quantity of sediment exported from the Missouri River due to bed scour is greater than the total load for all

  3. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  4. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Contamination in Fish from Sites along the Elbe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maršálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate total mercury Hg and methylmercury MeHg contamination in muscle tissues of fish collected in 2002 from the Labe (Elbe river at sites upstream of Pardubice and downstream of Pardubice and Hřensko, and in 2004 from the Labe river upstream and downstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice, and from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. Eighty eight fish of the following species were sampled: bream (Abramis brama L., perch (Perca fluviatilis L., chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. and barbel (Barbus barbus L.. Total mercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.05 - 1.96 mg kg-1 w.w., 0. 09 - 1.46 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.35 - 0.82 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Methylmercury content in chub, perch and bream was in the range of 0.04 - 2.11 mg kg-1 w.w., 0.1 - 1.73 mg kg-1 w.w. and 0.371 - 0.650 mg kg-1 w.w., respectively. Significant correlation (p p < 0.05 between THg and MeHg contents were found between individual sites. In 2002, for example, the most contaminated fish were found downstream of Pardubice, followed by fish from upstream of Pardubice and from Hřensko. In 2004, fish from downstream and upstream of the Spolana factory in Neratovice were more contaminated than fish from the Vltava river downstream of Lenora. The methylmercury-tototal mercury ratio in muscle tissue was close to 1.0.

  5. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  6. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the study of a Nuclear Energy Center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The planning phase for the study of a conceptualized Regional Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Green River, Utah to serve a four state area is discussed and an outline of the proposed study is presented. It is assumed that the more technical issues of a NEC have already been studied in detail for generic sites and that this study will address the site specific impacts of a NEC at a representative site. The emphasis will be on the institutional, legal, political, sociological, economic and environmental impacts of a NEC. An assessment is made of the willingness and ability of related public and private entities to participate in the study. These include local, state and regional government agencies, colleges and universities, research organizations, private firms and consultants, and relevant federal agencies in Utah and the region.

  8. Efficiency of blue-green stormwater retrofits for flood mitigation - Conclusions drawn from a case study in Malmö, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatafshar, Salar; Nordlöf, Beatrice; Roldin, Maria; Gustafsson, Lars-Göran; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2018-02-01

    Coupled one-dimensional (1D) sewer and two-dimensional (2D) overland flow hydrodynamic models were constructed to evaluate the flood mitigation efficiency of a renowned blue-green stormwater retrofit, i.e. Augustenborg, in Malmö, Sweden. Simulation results showed that the blue-green stormwater systems were effective in controlling local surface flooding in inner-city catchments, having reduced the total flooded surfaces by about 70%. However, basement flooding could still be a potential problem depending on the magnitude of the inflows through combined sewer from upstream areas. Moreover, interactions between blue-green retrofits and the surrounding pipe-system were studied. It was observed that the blue-green retrofits reduced the peak flows by approximately 80% and levelled out the runoff. This is a substantial advantage for downstream pipe-bound catchments, as they do not receive a cloudburst-equivalent runoff from the retrofitted catchment, but a reduced flow corresponding to a much milder rainfall. Blue-green retrofits are more effective if primarily implemented in the upstream areas of a pipe-bound catchment since the resulting reduced runoff and levelled out discharge would benefit the entire network lying downstream. Implementing blue-green retrofits from upstream towards downstream can be considered as a sustainable approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  10. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  11. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  12. Magnetic properties of Surabaya river sediments, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyanto, Bijaksana, Satria

    2017-07-01

    Surabaya river is one of urban rivers in East Java Province, Indonesia that is a part of Brantas river that flows in four urban and industrial cities of Mojokerto, Gresik, Sidoarjo, and Surabaya. The urban populations and industries along the river pose serious threat to the river mainly for their anthropogenic pollutants. This study aims to characterize the magnetic properties of sediments in various locations along Surabaya river and correlate these magnetic properties to the level of pollution along the river. Samples are taken and measured through a series of magnetic measurements. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of sediments ranges from 259.4 to 1134.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1. The magnetic minerals are predominantly PSD to MD magnetite with the grain size range from 6 to 14 μm. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility tends to decreases downstream as accumulation of magnetic minerals in sediments is affected not only by the amount of household and industrial wastes but also by sediment dredging, construction of embankments, and extensive erosion arround the river. Sediments located in the industrial zone on the upstream area tend to have higher mass-specific magnetic susceptibility than in the non-industrial zones on the downstream area.

  13. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  14. Landuse Types within Channel Corridor and River Channel Morphology of River Ona, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutoyin Fashae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of river a corridor warrants a well thought out and balanced management approach because it helps in improving or maintaining water quality, protecting wetlands, etc. Hence, this study seeks to identify major landuse types within the River Ona Corridor; examine the impact of these landuse types within the River Ona corridor on its channel morphology and understand the risk being posed by these landuse types. The study is designed by selecting two reaches of six times the average width from each of the four major landuse types that exist along the river corridor. This study revealed that along the downstream section of Eleyele Dam of River Ona, natural forest stabilizes river channel banks, thereby presenting a narrow and shallow width and depth respectively but the widest of all is found at the agricultural zones.

  15. A green roof grant program for Washington DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) began its green roof demonstration project with $300,000 in funding provided by the DC Water and Sewer Authority. This paper reviewed the history of the project, its goals and early findings. The main objective was to demonstrate the technical, policy and economic feasibility of installing green roofs on commercial buildings in Washington DC and to promote green roofs as a means to manage storm water and improve water quality through the reduction of excessive runoff. The CBF has issued grants for the installation of 7 green roofs varying in size, design, location, and use. The projects included both new and existing structures designed to improve storm-water management in an urban area with significant pollution stress on the adjacent rivers. This paper provided technical, cost, and performance evaluations of each roof. A public outreach segment provided information to decision-makers to encourage more widespread replication of green roof technology throughout the metropolitan area. Much of the District of Columbia is served by a combined sewer system that becomes overloaded and discharges raw sewage into adjacent rivers during even moderately heavy rains. An average of 75 overflow events each year result in 1.5 billion gallons discharged into the Anacostia River. The installation of green roofs on buildings in the combined sewer area would retain storm water during these heavy rains and reduce the amount of overflow discharges. Apartments, as well as commercial and government buildings with mostly flat roofs are the most likely candidates for green roofs. The demonstration roofs are intended to become models, which all building owners could use as a guide for future plans for construction or re-construction to expand green roof coverage in Washington DC. It was emphasized that although such large-scale replication will take time and financial investments, it is achievable given enough political will and commercial awareness of

  16. Sediment size of surface floodplain sediments along a large lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K. M.; Day, G.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    Data on size distribution of surface sediment across a floodplain should place important constraints of modeling of floodplain deposition. Diffusive or advective models would predict that, generally, grain size should decrease away from channel banks. Variations in grain size downstream along floodplains may depend on downstream fining of river bed material, exchange rate with river banks and net deposition onto the floodplain. Here we report detailed grain size analyses taken from 17 floodplain transects along 450 km (along channel distance) reach of the middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea. Field studies have documented a systematic change in floodplain characteristics downstream from forested, more topographically elevated and topography bounded by an actively shifting mainstem channel to a downstream swamp grass, low elevation topography along which the river meanders are currently stagnant. Frequency and duration of flooding increase downstream. Flooding occurs both by overbank flows and by injections of floodwaters up tributary and tie channels connected to the mainstem. Previous studies show that about 40% of the total discharge of water passes across the floodplain, and, correspondingly, about 40% of the total load is deposited on the plain - decreasing exponentially from channel bank. We find that floodplain sediment is most sandy at the channel bank. Grain size rapidly declines away from the bank, but surprisingly two trends were also observed. A relatively short distance from the bank the surface material is finest, but with further distance from the bank (out to greater than 1 km from the 250 m wide channel) clay content decreases and silt content increases. The changes are small but repeated at most of the transects. The second trend is that bank material fines downstream, corresponding to a downstream finding bed material, but once away from the bank, there is a weak tendency for a given distance away from the bank the floodplain surface deposits to

  17. Coupling legacy geomorphic surface facies to riparian vegetation: Assessing red cedar invasion along the Missouri River downstream of Gavins Point dam, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samantha L.; Knox, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Floods increase fluvial complexity by eroding established surfaces and creating new alluvial surfaces. As dams regulate channel flow, fluvial complexity often decreases and the hydro-eco-geomorphology of the riparian habitat changes. Along the Missouri River, flow regulation resulted in channel incision of 1-3 m within the study area and disconnected the pre-dam floodplain from the channel. Evidence of fluvial complexity along the pre-dam Missouri River floodplain can be observed through the diverse depositional environments represented by areas of varying soil texture. This study evaluates the role of flow regulation and depositional environment along the Missouri River in the riparian invasion of red cedar downstream of Gavins Point dam, the final dam on the Missouri River. We determine whether invasion began before or after flow regulation, determine patterns of invasion using Bayesian t-tests, and construct a Bayesian multivariate linear model of invaded surfaces. We surveyed 59 plots from 14 riparian cottonwood stands for tree age, plot composition, plot stem density, and soil texture. Red cedars existed along the floodplain prior to regulation, but at a much lower density than today. We found 2 out of 565 red cedars established prior to regulation. Our interpretation of depositional environments shows that the coarser, sandy soils reflect higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces that were geomorphically active islands and point bars prior to flow regulation and channel incision. The finer, clayey soils represent lower energy depositional pre-dam surfaces, such as swales or oxbow depressions. When determining patterns of invasion for use in a predictive statistical model, we found that red cedar primarily establishes on the higher energy depositional pre-dam surfaces. In addition, as cottonwood age and density decrease, red cedar density tends to increase. Our findings indicate that flow regulation caused hydrogeomorphic changes within the study area that

  18. A study on the applicability of the ecosystem model on water quality prediction in urban river outer moats of Yedo Castle, Nihonbashi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Daiki; Tsushima, Yuki; Ohdaira, Kazunori; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study is to elucidate the waterside environment in the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the downstream of Nihonbashi River in Tokyo. Scince integrated sewage system has been installed in the area around the outer moats of Yedo Castle and the Nihon River basin, when rainfall exceeds more than the sewage treatment capacity, overflowed untreated wastewater is released into the moats and the river. Because the moats is a closed water body, pollutants are deposited to the bottom without outflowing. While reeking offensive odors due to the decomposition, blue-green algae outbreaks affected by the residence time and eluted nutrient causes problems. Scince the Nihonbashi River is a typical tidal river in urban area, the water pollution problems in the river is complicated. This study clarified the characteristics of the water quality in terms of dissolved oxygen saturation through on-site observations. In particular, dissolved oxygen saturation in summer, it is clarified that variations from a supersaturated state due to the variations of horizontal insolation intensity and water temperature up to hypoxic water conditions in the moats. According to previous studies on the water quality of Nihonbashi River, it is clarified that there are three types of variations of dissolved oxygen which desided by rainfall scale. The mean value of dissolved oxygen saturation of all layers has decreased by about 20% at the spring tide after dredging, then it recoveres gradually and become the value before dredging during about a year. Further more, in places where sewage inflows, it is important to developed a ecosystem medel and the applicability of the model. 9 variables including cell quota (intracellular nutrients of phytoplankton) of phosphorus and nitrogen with considerring the nitrification of ammonia nitrogen are used in the model. This model can grasp the sections (such as oxygen production by photosynthesis of phytoplankton, oxygen consumption by respiration of

  19. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  20. Geomorphic Drainage Capture Recorded by Oxygen Isotopes of Green River Formation Lacustrine Mudstone, Eocene, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebbert, A. C.; Booth, A. L.; Carroll, A.; Chamberlain, C.; Rhodes, M.

    2005-12-01

    The isotopic composition of cement and other meteoric precipitates are increasingly being used to interpret orogenic uplift histories, based on the relationship between altitude and rainwater δ18O. However, other variables such as changing regional drainage patterns may also affect the downstream composition of surface waters, especially when multiple drainages commingle in a lake. The Green River Formation contains some of the best documented lacustrine deposits in the world, making it ideal for examining such issues. Carbonate mudstone in balanced-fill facies of the lower LaClede Bed averages 3.41‰ (PDB), and records a deep, saline to brackish lake that fluctuated near its sill. In contrast, overfilled facies of the upper LaClede Bed record a freshwater lake, and δ18O reaches values as low as -9.72‰. This transition occurred shortly after deposition of the Analcite Tuff at 48.94 ± 0.12 Ma (Smith et al., 2003), and was geologically abrupt. Based on 40Ar/39Ar-calibrated sediment accumulation rates it required no more than 200-300 ky. An almost identical transition occurs in two cores separated by about 30 km, making local diagenesis an unlikely cause. The magnitude of δ18O change is similar to that in some uplift studies, but its rapidity virtually excludes uplift as a controlling mechanism. Instead, we propose that both the change in sedimentation and the sharp decrease in δ18O are the result of a drainage capture event. The addition of a new drainage to the basin may have adjusted isotopic values in two ways: by introducing runoff with relatively low δ18O, and by decreasing residence time (and therefore evaporation) of lake water. Decreasing 87Sr/86Sr across the same transition suggests that the newly added waters may have been sourced from rising volcanic topography to the north in the Absaroka province. Although this rising topography allows for the possibility of some uplift component, the rate of change in lacustrine δ18O is consistent with

  1. What factors drive fishery yields in the Lower Shire River, Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Shire River drains from Lake Malawi to the Lower Zambezi River. Annual flow is dependent mainly on lake level, partially controlled by the operation of a barrage at Liwonde to regulate flows for hydroelectricity generation in the escarpment reaches of the river. Downstream of the escarpment, the floodplains of the ...

  2. Aquatic emergency response model at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant emergency response plans include a stream/river emergency response model to predict travel times, maximum concentrations, and concentration distributions as a function of time at selected downstream/river locations from each of the major SRP installations. The menu driven model can be operated from any of the terminals that are linked to the real-time computer monitoring system for emergency response

  3. History of river regulation of the Noce River (NE Italy) and related bio-morphodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlet, Alyssa; Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Proto, Matteo; Zen, Simone; Zolezzi, Guido; Bertoldi, Walter; Comiti, Francesco; Prà, Elena Dai; Surian, Nicola; Gurnell, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Noce River is a hydropower-regulated Alpine stream in Northern-East Italy and a major tributary of the Adige River, the second longest Italian river. The objective of the research is to investigate the response of the lower course of the Noce to two main stages of hydromorphological regulation; channelization/ diversion and, one century later, hydropower regulation. This research uses a historical reconstruction to link the geomorphic response with natural and human-induced factors by identifying morphological and vegetation features from historical maps and airborne photogrammetry and implementing a quantitative analysis of the river response to channelization and flow / sediment supply regulation related to hydropower development. A descriptive overview is presented. The concept of evolutionary trajectory is integrated with predictions from morphodynamic theories for river bars that allow increased insight to investigate the river response to a complex sequence of regulatory events such as development of bars, islands and riparian vegetation. Until the mid-19th century the river had a multi-thread channel pattern. Thereafter (1852) the river was straightened and diverted. Upstream of Mezzolombardo village the river was constrained between embankments of approximately 100 m width while downstream they are of approximately 50 m width. Since channelization some interesting geomorphic changes have appeared in the river e.g. the appearance of alternate bars in the channel. In 1926 there was a breach in the right bank of the downstream part that resulted in a multi-thread river reach which can be viewed as a recovery to the earlier multi-thread pattern. After the 1950's the flow and sediment supply became strongly regulated by hydropower development. The analysis of aerial images reveals that the multi-thread reach became progressively stabilized by vegetation development over the bars, though signs of some dynamics can still be recognizable today, despite the

  4. Migration and spawning of radio-tagged zulega Prochilodus argenteus in a dammed Brazilian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult for agencies to evaluate the impacts of the many planned dams on Sa??o Francisco River, Brazil, migratory fishes because fish migrations are poorly known. We conducted a study on zulega Prochilodus argenteus, an important commercial and recreational fish in the Sa??o Francisco River, to identify migrations and spawning areas and to determine linear home range. During two spawning seasons (2001-2003), we radio-tagged fish in three main-stem reaches downstream of Tre??s Marias Dam (TMD), located at river kilometer (rkm) 2,109. We tagged 10 fish at Tre??s Marias (TM), which is 5 km downstream of TMD; 12 fish at Pontal, which is 28 km downstream of TMD and which includes the mouth of the Abaete?? River, and 10 fish at Cilga, which is 45 km downstream of TMD. Late-stage (ripe) adults tagged in each area during the spawning season remained at or near the tagging site, except for four Cilga fish that went to Pontal and probably spawned. The Pontal area at the Abaete?? River mouth was the most important spawning site we found. Prespawning fish moved back and forth between main-stem staging areas upstream of the Abaete?? River mouth and Pontal for short visits. These multiple visits were probably needed as ripe fish waited for spawning cues from a flooding Abaete?? River. Some fish homed to prespaw ning staging areas, spawning areas, and nonspawning areas. The migratory style of zulega was dualistic, with resident and migratory fish. Total linear home range was also dualistic, with small (<26-km) and large (53-127-km) ranges. The locations of spawning areas and home ranges suggest that the Pontal group (which includes Cilga fish) is one population that occupies about 110 km. The Pontal population overlaps a short distance with a population located downstream of Cilga. Movements of late-stage TM adults suggest that the TM group is a separate population, possibly with connections to populations upstream of TMD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society

  5. Amazon River carbon dioxide outgassing fuelled by wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C; Savoye, Nicolas; Deborde, Jonathan; Souza, Edivaldo Lima; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F; Roland, Fabio

    2014-01-16

    River systems connect the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the ocean in the global carbon cycle. A recent estimate suggests that up to 3 petagrams of carbon per year could be emitted as carbon dioxide (CO2) from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon that has been previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis, then transferred to soils, and subsequently transported downstream in run-off. But at the scale of entire drainage basins, the lateral carbon fluxes carried by small rivers upstream do not account for all of the CO2 emitted from inundated areas downstream. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land consists of temporary wetlands, but the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Here we show that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters in the floodplains of the central Amazon. Flooded forests and floating vegetation export large amounts of carbon to river waters and the dissolved CO2 can be transported dozens to hundreds of kilometres downstream before being emitted. We estimate that Amazonian wetlands export half of their gross primary production to river waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared with only a few per cent of gross primary production exported in upland (not flooded) ecosystems. Moreover, we suggest that wetland carbon export is potentially large enough to account for at least the 0.21 petagrams of carbon emitted per year as CO2 from the central Amazon River and its floodplains. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, because these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with large, fast carbon export, potentially supporting a substantial fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  6. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    .... approximately 1.1 mile upstream of the confluence with Green River Lake. Snake Creek (backwater effects from... Mason Road. Pine Run Approximately 400 feet +752 City of Mason. downstream of Kings Mill Road...

  7. The 2-3 November 2015 flood of the Sió River (NE Iberian Peninsula): a flash flood that turns into a mudflow downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles Balasch Solanes, Josep; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Rodríguez, Rafael; Tuset, Jordi; Castelltort, Xavier; Barriendos, Mariano; Pino, David; Mazón, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical and recent evidence shows that many floods in the interior of Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) usually have such a great sediment load that can even alter the hydraulic behaviour of the flow. This is especially true in catchments with a great proportion of agricultural soils, which are the main source of sediment. The night of 2-3 November 2015 torrential rains fell on the headwaters of the Sió River catchment (508 km2); the subsequent flood caused four deaths and many damages along the stream. The hydrological, hydraulic and sedimentary characteristics of this recent flood have been analysed in order to gain a better insight on the characteristics of the major historical floods in the same catchment. The rainfall height on the headwaters was between 139 and 146 mm in ten hours, with a maximum intensity of about 50 mm·h-1. In the rest of the catchment it rained much less (22-71 mm). The agricultural soils in the headwaters show evidence of intense erosion by laminar and concentrated Hortonian overland flow in their superficial layer (Ap1; 10 cm), which uncovered the more compact underlying layer (Ap2). The peak flow in the headwaters (Oluges) was 90 m3·s-1 (that is, a specific peak flow near 1 m3·s-1·km-2) and it diminished downstream: 40 m3·s-1 in the centre of the catchment (Oluges + 27 km) and 15 m3·s-1 in the outlet (Oluges + 54 km). The suspended sediment load was 10-15% in volume in the headwaters and, judging from recorded images and eyewitnesses, it increased as the flow moved downstream, turning the flash flood into a mudflow. This concentration gain was most probably caused by the flood wave's water loss due to the dryness of the riverbed and translated in an increased viscosity that ultimately altered the hydraulic behaviour of the flow, slowing it down. This process of water loss has been observed in flash floods in dry riverbeds in arid and semiarid areas such as Negev (Israel) and Atacama (Chile). Historical floods in neighbouring

  8. Birds of Mahi River estuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Pandya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mahi river estuary is one of the major estuaries of Gujarat. This paper presents a comprehensive list of birds of the Mahi river estuary (nearly 50 km stretch and the adjacent banks/ravines and defines the avian diversity at three major estuarine gradations with a brief check of similarity and diversity within the three. The present observation is the outcome of a 3 year period from August 2006 to July 2009. A sum total of 118 species belonging to 42 families were reported and listed as on Upstream, Midstream, and Downstream of estuary. No significant difference was seen in the species richness at the three zones; a change in avian composition at upstream and downstream was notable.

  9. Precipitation Reconstructions and Periods of Drought in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follum, M.; Barnett, A.; Bellamy, J.; Gray, S.; Tootle, G.

    2008-12-01

    Due to recent drought and stress on water supplies in the Colorado River Compact States, more emphasis has been placed on the study of water resources in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The research described here focuses on the creation of long-duration precipitation records for the UGRB using tree-ring chronologies. When combined with existing proxy streamflow reconstructions and drought frequency analysis, these records offer a detailed look at hydrologic variability in the UGRB. Approximately thirty-three existing tree ring chronologies were analyzed for the UGRB area. Several new tree ring chronologies were also developed to enhance the accuracy and the geographical diversity of the resulting tree-ring reconstructions. In total, three new Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and four new limber pine (Pinus flexilis) sites were added to the available tree-ring chronologies in this area. Tree-ring based reconstructions of annual (previous July through current June) precipitation were then created for each of the seventeen sub-watersheds in the UGRB. Reconstructed precipitation records extend back to at least 1654 AD, with reconstructions for some sub-basins beginning pre-1500. Variance explained (i.e. adjusted R2) ranged from 0.41 to 0.74, and the reconstructions performed well in a variety of verification tests. Additional analyses focused on stochastic estimation of drought frequency and return period, and detailed comparisons between reconstructed records and instrumental observations. Overall, this work points to the prevalence of severe, widespread drought in the UGRB. These analyses also highlight the relative wetness and lack of sustained dry periods during the instrumental period (1895-Present). Such long- term assessments are, in turn, vital tools as the Compact States contemplate the "Law of the River" in the face of climate change and ever-growing water demands.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  11. Fine Sediment Input and Benthic Fauna Interactions at the Confluence of Two Large Rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettler, M. C. M.; Amsler, M. L.; Ezcurra De Drago, I.; Drago, E.; Paira, A.; Espinola, L. A.; Eberle, E.; Szupiany, R.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that invertebrate abundance and richness are disrupted and reset at confluences. Thus, junctions contribute disproportionately to the overall aquatic biodiversity of the river. In general terms, authors have reported high abundance and diversity due to the major physical heterogeneity at junctions. However, data are still scarce and uncertainties are plentiful. The impact of a great input of fine sediments on the distribution patterns of benthic invertebrates at a river confluence was quantitatively analyzed herein. The junction of the subtropical Bermejo River (high suspended sediment load) with the large Paraguay River is the selected study area to achieve this aim. While diversity increased slightly downstream the junction (from 0.21 to 0.36), density and richness of the macro invertebrate assemblage significantly diminished downstream the confluence (from 29050 to 410 ind/m2; p< 0.05) due to the input of fine sediment from the Bermejo River (mean fine sediment increased downstream from 6.3 to 10.2 mg/L), causing a negatively impact on invertebrate assemblage. This study highlights the ecological importance of the sediment input effects on benthic invertebrates, a topic still poorly explored in river ecology. It is speculated that the spatial extent of the impact would be dependent upon the hydrological and sedimentological context, highly unequal between both rivers. New hypotheses should be tested through new studies considering different hydrological stages.

  12. River system recovery following the Novat-Rosu tailings dam failure, Maramures County, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela; Driga, Basarab; Zaharia, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    The River Viseu catchment in Maramures County, northwestern Romania, has a long history of base and precious metal mining. Between 1994 and 2003 waste from mining activity at Baia Borsa was stored in the Novat-Rosu tailings pond in the upper Viseu catchment. However, in March 2000, the tailings dam failed releasing approximately 100,000 m 3 of contaminated water and 20,000 t of mineral-rich solid waste, which was routed downstream through the Rivers Novat, Vaser and Viseu into the River Tisa. Following the accident metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in river water and river channel sediment were assessed in samples collected annually (July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003) from 29 sites in the Viseu catchment, downstream of the tailings pond. Additionally, the speciation of sediment-associated metals was established using a 4-stage sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and Pb isotope analysis ( 206/204 Pb and 207/204 Pb) was carried out to establish the provenance of contaminated sediments. Metal concentrations in river water were found to comply with EU directive 'target' values within four months of the failure. However, the impact of the spill upon river channel sediments was found to be much longer-lasting, with evidence of the delayed downstream remobilization of tailings stored within the narrow Novat valley following the dam failure, as well as continued inputs of contaminated sediment to the River Viseu from the River Tisla, another mining-affected tributary. Comparison with data from other recent tailings dam failures, indicates that river system recovery rates depend upon local geomorphological conditions, hydrological regimes, and the nature and scale of post-spill clean-up operations

  13. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya; Molson, John; Schirmer, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ 18 O-H 2 O) as well as those of nitrate (δ 15 N-NO 3 − and δ 18 O-NO 3 − ) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological processes that control the diurnal

  14. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flume experiments on scour downstream of wood stream restoration structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin Mahmoudi

    2017-02-01

    River restoration aims to improve physical natural form and processes of a river. Techniques to control the riverbed, stabilize channel alignment, protect stream banks, and rebuild the natural habitat are an important part of river restoration projects. Rivers can be stabilized and habitat restored through techniques such as rebuilding meanders and pool-riffle sequences and managing large wood. Structures that limit channel width to accelerate the normal flows through the constricted section are referred to as stream deflectors. Single-wing, double-wing and triangular deflectors are the most commonly used types of this measure. Log-frame deflectors consist of a triangular log frame filled with rock. Deflector constructions singly or in series in low gradient meandering streams, divert base flows toward the center of the channel and, under certain conditions, increase the depth and velocity of flow thereby creating scour pools and enhancing fish habitat. Scour characteristics and morphologies downstream of log-frame deflectors have been analyzed at the hydraulic laboratory of the University of Pisa. All experiments have been carried out in clear water conditions. The results showed that the tailwater depth plays an important role on scour characteristics. In addition, it was experimentally proven that using log-frame deflectors instead of log-deflectors result in a better river bank protection. In this case, for all the tested hydraulic conditions, the scour hole never occurred close to the channel bank. Useful empirical relationships have been proposed in order to evaluate the main features of the scour geometry.

  16. How downstream sub-basins depend on upstream inflows to avoid scarcity: typology and global analysis of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti

    2018-05-01

    Countries sharing river basins are often dependent upon water originating outside their boundaries; meaning that without that upstream water, water scarcity may occur with flow-on implications for water use and management. We develop a formalisation of this concept drawing on ideas about the transition between regimes from resilience literature, using water stress and water shortage as indicators of water scarcity. In our analytical framework, dependency occurs if water from upstream is needed to avoid scarcity. This can be diagnosed by comparing different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies, in particular local runoff and upstream inflows. At the same time, possible upstream water withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter water availability. By developing a framework of scarcity and dependency, we contribute to the understanding of transitions between system regimes. We apply our analytical framework to global transboundary river basins at the scale of sub-basin areas (SBAs). Our results show that 1175 million people live under water stress (42 % of the total transboundary population). Surprisingly, the majority (1150 million) of these currently suffer from stress only due to their own excessive water use and possible water from upstream does not have impact on the stress status - i.e. they are not yet dependent on upstream water to avoid stress - but could still impact on the intensity of the stress. At the same time, 386 million people (14 %) live in SBAs that can avoid stress owing to available water from upstream and have thus upstream dependency. In the case of water shortage, 306 million people (11 %) live in SBAs dependent on upstream water to avoid possible shortage. The identification of transitions between system regimes sheds light on how SBAs may be affected in the future, potentially contributing to further refined analysis of inter- and intrabasin hydro-political power relations and strategic planning

  17. Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project, Florida, USA: impacts of construction on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, David J; Jones, Bradley L

    2005-03-01

    Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project included backfilling of 12 km of canal and restoring flow through 24 km of continuous river channel. We quantified the effects of construction activities on four water quality parameters (turbidity, total phosphorus flow-weighted concentration, total phosphorus load and dissolved oxygen concentration). Data were collected at stations upstream and downstream of the construction and at four stations within the construction zone to determine if canal backfilling and construction of 2.4 km of new river channel would negatively impact local and downstream water quality. Turbidity levels at the downstream station were elevated for approximately 2 weeks during the one and a half year construction period, but never exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection construction permit criteria. Turbidity levels at stations within the construction zone were high at certain times. Flow-weighted concentration of total phosphorus at the downstream station was slightly higher than the upstream station during construction, but low discharge limited downstream transport of phosphorus. Total phosphorus loads at the upstream and downstream stations were similar and loading to Lake Okeechobee was not significantly affected by construction. Mean water column dissolved oxygen concentrations at all sampling stations were similar during construction.

  18. Downstream effects of hydropower production on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two rivers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Ulloa, Ramsa; Umaña-Villalobos, Gerardo; Springer, Monika

    2014-04-01

    Despite the fact that little is known about the consequences of hydropower production in tropical areas, many large dams (> 15 m high) are currently under construction or consideration in the tropics. We researched the effects of large hydroelectric dams on aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in two Costa Rican rivers. We measured physicochemical characteristics and sampled aquatic macroinvertebrates from March 2003 to March 2004 in two dammed rivers, Peñas Blancas and San Lorenzo, as well as in the undammed Chachagua River. Sites above and below the dam had differences in their physicochemical variables, with wide variation and extreme values in variables measured below the dam in the San Lorenzo River. Sites below the dams had reduced water discharges, velocities, and depths when compared with sites above the dams, as well as higher temperatures and conductivity. Sites above dams were dominated by collector-gatherer-scrapers and habitat groups dominated by swimmer-clingers, while sites below dams had a more even representation of groups. In contrast, a comparison between two sites at different elevation in the undammed river maintained a similar assemblage composition. Tributaries might facilitate macroinvertebrate recovery above the turbine house, but the assemblage below the turbine house resembled the one below the dam. A massive sediment release event from the dam decreased the abundance per sample and macroinvertebrate taxa below the dam in the Peñas Blancas River. Our study illustrates the effects of hydropower production on neotropical rivers, highlighting the importance of using multiple measures of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure for assessing this type of environmental impact.

  19. Modifications to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Modifications to the water resources protection strategy detailed in the remedial action plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site are presented. The modifications are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The modifications will result in compliance with the U.S. EPA proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987))

  20. The Impact of Impoundment on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Fish Downstream from a Newly Constructed Reservoir, Wujiang River, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixin; Zhou, Lianfeng; Chang, Jianbo; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Juxiang; Hongjun, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Mercury concentrations in fish were investigated downstream from a newly impounded subtropical reservoir in August 2008. After 6-7 months of reservoir impoundment, mean mercury concentration in fish from downstream is significantly increased by 1.9 times. Not only carnivorous fish but also benthic fish had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than others. No significant correlation was found between total mercury concentrations and body length or weight of 13 fish species. Compared with the pre-impoundment, total mercury in fish from downstream is significantly increased by reservoir impoundment, but the increased rate is lower than those in subarctic and temperate areas. Fish samples surpassed the Chinese hygienic standard for tolerances of mercury in foods increased by 4.3%. More attention should be given to fish mercury levels from downstream sites to prevent possible adverse effects on the health of local people.

  1. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  2. Anticipated sediment delivery to the lower Elwha River during and following dam removal: Chapter 2 in Coastal habitats of the Elwha River, Washington--biological and physical patterns and processes prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    During and after the planned incremental removal of two large, century-old concrete dams between 2011 and 2014, the sediment-transport regime in the lower Elwha River of western Washington will initially spike above background levels and then return to pre-dam conditions some years after complete dam removal. Measurements indicate the upper reaches of the steep-gradient Elwha River, draining the northeast section of the Olympic Mountains, carries between an estimated 120,000 and 290,000 cubic meters of sediment annually. This large load has deposited an estimated 19 million cubic meters of sediment within the two reservoirs formed by the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams. It is anticipated that from 7 to 8 million cubic meters of this trapped sediment will mobilize and transport downstream during and after dam decommissioning, restoring the downstream sections of the sediment-starved river and nearshore marine environments. Downstream transport of sediment from the dam sites will have significant effects on channel morphology, water quality, and aquatic habitat during and after dam removal. Sediment concentrations are expected to be between 200 and 1,000 milligrams per liter during and just after dam removal and could rise to as much as 50,000 milligrams per liter during high flows. Downstream sedimentation in the river channel and flood plain will be potentially large, particularly in the lower Elwha River, an alluvial reach with a wide flood plain. Overall aggradation could be as much as one to several meters. Not all reservoir sediment, however, will be released to the river. Some material will remain on hill slopes and flood plains within the drained reservoirs in quantities that will depend on the hydrology, precipitation, and mechanics of the incising channel. Eventually, vegetation will stabilize this remaining reservoir sediment, and the overall sediment load in the restored river will return to pre-dam levels.

  3. The effects of overwinter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A.K.; LaGory, K.E.; Hayse, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: (ge)400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  4. Individual and population dose to users of the Savannah River following K-Reactor tritium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 5700 curies of tritium were released to Pen Branch between December 22, 1991 and December 25, 1991. As expected, the tritiated water traveled through the Savannah River swamp to Steel Creek and the Savannah River. Elevated tritium concentrations in the river at Becks Ferry (Beaufort-Jasper) and Abercorn Creek (Port Wentworth) has caused some concern among downstream water users as to the amount of tritium available for uptake through the domestic drinking water supplies at the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment facilities. Radiation dose to the downstream drinking water population is estimated in this report

  5. Radium-228 and -226 levels in a river environment and its modification by human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Londhe, V.S.; Pillai, K.C.

    1978-01-01

    The river Periyar is of prime importance in the economy of Kerala State due to the anifold utility of its waters. Consistently high background levels of radium-228 in the river water amounting to 10% of (MPC)sub(w) during the peak and lean flow periods suggest geochemical transport from the drainage areas. Industrial discharges enhance Ra levels by an order of magnitude in downstream locations. Monazite and rockp2hosphate processes, predominently contributing radium-228 and radium-226 respectively, change the nuclide ratio in the river environment due to differential inputs. Contribution of radium-226 through liquid effluents to the river from either process is of the same order of magnitude which together account for only 5% of the process output, the remaining 95%, held in the fertilizer sludges of CaCO 3 /CaCO 4 , disposed off on land, is a potential source of this activity in the environment. River bed sediments carrying bulk of Ra get displaced to backwaters where partial solubilisation takes place due to monsoon flushes. Uptake of Ra by fish in industrial and downstream locations in the river were evident. Analysis of paddy indicates higher uptake by soil and hay due to irrigation by river water drawn from downstream and marginal increase of activity in the fertilizer applied field. (author)

  6. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual

  7. Sediment transport and deposition in the lower Missouri River during the 2011 flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Rus, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Floodwater in the Missouri River in 2011 originated in upper-basin regions and tributaries, and then travelled through a series of large flood-control reservoirs, setting records for total runoff volume entering all six Missouri River main-stem reservoirs. The flooding lasted as long as 3 months. The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) examined sediment transport and deposition in the lower Missouri River in 2011 to investigate how the geography of floodwater sources, in particular the decanting effects of the Missouri River main-stem reservoir system, coupled with the longitudinal characteristics of civil infrastructure and valley-bottom topography, affected sediment transport and deposition in this large, regulated river system. During the flood conditions in 2011, the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored suspended-sediment transport at six primary streamgages along the length of the lower Missouri River. Measured suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in the lower Missouri River varied from approximately 150 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 2,000 mg/L from January 1 to September 30, 2011. Median SSC increased in the downstream direction from 355 mg/L at Sioux City, Iowa, to 490 mg/L at Hermann, Missouri. The highest SSCs were measured downstream from Omaha, Nebraska, in late February when snowmelt runoff from tributaries, which were draining zones of high-sediment production, was entering the lower Missouri River, and releases of water at Gavins Point Dam were small. The combination of dilute releases of water at Gavins Point Dam and low streamflows in lower Missouri River tributaries caused sustained lowering of SSC at all streamgages from early July through late August. Suspended-sediment ranged from 5 percent washload (PW; percent silt and clay) to as much as 98 percent in the lower Missouri River from January 1 to September 30, 2011. Median PW increased in the downstream direction from 24 percent at Sioux City, Iowa, to 78 percent at

  8. Assessment of dissolved-solids loading to the Colorado River in the Paradox Basin between the Dolores River and Gypsum Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Christopher L.; Gerner, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity loads throughout the Colorado River Basin have been a concern over recent decades due to adverse impacts on population, natural resources, and regional economics. With substantial financial resources and various reclamation projects, the salt loading to Lake Powell and associated total dissolved-solids concentrations in the Lower Colorado River Basin have been substantially reduced. The Colorado River between its confluence with the Dolores River and Lake Powell traverses a physiographic area where saline sedimentary formations and evaporite deposits are prevalent. However, the dissolved-solids loading in this area is poorly understood due to the paucity of water-quality data. From 2003 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation conducted four synoptic sampling events to quantify the salinity loading throughout the study reach and evaluate the occurrence and impacts of both natural and anthropogenic sources. The results from this study indicate that under late-summer base-flow conditions, dissolved-solids loading in the reach is negligible with the exception of the Green River, and that variations in calculated loads between synoptic sampling events are within measurement and analytical uncertainties. The Green River contributed approximately 22 percent of the Colorado River dissolved-solids load, based on samples collected at the lower end of the study reach. These conclusions are supported by water-quality analyses for chloride and bromide, and the results of analyses for the stable isotopes of oxygen and deuterium. Overall, no significant sources of dissolved-solids loading from tributaries or directly by groundwater discharge, with the exception of the Green River, were identified in the study area.

  9. Macroinvertebrate diversity in the karst Jadro River (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađa Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of 10 years of investigation of the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna along the karst Jadro River. The Jadro is a typical karst river. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected along the river at 15 sites by standard methods of sampling, in addition to which several physicochemical parameters were also determined. Based on qualitative and quantitative composition of the macroinvertebrate fauna, correspondence analysis divided the river course into three sections: upstream, midcourse, and downstream. Forty-three taxa were recorded. Results of saprobiological analysis based on macrozoobenthos indicate that water of the Jadro River belongs to quality classes I and II.

  10. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement

  11. An Evaluation of River Health for the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxi Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive socioeconomic activities in the Weihe River region have caused severe ecosystem degradation, and the call for the recovery and maintenance of the river health has drawn great attention. Based on the connotation of river health, previous research findings, and status quo of the Weihe River ecosystem, in this study, we developed a novel health evaluation index system to quantitatively determine the health of the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province. The river in the study area was divided into five reaches based on the five hydrological gauging stations, and appropriate evaluation indices for each river section were selected according to the ecological environmental functions of that section. A hybrid approach integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP and a fuzzy synthetic evaluation method was applied to measure the river health. The results show that Linjiancun-Weijiabao reach and Weijiabao-Xianyang reach are in the “moderate” level of health and Lintong-Huaxian reach and downstream of Huaxian reach are in the “poor” health rating, whereas Xianyang-Lintong reach is in the “sick” rating. Moreover, the most sensitive factors were determined, respectively, for each reach from upper stream to lower stream in the study area.

  12. How river rocks round: resolving the shape-size paradox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Domokos

    Full Text Available River-bed sediments display two universal downstream trends: fining, in which particle size decreases; and rounding, where pebble shapes evolve toward ellipsoids. Rounding is known to result from transport-induced abrasion; however many researchers argue that the contribution of abrasion to downstream fining is negligible. This presents a paradox: downstream shape change indicates substantial abrasion, while size change apparently rules it out. Here we use laboratory experiments and numerical modeling to show quantitatively that pebble abrasion is a curvature-driven flow problem. As a consequence, abrasion occurs in two well-separated phases: first, pebble edges rapidly round without any change in axis dimensions until the shape becomes entirely convex; and second, axis dimensions are then slowly reduced while the particle remains convex. Explicit study of pebble shape evolution helps resolve the shape-size paradox by reconciling discrepancies between laboratory and field studies, and enhances our ability to decipher the transport history of a river rock.

  13. Status and trends of the rainbow trout population in the Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 1991–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River, a 25-kilometer segment of river located immediately downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, has contained a nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery since it was first stocked in 1964. The fishery has evolved over time in response to changes in dam operations and fish management. Long-term monitoring of the rainbow trout population downstream of Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A standardized sampling design was implemented in 1991 and has changed several times in response to independent, external scientific-review recommendations and budget constraints. Population metrics (catch per unit effort, proportional stock density, and relative condition) were estimated from 1991 to 2009 by combining data collected at fixed sampling sites during this time period and at random sampling sites from 2002 to 2009. The validity of combining population metrics for data collected at fixed and random sites was confirmed by a one-way analysis of variance by fish-length class size. Analysis of the rainbow trout population metrics from 1991 to 2009 showed that the abundance of rainbow trout increased from 1991 to 1997, following implementation of a more steady flow regime, but declined from about 2000 to 2007. Abundance in 2008 and 2009 was high compared to previous years, which was likely the result of increased early survival caused by improved habitat conditions following the 2008 high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam. Proportional stock density declined between 1991 and 2006, reflecting increased natural reproduction and large numbers of small fish in samples. Since 2001, the proportional stock density has been relatively stable. Relative condition varied with size class of rainbow trout but has been relatively stable since 1991 for fish smaller than 152 millimeters (mm), except for a substantial decrease in 2009. Relative condition was more variable for larger

  14. Mercury biogeochemistry in the Idrija River, Slovenia, from above the mine into the Gulf of Trieste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, M.E.; Horvat, M.; Faganeli, J.; Bonzongo, J.-C.J.; Barkay, T.; Major, E.B.; Scott, K.J.; Bailey, E.A.; Warwick, J.J.; Lyons, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Idrija Mine is the second largest Hg mine in the world which operated for 500 years. Mercury (Hg)-laden tailings still line the banks, and the system is a threat to the Idrija River and water bodies downstream including the Soca/Isonzo River and the Gulf of Trieste in the northern Adriatic Sea. A multidisciplinary study was conducted in June 1998 on water samples collected throughout the Idrija and Soca River systems and waters and sediments in the Gulf. Total Hg in the Idrija River increased >20-fold downstream of the mine from 60 ng liter-1 with methyl mercury (MeHg) accounting for ~0.5%. Concentrations increased again downstream and into the estuary with MeHg accounting for nearly 1.5% of the total. While bacteria upstream of the mine did not contain mercury detoxification genes (mer), such genes were detected in bacteria collected downstream. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity decreased downstream of the mine. Gulf waters near the river mouth contained up to 65 ng liter-1 total Hg with ~0.05 ng liter-1 MeHg. Gulf sediments near the river mouth contained 40 ??g g-1 total Hg with MeHg concentrations of about 3 ng g-1. Hg in sediment pore waters varied between 1 and 8 ng liter-1, with MeHg accounting for up to 85%. Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation were active in Gulf sediments with highest activities near the surface. MeHg was degraded by an oxidative pathway with >97% C released from MeHg as CO2. Hg methylation depth profiles resembled profiles of dissolved MeHg. Hg-laden waters still strongly impact the riverine, estuarine, and marine systems. Macroinvertebrates and bacteria in the Idrija River responded to Hg stress, and high Hg levels persist into the Gulf. Increases in total Hg and MeHg in the estuary demonstrate the remobilization of Hg, presumably as HgS dissolution and recycling. Gulf sediments actively produce MeHg, which enters bottom waters and presumably the marine food chain. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

  15. Developing strategic planning of green supply chain in refinery CPO company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, J.; Mumtaz, G.; Hasibuan, S.

    2018-02-01

    We are conducted a research at the company of the manufacturing CPO into cooking oil, margarine and materials of oleochemical industries. Today palm oil based industries are facing global challenges related to environmental issues. To against these challenges, it is necessary to have an environmentally friendly supply chain. However, the limited resource owned by the company requires the integrated environmental strategy with the company’s business strategy. The model is developed based on management orientation towards external pressure, internal key resources and competitive advantage that can be obtained as the decision factor. The decision-making method used is Analytical Network Process (ANP). The results obtained institutional pressure becomes the criterion with the greatest influence on green supply chain initiatives and sub criteria of customer desires and stakeholder integration having the most significant influence on green supply chain initiatives. There are five green alternative initiatives that can be done: green product design, greening upstream, greening production, greening downstream and greening post use. For green supply chain initiative, greening upstream is the best priority.

  16. Sources of solutes to the proglacial Watson River (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua) near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerling, K. M.; Martin, J. B.; Martin, E. E.; Scribner, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering of silicate rocks in glacial forelands is a potential sink for atmospheric CO2 and therefore may impact long-term climate variability. Physical weathering in glacial environments enhances the rate of chemical weathering, particularly through subglacial production of rock flour with a high surface area to volume ratio. This reactive material is transported to and chemically weathered within the proglacial system, increasing concentrations of solutes as water flows downstream. Water from proglacial rivers may also acquire solutes and draw down atmospheric CO2 through reactions driven by hyporheic zone (HZ) exchange in the broad, braided reaches of the river channel. However, few studies have addressed this process and none to date have directly examined porewater contributions. We address these questions in the Watson River/Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua (WR), which flows approximately 40 km from its headwaters, through the town of Kangerlussuaq, and into Søndre Strømfjord. We have collected river water samples five times from six sites over the 2012 and 2013 summer melt seasons and three transects of PW from sand flats located along the river. Specific conductivity (SpC), pH, and dissolved ion concentrations increase downstream, consistent with ongoing chemical weathering reactions along the flow path. Relative abundances of Na+, K+, and SiO2 increase downstream relative to Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations. These signals indicate preferential dissolution of biotite and/or alkali feldspar. Additionally, 206Pb/204Pb ratios become more nonradiogenic downstream, lending further evidence to dissolution of readily weathered minerals. Over the course of the melt season, SpC, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations decrease, consistent with the increase in discharge due to supraglacial melting. The greatest downstream SpC increase (~2x) occurs where the river exits largely bedrock channeled flow and enters the braided portion at the Sandflugtdalen. In general, PW

  17. Evaluation of trends in pH in the Yampa River, northwestern Colorado, 1950-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of pH trends in the Yampa River from near its headwaters to its mouth. The study was prompted by an apparent historical increase in measured pH at the Yampa River near Maybell, from an average of about 7.6 in the 1950's and 1960's to about 8.3 in the 1980's and 1990's. If real, further increase could cause more frequent exceedances of the Colorado water-quality standard of 9.0 and adversely affect aquatic life in the Yampa River Basin, including Dinosaur National Monument. The principal conclusion of this study is that this apparent historical increase in measured pH was caused mostly by changes in measurement protocol. Synoptic sampling during August 16-19, 1999, a period of relatively warm weather and base flow, showed that late afternoon pH of the Yampa River ranged from 8.46 to 9.20. The largest pH (9.20) exceeded the Colorado water-quality standard and was measured at Yampa River above Elk River, about 1.8 miles downstream from the Steamboat Springs Regional Waste Water Treatment Plant outfall, where nutrient enrichment caused photosynthesis by algae to dominate. Here, the dissolved oxygen concentration was 161 percent of saturation and carbon dioxide (CO2 was at 26 percent of saturation. At Yampa River downstream from a diversion near Hayden, 16.3 miles downstream, the effects of photosynthesis were still dominant, though attenuated by reaeration and dilution with freshwater from the Elk River. About 37.2 miles farther downstream, at Yampa River below Craig, which is about 6.2 miles downstream from the Craig Waste Water Treatment Plant, the effects of photosynthesis increased slightly, and pH rose to 8.80. Respiration plus oxidation of organic matter became dominant at Yampa River at Deerlodge Park in Dinosaur National Monument, where pH was 8.51, dissolved oxygen concentration was at 109 percent of saturation, and CO2 was at 189 percent of saturation. Respiration plus oxidation of organic matter, though

  18. Physico-chemical and biological studies on water from Aries River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiuc-Keul, A; Momeu, L; Craciunas, C; Dobrota, C; Cuna, S; Balas, G

    2012-03-01

    Our work was focused on physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Aries River, one of the largest rivers from Romania. Water samples were collected from 11 sites along Aries River course. We have measured de (18)O and D isotopic composition of Aries River water in these locations and correlated these data with the isotopic composition of aquatic plants and with the pollution degree. Some ions from Aries River water were also analyzed: NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-) Cu(2+), Fe(3+). Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantify the level of water pollution of Aries River. All physico-chemical analyses revealed that the most polluted site is Abrud; the source of pollution is most probably the mining enterprise from Rosia Montana. Water isotope content increases from upstream to downstream of the locations analyzed. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution sources from this area: mine waters, industrial waters, waste products, land cleaning, tourism etc. The water eutrophication increases from upstream of Campeni to downstream of Campia Turzii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  20. Environmental considerations in energy planning for the Amazon region: Downstream effects of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca; de Carvalho, Osmar Abilio

    2007-01-01

    The most salient current feature of the electric energy sector in Brazil is the pressing need for expansion. In this context, the hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. These include reliance of new investments and environmental restrictions. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This article seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotopes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy

  1. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  2. The macroinvertebrates of the Cunene River from the Ruacana Falls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proposed construction of a second hydroelectric power-generating dam on the Cunene (Kunene) River on the Namibia-Angola border, more than 100km downstream of the Ruacana hydroelectric power plant, will have a major influence on the aquatic biota of this river. In order to assess the potential impact of this ...

  3. Framing Violence and Serial Murder in My Friend Dahmer and Green River Killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Earle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The comics form has not remained untouched by true crime’s massive surge in status across popular culture, especially in America. Comics as a form is uniquely positioned to represent violent and graphic narratives in such a way as to maximise reader affect and create a chronicle of crime that is both entertaining and captivating, guiding and being guided by the reader. Two comics have received massive critical acclaim for their portrayals of ‘famous’ American serial killers: Jeffrey Dahmer in Derf’s 'My Friend Dahmer' (2012 and Arthur Shawcross in Jeff Jensen & Jonathan Case’s 'Green River Killer' (2011. This article considers the framing techniques deployed in both comics. I consider how these two comics, distinct in their artistic presentation and their focus, frame their respective subjects and represent the complexities of serial murder. To conclude, I perform a close analysis of one framing aspect of 'My Friend Dahmer' and expand on what the execution of this technique can tell us about comics as a true crime form.

  4. Typhoon Effect on Kuroshio and Green Island Wakes: A Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Wen Hsu; Meng-Hsien Chou; Wei-Ting Chao; Shin-Jye Liang

    2018-01-01

    Green Island, located in the typhoon-active eastern Taiwan coastal water, is the potential Kuroshio power plant site. In this study, a high resolution (250–2250 m) shallow-water equations model is used to investigate the effect of typhoon on the hydro-dynamics of Kuroshio and Green Island wakes. Two typhoon–Kuroshio interactions—typhoon Soulik and Holland’s typhoon model—are studied. Simulation results of typhoon Soulik indicate salient characteristics of Kuroshio, and downstream island wakes...

  5. Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kiel, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen concentrations in the world’s major rivers have led to over-fertilization of sensitive downstream waters1, 2, 3, 4. Flow through channel bed and bank sediments acts to remove riverine nitrogen through microbe-mediated denitrification reactions5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. However, little is understood about where in the channel network this biophysical process is most efficient, why certain channels are more effective nitrogen reactors, and how management practices can enhance the removal of nitrogen in regions where water circulates through sediment and mixes with groundwater - hyporheic zones8, 11, 12. Here we present numerical simulations of hyporheic flow and denitrification throughout the Mississippi River network using a hydrogeomorphic model. We find that vertical exchange with sediments beneath the riverbed in hyporheic zones, driven by submerged bedforms, has denitrification potential that far exceeds lateral hyporheic exchange with sediments alongside river channels, driven by river bars and meandering banks. We propose that geomorphic differences along river corridors can explain why denitrification efficiency varies between basins in the Mississippi River network. Our findings suggest that promoting the development of permeable bedforms at the streambed - and thus vertical hyporheic exchange - would be more effective at enhancing river denitrification in large river basins than promoting lateral exchange through induced channel meandering. 

  6. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Walter Baker Impoundments were 3,490 and 2,450 ng/g wet wt (filleted) and 6,890 and 4,080 ng/g wet wt (whole fish). Total PCB-congener concentrations measured in the whole bodies of estuarine bait fish (common mummichog) averaged 708 ng/g wet wt. PCBs that pass from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary are either dissolved or associated with particulate matter (including living and nonliving material) suspended in the water column. A small proportion of PCBs may also be transported as part of the body burden of fish and wildlife. During the period May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006, about 5,100 g (3.8 L or 1 gal) of PCBs were transported from the Neponset River to the Neponset River Estuary. Generally, about one-half of these PCBs were dissolved in the water column and the other half were associated with particulate matter; however, the proportion that was either dissolved or particulate varied seasonally. Most PCBs transported from the river to the estuary are composed of four or fewer chlorine atoms per biphenyl molecule. The data suggest that widespread PCB contamination of the lower Neponset River originated from Mother Brook, a Neponset River tributary, starting sometime around the early 1950s or earlier. In 1955, catastrophic dam failure caused by flooding likely released PCB-contaminated sediment downstream and into the Neponset River Estuary. PCBs from this source area likely continued to be released after the flood and during subsequent rebuilding of downstream dams. Today (2007), PCBs are mostly trapped behind these dams; however, some PCBs either diffuse or are entrained back into the water column and are transported downstream by river water into the estuary or volatilize into the atmosphere. In addition to the continuing release of PCBs from historically contaminated bottom sediment, PCBs are still (2007) originating from source areas along Mother and Meadow Brook as well as other sources along the river and Boston Harbor. PCBs from the river

  7. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  8. Does river restoration affect diurnal and seasonal changes to surface water quality? A study along the Thur River, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, Vidhya [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Molson, John [Université Laval, Département de Géologie et Génie Géologique, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Schirmer, Mario [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Université de Neuchâtel, Centre d' Hydrogéologie et de Géothermie (CHYN), Rue Emile-Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2015-11-01

    Changes in river water quality were investigated along the lower reach of the Thur River, Switzerland, following river restoration and a summer storm event. River restoration and hydrological storm events can each cause dramatic changes to water quality by affecting various bio-geochemical processes in the river, but have to date not been well documented, especially in combination. Evaluating the success of river restoration is often restricted in large catchments due to a lack of high frequency water quality data, which are needed for process understanding. These challenges were addressed in this study by measuring water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with a high temporal frequency (15 min–1 h) over selected time scales. In addition, the stable isotopes of water (δD and δ{sup 18}O-H{sub 2}O) as well as those of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) were measured to follow changes in water quality in response to the hydrological changes in the river. To compare the spatial distribution of pre- and post-restoration water quality, the sampling stations were chosen upstream and downstream of the restored section. The diurnal and seasonal changes were monitored by conducting 24-hour campaigns in three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) in 2012 and 2013. The amplitude of the diurnal changes of the various observed parameters showed significant seasonal and spatial variability. Biological processes — mainly photosynthesis and respiration — were found to be the major drivers of these diurnal cycles. During low flow in autumn, a reduction of nitrate (attributed to assimilation by autotrophs) in the pre-dawn period and a production of DOC during the daytime (attributed to photosynthesis) were observed downstream of the restored site. Further, a summer storm event was found to override the influence of these biological

  9. Migratory Behavior and Physiological Development as Potential Determinants of Life History Diversity in Fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Kock, Tobias J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, 5501-A Cook-Underwood Road Cook Washington 98605 USA; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Post Office Box 18 Ahsahka Idaho 81530 USA; Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA; Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Post Office Box 999 Richland Washington 99352 USA

    2018-03-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in free-flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio-tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were highest in the free-flowing Clearwater River compared to impounded reaches. This provided support for our hypothesis that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish’s physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches where velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lower-most reach of Lower Granite Reservoir suggesting that behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings in spite of hydrodynamic conditions being similar. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater river migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr-like in their development and never showed an increase in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity as did smolts from the Snake River. The later emergence timing and cooler rearing temperatures in the Clearwater River may suppress normal physiological development that causes many fish to delay downstream movement and adopt a yearling life history strategy.

  10. An evaluation of seasonal change in Benthic Macroinvertebrate community composition in the east branch of the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    Rum Jungle is an abandoned uranium-copper mine responsible for acid rock drainage into the surface waters of the intermittent East Branch and the channel of the Finniss Rivers. Prior to large-scale remediation in the mid 1980s, the East Branch was biologically dead for 8.5 km downstream to the confluence with the Finniss River, and suffered substantial ecological impairment for a further 15 km downstream. Recent studies suggest some recovery in fish diversity and abundance in the Finniss River, but only minor recovery in the macroinvertebrate fauna of the East Branch

  11. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – River Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    M. Larson; D. Bendz; G. Göransson

    2013-01-01

    The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the t...

  12. Evaluating effectiveness and constraints of private sector agricultural extension services of the Green River Project in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyinyechi I. Ogbonna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil exploration operations decreased the cultivable lands of rural people in the study area, leading to the establishment of the Green River Project (GRP. This study assessed the effectiveness and constraints of private sector extension services of GRP in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria. Objectives: To analyse the roles and effectiveness of, as well as constraints to, the GRP in the area. Method: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, chi square and t-test were used to analyse the data. Results: Roles of GRP in farming technologies dissemination included training of farmers on fish pond construction technique and maintenance of good pH levels. There was significant improvement in standard of living (X2 = 15.7; p ≤ 0.05 and size of production (t = 6.398; p ≤ 0.05 of the respondents after participation. In terms of the effectiveness of private sector deliveries on public policies, the programme had effect on beneficiaries’ access to credit, education of wards and poverty reduction. But it is worthy to note that the observed changes may not have been solely caused by the GRP, given that there could be many other factors affecting fish farming, either positively or negatively. Serious implementation constraints to effective performance of GRP included organisational, input and sustainability constraints. Conclusion: It was recommended that there should be timely provision of sufficient inputs to farmers and measures to improve organisation of private sector extension services in the area in order to enhance development.

  13. Floodplain hydrodynamic modelling of the Lower Volta River in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Yaw Logah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of dam releases from re-operation scenarios of the Akosombo and Kpong hydropower facilities on downstream communities along the Lower Volta River were examined through hydrodynamic modelling using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model. The model was used to simulate surface water elevation along the river reach for specified discharge hydrographs from proposed re-operation dam release scenarios. The morphology of the river and its flood plains together with cross-sectional profiles at selected river sections were mapped and used in the hydrodynamic modelling. In addition, both suspended and bed-load sediment were sampled and analysed to determine the current sediment load of the river and its potential to carry more sediment. The modelling results indicate that large areas downstream of the dam including its flood plains would be inundated if dam releases came close to or exceeded 2300 m3/s. It is therefore recommended to relocate communities along the banks and in the flood plains of the Lower Volta River when dam releases are to exceed 2300 m3/s. Suspended sediment transport was found to be very low in the Lower Volta River and the predominant soil type in the river banks and bed is sandy soil. Thus, the geomorphology of the river can be expected to change considerably with time, particularly for sustained high releases from the Akosombo and Kpong dams. The results obtained from this study form a basis for assessing future sedimentation problems in the Lower Volta River and for underpinning the development of sediment control and management strategies for river basins in Ghana. Keywords: Geomorphology, HEC-RAS model, Dam release, Floodplain, Lower Volta River, Ghana

  14. Transport on river networks: A dynamical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zaliapin, I; Foufoula-Georgiou, E; Ghil, M

    2017-01-01

    This study is motivated by problems related to environmental transport on river networks. We establish statistical properties of a flow along a directed branching network and suggest its compact parameterization. The downstream network transport is treated as a particular case of nearest-neighbor hierarchical aggregation with respect to the metric induced by the branching structure of the river network. We describe the static geometric structure of a drainage network by a tree, referred to as...

  15. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  16. Distribution and abundance of fish populations in the Middle Wabash River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teppen, T.C.; Gammon, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A field investigation was made of the distribution and abundance of fish within a 161-km portion of the Wabash River to determine effects of heated effluents as well as changes in water quality on ichthyofaunal communities within the river. Twenty-six sampling stations were electrofished, sequentially, four times in 1974 with extended sampling efforts made in the vicinity of two power-generating stations studied since 1967 and 1968. During August an overall rise in river temperature of 4 0 C was observed from upstream to downstream, with several chemical factors also showing slight increases. Although the majority of species populations were influenced either negatively or positively by the gradient of river conditions available to them, the only statistically significant parameters found in the analysis of community structure involved a lower diversity by weight below Terre Haute and a greater abundance of fish above the Cayuga generating station. Decreases occurred downstream in populations of redhorse (Moxostoma sp.), sauger (Stizostedion canadense), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), with increases downstream observed in flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), shortnose gar (Lepisosteus platostomus), longnose gar (E. osseus), and bowfin (Amia calva) populations. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were present in large numbers throughout the study area with a tremendous population increase evident in recent years. Although species associations were variable among the segments, overall community parameters remained relatively unaffected

  17. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  18. Modelling the combined impact of radionuclide discharges reaching rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Small, S.; Hornby, D.; Scarlett, P.; Harvey, M.; Simmonds, J.; Bexon, A.; Jones, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Agency currently authorises direct and indirect (via sewerage systems) discharges of liquid radioactive wastes to rivers from nuclear sites and other registered users of radioactivity. Discharges are normally authorised on a site-by-site basis, taking into account the radiological assessment. Radiological assessments are normally made using dilution models to estimate radionuclide activities in the effluents themselves and in the receiving rivers. These data are then combined with information on habits and dose factor information to give a dose assessment for individuals exposed to the discharge. For each site the highest radiological impact is expected immediately downstream of the disposal point where concentrations of radionuclides and resulting doses are highest. The concentration and doses are expected to decline with increasing distance downstream of the disposal point. However, if discharges are made into the river from other establishments higher up the catchment, the total dose may be higher. Recent Environment Agency research projects provided evidence of the potential radiological significance of multiple discharges to a single river. In the light of these studies, the Agency require a robust modelling tool to assist in the assessment of the effects of combined discharges to river systems. The aim of this R and D project was to develop and test modelling tools that could be used to make assessments of the impact of multiple radiological discharge into river systems and to trial them on the upper Thames river system

  19. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  20. Geochemical disturbance of soil cover in the nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan V; Kosheleva, Natalia E

    2017-08-01

    The anthropogenic geochemical transformation of soil cover in large nonferrous mining centers of the Selenga River basin was assessed. The results of the geochemical survey of 2010-2012 revealed the spatial distribution patterns and abundances of 18 hazardous heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of Erdenet (Mongolia) and Zakamensk (Buryat republic, Russian Federation). In both cities, mining activities disturbed soil cover which accumulates Mo, Cu, As, Sb, W in Erdenet and Bi, W, Cd, Be, Pb, Mo, Sb in Zakamensk. Maximum accumulation of elements in Erdenet is restricted to the industrial zone. In Zakamensk, it has spread on ½ of the territory with the degree of multielemental pollution exceeding the extremely dangerous level by 16 times. The effect of mining centers on the state of the river system is local and does not spread to the Selenga River. Downstream from Erdenet, an artificial pool intercepts heavy metal and metalloid flows of the Erdenetii-Gol River. By contrast, downstream from the tailing dumps of the Dzhida tungsten-molybdenum plant the concentrations of ore elements W and Mo and their accessories Bi and Cd in the Modonkul River exceed background values by 146, 20, 57, and 21 times, respectively, decreasing by an order of magnitude 30 km downstream.

  1. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area consist...sampling and in- situ density testing using the sand displacement 11 or large-scale water displacement method. Dozer trenches TT82-1 and TT82-6 were excavated...underlying the valley or may, due to its pervasiveness, represent an in situ weathering product of the buried bedrock. 4.18 Because of the magnitude

  2. STREAM II-V7: Revision for STREAM II-V6 to include outflow from all Savannah River Site tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maze, Grace M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    STREAM II is the aqueous transport model of the Weather Information Display (WIND) emergency response system at Savannah River Site. It is used to calculate transport in the event of a chemical or radiological spill into the waterways on the Savannah River Site. Improvements were made to the code (STREAM II V7) to include flow from all site tributaries to the Savannah River total flow and utilize a 4 digit year input. The predicted downstream concentrations using V7 were generally on the same order of magnitude as V6 with slightly lower concentrations and quicker arrival times when all onsite stream flows are contributing to the Savannah River flow. The downstream arrival time at the Savannah River Water Plant ranges from no change to an increase of 8.77%, with minimum changes typically in March/April and maximum changes typically in October/November. The downstream concentrations are generally no more than 15% lower using V7 with the maximum percent change in January through April and minimum changes in June/July.

  3. River basin closure: Processes, implications and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Wester, P.; Hirsch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing water withdrawals for urban, industrial, and agricultural use have profoundly altered the hydrology of many major rivers worldwide. Coupled with degradation of water quality, low flows have induced severe environmental degradation and water has been rendered unusable by downstream users.

  4. History of Snake River Canyon Indicated by Revised Stratigraphy of Snake River Group Near Hagerman and King Hill, Idaho: With a Section on Paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.; Cox, Allan

    1971-01-01

    A discovery that debris left by the Bonneville Flood (Melon Gravel) overlies McKinney Basalt about 200 feet above the Snake River near King Hill requires that the stratigraphy of the Snake River Group be revised. In former usage, the McKinney Basalt and its immediately older companion, the Wendell Grade Basalt, were considered on the basis of equivocal field relations to be younger than the Melon Gravel and were assigned to the Recent. These lava flows are here reclassified as Pleistocene. The Bancroft Springs Basalt, which consists of both subaerial lava and pillow lava in a former Snake River canyon, was previously separated from the McKinney but is now combined with the McKinney. Accordingly, the name Bancroft Springs Basalt is here abandoned. This revised stratigraphy is first described from geomorphic relations of the McKinney Basalt near King Hill and is then discussed in the light of drainage changes caused by local lava flows during entrenchment of the Snake River. Near King Hill, a former Snake River canyon was completely filled by McKinney Basalt at the place called Bancroft Springs, hut the depth of this lava in the next several miles of the canyon downstream (along a route that approximately coincides with the present canyon) steadily decreased. This ancestral geomorphology is inferred from the former canyon route and, also, from the continuity in gradient of the McKinney lava surface downstream from Bancroft Springs. The drainage history recorded by various lava flows and river deposits of the Snake River Group indicates that the McKinney and Wendell Grade Basalts erupted after the Snake River canyon had reached its present depth of about 500 feet. The Snake River of that time, as far downstream as Bliss, flowed approximately along its present route. The Wood River of that time, however, skirted the north flank of Gooding Butte and joined the ancestral Snake at a junction, now concealed by lava, north of the present canyon about 3 miles west of Bliss

  5. Channel and island change in the lower Platte River, Eastern Nebraska, USA: 1855 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Henebry, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The lower Platte River has undergone considerable change in channel and bar characteristics since the mid-1850s in four 20-25 km-long study stretches. The same net effect of historical channel shrinkage that was detected upstream from Grand Island, Nebraska, can also be detected in the lower river but differences in the behaviors of study stretches upstream and downstream from major tributaries are striking. The least relative decrease occurred downstream from the Loup River confluence, and the stretch downstream from the Elkhorn River confluence actually showed an increase in channel area during the 1940s. Bank erosion was also greater downstream of the tributaries between ca. 1860 and 1938/1941, particularly in stretch RG, which showed more lateral migration. The cumulative island area and the ratio of island area to channel area relative to the 1938/1941 baseline data showed comparatively great fluctuations in median island size in both downstream stretches. The erratic behavior of island size distributions over time indicates that large islands were accreted to the banks at different times, and that some small, newly-stabilized islands were episodically "flushed" out of the system. In the upstream stretches the stabilization of mobile bars to create new, small islands had a more consistent impact over time. Channel decrease by the abandonment of large, long-lived anabranches and by the in-place narrowing resulting from island accretion were more prominent in these upstream stretches. Across all of the study area, channel area appears to be stabilizing gradually as the rate of decrease lessens. This trend began earliest in stretch RG in the late 1950s and was accompanied by shifts in the size distributions of stabilized islands in that stretch into the 1960s. Elsewhere, even in the easternmost study stretch, stabilizing was occurring by the late 1960s, the same time frame documented by investigations of the Platte system upstream of the study area. Comprehensive

  6. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban

  7. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Evaluation of Surface River Water Quality of a Tropical River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the spatial variations of surface water quality in a tropical river using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis (CA and principal component analysis (PCA. Twenty physicochemical parameters were measured at 30 stations along the Batang Baram and its tributaries. The water quality of the Batang Baram was categorized as “slightly polluted” where the chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids were the most deteriorated parameters. The CA grouped the 30 stations into four clusters which shared similar characteristics within the same cluster, representing the upstream, middle, and downstream regions of the main river and the tributaries from the middle to downstream regions of the river. The PCA has determined a reduced number of six principal components that explained 83.6% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the total suspended solids, turbidity, and hydrogen sulphide were the dominant polluting factors which is attributed to the logging activities, followed by the five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in the second PC which are related to the discharges from domestic wastewater. The components also imply that logging activities are the major anthropogenic activities responsible for water quality variations in the Batang Baram when compared to the domestic wastewater discharge.

  8. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiningen, Kirk T. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (US)

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  9. Post-dam Channel and Floodplain Adjustment along the Lower Volga River, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Hans; Alabyan, Andrei M; Babich, Dmitry B; Ivanov, Vadim V

    2015-01-01

    The Volga River in the Russian Federation has been regulated by a cascade of reservoir dams since the 1950–1960s. This chapter presents an overview of the main hydrological and morphological responses of the Volga River downstream of the Volgograd reservoir dam. Regulation caused a decrease in

  10. Effects of dams in river networks on fish assemblages in non-impoundment sections of rivers in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Lizhu Wang,; Infante, Dana M.; Lyons, John D.; Arthur Cooper,

    2011-01-01

    Regional assessment of cumulative impacts of dams on riverine fish assemblages provides resource managers essential information for dam operation, potential dam removal, river health assessment and overall ecosystem management. Such an assessment is challenging because characteristics of fish assemblages are not only affected by dams, but also influenced by natural variation and human-induced modification (in addition to dams) in thermal and flow regimes, physicochemical habitats and biological assemblages. This study evaluated the impacts of dams on river fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers in the states of Michigan and Wisconsin using multiple fish assemblage indicators and multiple approaches to distinguish the influences of dams from those of other natural and human-induced factors. We found that environmental factors that influence fish assemblages in addition to dams should be incorporated when evaluating regional effects of dams on fish assemblages. Without considering such co-influential factors, the evaluation is inadequate and potentially misleading. The role of dams alone in determining fish assemblages at a regional spatial scale is relatively small (explained less than 20% of variance) compared with the other environmental factors, such as river size, flow and thermal regimes and land uses jointly. However, our results do demonstrate that downstream and upstream dams can substantially modify fish assemblages in the non-impoundment sections of rivers. After excluding river size and land-use influences, our results clearly demonstrate that dams have significant impacts on fish biotic-integrity and habitat-and-social-preference indicators. The influences of the upstream dams, downstream dams, distance to dams, and dam density differ among the fish indicators, which have different implications for maintaining river biotic integrity, protecting biodiversity and managing fisheries.

  11. Occurrence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in river biofilms after wastewater inputs in small rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proia, Lorenzo; Schiller, Daniel von; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Sabater, Sergi; Borrego, Carles M.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Balcázar, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine and their subsequent release into the environment may have direct consequences for autochthonous bacterial communities, especially in freshwater ecosystems. In small streams and rivers, local inputs of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may become important sources of organic matter, nutrients and emerging pollutants, such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the effect of WWTP effluents as a source of ARGs in river biofilms. The prevalence of genes conferring resistance to main antibiotic families, such as beta-lactams (bla_C_T_X_-_M), fluoroquinolones (qnrS), sulfonamides (sul I), and macrolides (ermB), was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR) in biofilm samples collected upstream and downstream WWTPs discharge points in four low-order streams. Our results showed that the WWTP effluents strongly modified the hydrology, physico-chemistry and biological characteristics of the receiving streams and favoured the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance in microbial benthic communities. It was also shown that the magnitude of effects depended on the relative contribution of each WWTP to the receiving system. Specifically, low concentrations of ARGs were detected at sites located upstream of the WWTPs, while a significant increase of their concentrations was observed in biofilms collected downstream of the WWTP discharge points (particularly ermB and sul I genes). These findings suggest that WWTP discharges may favour the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance among streambed biofilms. The present study also showed that the presence of ARGs in biofilms was noticeable far downstream of the WWTP discharge (up to 1 km). It is therefore reasonable to assume that biofilms may represent an ideal setting for the acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants and thus be considered suitable biological indicators of anthropogenic pollution by active

  12. Vegetation greenness modelling in response to interannual precipitation and temperature changes between 2001 and 2012 in Liao River Basin in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Tang, Jie; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Hai-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liao River basin in Jilin Province is the place of origin of the Dongliao River. This study gives a comprehensive analysis of the vegetation coverage in the region and provides a potential theoretical basis for ecological restoration. The seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and dynamics based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in major land cover types in the region was studied. Analyzing the relationship NDVI, temperature and rainfall, we derived a set of predictor variables from 2001 to 2012 using the MODIS Terra level 1 Product (MOD02QKM). The results showed a general increasing trend in NDVI value in the region, while 34.63 % of the region showed degradation. NDVI values begin to rise from April when plants are regreening and they drop in September when temperature are decreasing and the leaves are falling in the study area and temperature was found decreasing during the period of 2001-2012 while rainfall showed an increasing trend. This model could be used to observe the change in vegetation greenness and the dynamic effects of temperature and rainfall. This study provided important data for the environmental protection of the basin area. And we hope to provide scientific analysis for controlling water and soil erosion, maintaining the sustainable productivity of land resources, enhancing the treatment of water pollution and stimulating the virtuous cycle of the ecological system.

  13. The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment in rural and industrialized river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip N; Walling, Desmond E

    2002-02-01

    The phosphorus content of fluvial sediment (suspended sediment and the sediment) has been examined in contrasting rural (moorland and agricultural) and industrialized catchments in Yorkshire, UK. The River Swale drains a rural catchment with no major urban and industrial areas, and the total phosphorus (TP) content of fluvial sediment is generally within the range 500-1,500 microg g(-1). There is little evidence of any major downstream increase in TP content. In contrast, fluvial sediment from the industrialized catchments of the Rivers Aire and Calder exhibits both higher levels of TP content and marked downstream increases, with values of TP content ranging from 7,000 microg g(-1) at downstream sites. These elevated levels reflect P inputs from point sources, such as sewage treatment works (STWs) and combined sewer overflows. The influence of STWs is further demonstrated by the downstream increase in the inorganic P/organic P ratio from 4 in the lower reaches. Comparison of the P content of suspended sediment with that of the sediment and both discharge and suspended sediment concentration, reflecting changes in sediment and P sources during high flow events. Spatial variations in the P contents of the sediment evidence a similar pattern as those for suspended sediment, with relatively low levels of TP in the River Swale and elevated levels in the middle and downstream reaches of the Rivers Aire and Calder. The PP concentrations associated with floodplain and channel bed sediment are, however, lower than equivalent values for suspended sediment, and this primarily reflects the differences in the particle size composition between the three types of sediments. Rates of floodplain deposition and the amounts of fine-grained sediment stored in the river channels are relatively high, and suggest that such environments may represent important sinks for PP. Based on the sediment samples collected from the study basins, a simple four-fold classification which relates the

  14. Customer value in green power purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion about generating electricity from renewable energy sources was presented. The Environment Canada/ENMAX green power contract stipulates that in order for electricity to quality as green power it must be generated by renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, combustion of sustainably produced biomass, or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity. The contract also includes emissions reduction credit (ERC) ownership for greenhouse gases, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and toxics. By using green power in some of its own facilities the government demonstrates its support for renewable energy sources, and provides the initial market for the industry to build up its capacity to service larger markets. The emission reduction credits 'earned' could be added to the government inventories as environmental assets

  15. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect.

  16. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  17. Summary of Bed-Sediment Measurements Along the Platte River, Nebraska, 1931-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P.J.; Runge, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers are conduits for water and sediment supplied from upstream sources. The sizes of the sediments that a river bed consists of typically decrease in a downstream direction because of natural sorting. However, other factors can affect the caliber of bed sediment including changes in upstream water-resource development, land use, and climate that alter the watershed yield of water or sediment. Bed sediments provide both a geologic and stratigraphic record of past fluvial processes and quantification of current sediment transport relations. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe and compare longitudinal measurements of bed-sediment sizes made along the Platte River, Nebraska from 1931 to 2009. The Platte River begins at the junction of the North Platte and South Platte Rivers near North Platte, Nebr. and flows east for approximately 500 kilometers before joining the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. The confluence of the Loup River with the Platte River serves to divide the middle (or central) Platte River (the Platte River upstream from the confluence with the Loup River) and lower Platte River (the Platte River downstream from the confluence with Loup River). The Platte River provides water for a variety of needs including: irrigation, infiltration to public water-supply wells, power generation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The Platte River Basin includes habitat for four federally listed species including the whooping crane (Grus americana), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). A habitat recovery program for the federally listed species in the Platte River was initiated in 2007. One strategy identified by the recovery program to manage and enhance habitat is the manipulation of streamflow. Understanding the longitudinal and temporal changes in the size gradation of the bed sediment will help to explain the effects of past flow regimes and anticipated

  18. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  19. Organic matter dynamics in a karstic watershed: Example from Santa Fe River, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.; Khadka, M. B.; Martin, J. B.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) dynamics in karstic watersheds can involve a range of interactions between organic and inorganic phases of carbon. These interactions include OM remineralization, which will changes its lability, increase dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations, reduce pH, and enhance carbonate mineral dissolution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are elevated in black-water rivers of northern Florida from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources and these rivers flow into and interact with the karstic Floridan Aquifer. One such river, the Santa Fe River, is split into upper confined and lower unconfined watersheds by the Cody Scarp, which represent the erosional edge of a regional confining unit. Water samples were collected from 8 sites across the entire Santa Fe River watershed (SFRW) during 9 sampling trips from December 2009 to May 2011 at flow conditions that ranged from 27 to 39 m3/s, with the highest flow about 45% higher than baseflow. At sites above the Cody Scarp, the river has elevated DOC concentrations, which decrease downstream, while dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ13C-DIC show opposite trends. At high flow, DOC concentrations progressively decrease downstream from dilution by low-DOC water discharging from the Floridan Aquifer. At low flow, the water chemistry varies little from upstream to downstream, largely because the composition of upstream water becomes similar to that of downstream water. DOC is inversely and linearly correlated with DIC and δ13C-DIC, but the slope of the correlations vary with discharge, with low flow having more negative slopes than high flow. The OM becomes more labile with distance downstream as assessed using two fluorescence indices, biological/autochthonous index (BIX) and humification index (HIX). This increase in lability suggests that DOC is produced in the river, and this production is reflected in a downstream increase in DOC flux regardless of dilution by the influx of low

  20. B, As, and F contamination of river water due to wastewater discharge of the Yangbajing geothermal power plant, Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin; Liu, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Thermal waters from the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, contain high concentrations of B, As, and F, up to 119, 5.7 and 19.6 mg/L, respectively. In this paper, the distribution of B, As, and F in the aquatic environment at Yangbajing was surveyed. The results show that most river water samples collected downstream of the Zangbo River have comparatively higher concentrations of B, As, and F (up to 3.82, 0.27 and 1.85 mg/L, respectively), indicating that the wastewater discharge of the geothermal power plant at Yangbajing has resulted in B, As, and F contamination in the river. Although the concentrations of B, As, and F of the Zangbo river waters decline downstream of the wastewater discharge site due to dilution effect and sorption onto bottom sediments, the sample from the conjunction of the Zangbo River and the Yangbajing River has higher contents of B, As, and F as compared with their predicted values obtained using our regression analysis models. The differences between actual and calculated contents of B, As, and F can be attributed to the contribution from upstream of the Yangbajing River. Water quality deterioration of the river has induced health problems among dwellers living in and downstream of Yangbajing. Effective measures, such as decontamination of wastewater and reinjection into the geothermal field, should be taken to protect the environment at Yangbajing.

  1. Post-flood status of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae in the Koshi River, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Khatri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for animals by boat from Chatara to the Koshi Barrage including the Triyuga River and on foot along the river banks downstream of Koshi Barrage and along the Mariya River. Standard protocols were followed to record the number of sighted dolphins. A total of 11 dolphins were recorded in the entire 49-km river stretch with an encounter rate of 0.23 dolphins per km. The current result showed an encouraging population of dolphins in the Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and its buffer zone but the threats for conservation still remain challenging. Close monitoring of dolphins and their habitats involving local communities are required for long term conservation of the river dolphins in Nepal. The breach of the eastern embankment of the Koshi Barrage at Paschim Kusaha Village of Sunsari District on 18 August 2008, created havoc for wildlife and their habitats, as well as people’s livelihood and welfare. The Koshi River flowed through the breach for five months. Following the breach, a population assessment survey of the Endangered Ganges River Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica was made between March and November 2009 in the Koshi River main channel starting from Chatara to 2km south of Koshi Barrage to ascertain their status. A direct count survey was conducted by two teams of researchers simultaneously searching for

  2. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  3. Origin of uraniferous phosphate beds in Wilkins Peak member of Green River Formation, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, L.V.; Drever, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of uranium and phosphorus was studied in four drill cores from the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation in Wyoming. Of the studied occurrences of anomalously high uranium concentrations, 13% were associated with localized organic matter, and the remainder were associated with stratiform phosphate-rich beds. The uranium probably substitutes for calcium in apatite in these beds. It is proposed that the apatite forms by replacement of calcite during times of flooding of the normally highly saline lake. The flood waters bring in phosphorus and cause a decrease in both pH and ratio of bicarbonate to phosphate, which favors the replacement. Uranium is incorporated in the apatite as the apatite forms or soon after. No special source, other than weathering of volcanic ash, is required for the phosphorus or the uranium. The uraniferous phosphatic beds do not appear to have any economic potential at the present time. Misleadingly high concentrations of both uranium and phosphorus are observed in outcrop samples as a result of selective leaching of other components

  4. Modifications to the Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This modification to the Green River Final Remedial Action Plan (FRAP) represents the changes made to the document in accordance with a joint agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) outlined in a letter dated August 7, 1991. As specified in this letter, methylene chloride will no longer be analyzed in groundwater samples collected from on-site monitor wells. All references to methylene chloride sampling have been deleted from the FRAP, as indicated by the pages in Section 2.0 of this document

  5. Sediment budget analysis from Landslide debris and river channel change during the extreme event - example of Typhoon Morakot at Laonong river, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Mei-Jen; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Yeh, En-Chao; Chao, Yu-Jui

    2014-05-01

    erosion of the Laonong River caused by the typhoon seriously, especially in Yushan National Park, and midstream region. However, lateral erosion in downstream region is not so obvious. Meanwhile the siltation depth resulted from the Typhoon Morakot is larger in upstream region than in midstream and downstream regions. The amount of landslide debris created by Typhoon Morakot was too excessive to be transported. Materials just siltated in the upstream in place, same as in the middle stream area. Because of the amount of river slope erosion and sediment collapse in the downstream region is less than in upstream and midstream region, the amount of river erosion slightly larger than the amount of river siltation. The goals of this project are trying to decipher the sliding process and morphologic changes of large landslide areas, sediment transport and budgets, and to investigate the phenomenon of river migration. The results of this study provides not only geomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

  6. An Apparatus for Bed Material Sediment Extraction From Coarse River Beds in Large Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Adam, H.; Cooper, J.; Cepello, S.

    2005-12-01

    Grain size distributions of bed material sediment in large alluvial rivers are required in applications ranging from habitat mapping, calibration of sediment transport models, high resolution sediment routing, and testing of existing theories of longitudinal and cross steam sediment sorting. However, characterizing bed material sediment from coarse river beds is hampered by difficulties in sediment extraction, a challenge that is generally circumvented via pebble counts on point bars, even though it is unclear whether the bulk grain size distribution of bed sediments is well represented by pebble counts on bars. We have developed and tested a boat-based sampling apparatus and methodology for extracting bulk sediment from a wide range of riverbed materials. It involves the use of a 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 meter stainless steel toothed sampler, called the Cooper Scooper, which is deployed from and dragged downstream by the weight of a jet boat. The design is based on that of a river anchor such that a rotating center bar connected to a rope line in the boat aligns the sampler in the downstream direction, the teeth penetrate the bed surface, and the sampler digs into the bed. The sampler is fitted with lead weights to keep it from tipping over. The force of the sampler `biting' into the bed can be felt on the rope line held by a person in the boat at which point they let out slack. The boat then motors to the spot above the embedded sampler, which is hoisted to the water surface via a system of pulleys. The Cooper Scooper is then clipped into a winch and boom assembly by which it is brought aboard. This apparatus improves upon commonly used clamshell dredge samplers, which are unable to penetrate coarse or mixed bed surfaces. The Cooper Scooper, by contrast, extracts statistically representative bed material sediment samples of up to 30 kilograms. Not surprisingly, the sampler does not perform well in very coarse or armored beds (e.g. where surface material size is on the

  7. Concentrations and transport of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during the 2011 Mississippi River flood, April through July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Coupe, Richard H.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2014-01-01

    High streamflow associated with the April–July 2011 Mississippi River flood forced the simultaneous opening of the three major flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin for the first time in history in order to manage the amount of water moving through the system. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples for analysis of field properties, suspended-sediment concentration, particle-size, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and up to 136 pesticides at 11 water-quality stations and 2 flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin from just above the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers downstream from April through July 2011. Monthly fluxes of suspended sediment, suspended sand, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor were estimated at 9 stations and 2 flood-control structures during the flood period. Although concentrations during the 2011 flood were within the range of what has been observed historically, concentrations decreased during peak streamflow on the lower Mississippi River. Prior to the 2011 flood, high concentrations of suspended sediment and nitrate were observed in March 2011 at stations downstream of the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, which probably resulted in a loss of available material for movement during the flood. In addition, the major contributor of streamflow to the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during April and May was the Ohio River, whose water contained lower concentrations of suspended sediment, pesticides, and nutrients than water from the upper Mississippi River. Estimated fluxes for the 4-month flood period were still quite high and contributed approximately 50 percent of the estimated annual suspended sediment, nitrate, and total phosphorus fluxes in 2011; the largest fluxes were estimated at

  8. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  9. Downstream cumulative effects of land use on freshwater communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglerová, L.; Kielstra, B. W.; Moore, D.; Richardson, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many streams and rivers are subject to disturbance from intense land use such as urbanization and agriculture, and this is especially obvious for small headwaters. Streams are spatially organized into networks where headwaters represent the tributaries and provide water, nutrients, and organic material to the main stems. Therefore perturbations within the headwaters might be cumulatively carried on downstream. Although we know that the disturbance of headwaters in urban and agricultural landscapes poses threats to downstream river reaches, the magnitude and severity of these changes for ecological communities is less known. We studied stream networks along a gradient of disturbance connected to land use intensity, from urbanized watersheds to watersheds placed in agricultural settings in the Greater Toronto Area. Further, we compared the patterns and processes found in the modified watershed to a control watershed, situated in a forested, less impacted landscape. Preliminary results suggest that hydrological modifications (flash floods), habitat loss (drainage and sewer systems), and water quality issues of small streams in urbanized and agricultural watersheds represent major disturbances and threats for aquatic and riparian biota on local as well as larger spatial scales. For example, communities of riparian plants are dominated by species typical of the land use on adjacent uplands as well as the dominant land use on the upstream contributing area, instead of riparian obligates commonly found in forested watersheds. Further, riparian communities in disturbed environments are dominated by invasive species. The changes in riparian communities are vital for various functions of riparian vegetation. Bank erosion control is suppressed, leading to severe channel transformations and sediment loadings in urbanized watersheds. Food sources for instream biota and thermal regimes are also changed, which further triggers alterations of in-stream biological communities

  10. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and determine status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from the McNary Dam. Annual progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiningen, K.T.

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1994 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on subadult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of subadult and adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River

  11. Phosphorus Dynamics along River Continuum during Typhoon Storm Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Fai Chow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on riverine phosphorus (P dynamics during typhoon storm events remains scarce in subtropical regions. Thus, this study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of riverine phosphorus in a headwater catchment during three typhoon events. Continuous sampling (3 h intervals of stormwater samples and discharge data were conducted at five locations, which represent the upstream, transitional zone, and downstream areas of the main inflow river. The results revealed that the average event mean concentrations (EMCs for total dissolved phosphorus (TDP and particulate phosphorus (PP in the upstream catchment of Fei-Tsui reservoir were 15.66 μg/L and 11.94 μg/L, respectively. There was at least a 1.3-fold increase in flow-weighted concentrations of TDP and PP from the upper to lower reaches of the main stream. PP and TDP were transported either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions, depending on storm intensity and source. The transport of TDP was primarily regulated by the subsurface flow during the storm event. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP contributes more than 50% of the TDP load in moderate storms, while extreme storms supply a greater dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP load into the stream. TDP accounted for approximately 50% of TP load during typhoon storms. Mobilization of all P forms was observed from upstream to downstream of the river, except for DOP. A decrease of DOP load on passing downstream may reflect the change in phosphorus form along the river continuum. Peak discharge and antecedent dry days are correlated positively with P fluxes, indicating that river bank erosion and re-suspension of within-channel sediment are the dominant pathways of P during typhoon storm periods.

  12. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  13. SWOT Analysis of Urban Greening Maintenance and Management in the Central Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanning; ZHENG; Fang; JIANG

    2013-01-01

    We take Shunde District,Foshan City in Guangdong Province for example,to carry out SWOT analysis of urban greening maintenance and management.The strengths of greening management and maintenance in Shunde District are as follows:(i)The greening area and quality are continuously improved in the downtown of Shunde District;(ii)The management and maintenance work is carried out well;(iii)The management and maintenance level tends to be increasingly perfected.The weaknesses of greening management and maintenance are as follows:(i)The fees for greening management and maintenance are very low;(ii)There is corner as yet untouched in the junction of some town streets;(iii)The greening management and maintenance technicians are unprofessional;(iv)The greening management is not in place;(v)There is management vacancy phenomenon in the management and maintenance of regional green space;(vi)The design and construction phase is flawed.Finally,based on the analysis of strengths and weaknesses of greening,we put forth the recommendations for the development of management and maintenance in urban green space.

  14. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  15. Spatial-temporal variation of surface water quality in the downstream region of the Jakara River, north-western Nigeria: A statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan

    2012-01-01

    The pollution status of the downstream section of the Jakara River was investigated. Dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), pH, conductivity, salinity, temperature, nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)), turbidity, dissolved solids (DS), total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)), chloride (Cl) and phosphates (PO(3-)(4)) were evaluated, using both dry and wet season samples, as a measure of variation in surface water quality in the area. The results obtained from the analyses were correlated using Pearson's correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and paired sample t-tests. Positive correlations were observed for BOD(5), NH(3), COD, and SS, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DS, TS for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter, and yielded 5 varimax factors for each of dry and wet seasons, with 70.7 % and 83.1 % total variance, respectively. A paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between dry and wet season samples (P < 0.01). The source of pollution in the area was concluded to be of anthropogenic origin in the dry season and natural origins in the wet season.

  16. Flood management selections for the Yangtze River midstream after the Three Gorges Project operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei; Han, Dong; He, Guojian; Chen, Minghong

    2012-04-01

    SummaryAfter the Yangtze River was closed by the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in 2003, erosion occurred from the dam site to the river mouth, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. However, in some local areas of Chenglingji reach which holds the key position for flood management, there is actually deposition in contrast to the expected erosion. In this paper, a one dimensional mathematical model of the river network with sediment transport is used as the tool to simulate flow and fluvial processes. The calculation domain is from Yichang, which is downstream of the dam, to Hankou, the controlling node of flood management, 694 km long in total. The model is calibrated based on the field data of hydrology and sediment transport during the period from October 2003 to October 2008. Then the model is utilized to simulate the erosion and deposition of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the next two decades, and produce the results of a new river channel after river bed deformation occurs. The typical flood processes of 1954 and 1998 in the Yangtze River basin are used to check the flood management scheme for the research area, and results show that water storage of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) and a flood diversion program downstream of the Yangtze River should be taken into consideration.

  17. Bioremediation potential of the Sava river water polluted by oil refinery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, B.; Matavulj, M.; Vukic, Lj.; Radnovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enumeration is a screening-level tool which can be used to evaluate in-situ response of water microorganisms to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as for evaluating enhanced bioremediation potential of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. In this investigations the increase between 17- and 44-fold of number of heterotrophs in hydrocarbon contaminated the Sava River water when compared with the no contaminated river water have been recorded. The significant increase of number of facultative oligotrophs in the river Sava water downstream of wastewater discharge (between 70- and almost 100-fold higher number) direct to the conclusion that oligotrophic bacteria (adapted to the environments with low amount of easy-to-degrade nutrients, oligocarbophilic microorganisms) could be better indicator of water bioremediation potential than number of heterotrophic (THR) bacteria. Quantitative composition of heterotrophic, facultative oligotrophic, crude oil degrading, and other physiological groups of bacteria, being, as a rule, higher in samples taken downstream of the waste-water discharge, testify about high biodegradative potential of the River Sava microbial community, if the oil refinery wastewater is taken into consideration. (author)

  18. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  19. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, María S; Johnson, William E; Higman, John C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gross, Timothy S

    2002-04-22

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  20. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  1. Quantification and Simulation of Metal Loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Drainage from abandoned and inactive mines and from naturally mineralized areas in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado contributes metals to the upper Animas River near Silverton, Colorado. Tracer-injection studies and associated synoptic sampling were performed along two reaches of the upper Animas River to develop detailed profiles of stream discharge and to locate and quantify sources of metal loading. One tracer-injection study was performed in September 1997 on the Animas River reach from Howardsville to Silverton, and a second study was performed in August 1998 on the stream reach from Eureka to Howardsville. Drainage in the upper Animas River study reaches contributed aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, and zinc to the surface-water system in 1997 and 1998. Colloidal aluminum, dissolved copper, and dissolved zinc were attenuated through a braided stream reach downstream from Eureka. Instream dissolved copper concentrations were lower than the State of Colorado acute and chronic toxicity standards downstream from the braided reach to Silverton. Dissolved iron load and concentrations increased downstream from Howardsville and Arrastra Gulch, and colloidal iron remained constant at low concentrations downstream from Howardsville. Instream sulfate concentrations were lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water standard of 250 milligrams per liter throughout the two study reaches. Elevated zinc concentrations are the primary concern for aquatic life in the upper Animas River. In the 1998 Eureka to Howardsville study, instream dissolved zinc load increased downstream from the Forest Queen mine, the Kittimack tailings, and Howardsville. In the 1997 Howardsville to Silverton study, there were four primary areas where zinc load increased. First, was the increase downstream from Howardsville and abandoned mining sites downstream from the Cunningham Gulch confluence, which also was measured during

  2. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  3. The River Valleys as Biodiversity Reservoirs for Land Snails in Highly Anthropic Areas – The Case of Cisnădie River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheoca Voichiţa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the snail fauna of a river valley passing through two closely located settlements. Thirty six species of terrestrial gastropods were identified. Species such as Macrogastra borealis, Alinda fallax, Alinda viridana, Bulgarica vetusta, Monachoides vicinus, Drobacia banatica, are present along the river and abundant in the sampling stations downstream of Cisnădie town. The high specific diversity and the presence of typical forest species demonstrate the presence of fragments of habitat that can preserve populations of terrestrial gastropods, underlining the importance of river valleys in conservation and dispersion of these species.

  4. A new framework for assessing river ecosystem health with consideration of human service demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zengliang; Zuo, Qiting; Shao, Quanxi

    2018-06-01

    In order to study river health status from harmonic relationship between human and natural environment, a river health evaluation method was proposed from the aspects of ecosystem integrity and human service demand, and the understanding of river health connotation. The proposed method is based on the harmony theory and two types of river health assessment methods (the forecasting model and index evaluation). A new framework for assessing river water health was then formed from the perspective of harmony and dynamic evolution between human service demand and river ecosystem integrity. As a case study, the method and framework were applied to the Shaying River Basin, a tributary of the most polluted Huaihe River Basin in China. The health status of the river's ecosystem and its effect on the mainstream of Huaihe River were evaluated based on water ecological experiment. The results indicated that: (1) the water ecological environment in Shaying River was generally poor and showed a gradual changing pattern along the river. The river health levels were generally "medium" in the upstream but mostly "sub-disease" in the midstream and downstream, indicating that the water pollution in Shaying River were mainly concentrated in the midstream and downstream; (2) the water pollution of Shaying River had great influence on the ecosystem of Huaihe River, and the main influencing factors were TN, followed by TP and COD Mn ; (3) the natural attribute of river was transferring toward to the direction of socialization due to the increasing human activities. The stronger the human activity intervention is, the faster the transfer will be and the more river's attributes will match with human service demand. The proposed framework contributes to the research in water ecology and environment management, and the research results can serve as an important reference for basin management in Shaying River and Huaihe River. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Red-Green Color Vision Impairment in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo Fernandes ; Oliveira, Andre Gustavo Fernandes ; Feitosa-Santana, Claudia ; Zatz, Mayana ; Ventura, Dora Fix 

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the color vision of 44 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (mean age 14.8 years; SD 4.9) who were submitted to a battery of four different color tests: Cambridge Colour Test (CCT), Neitz Anomaloscope, Ishihara, and American Optical Hardy-Rand-Rittler (AO H-R-R). Patients were divided into two groups according to the region of deletion in the dystrophin gene: upstream of exon 30 (n=12) and downstream of exon 30 (n=32). The control group was composed of 70 age-matched healthy male subjects with no ophthalmological complaints. Of the patients with DMD, 47% (21/44) had a red-green color vision defect in the CCT, confirmed by the Neitz Anomaloscope with statistical agreement (P.05). Of the patients with deletion downstream of exon 30, 66% had a red-green color defect. No color defect was found in the patients with deletion upstream of exon 30. A negative correlation between the color thresholds and age was found for the controls and patients with DMD, suggesting a nonprogressive color defect. The percentage (66%) of patients with a red-green defect was significantly higher than the expected <10% for the normal male population (P<.001). In contrast, patients with DMD with deletion upstream of exon 30 had normal color vision. This color defect might be partially explained by a retina impairment related to dystrophin isoform Dp260. PMID:17503325

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF SPECIFIC EXPENSES OF SPILLWAY DAM ON NOT ROCK THE BASIS OF THE MAGNITUDE OF THE EROSION OF THE RIVERBED DOWNSTREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Kurbanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When you select a specific consumption of the dam, the corresponding minimum Noah value crest front of the dam, it is necessary to take into account possible changes of the water level regime due to a General erosion of the river channel for attaching in the downstream. Considering this circumstance, has developed a methodology and computer program for calculation of total washout of the bottom of the riverbed downstream waterworks depending on the specific consumption of the dam. In the course of the research were graphic and analytical depending on the impact of specific economical expenditure on the depth of the total washout for fastening downstream of the spillway dam.

  7. The lower San Pedro River: hydrology and flow restoration for biodiversity conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmarie Haney

    2005-01-01

    The lower San Pedro River, downstream from Benson, is a nearly unfragmented habitat containing perennial flow reaches that support riparian vegetation that serve as “stepping stones” for migratory species. The Nature Conservancy has purchased farm properties and retired agricultural pumping along the lower river, based largely on results from hydrologic analyses...

  8. Development of CE-QUAL-W2 models for the Middle Fork Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Kim, Yoonhee; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic (CE-QUAL-W2) models of Hills Creek Lake (HCL), Lookout Point Lake (LOP), and Dexter Lake (DEX) on the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), and models of Green Peter Lake and Foster Lake on the South Santiam River systems in western Oregon were updated and recalibrated for a wide range of flow and meteorological conditions. These CE-QUAL-W2 models originally were developed by West Consultants, Inc., for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey included a reassessment of the models’ calibration in more recent years—2002, 2006, 2008, and 2011—categorized respectively as low, normal, high, and extremely high flow calendar years. These years incorporated current dam-operation practices and more available data than the time period used in the original calibration. Modeled water temperatures downstream of both HCL and LOP-DEX on the MFWR were within an average of 0.68 degree Celsius (°C) of measured values; modeled temperatures downstream of Foster Dam on the South Santiam River were within an average of 0.65°C of measured values. A new CE-QUAL-W2 model was developed and calibrated for the riverine MFWR reach between Hills Creek Dam and the head of LOP, allowing an evaluation of the flow and temperature conditions in the entire MFWR system from HCL to Dexter Dam. The complex bathymetry and long residence time of HCL, combined with the relatively deep location of the power and regulating outlet structures at Hills Creek Dam, led to a HCL model that was highly sensitive to several outlet and geometric parameters related to dam structures (STR TOP, STR BOT, STR WIDTH). Release temperatures from HCL were important and often persisted downstream as they were incorporated in the MFWR model and the LOP-DEX model (downstream of MFWR). The models tended to underpredict the measured temperature of water releases from Dexter Dam during the late-September-through-December drawdown period in 2002, and again (to a lesser extent) in

  9. Coastal watershed management across an international border in the Tijuana River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Linda

    2005-05-01

    The paper develops and applies a game theoretic model of upstream and downstream countries to examine cooperative and noncooperative strategies of a common watershed. The application to the Tijuana River watershed shared by the United States and Mexico provides quantification of the strategies for internalizing water quality externalities to upstream and downstream originating from sedimentation. Results show that different transfer payments, such as the Chander/Tulkens cost sharing rule and the Shapley value, imply the size of the existing transfer from downstream to upstream could increase the amount currently allocated.

  10. Association analysis between spatiotemporal variation of vegetation greenness and precipitation/temperature in the Yangtze River Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Singh, Ramesh P; Lai, Zhongping; Jiang, Liangliang; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-23

    The variation in vegetation greenness provides good understanding of the sustainable management and monitoring of land surface ecosystems. The present paper discusses the spatial-temporal changes in vegetation and controlling factors in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 2001-2013. Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and residual analysis have been used, which shows decreasing trend of the annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB. Spatially, the regions with significant decreasing trends were mainly located in parts of central YRB, and pronounced increasing trends were observed in parts of the eastern and western YRB. The mean NDVI during spring and summer seasons increased, while it decreased during autumn and winter seasons. The seasonal mean NDVI shows spatial heterogeneity due to the vegetation types. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between NDVI and temperature over most of the YRB, whereas NDVI and precipitation show a negative correlation. The residual analysis shows an increase in NDVI in parts of eastern and western YRB and the decrease in NDVI in the small part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the mid-western YRB due to human activities. In general, climate factors were the principal drivers of NDVI variation in YRB in recent years.

  11. How Sustainable are Engineered Rivers in Arid Lands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Schmandt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Engineered rivers in arid lands play an important role in feeding the world’s growing population. Each continent has rivers that carry water from distant mountain sources to fertile soil downstream where rainfall is scarce. Over the course of the last century most rivers in arid lands have been equipped with large engineering structures that generate electric power and store water for agriculture and cities. This has changed the hydrology of the rivers. In this paper we discuss how climate variation, climate change, reservoir siltation, changes in land use and population growth will challenge the sustainability of engineered river systems over the course of the next few decades. We use the Rio Grande in North America, where we have worked with Mexican and American colleagues, to describe our methodology and results. Similar work is needed to study future water supply and demand in engineered rivers around the world.

  12. Effluents from a pulp and paper mill: a skin and health survey of children living in upstream and downstream villages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J; Koh, D; Andijani, M; Saw, S; Munoz, C; Chia, S; Wong, M; Hong, C; Ong, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A health survey of three villages (upstream village Rantau Baru and two downstream villages, Sering and Pelalawan) in the vicinity of a pulp and paper mill along the Kampar river in the province of Riau, Indonesia was conducted to find whether exposure to the effluents from the mill was related to skin conditions and ill health.

  13. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  14. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the

  15. Effect of Sediment Availability in Bedload-Dominated Rivers on Fluvial Geomorphic Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M.

    2016-12-01

    Channels are known to compensate for changes in sediment supply via covariate changes in channel properties, yet the timescale for adjustment remains poorly constrained. We propose that reductions in sediment flux inhibit equilibrium re-establishment and thus impact the timescale of system adjustment. Using run-of-river dams as natural experiments, this study quantifies the geomorphic response of channels to sediment supply reduction. Channel traits that facilitate increased sediment trapping behind the dam, such as large reservoir storage capacity relative to annual inflow and low slope, were expected to inhibit a channel's ability to re-establish equilibrium following impoundment, lengthening the equilibrium establishment timescale to tens or hundreds of years. Reaches associated with increased trapping were therefore anticipated to exhibit non-equilibrium forms. Channel equilibrium was evaluated downstream of 8 ROR dams in New England with varying degrees of sediment trapping. Sites cover a range of watershed sizes (3-155 km2), channel slopes (.05-5%), 2-year discharges (1.5-60 m3/s) and storage capacity volumes. Because equilibrium channel form is just sufficient to mobilize grains under bankfull conditions in bedload-dominated rivers, the Shields parameter was used to assess equilibrium form. Unregulated, upstream Shields values and regulated, downstream values were calculated at 14 total cross-sections extending 300-450 m upstream and downstream of each dam. Sediment trapping was estimated using Brune's curve (1953). On the Charles Brown Brook (VT), a marginally significant (p=0.08) increase in Shields values from a mean of 0.14 upstream to 0.41 downstream of a 100+ year old dam was observed. In contrast, reaches downstream of the 100+ year old Pelham dam (MA) exhibit significantly lower Shields values. This suggests that trapping behind the dam inhibits the downstream channel from reaching an equilibrium state, but not always in the same way. Better

  16. The characteristics and evaluation of water pollution in Ganjiang Tail River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. J.; Li, Z. B.; Zou, D. S.; Ren, C. J.; Pei, Q. B.

    2017-08-01

    The water quality in Ganjiang River has an important impact on the ecological environment of Poyang Lake, because Ganjiang River is an important water supply of Poyang Lake. In this paper, the electrical conductivity (ED), turbidity (NTU), suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (NP), total nitrogen (NT), ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and chemical oxygen demand quantity (COD) have been considered as indicators of water quality while performing an assessment of water in Ganjiang River. We evaluated and analyzed comprehensively the quality of surface and underground water by using the Water Quality Identification Index Method. The sample water was retrieved every 50 days from eight monitoring points located in three sections of downstream Ganjiang River in Nanchang city; the study was conducted from September 10, 2015 to June 1, 2016. The results indicate that the pollution index of northern, central, and southern tributaries in Ganjiang River downstream are 3.807, 3.567, and 3.795, respectively; these results were obtained by performing the primary pollutants quality identification index method (PP-WQI); the pollution index for the same tributaries was found to be 3.8077, 3.5003, 3.7465, respectively when we performed comprehensive water quality identification index method (CWQI). The water pollution grades are between level 3 and level 4. The main pollutants are COD, TN, and SS; moreover, there is a linear relationship between the pollution index in groundwater and surface water. The water quality is the best in the central branch, and worst in the south; the water quality is moderate in the north. Furthermore, the water of upstream is better than that of downstream. Finally, the water quality is worst in summer but best in winter.

  17. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of

  18. Anoxia stimulates microbially catalyzed metal release from Animas River sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saup, Casey M; Williams, Kenneth H; Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Cerrato, José M; Johnston, Michael D; Wilkins, Michael J

    2017-04-19

    The Gold King Mine spill in August 2015 released 11 million liters of metal-rich mine waste to the Animas River watershed, an area that has been previously exposed to historical mining activity spanning more than a century. Although adsorption onto fluvial sediments was responsible for rapid immobilization of a significant fraction of the spill-associated metals, patterns of longer-term mobility are poorly constrained. Metals associated with river sediments collected downstream of the Gold King Mine in August 2015 exhibited distinct presence and abundance patterns linked to location and mineralogy. Simulating riverbed burial and development of anoxic conditions, sediment microcosm experiments amended with Animas River dissolved organic carbon revealed the release of specific metal pools coupled to microbial Fe- and SO 4 2- -reduction. Results suggest that future sedimentation and burial of riverbed materials may drive longer-term changes in patterns of metal remobilization linked to anaerobic microbial metabolism, potentially driving decreases in downstream water quality. Such patterns emphasize the need for long-term water monitoring efforts in metal-impacted watersheds.

  19. Anoxia stimulates microbially catalyzed metal release from Animas River sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saup, Casey M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Rodríguez-Freire, Lucía; Cerrato, José M.; Johnston, Michael D.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    The Gold King Mine spill in August 2015 released 11 million liters of metal-rich mine waste to the Animas River watershed, an area that has been previously exposed to historical mining activity spanning more than a century. Although adsorption onto fluvial sediments was responsible for rapid immobilization of a significant fraction of the spill-associated metals, patterns of longer-term mobility are poorly constrained. Metals associated with river sediments collected downstream of the Gold King Mine in August 2015 exhibited distinct presence and abundance patterns linked to location and mineralogy. Simulating riverbed burial and development of anoxic conditions, sediment microcosm experiments amended with Animas River dissolved organic carbon revealed the release of specific metal pools coupled to microbial Fe- and SO 4 2- reduction. Results suggest that future sedimentation and burial of riverbed materials may drive longer-term changes in patterns of metal remobilization linked to anaerobic microbial metabolism, potentially driving decreases in downstream water quality. Such patterns emphasize the need for long-term water monitoring efforts in metal-impacted watersheds.

  20. Geomorphic change and sediment transport during a small artificial flood in a transformed post-dam delta: The Colorado River delta, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Schmidt, John C.; Topping, David J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Rodríguez-Burgueño, Jesús Eliana; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Grams, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado River delta is a dramatically transformed landscape. Major changes to river hydrology and morpho-dynamics began following completion of Hoover Dam in 1936. Today, the Colorado River has an intermittent and/or ephemeral channel in much of its former delta. Initial incision of the river channel in the upstream ∼50 km of the delta occurred in the early 1940s in response to spillway releases from Hoover Dam under conditions of drastically reduced sediment supply. A period of relative quiescence followed, until the filling of upstream reservoirs precipitated a resurgence of flows to the delta in the 1980s and 1990s. Flow releases during extreme upper basin snowmelt in the 1980s, flood flows from the Gila River basin in 1993, and a series of ever-decreasing peak flows in the late 1990s and early 2000s further incised the upstream channel and caused considerable channel migration throughout the river corridor. These variable magnitude post-dam floods shaped the modern river geomorphology. In 2014, an experimental pulse-flow release aimed at rejuvenating the riparian ecosystem and understanding hydrologic dynamics flowed more than 100 km through the length of the delta’s river corridor. This small artificial flood caused localized meter-scale scour and fill of the streambed, but did not cause further incision or significant bank erosion because of its small magnitude. Suspended-sand-transport rates were initially relatively high immediately downstream from the Morelos Dam release point, but decreasing discharge from infiltration losses combined with channel widening downstream caused a rapid downstream reduction in suspended-sand-transport rates. A zone of enhanced transport occurred downstream from the southern U.S.-Mexico border where gradient increased, but effectively no geomorphic change occurred beyond a point 65 km downstream from Morelos Dam. Thus, while the pulse flow connected with the modern estuary, deltaic sedimentary processes were not

  1. Simulated flow and solute transport, and mitigation of a hypothetical soluble-contaminant spill for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, to investigate the transport and factors affecting mitigation of a hypothetical spill of a soluble contaminant into the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. The study reach, 53 miles of the lower New River between Hinton and Fayette, is characterized as a pool-and-riffle stream that becomes narrower, steeper, and deeper in the downstream direction. A USGS unsteady-flow model, DAFLOW (Diffusion Analogy FLOW), and a USGS solute-transport model, BLTM (Branch Lagrangian Transport Model), were applied to the study reach. Increases in discharge caused decreases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. Decreases in discharge caused increases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. This study indicated that the effects of an accidental spill could be mitigated by regulating discharge from Bluestone Dam. Knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the spill, location and time of the spill, and discharge of the river can aid in determining a mitigation response.

  2. Is South Korea’s Green Job Policy Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Mi Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s green job policy was implemented in February 2008 as a part of low-carbon green growth policy, but has been discontinued at the present. The country’s actual energy and environmental consumption has continuously increased, and South Korean society has grown increasingly distant from sustainable development. The study constructs a theoretical framework centering on sustainable development and analyzes the process and contents of South Korea’s green job policy. We suggest four findings: First, in terms of ideology, the nation’s green job policy was based on green growth. Implemented as a strategy typical of developing countries, South Korea’s green growth was pursued as weak ecological modernization, relatively stressing economic growth and excluding citizens’ participation. Second, in terms of governance, the nation’s green job policy was led by the central government, thus nearly completely destroying existing legal and institutional infrastructures related to sustainable development. Third, South Korea’s green job policy was defined on the basis of a growth orientation and concentrated on the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project and the NPP project, both of which betrayed considerable problems from the perspective of sustainable development. Fourth, green jobs were created in traditional environmental protection and pollution reduction and therefore limited.

  3. The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Heqing; Chen Guang; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavier or lighter pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a wide river is investigated with a well-tested three-dimensional numerical model of gravity flows based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence k-ε model. By focusing on investigating the influences of flow and buoyancy on pollutants, it is found that while carrying by the river flow downstream: i) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, forms transverse oscillation between two banks with decreased amplitude, i.e. forms kind of helical flow pattern along the straight part of channel bed; ii) a heavier pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, forms collapse oscillation in the middle of the straight channel part with reduced amplitude; iii) in the downstream sinuous channel, heavier pollutant is of higher concentration on the outer side of channel bends; iv) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional side position, slips partly to the other side of the river, resulting in higher concentrations on two sides of the channel top; v) a light pollutant released from the cross-sectional middle position, splits into two parts symmetrically along two sides of the channel top; vi) in the downstream sinuous channel, light pollutant presents higher concentration on the inner side of channel bends. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accidental or planned pollutant releases into a river. - The distribution characteristics of heavier or lighter pollutants released at different cross-sectional positions of a river.

  4. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  5. Geologic implications of large-scale trends in well-log response, northern Green River Basin, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prensky, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Well-log response in lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks in the northern Green River basin, Wyoming, is examined. Digitally recorded well-log data for selected wells located throughout the basin were processed by computer and displayed as highly compressed depth-scale plots for examining large-scale geologic trends. Stratigraphic units, formed under similar depositional conditions, are distinguishable by differing patterns on these plots. In particular, a strong lithologic contrast between Tertiary and underlying Upper Cretaceous non-marine clastic rocks is revealed and correlated through the study area. Laboratory analysis combined with gamma-ray spectrometry log data show that potassium feldspars in the arkosic Tertiary sandstones cause the contrast. The nature and extent of overpressuring has been examined. Data shift on shale conductivity and shale acoustic transit-time plots, previously ascribed to changes in pore pressure, correspond to stratigraphic changes and not necessarily with changes in pore pressure as indicated by drilling-mud weights. Gulf Coast well-log techniques for detecting overpressuring are unreliable and ineffectual in this basin, which has experienced significantly different geologic depositional and tectonic conditions

  6. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa : The case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  7. Managing Basin Interdependencies in a Heterogeneous, Highly Utilized and Data Scarce River Basin in Semi-Arid Africa: The Case of the Pangani River Basin, Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    For integrated water resources management both blue and green water resources in a river basin and their spatial and temporal distribution have to be considered. This is because green and blue water uses are interdependent. In sub-Saharan Africa, the upper landscapes are often dominated by rainfed

  8. Downstream lightening and upward heavying, sorting of sediments of uniform grain size but differing in density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Solari, L.; Hill, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Downstream fining, i.e. the tendency for a gradual decrease in grain size in the downstream direction, has been observed and studied in alluvial rivers and in laboratory flumes. Laboratory experiments and field observations show that the vertical sorting pattern over a small Gilbert delta front is characterized by an upward fining profile, with preferential deposition of coarse particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The present work is an attempt to answer the following questions. Are there analogous sorting patterns in mixtures of sediment particles having the same grain size but differing density? To investigate this, we performed experiments at the Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. During the experiments a Gilbert delta formed and migrated downstream allowing for the study of transport and sorting processes on the surface and within the deposit. The experimental results show 1) preferential deposition of heavy particles in the upstream part of the deposit associated with a pattern of "downstream lightening"; and 2) a vertical sorting pattern over the delta front characterized by a pattern of "upward heavying" with preferential deposition of light particles in the lowermost part of the deposit. The observed downstream lightening is analogous of the downstream fining with preferential deposition of heavy (coarse) particles in the upstream part of the deposit. The observed upward heavying was unexpected because, considering the particle mass alone, the heavy (coarse) particles should have been preferentially deposited in the lowermost part of the deposit. Further, the application of classical fractional bedload transport relations suggests that in the case of mixtures of particles of uniform size and different densities equal mobility is not approached. We hypothesize that granular physics mechanisms traditionally associated with sheared granular flows may be responsible for the observed upward heavying and for the

  9. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  10. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  11. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  12. The role of a dambo in the hydrology of a catchment and the river network downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. von der Heyden

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dambos are shallow, seasonally inundated wetlands and are a widespread landform in Central and Southern Africa. Owing to their importance in local agriculture and as a water resource, the hydrology of dambos is of considerable interest: varied, and sometimes contradictory, hydrological characteristics have been described in the literature. The issues in contention focus on the role of the dambo in (i the catchment evapotranspiration (ET budget, (ii flood flow retardation and attenuation, and (iii sustaining dry season flow to the river down-stream. In addition, both rainfall and groundwater have been identified as the dominant source of water to the dambo and various hydrogeological models have been proposed to describe the hydrological functions of the landform. In this paper, hydrological and geochemical data collected over a full hydrological year are used to investigate and describe the hydrological functions of a dambo in north-western Zambia. The Penman estimate of wetland ET was less than the ET from the miombo-wooded interfluve and the wetland has been shown to have little effect on flood flow retardation or attenuation. Discharge of water stored within the wetland contributed little to the dry season flow from the dambo, which was sustained primarily by groundwater discharge. Flow in a perched aquifer within the catchment soils contributed a large portion of baseflow during the rains and early dry season. This source ceased by the mid dry season, implying that the sustained middle to late dry season streamflow from the wetland is through discharge of a deeper aquifer within the underlying regolith or bedrock. This hypothesis is tested through an analysis of groundwater and wetland geochemistry. Various physical parameters, PHREEQC model results and end member mixing analysis (EMMA suggest strongly that the deep Upper Roan dolomite aquifer is the source of sustained discharge from the wetland. Keywords: dambo, hydrology, hydrogeology

  13. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction-modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants.

  14. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2015-09-24

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. The internal strength of rivers: autogenic processes in control of the sediment load (Tana River, Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Ochieng Omengo, Fred; Tamooh, Fredrick; Paron, Paolo; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    The construction of sediment rating curves for monitoring stations is a widely used technique to budget sediment fluxes. Changes in the relationship between discharge and sediment concentrations over time are often attributed to human-induced changes in catchment characteristics, such as land use change, dam construction or soil conservation measures and many models have been developed to quantitatively link catchment characteristics and river sediment load. Conversely, changes in river sediment fluxes are often interpreted as indications of major changes in the catchment. By doing so, autogenic processes, taking place within the river channel, are overlooked despite the increasing awareness of their importance. We assessed the role of autogenic processes on the sediment load of Tana River (Kenya). The Tana river was impacted by major dam construction between 1968 and 1988, effectively blocking at least 80% of the sediment transfer from the highlands to the lower river reaches. However, a comparison of pre-dam sediment fluxes at Garissa (located 250 km downstream of the dams) with recent measurements shows that sediment fluxes have not changed significantly. This suggests that most of the sediment in the post-dam period has to originate from inside the alluvial plain of the river, as tributaries downstream of the dams are scarce and intermittent. Several observations are consistent with this hypothesis. We observed that, during the wet season, sediment concentrations rapidly increased below the dams and are not controlled by inputs from tributaries. Also, sediment concentrations were high at the beginning of the wet season, which can be attributed to channel adjustment to the higher discharges. The river sediment does not contain significant amounts of 137Cs or 210Pbxs, suggesting that sediments are not derived from topsoil erosion. Furthermore, we observed a counter clockwise hysteresis during individual events which can be explained by the fact that sediment

  16. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  17. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  18. Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnerud, J.; von Brömssen, C.; Fölster, J.; Buffam, I.; Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.; Bishop, K.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved predictions, with 5-15 % lower prediction errors than when using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.

  19. Broad spectrum screening of 463 organic contaminants in rivers in Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipaničev, Draženka; Dragun, Zrinka; Repec, Siniša; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Target screening of 463 organic contaminants in surface water using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) with direct injection was performed in spring of 2015 in northern Macedonia, at six sampling sites in four rivers belonging to Vardar basin: Kriva, Zletovska, Bregalnica and Vardar. The aim of the study was to differentiate between various types of organic contamination characteristic for different types of anthropogenic activities, such as mining, agriculture, and urbanization. Depending on the studied river, 9-16% of analyzed compounds were detected. The highest total levels of organic contaminants were recorded in agriculturally impacted Bregalnica River (1839-1962ngL -1 ) and Vardar River downstream from the city of Skopje (1945ngL -1 ), whereas the lowest level was found in the mining impacted Zletovska River (989ngL -1 ). The principal organic contaminants of the Bregalnica River were herbicides (45-55% of all detected compounds; 838-1094ngL -1 ), with the highest concentrations of bentazone (407-530ngL -1 ) and molinate (84-549ngL -1 ), common herbicides in rice cultivation. The main organic contaminants in the other rivers were drugs (70-80% of all detected compounds), with antibiotics as a predominant drug class. The highest drug concentrations were measured in the Vardar River, downstream from Skopje (1544ngL -1 ). Screening of surface water by UHPLC-QTOF-MS was proven as a practical tool for fast collection of comprehensive preliminary information on organic contamination of natural waters, which can present a significant contribution in the monitoring and preservation of good ecological status of freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved intake design for downstream migrating fish at hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mih, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on hydroelectric power projects on the Columbia River which provided low-cost electricity to the Pacific Northwest. However, they are detrimental to anadromous fisheries resources. Anadromous fish are migratory. They begin their life in shallow mountain streams. After several months, they migrate to the ocean, where the fish grow to maturity before their return migration. Remarkably, most anadromous fish return to spawn in their natal streams. At dams, the upstream migration of grown salmon and steelhead is accomplished through fishways. The downstream migration of juveniles remains a serious problem. Juvenile fish follow the water flow during their sea-ward migration. When passing through a turbine, fish can be severely injured due to the sudden pressure drop, high velocity shear zones, and rotating turbine blades. Stunned fish that survive the gauntlet of the turbine are easy prey for sea gulls and squawfish in the tailrace of the powerhouse. Fish mortality per turbine passage is estimated at 15 percent. With nine hydropower projected on the main steam of the Columbia River, their combined mortality is very serious. The historical Columbia River anadromous run of about 12 million fish has declined to 2.5 million in recent years. Modern high-output hydraulic turbines are designed to be placed at a lower elevation to minimize cavitation damage to turbine blades. The modern design trend of deep intake submergence has caused parallel and unsteady vortex flow patterns in the forebay, resulting in a decrease in the guiding efficiency of the screens, such as at Bonneville Second Powerhouse and at Rocky Reach Project

  1. Bank Erosion, Mass Wasting, Water Clarity, Bathymetry and a Sediment Budget Along the Dam-Regulated Lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Richter, Jean M.; Kroes, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Dam construction and its impact on downstream fluvial processes may substantially alter ambient bank stability, floodplain inundation patterns, and channel morphology. Most of the world's largest rivers have been dammed, which has prompted management efforts to mitigate dam effects. Three high dams (completed between 1953 and 1963) occur along the Piedmont portion of the Roanoke River, North Carolina; just downstream, the lower part of the river flows across largely unconsolidated Coastal Plain deposits. To document bank erosion rates along the lower Roanoke River, more than 700 bank erosion pins were installed along 124 bank transects. Additionally, discrete measurements of channel bathymetry, water clarity, and presence or absence of mass wasting were documented along the entire 153-kilometer-long study reach. Amounts of bank erosion in combination with prior estimates of floodplain deposition were used to develop a bank erosion and floodplain deposition sediment budget for the lower river. Present bank erosion rates are relatively high [mean 42 milimeters per year (mm/yr)] and are greatest along the middle reaches (mean 60 mm/yr) and on lower parts of the bank on all reaches. Erosion rates were likely higher along upstream reaches than present erosion rates such that erosion rate maxima have migrated downstream. Mass wasting and water clarity also peak along the middle reaches.

  2. Spatio-temporal migration patterns of Pacific salmon smolts in rivers and coastal marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Melnychuk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations were tagged between 2004-2008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong

  3. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  4. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  5. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  6. Selenium concentrations and loads from coal mining operations in the Elk River Watershed, Southeastern BC : 2004-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, M.; Orr, P.; Franklin, W.; Fraser, C.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which selenium concentrations were measured at 27 receiving and 40 discharge water stations in British Columbia's Elk River watershed, where Teck Coal Ltd. operates 5 coal mines. Monthly measurements were taken in the Elk River and its major tributaries from 2004 to 2009 to evaluate trends for selenium concentrations in receiving waters, and for concentrations and loads at selected discharges. Selenium concentrations were found to be much higher than background levels of 1 g/L in areas downstream of mine discharges in the Fording River, Line Creek, Michel Creek and in the lower Elk River below its confluence with the Fording River. Concentrations increased considerably over time in the Fording and lower Elk Rivers, and in Line Creek. Most of the selenium loads discharged to the Elk River and its tributaries were found to originate from less than 10 major sources. Concentrations increased with time at most major sources. At some sources, selenium loads increased with time, but decreased at others. The increase in concentrations in the lower Elk River and at several major sources from 2007 to 2009 may be attributed in part to a decrease in flow. Options for reducing selenium loads discharged to downstream receiving waters are being investigated by the mines.

  7. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    . Meteorological, streamflow, turbidity, water temperature, and conductance conditions in the Tualatin River during the 2006–08 summer seasons were not atypical. Natural flow comprised the majority (70–80 percent) of flow each year during spring, but then reduced to 38–40 percent during midsummer when WWTF effluent—which contributed as much as 36 percent—and flow augmentation releases comprised a greater fraction of the flow. Summer 2008 was unusual, however, in the prolonged influence from the Wapato Lake agricultural area near Gaston in the upper part of the basin. The previous winter flooding and levee breach at Wapato Lake caused a much greater area of inundation. As a result, drainage from this area continued into July, much later than normal. A subsequent algal bloom in Wapato Lake then seeded the upper Tualatin River, and this drainage had a profound effect on the downstream plankton community. A large blue-green algae bloom developed—the largest in recent memory—prompting a public health advisory for recreational contact for about two weeks. Algal growths and surface blooms are a common feature of the Tualatin River. Most of the dominant algae have growth forms and morphologies that are well suited for planktonic life, employing spines and gas vacuoles to resist settling, forming colonies, and producing mucilage (or toxins) to resist zooplankton grazing. In 2006–08, 143 algal taxa were identified in 117 main-stem samples; diatoms and green algae were more diverse than blue-green, golden, and cryptophyte algae, although these later groups sometimes dominated the overall volumetric abundance (biovolume). The most frequently occurring taxa, occurring in 97–99 percent of samples, were flagellated cryptophytes Cryptomonas erosa and Rhodomonas minuta. Other important algal taxa included centric diatoms Stephanodiscus, Cyclotella, and Melosira species and colonial green algae Scenedesmus and Actinastrum. These taxa comprised the majority of the algal biovolume

  8. Net ground speed of downstream migrating radio-tagged Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) and brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) smolts in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Nielsen, C.; Koed, Anders

    2002-01-01

    tagged and released in the Danish River Lilleaa. The downstream migration of the different groups of fish was monitored by manual tracking and by three automatic listening stations. The downstream migration of radio tagged smolts of both species occurred concurrently with their untagged counterparts....... The diel migration pattern of the radio tagged smolts was predominantly nocturnal in both species. Wild sea trout smolt migrated significantly faster than both the F1 trout and the introduced salmon. There was no correlation between net ground speed, gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity or fish length in any...

  9. Integration of fluvial erosion factors for predicting landslides along meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-chin; Chang, Kang-tsung; Ho, Jui-yi

    2015-04-01

    River incision and lateral erosion are important geomorphologic processes in mountainous areas of Taiwan. During a typhoon or storm event, the increase of water discharge, flow velocity, and sediment discharge enhances the power of river erosion on channel bank. After the materials on toe of hillslope were removed by river erosion, landslides were triggered at outer meander bends. Although it has been long expected that river erosion can trigger landslide, studies quantifying the effects of river erosion on landslide and the application of river erosion index in landslide prediction are still overlooked. In this study, we investigated the effect of river erosion on landslide in a particular meanders landscape of the Jhoukou River, southern Taiwan. We developed a semi-automatic model to separate meandering lines into several reach segments based on the inflection points and to calculate river erosion indexes, e.g. sinuosity of meander, stream power, and stream order, for each reach segment. This model, then, built the spatial relationship between the reaches and its corresponding hillslopes, of which the toe was eroded by the reach. Based on the spatial relationship, we quantified the correlations between these indexes and landslides triggered by Typhoon Morakot in 2009 to examine the effects of river erosion on landslide. The correlated indexes were then used as landslide predictors in logistic regression model. Results of the study showed that there is no significant correlation between landslide density and meander sinuosity. This may be a result of wider channel dispersing the erosion at a meandering reach. On the other hand, landslide density at concave bank is significantly higher than that at convex bank in the downstream (stream order > 3), but that is almost the same in the upstream (stream order bank. In contrast, river sediment in the downstream is an erosion agent eroding the concave bank laterally, but also depositing on the concave side and protecting

  10. Distribution of Organic Carbon in the Sediments of Xinxue River and the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Haijie; Ge, Xiuli; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Wetland ecosystems are represented as a significant reservoir of organic carbon and play an important role in mitigating the greenhouse effect. In order to compare the compositions and distribution of organic carbon in constructed and natural river wetlands, sediments from the Xinxue River Constructed Wetland and the Xinxue River, China, were sampled at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-25 cm) in both upstream and downstream locations. Three types of organic carbon were determined: light fraction organic carbon, heavy fraction organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The results show that variations in light fraction organic carbon are significantly larger between upstream and downstream locations than they are between the two wetland types; however, the opposite trend is observed for the dissolved organic carbon. There are no significant differences in the distribution of heavy fraction organic carbon between the discrete variables (e.g., between the two depths, the two locations, or the two wetland types). However, there are significant cross-variable differences; for example, the distribution patterns of heavy fraction organic carbon between wetland types and depths, and between wetland types and locations. Correlation analysis reveals that light fraction organic carbon is positively associated with light fraction nitrogen in both wetlands, while heavy fraction organic carbon is associated with both heavy fraction nitrogen and the moisture content in the constructed wetland. The results of this study demonstrate that the constructed wetland, which has a relatively low background value of heavy fraction organic carbon, is gradually accumulating organic carbon of different types, with the level of accumulation dependent on the balance between carbon accumulation and carbon decomposition. In contrast, the river wetland has relatively stable levels of organic carbon.

  11. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  12. How Physical Processes are Informing River Management Actions at Marble Bluff Dam, Truckee River, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountry, J.; Godaire, J.; Bradley, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    At the terminus of the Truckee River into Pyramid Lake (Nevada, USA), upstream river management actions have dramatically reshaped the river landscape, posing significant challenges for the management of endangered aquatic species and maintenance of existing infrastructure. Within the last 100 years, upstream water withdrawal for human uses has resulted in a rapid lowering of Pyramid Lake which initiated up to 90 ft of channel incision. In 1976 Marble Bluff Dam was constructed to halt the upstream progression of channel incision and protect upstream agricultural lands, tribal resources, and infrastructure. Since construction an additional 40 ft of lake lowering and subsequent channel lowering now poses a potential risk to the structural integrity of the dam. The dynamic downstream river combined with ongoing reservoir sedimentation pose challenges to fish passage facilities that enable migration of numerous endangered cui-ui and threatened Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (LCT) to upstream spawning areas each year. These facilities include a fish lock at the dam, a fish bypass channel which allows fish to avoid the shallow delta area during low lake levels, and a meandering channel constructed by the Nature Conservancy to connect the bypass channel to the receding Pyramid Lake. The reservoir formed by Marble Bluff Dam has completely filled with sediment which impacts fish passage facilities. The original operating manual for the dam recommends year-round flushing of sediment through radial gates, but this can no longer be accomplished. During critical fish migration periods in the spring operators must ensure fish entrance channels downstream of the dam are not buried with released sediment and fish are not trapped in a portion of the reservoir full of sediment that would risk sending them back over the dam. To help inform future reservoir sediment and infrastructure management strategies, we bracket a range of potential river responses to lake level lowering and floods

  13. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  14. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  15. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  16. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  17. Simulating Spawning and Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Habitat in Colorado River Based on High-Flow Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available High flow generates significant alterations in downstream river reaches, resulting in physical condition changes in the downstream regions of the river such as water depth, flow velocity, water temperature and river bed. These alterations will lead to change in fish habitat configuration in the river. This paper proposes a model system to evaluate the high flow effects on river velocity, water depth, substrates changes, temperature distribution and consequently assess the change in spawning and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss habitats in the downstream region of the Glen Canyon Dam. Firstly, based on the 2 dimensional (2D depth-averaged CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics model and heat transfer equation applied for simulation, three indices were simulated, namely depth, flow velocity and temperature distribution. Then, the spawning and juvenile fish preference curves were obtained based on these three indices and substrates distribution. After that, the habitat model was proposed and used to simulate the high flow effects on juvenile and spawning rainbow trout habitat structure. Finally, the weighted usable area (WUA and overall suitability index (OSI of the spawning and juvenile fish species were quantitatively simulated to estimate the habitat sensitivity. The results illustrate that the high flow effect (HFE increased the juvenile rainbow trout habitat quality but decreased the spawning rainbow trout habitat quality. The juvenile trout were mainly affected by the water depth while the spawning rainbow trout were dominated by the bed elevation.

  18. Rethinking the longitudinal stream temperature paradigm: region-wide comparison of thermal infrared imagery reveals unexpected complexity of river temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used an extensive dataset of remotely sensed summertime river temperature to compare longitudinal profiles (temperature versus distance) for 54 rivers in the Pacific Northwest. We evaluated (1) how often profiles fit theoretical expectations of asymptotic downstream warming, a...

  19. Two-Dimensional (2-D) Acoustic Fish Tracking at River Mile 85, Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    on fish become known (USACE 2004). Levee repair and constructed habitat features included (1) protection of the toe and upper slopes of the bank...be recovered rather than being lost due to sediment dunes , large woody material floating downstream, and vandalism. The RM 85 site was a relatively...into the river channel. The addition of this material narrowed the channel and created a scour feature along the toe of the repair site. VPS array

  20. Economic interpretation of environmental flow regime downstream diverted river reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Sud Tirol (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. In the same direction Perona et al. (in revision) mathematically formulated a method particularly suitable for small hydropower plants, handling the environment as a non-traditional water use, which competes with exploitators. This model uses the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) as optimal water allocation rule for generating like-natural flow releases while maximizing the aggregate economic benefit of all uses (Gorla and Perona, in revision). In this paper we show how redistribution policies can be interpreted in terms of PEMU, particularly we focus at traditional water repartition rules, such as the MFR, but also to dynamic ones like proportional redistribution. For the first case we show both ecological and economical arguments suggesting its inappropriateness; in the second case we highlight explicit points of strength and weakness, and suggest ways of improvement. For example the flow release allocation rule can be changed from inflow-independent ones (e.g., proportional redistribution), to inflow-dependent ones (e.g., non-proportional). The latters, having fewer constraints, can generally lead to better both ecological and economical performances. A class of simple functions, based on the PEMU, is then proposed as a suitable solution in run-of-river or small hydropower plants. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is

  1. Quantifying the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huayang; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Huang, Jingzheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Feng; Toffolon, Marco

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the impact of the world’s largest dam, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River (China). The analysis uses long-term observations of river water temperature (RWT) in four stations and reconstructs the RWT that would have occurred in absence of the TGD. Relative to pre-TGD conditions, RWT consistently warmed in the region due to air temperature (AT) increase. In addition, the analysis demonstrates that the TGD significantly affected RWT in the downstream reach. At the closest downstream station (Yichang) to the TGD, the annual cycle of RWT experienced a damped response to AT and a marked seasonal alteration: warming during all seasons except for spring and early summer which were characterized by cooling. Both effects were a direct consequence of the larger thermal inertia of the massive water volume stored in the TGD reservoir, causing the downstream reach to be more thermally resilient. The approach used here to quantify the separate contributions of climate and human interventions on RWT can be used to set scientific guidelines for river management and conservation planning strategies.

  2. Spatio-temporal changes in river bank mass failures in the Lockyer Valley, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky; Grove, James; Khanal, Giri

    2013-06-01

    Wet-flow river bank failure processes are poorly understood relative to the more commonly studied processes of fluvial entrainment and gravity-induced mass failures. Using high resolution topographic data (LiDAR) and near coincident aerial photography, this study documents the downstream distribution of river bank mass failures which occurred as a result of a catastrophic flood in the Lockyer Valley in January 2011. In addition, this distribution is compared with wet flow mass failure features from previous large floods. The downstream analysis of these two temporal data sets indicated that they occur across a range of river lengths, catchment areas, bank heights and angles and do not appear to be scale-dependent or spatially restricted to certain downstream zones. The downstream trends of each bank failure distribution show limited spatial overlap with only 17% of wet flows common to both distributions. The modification of these features during the catastrophic flood of January 2011 also indicated that such features tend to form at some 'optimum' shape and show limited evidence of subsequent enlargement even when flow and energy conditions within the banks and channel were high. Elevation changes indicate that such features show evidence for infilling during subsequent floods. The preservation of these features in the landscape for a period of at least 150 years suggests that the seepage processes dominant in their initial formation appear to have limited role in their continuing enlargement over time. No evidence of gully extension or headwall retreat is evident. It is estimated that at least 12 inundation events would be required to fill these failures based on the average net elevation change recorded for the 2011 event. Existing conceptual models of downstream bank erosion process zones may need to consider a wider array of mass failure processes to accommodate for wet flow failures.

  3. Sixty Years of Geomorphic Change and Restoration Challenges on Two Unchannelized Reaches of the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; Bulliner, E. A., IV

    2016-12-01

    The Missouri National Recreational River is a National Park Service unit that includes two Missouri River segments that despite considerable alterations to hydrology, retain some aspects of channel complexity similar to conditions present in the pre-dam Missouri River. Complexity has been lost through the construction of five large reservoirs in the Missouri River system and the channelization of the lower 1,200 kilometers of river downstream from the reservoirs. These two river segments on the Nebraska and South Dakota border consist of a 63-km long inter-reservoir segment below Fort Randall Dam and a 95-km segment below Gavins Point Dam, the downstream-most dam in the Missouri River system. We present an analysis from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers cross-section data spanning 60 years. Our analysis quantifies geomorphic adjustment and resultant changes in habitat diversity since 1955, two years prior to the closure of Gavins Point Dam. In the inter-reservoir segment, sedimentation at the confluence of the Niobrara River has created a transition zone from free-flowing river, to delta, to reservoir; this transition is moving upstream as sedimentation progresses. The delta ecosystem provides wetland habitat and recreational areas for fishing and hunting, yet sedimentation threatens infrastructure and reservoir storage. In both reaches, relatively high-elevation bare sandbars are used for nesting by the endangered least tern (Sternula antillarum) and the threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Two large flood events, in 1997 and 2011, created the bulk of new sandbar nesting habitat on these river segments. Sandbars erode and vegetate between flood events, and in recent decades vegetation removal and costly mechanical sandbar construction have been used to maintain bare nesting sandbar habitat. Management decisions in the segment downstream from Gavins Point Dam include evaluating tradeoffs between maintaining sandbar habitat for nesting and allowing some

  4. Geomorphological approach to surficial material evaluation in the Serang River Basin Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno .

    2013-07-01

    Among landform units in the studied area which contains a large amount of the materials are: natural levees, river terraces, river bed and hill foot slopes. Generally, the river bed materials decrease in grain size downstreams and increase in sphericity and roundness coefficient. In some cross sections a reversal was found to the general tendency. This situation might be due to human activities for getting material for construction. Due to human activities some environmental impacts occur.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in an artificial urban river receiving WWTP effluent in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.

  6. Migratory behavior and physiological development as potential determinants of life history diversity in fall Chinook Salmon in the Clearwater River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Kock, Tobias J.; Connor, William P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the influence of behavior, water velocity, and physiological development on the downstream movement of subyearling fall‐run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in both free‐flowing and impounded reaches of the Clearwater and Snake rivers as potential mechanisms that might explain life history diversity in this stock. Movement rates and the percentage of radio‐tagged fish that moved faster than the average current velocity were higher in the free‐flowing Clearwater River than in impounded reaches. This supports the notion that water velocity is a primary determinant of downstream movement regardless of a fish's physiological development. In contrast, movement rates slowed and detections became fewer in impounded reaches, where water velocities were much lower. The percentage of fish that moved faster than the average current velocity continued to decline and reached zero in the lowermost reach of Lower Granite Reservoir, suggesting that the behavioral disposition to move downstream was low. These findings contrast with those of a similar, previous study of Snake River subyearlings despite similarity in hydrodynamic conditions between the two studies. Physiological differences between Snake and Clearwater River migrants shed light on this disparity. Subyearlings from the Clearwater River were parr‐like in their development and never showed the increase in gill Na+/K+‐ATPase activity displayed by smolts from the Snake River. Results from this study provide evidence that behavioral and life history differences between Snake and Clearwater River subyearlings may have a physiological basis that is modified by environmental conditions.

  7. Study of dynamics, sources and speciation of trace elements in the Orge River watershed (Essonne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the dynamics of trace elements (TE) in the water column of the Orge River. In the upstream part of the watershed, land uses consist mainly in forests and agricultural soils, whereas downstream, the population density reaches up to 8,000 inh. km"-"2, in the suburbs of Paris Mega-city. The sampling sites were chosen to describe a gradation in urbanization influence from up to downstream in this particularly contrasted catchment. Four sampling campaigns were performed at seven selected sites along the Orge River during an hydrological year (2010/2011). The spatio-temporal monitoring of the concentrations in the dissolved phase ( [fr

  8. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  9. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorand, F.; Zegeye, A.; Ghanbaja, J.; Abdelmoula, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10 11 cells g -1 of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe II -Fe III layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: → Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. → Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. → Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. → Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. → Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  10. The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorand, F., E-mail: jorand@pharma.uhp-nancy.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Zegeye, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France); Ghanbaja, J. [Service Commun de Microscopies Electroniques et Microanalyses X (SCMEM), Nancy-Universite, Bvd des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Abdelmoula, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, CNRS-Nancy-Universite, Institut Jean Barriol, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54600 Villers-les Nancy (France)

    2011-06-01

    In the Sinnamary Estuary (French Guiana), a dense red biofilm grows on flooded surfaces. In order to characterize the iron oxides in this biofilm and to establish the nature of secondary minerals formed after anaerobic incubation, we conducted solid analysis and performed batch incubations. Elemental analysis indicated a major amount of iron as inorganic compartment along with organic matter. Solid analysis showed the presence of two ferric oxides ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. Bacteria were abundant and represented more than 10{sup 11} cells g{sup -1} of dry weight among which iron reducers were revealed. Optical and electronic microscopy analysis revealed than the bacteria were in close vicinity of the iron oxides. After anaerobic incubations with exogenous electron donors, the biofilm's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a Fe{sup II}-Fe{sup III} layered double hydroxide. This green rust remained stable for several years. From this study and previous reports, we suggest that ferruginous biofilms should be considered as a favorable location for GR biomineralization when redox conditions and electron donors availability are gathered. - Research highlights: {yields} Characterization of ferruginous biofilm components by solid analysis methods. {yields} Lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite were the main iron oxides. {yields} Anaerobic incubation of biofilm with electron donors produced green rust. {yields} Biofilm components promote the formation of the green rust. {yields} Ferruginous biofilm could contribute to the natural mercury attenuation.

  11. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries have substantial environmental, recreational, and economic value for southwest Florida residents and visitors. Modifications to the Caloosahatchee River watershed have altered the predevelopment hydrology, thereby threatening the environmental health of estuaries in the area. Hydrologic monitoring of the freshwater contributions from tributaries to the tidal Caloosahatchee River and its estuaries is necessary to adequately describe the total freshwater inflow and constituent loads to the delicate estuarine system.

  12. Radiocesium dynamics in the Hirose River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Arai, H.; Onuma, S.; Onishi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A significant amount of radiocesium was deposited in Fukushima Prefecture during the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In river systems, radiocesium is transported to downstream in rivers. For the safe use of river and its water, it is needed to clarify the dynamics of radiocesium in river systems. We started the monitoring of the Hirose River from December 2015. The Hirose River is a tributary of the Abukuma River flowing into the Pacific Ocean, and its catchment is close to areas where a large amount of radiocesium was deposited. We set up nine monitoring points in the Hirose River watershed. The Water level and turbidity data are continuously observed at each monitoring point. We regularly collected about 100 liters of water at each monitoring point. Radiocesium in water samples was separated into two forms; the one is the dissolved form, and the other is the suspended particulate form. Radionuclide concentrations of radiocesium in both forms were measured by a germanium semiconductor detector. Furthermore, we applied the TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code to the Hirose River basin using the monitoring data. The objectives of the modeling are to understand a redistribution pattern of radiocesium adsorbed by sediments during flooding events and to determine the amount of radiocesium flux into the Abukuma River.

  13. Heat Transport In The Streambed Of A Large Regulated River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, S.; Ferencz, S. B.; Neilson, B. T.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Dams affect over half of the Earth's large river systems. In large river systems, regulation such as hydropeaking may even have more obvious and profound effects than global warming. The downstream effects of dams are not limited only to the fluvial system, but also propagate into aquifers and hyporheic zones. Despite this, little is known about how dams affect downstream surface and subsurface temperatures. This study investigates surface and groundwater interactions in the thermal regime of a 5th order dam-regulated river on several spatial scales. Two transects of thermistors recorded temperature gradients in the riverbed over the course of several flood pulses at 5 minute intervals. One transect was perpendicular to the river flow spanning the 68 m from bank to bank with sensors spaced every 2.75 m at depths of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 m in the river bed. The second was parallel to the bank with 72 thermistors spaced every meter and at the same depths as the perpendicular transect. The cross channel transect had 5 piezometers installed at 0.5 m depth at regular intervals across half the channel with instruments collecting temperature, pressure and conductivity. Flood pulses reverse head gradients daily and cause the river to fluctuate between gaining and losing on hour timescales. When the stage increases, warmer surface water penetrates into the subsurface and during the receding limb, cooler groundwater upwells as the river returns to base flow conditions. The USGS flow modeling program 1DTempPro demonstrated that the infiltration rates did not match the large head gradients associated with dam regulated stage differences, and this effect is likely due to pore pressure increases or so-called poroelastic effects. Similar responses of pore pressure increases with diminishing infiltration has been observed in shallow salt marshes with quickly increasing head gradients.

  14. Geomorphic response of the North Fork Stillaguamish River to the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Scott W.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mastin, Mark C.; Foreman, James R.

    2017-08-03

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington mobilized 8 million cubic meters of unconsolidated Pleistocene material, creating a valley‑spanning deposit that fully impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River. The river overtopped the 8-meter high debris impoundment within 25 hours and began steadily incising a new channel through the center of the deposit. Repeat topographic surveys, sediment transport measurements, bedload transport models, and observations of downstream channel change were used to document the establishment of that new channel through the landslide and assess the potential for downstream aggradation or channel change that might increase downstream flood hazards.Efficient erosion of the landslide deposit, associated with the steep knickzone formed by the downstream edge of the deposit, resulted in the re-establishment of a 20–40 meters wide, deeply inset channel through the entire deposit by May 2014, 2 months after the landslide. The mean water-surface elevation of the channel through the landslide decreased 7 meters during that 2-month period, and was about 1 meter above the pre-landslide profile in July 2014. The 2014–15 flood season, which included flows near the 0.5 annual exceedance probability discharge (2-year flood), widened the channel tens of meters, and further lowered the water-surface profile 0.5 meter. The planform position evolved slowly as a result of 5–20-meter high banks predominantly composed of clay-rich, cohesive lacustrine material. Erosion of the landslide deposit delivered a total of 820 thousand metric tons of sediment to the North Fork Stillaguamish River over the 18 months following the landslide. The sediment delivery from the deposit was predominantly fine grained: 77 percent (by mass) of the eroded material was silt or clay (less than 0.063 millimeter [mm]), 19 percent sand (0.063–2 mm), and 4 percent pebbles and cobbles (greater than 2 mm).Over the 18 months following the

  15. Selected trace-element and organic contaminants in the streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin, August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, James M.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of five selected contaminants in streambed sediments at 22 stream sites in the Potomac River Basin. Lead, mercury, and total DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were detected at all sites, and chlordane and total PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) were detected at most sites. At six sites, streambed-sediment concentrations of contaminants were detected at levels with the potential to cause frequent adverse effects on aquatic organisms that live in the sediments. Chlordane was detected at these high levels at sampling sites on the Anacostia River, the North Branch Potomac River, Bull Run, and Accotink Creek; mercury was detected at these levels at sites on the South River and the South Fork Shenandoah River; and total PCB's were detected at these levels at the site on the South Fork Shenandoah River. The highest concentrations of all five contaminants generally occurred at sampling sites downstream from areas with industrial plants, urban centers, or orchard and agricultural activity. The occurrence of these contaminants in streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin is of concern because the contaminants (1) are environmentally persistent, (2) are available for downstream transport during high streamflow periods, and (3) have the potential to cause adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms and humans through bioaccumulation.

  16. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... county +899 City of Norwich, Town boundary. of Greene, Town of North Norwich, Town of Oxford, Town of...). Susquehanna River At the downstream county +965 Town of Afton, Town of boundary. Bainbridge, Village of Afton...

  17. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  18. Age, distribution, and formation of late cenozoic paleovalleys of the lower Colorado River and their relation to river aggradation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K.A.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Malmon, D.V.; Hook, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctive far-traveled fluvial sediment of the lower Colorado River fills 20 paleo-valleys now stranded by the river downstream of Grand Canyon as it crosses the Basin and Range Province. These sediments resulted from two or more aggradational epi sodes in Pliocene and Pleistocene times following initial incision during the early Pliocene. A review of the stratigraphic evidence of major swings in river elevation over the last 5 m.y. from alternating degradation and aggradation episodes establishes a framework for understanding the incision and filling of the paleovalleys. The paleo-valleys are found mostly along narrow bedrock canyon reaches of the river, where divides of bedrock or old deposits separate them from the modern river. The paleo-valleys are interpreted to have stemmed from periods of aggradation that filled and broadened the river valley, burying low uplands in the canyon reaches into which later channel positions were entrenched during subsequent degradation episodes. The aggradation-degradation cycles resulted in the stranding of incised river valleys that range in elevation from near the modern river to 350 m above it. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  20. The mere green effect: An fMRI study of pro-environmental advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezich, I Stephanie; Gunter, Benjamin C; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Self-report evidence suggests that consumers prefer green products (i.e., pro-environmental) to standard products, but this is not reflected in purchase behaviors. To understand this disconnect, we exposed participants in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to green and standard ads. After viewing each ad, participants rated liking and perceived sustainability. Ratings were more favorable for green ads than for control ads, but the functional MRI data suggested an opposite pattern-participants showed greater activation in regions associated with personal value and reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum) in response to control ads relative to green ads. In addition, participants showed greater activity in these regions to the extent that they reported liking control ads, but there was no such trend for green ads. In line with a neuroeconomic account, we suggest that activity in these regions may be indexing a value signal computed during message exposure that may influence downstream purchase decisions, in contrast to self-reported evaluations that may reflect social desirability concerns absent at the point of purchase.

  1. Reactive transport modeling of nitrogen in Seine River sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Z.; Laverman, A.; Raimonet, M.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical processes in sediments have a major impact on the fate and transport of nitrogen (N) in river systems. Organic matter decomposition in bottom sediments releases inorganic N species back to the stream water, while denitrification, anammox and burial of organic matter remove bioavailable N from the aquatic environment. To simulate N cycling in river sediments, a multi-component reactive transport model has been developed in MATLAB®. The model includes 3 pools of particulate organic N, plus pore water nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide and ammonium. Special attention is given to the production and consumption of nitrite, a N species often neglected in early diagenetic models. Although nitrite is usually considered to be short-lived, elevated nitrite concentrations have been observed in freshwater streams, raising concerns about possible toxic effects. We applied the model to sediment data sets collected at two locations in the Seine River, one upstream, the other downstream, of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the Paris conurbation. The model is able to reproduce the key features of the observed pore water depth profiles of the different nitrogen species. The modeling results show that the presence of oxygen in the overlying water plays a major role in controlling the exchanges of nitrite between the sediments and the stream water. In August 2012, sediments upstream of the WWTP switch from being a sink to a source of nitrite as the overlying water becomes anoxic. Downstream sediments remain a nitrite sink in oxic and anoxic conditions. Anoxic bottom waters at the upstream location promote denitrification, which produces nitrite, while at the downstream site, anammox and DNRA are important removal processes of nitrite.

  2. The management of the Diama reservoir (Senegal River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvail, S.; Hamerlynck, O.

    2003-04-01

    The Senegal River is regulated by 2 dams built in the 1980's by the "Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal" (OMVS), a river basin management organisation grouping Mali, Senegal and Mauritania. The initial objectives of OMVS, which were to regulate the Senegal flows in order to develop irrigated agriculture, produce hydropower and facilitate river navigation has been only partially met. The maintenance of the annual flood by the upstream dam (Manantali), initially to be phased out when irrigated agriculture would have replaced the traditional recession agriculture, is now scheduled to continue indefinitely on the basis of socio-economic and environmental concerns. This change of mindset has however not affected the management of the downstream dam (Diama). Initially conceived as a salt-wedge dam, its function evolved to a reservoir dam with a high and constant water level. During the dry season, the water level is maintained high and constant in order to reduce the pumping costs for the irrigated agriculture in the delta. During the flood season (July-October) the dam is primarily managed for risk avoidance: limit flooding downstream of the dam (especially the city of St. Louis) and secure the infrastructure of the dam itself. The permanent freshwater reservoir lake has adverse effects on ecosystems, on human and animal health and a high social cost for the traditional stakeholders of the deltaic floodplain (fishermen, livestock keepers and gatherers). Upstream of the reservoir there is an excess of stagnant freshwater and managers are confronted with the development of invasive species while substantial downstream flooding is essential for the estuarine ecosystems and local livelihoods. The presentation will review the different approaches to the management of the Diama reservoir and proposes dif