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Sample records for green painting layer

  1. Degradation of Emerald green in oil paint and its contribution to the rapid change in colour of the Descente des vaches (1834-1835) painted by Theodore Rousseau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Boon, J.J.; Boitelle, R.; Shimadzu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Descente des vaches (1836) by Theodore Rousseau in the Mesdag Collection in The Hague is barely readable and its paint layers are in poor condition. The surface of the painting is strongly deformed and cracked, the whole painting has darkened and especially the greens have lost all or most of their

  2. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method.

  3. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    there is a big esthetical problem. The retouched damage is visible under UV-light. The title of this thesis is born out of this last problem: Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint. The first topic of research for this thesis concerns the composition of these different sorts of paint and pigments. Afterwards, the causes of damage resulting from UV-light –and other factors- were thoroughly analyzed. Finally, a possible remedy is being proposed.

  4. Microanalysis of paint layers in polychrome sculptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Falcucci, C.; Jaksic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Cross sections paint layers of polychromes sculpture of the 16 century, located at the City Museum of Havana and currently in the restoration process, have been analyzed by capillary based μXRF , μPIXE , SEM -EDX and light microscopy. Experimental parameters (geometry measurement time) of the capillary based μXRF set up (nominal end diameter equal to 10 μm) were optimized to achieve the resolution required for meaningful scintigraphic studies of the art and archaeological objects, Cumulative x-rays spectra for each layer were obtained in order to perform semi-quantitative analysis. The employed pigments were identified by the characteristics elements and the elemental maps precisely reproduced photographs obtained by means of light microscopy. In the case of nuclear microprobe, RBS for Stoichiometry analysis of paint layers was also performed. additional information on the organic materials was also obtained by chemical analysis. Complementary results obtained by using the analytical techniques are presented and discussed from the point of view of the restoration processes

  5. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  6. Characterization of paint layers and stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi Maino, D.; Ciancabilla, L.; Gandolfi, G.; Maino, G.; Bruni, S.; Ferriani, S.; Visparelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the higher magnification with respect to traditional optical microscopes, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been extensively applied in recent years to the investigation of elemental composition of many different types of artistic objects. The back-scattered and secondary electrons produced when the SEM electron beam hits the sample can be detected and converted in electronic signals which give rise to images of the scanned area. These images can be recorded in digital format and stored on a computer for subsequent processing. Moreover, in addition to the back-scattered and secondary electrons, the impact of the electron beam on the sample produces a X-ray spectrum, which can be further processed and analysed using an X-ray spectrometer coupled to the SEM. Therefore, it is possible to yield the chemical composition of the sample, analogously to the X-ray fluorescence analysis. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be applied to the characterization of paint layers, making ultra-thin sections in which the paint and ground layers are preserved intact. In comparison with usual SEM measurements, the TEM technique is more precise, because of the higher spatial resolution in both the microanalysis and diffraction modes, of the order of 10-20 nm. This precision allows unique identification of each component in the layer and determination of the crystallographic structure, thus characterizing even the smallest particles of each pigment and pointing out minor components. It is then possible to establish whether a pigment is natural, manufactured, its origin as well as approximate datations. In this work, we describe the research activities performed in the laboratory recently established at the ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) Applied Physics Division, where dedicated SEM and TEM are connected by a suitable imaging system to a powerful computing system for image acquisition and processing. Use has

  7. Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

  8. Identification of Pigments in Colored Layers of a Painting by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, O. I.; Pankin, D. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Borisov, E. V.; Beznosova, M. O.; Krivul'ko, T. A.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Using the method of Raman spectroscopy the pigment composition is investigated of, and the brushwork technique used in, the original layer of a 19th century painting is established. It is an overdoor worked, presumably, by Antoine Jean-Etienne Faivre. It is established that the artist used the following pigments: cinnabar and dyes on the basis of goethite and hematite (for red, yellow-orange, and brown shades), ultramarine and Prussian blue (for blue shades), and Emerald green and a mixture of blue and yellow shades (to obtain a green color). It is determined that white lead was used a primer.

  9. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

  10. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mando, P.A.; Fedi, M.E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the 'Madonna dei fusi' (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out

  11. Line scan micro XRF analysis of engobe of whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yimin; Wang Lihua; Zhu Jian; Wang Changsui; Yan Yan; Chen Dongliang; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Hua Wei; Xu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Whiteware painted with red, green and yellow patterns play an important role in China's development in glaze decoration. In this paper, cross-sections of the porcelain samples were scanned from glaze to body by synchrotron radiation and element contents of the samples were analyzed by SRXRF. The results revealed a transition between the glaze and engobe, and the engobe and body. In the transition area, elemental content changes were related to the raw material to form the glaze, engobe and body, and diffusing ability of the elements depended on thickness of the glaze and the elemental contents of each layer. The engobe had lower Fe and Ti concentrations than the body, hence improving the whiteness and quality of the porcelain. According to petrography, engobe was rich in mica minerals, leading to enhanced reflection effect of the white porcelain. This has not been reported before and further studies are underway. (authors)

  12. Salt damage of stone, plaster and painted layers at a medieval church, South-Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Galambos, Éva

    2016-04-01

    The Chapel of Pécsvárad is one of the best preserved and oldest medieval stone monument in South Hungary. It dates back to the 11th century. The interior of the chapel is decorated with wall paintings, which are later and probably originating from the late 12th century. The wall painting is partly preserved and it is located on an interior stone wall of the chapel facing to the East. The wall painting shows various forms of damage from salt efflorescence to chipping. The current research provides information on the in situ and laboratory analyses of salts, plasters, pigments and stone material suggesting mechanisms of decay that lead to partial loss of the painting. Both on site techniques and laboratory analyses were performed. Imaging techniques such as UV luminescence and IR thermography were used to identify the moist and salt covered zones on the wall surface. Portable moisture meter were also applied to map the wet zones in the interior and also at the external part of the chapel. Schmidt hammer and Duroscop were used for testing the surface strength of stone. Laboratory tests were focused on mineralogical and chemical compositional analyses. Small samples of stone, mortar, plaster and pigments were tested by optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, XRD and Thermogravimetric analyses. According to our tests the chapel was predominantly made of porous limestone and sandstone. Laboratory analyses proved that the major salt responsible for the damage of external walls are gypsum and halite, while in the interior part higher amount of halite and significant amount of sodium-nitrate were found besides gypsum. The painted layers are on Byzantine-type of plaster with organic compounds (plant fragments) and with a substrate layer rich in calcium carbonate. The identified pigments are dominantly earth pigments such as iron-oxide containing red and yellow (ochre) and green earth. A unique preservation of ultramarine blue in Hungary was found on the wall painting. The partial

  13. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become...

  14. Shades of green in 15th century paintings: combined microanalysis of the materials using synchrotron radiation XRD, FTIR and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvado, Nati; Buti, Salvador; Cotte, Marine; Cinque, Gianfelice; Pradell, Trinitat

    2013-01-01

    A representative selection of green paintings from fifteenth century Catalonia and the Crown of Aragon are analyzed by a combination of synchrotron radiation microanalytical techniques including FTIR, XRD, and XRF. The green pigments themselves are found to be a mixture of copper acetates/basic copper acetates and basic copper chlorides. Nevertheless, a broader range of green shades were obtained by mixing the green pigment with yellow, white, and blue pigments and applied forming a sequence of micrometric layers. Besides the nature of the pigments themselves, degradation and reaction products, such as carboxylates, formates and oxalates were also identified. Some of the copper based compounds, such as the basic copper chloride, may be either part of the original pigment or a weathering product. The high resolution, high brilliance, and small footprint of synchrotron radiation proved to be essential for the analysis of those submillimetric paint layers made of a large variety of compounds heterogeneous in nature and distribution and present in extremely low concentrations. (orig.)

  15. Digital cleaning and "dirt" layer visualization of an oil painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomero, Cherry May T; Soriano, Maricor N

    2011-10-10

    We demonstrate a new digital cleaning technique which uses a neural network that is trained to learn the transformation from dirty to clean segments of a painting image. The inputs and outputs of the network are pixels belonging to dirty and clean segments found in Fernando Amorsolo's Malacañang by the River. After digital cleaning we visualize the painting's discoloration by assuming it to be a transmission filter superimposed on the clean painting. Using an RGB color-to-spectrum transformation to obtain the point-per-point spectra of the clean and dirty painting images, we calculate this "dirt" filter and render it for the whole image.

  16. Analytical imaging studies of the migration of degraded orpiment, realgar, and emerald green pigments in historic paintings and related conservation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keune, K.; Mass, J.; Mehta, A.; Church, J.; Meirer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Yellow orpiment (As2S3) and red–orange realgar (As4S4) photo-degrade and the nineteenth-century pigment emerald green (Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2) degrades into arsenic oxides. Because of their solubility in water, arsenic oxides readily migrate and are found throughout the multi-layered paint system.

  17. Photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis for the assessment of thin layers thickness in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserevelakis, George J.; Dal Fovo, Alice; Melessanaki, Krystalia; Fontana, Raffaella; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2018-03-01

    This study introduces a novel method for the thickness estimation of thin paint layers in works of art, based on photoacoustic signal attenuation analysis (PAcSAA). Ad hoc designed samples with acrylic paint layers (Primary Red Magenta, Cadmium Yellow, Ultramarine Blue) of various thicknesses on glass substrates were realized for the specific application. After characterization by Optical Coherence Tomography imaging, samples were irradiated at the back side using low energy nanosecond laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength. Photoacoustic waves undergo a frequency-dependent exponential attenuation through the paint layer, before being detected by a broadband ultrasonic transducer. Frequency analysis of the recorded time-domain signals allows for the estimation of the average transmitted frequency function, which shows an exponential decay with the layer thickness. Ultrasonic attenuation models were obtained for each pigment and used to fit the data acquired on an inhomogeneous painted mock-up simulating a real canvas painting. Thickness evaluation through PAcSAA resulted in excellent agreement with cross-section analysis with a conventional brightfield microscope. The results of the current study demonstrate the potential of the proposed PAcSAA method for the non-destructive stratigraphic analysis of painted artworks.

  18. Identification of Painting Layers of Sennefer Tomb by Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aal, S.

    2011-01-01

    Egypt has many pharaonic tombs for kings, queens and noblemen. The Sennefer tomb, one of the most important nobleman tombs, is located in the southern hillside of Sheikh Abd El-Qurna - west side of Luxor. It is dated back to 1439-1413 B.C. (18 th Dynasty) and is usually referred as the Tomb of Vines, due to the large part of the ceiling of the burial chamber. The vine tomb was carved inside a mountain, its walls are covered with plaster and were painted using the tempera technique (pigments mixed with organic binding medium). The analysis was performed by using particle-induced X-ray emission, microbeam particle-induced X-ray emission and optical microscope for the six samples from the Vine tomb such as white, black, red, yellow, blue and green pigments and for the ground layers of the tomb in order to identify the composition of plaster layers and pigments. The data about the nature of these materials are indispensable for conservation and cleaning. (author)

  19. Application of pressure-sensitive paint in shock-boundary layer interaction experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Seivwright, Douglas L.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A new type of pressure transducer, pressure-sensitive paint, was used to obtain pressure distributions associated with shock-boundary layer interaction. Based on the principle of photoluminescence and the process of oxygen quenching, pressure-sensitive paint provides a continous mapping of a pressure field over a surface of interest. The data measurement and acquisition system developed for use with the photoluminescence sensor was eva...

  20. Spectroscopic evaluation of painted layer structural changes induced by gamma radiation in experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Mihaela M.; Moise, Ioan V.; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin D.; Barbu, Olimpia-Hinamatsuri; Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Fugaru, Viorel; Stanculescu, Ioana R.; Ponta, Corneliu C.

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of cultural heritage objects by insects and microorganisms is an important issue for conservators, art specialists and humankind in general. Gamma irradiation is an efficient method of polychrome wooden artifacts disinfestation. Color changes and other modifications in the physical chemical properties of materials induced by gamma irradiation are feared by cultural heritage responsible committees and they have to be evaluated objectively and precisely. In this paper FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy methods were used to investigate the structural changes in some experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood following 11 kGy gamma irradiation at two dose rates. Radiation chemistry depends on the particular pigment, matrix formed by protein, resin (in case of varnished samples) and water presence. For the majority of painted layer in experimental models very small spectral variations were observed. Small changes in the FTIR spectra were observed for the raw sienna experimental model: for the higher dose rate the egg yolk protein oxidation peaks and the CH stretching bands due to lipids degradation products increased. - Highlights: ► Experimental models of tempera paint layers on wood were γ-irradiated at two dose rates. ► Changes induced by γ-irradiation were evaluated by vibrational spectroscopy. ► Minor spectral variations of painted layer were observed. ► Raw sienna FTIR spectra showed little changes of egg yolk and lipids at higher dose rate. ► Gamma irradiation is recommended for disinfection of painted wooden artifacts.

  1. Composition of Renaissance paint layers: simultaneous particle induced X-ray emission and backscattering spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, L; Beck, L; Salomon, J; Pichon, L; Walter, Ph

    2009-10-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) is now routinely used in the field of cultural heritage. Various setups have been developed to investigate the elemental composition of wood/canvas paintings or of cross-section samples. However, it is not possible to obtain information concerning the quantity of organic binder. Backscattering spectrometry (BS) can be a useful complementary method to overcome this limitation. In the case of paint layers, PIXE brings the elemental composition (major elements to traces) and the BS spectrum can give access to the proportion of pigment and binder. With the use of 3 MeV protons for PIXE and BS simultaneously, it was possible to perform quantitative analysis including C and O for which the non-Rutherford cross sections are intense. Furthermore, with the use of the same conditions for PIXE and BS, the experiment time and the potential damage by the ion beam were reduced. The results obtained with the external beam of the Accélérateur Grand Louvre pour l'Analyse Elementaire (AGLAE) facility on various test painting samples and on cross sections from Italian Renaissance masterpieces are shown. Simultaneous combination of PIXE and BS leads to a complete characterization of the paint layers: elemental composition and proportion of the organic binder have been determined and thus provide useful information about ancient oil painting recipes.

  2. Investigation of Layer Structure of the Takamatsuzuka Mural Paintings by Terahertz Imaging Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, M.; Kouzuma, Y.; Sugioka, N.; Fukunaga, K.; Tateishi, T.

    2017-04-01

    Terahertz imaging can be a powerful tool in conservation science for cultural heritages. In this study, a new terahertz imaging system was applied to the Takamatsuzuka mural painting of a blue dragon, and the condition of the plaster layer was diagnosed. As a result, the locations where the plaster layer appears solid on the surface but in actuality may have peeled off the underlying tuff stone were revealed and viewed as two-dimensional images.

  3. Composition and stratigraphy of the paint layers: investigation on the Madonna dei Fusi by ion beam analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of the extensive study on the wood painting "Madonna dei fusi" attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques were used at the Florence accelerator laboratory to get information about the elemental composition of the paint layers. After a brief description of the basic principle and the general features of IBA techniques, we will illustrate in detail how the analysis allowed us to characterise the pigments of original and restored areas and the substrate composition, and to obtain information about the stratigraphy of the painting, also providing an estimate of the paint layer thickness.

  4. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  5. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Freymann, Georg von; Urbansky, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  6. Non-invasive NMR stratigraphy of a multi-layered artefact: an ancient detached mural painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Capitani, Donatella; Presciutti, Federica; Gentile, Gennaro; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Proietti, Noemi

    2013-10-01

    NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the procedure all became constitutive parts of the artefact. NMR measurements in situ enabled monitoring of the state of conservation of the artefact and planning of minimum representative sampling to validate results obtained in situ by solid-state NMR analysis of the samples. This analysis enabled chemical characterization of all organic materials. Use of reference compounds and prepared specimens assisted data interpretation.

  7. Palaeoproteomic Profiling of Conservation Layers on a 14th Century Italian Wall Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Meaghan; Rüther, Patrick; Samodova, Diana; Di Gianvincenzo, Fabiana; Granzotto, Clara; Lyon, David; Peggie, David A; Howard, Helen; Harrison, Lynne; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Olsen, Jesper V; Cappellini, Enrico

    2018-03-30

    Ahead of display, a non-original layer was observed on the surface of a fragment of a wall painting by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (active 1319, died 1348/9). FTIR analysis suggested proteinaceous content. Mass spectrometry was used to better characterise this layer and revealed two protein components: sheep and cow glue and chicken and duck egg white. Analysis of post-translational modifications detected several photo-oxidation products, which suggest that the egg experienced prolonged exposure to UV light and was likely applied long before the glue layer. Additionally, glycation products detected may indicate naturally occurring glycoprotein degradation or reaction with a carbohydrate material such as starch, identified by ATR-FTIR in a cross-section of a sample taken from the painting. Palaeoproteomics is shown to provide detailed characterisation of organic layers associated with mural paintings and therefore aids reconstruction of the conservation history of these objects. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Three-dimensional micro-XRF investigations of paint layers with a tabletop setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, Birgit; Malzer, Wolfgang; Rodriguez, Alexis Fuentes; Reiche, Ina

    2005-01-01

    The non-destructive investigation of art and archaeological objects with depth sensitivity is now possible using 3D micro-XRF spectroscopy. More detailed answers for questions on painting techniques, on the pigment palette, on the production processes and indirectly on dating or provenancing of objects are accessible now. This was already illustrated by the investigation of Mughal miniatures with a confocal setup at the synchrotron source BESSY. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D micro-XRF spectroscopy with a tabletop setup and discuss its sensitivity in comparison to the synchrotron-based setup. Investigated objects are glass standards and also prepared paint layers. Perspectives for other types of studies are proposed

  9. Electrical charging characteristics of the hetero layer film for reducing water-borne paint contamination in electrostatic rotary atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y.; Imanishi, T.; Yoshida, O.; Mizuno, A. [ABB Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The electrostatic rotary atomizer is the most efficient of all liquid spray painting methods. Its use minimizes the waste of paint and reduces emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Water-borne painting processes which use water-soluble paint also reduce VOC emissions, but the atomizer body is easily contaminated by the paint mists. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) considered the causes of water-borne paint contamination and presented the experimental results of a contamination proof system in which the atomizer is surrounded by the repelling film that is charged and repels the incoming paint droplets. Among the key factors for repelling film were electrical properties, such as low capacitance and high insulation to keep high surface potential. Charging uniformity was found to be among the most important characteristic to avoid contamination. The pulse electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to check these features using space charge measurements inside the repelling film. It was concluded that hetero layer films have more uniform charging characteristics than single layer films.

  10. Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX, FTIR and GC–MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Andreotti, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    added in order to increase flexibility and durability of ready primed canvases that were stored and sold in rolls. Moreover, the egg–oil emulsion has the advantage of being more viscous than a pure oil paint and could thus be used without sizing the canvas, rendering the primed canvas less stiff......This study explores the materials used in the preparation layers of nine paintings from the Danish Golden Age as a first approach to understanding the variation in use of materials in the nineteenth century as well as the potential for their degradation. Paintings on canvas have traditionally been...... suspected to be particularly sensitive to high moisture levels because of the changing quality of materials in the nineteenth century. The explanations have partly included the mechanisation of production methods and partly a more experimental approach to painting. Additionally, collagen-based glue sizing...

  11. Characterisation of preparation layers in nine Danish Golden Age canvas paintings by SEM–EDX, FTIR and GC–MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Andreotti, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    of the canvas is suspected to respond dimensionally to changes in relative humidity. In this study, pigments, fillers and binding media in the preparation layers of nine paintings by different artists were identified using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform...

  12. Determination of thickness of thin turbid painted over-layers using micro-scale spatially offset Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Claudia; Realini, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Botteon, Alessandra; Bertasa, Moira; Striova, Jana; Barucci, Marco; Matousek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for estimating the thickness of thin turbid layers using defocusing micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS). The approach, applicable to highly turbid systems, enables one to predict depths in excess of those accessible with conventional Raman microscopy. The technique can be used, for example, to establish the paint layer thickness on cultural heritage objects, such as panel canvases, mural paintings, painted statues and decorated objects. Other applications include analysis in polymer, biological and biomedical disciplines, catalytic and forensics sciences where highly turbid overlayers are often present and where invasive probing may not be possible or is undesirable. The method comprises two stages: (i) a calibration step for training the method on a well characterized sample set with a known thickness, and (ii) a prediction step where the prediction of layer thickness is carried out non-invasively on samples of unknown thickness of the same chemical and physical make up as the calibration set. An illustrative example of a practical deployment of this method is the analysis of larger areas of paintings. In this case, first, a calibration would be performed on a fragment of painting of a known thickness (e.g. derived from cross-sectional analysis) and subsequently the analysis of thickness across larger areas of painting could then be carried out non-invasively. The performance of the method is compared with that of the more established optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique on identical sample set. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  13. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  14. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  15. Neutron radiography for the study of water uptake in painting canvases and preparation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.J. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hendrickx, R.; Ferreira, E.S.B. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); Eijkel, G.; Cerjak, I. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaestner, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Neutron Imaging and Activation Group, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Easel paintings on canvas are subjected to alteration mechanisms triggered or accelerated by moisture. For the study of the spatial distribution and kinetics of such interactions, a moisture exposure chamber was designed and built to perform neutron radiography experiments. Multilayered sized and primed canvas samples were prepared for time-resolved experiments in the ICON cold neutron beamline. The first results show that the set-up gives a good contrast and sufficient resolution to visualise the water uptake in the layers of canvas, size and priming. The results allow, for the first time, real-time visualisation of the interaction of water vapour with such layered systems. This offers important new opportunities for relevant, spatially and time-resolved material behaviour studies and opens the way towards numerical modelling of the process. These first results show that cellulose fibres and glue sizing have a much stronger water uptake than the chalk-glue ground. Additionally, it shows that the uptake rate is not uniform throughout the thickness of the sized canvas. With prolonged moisture exposure, a higher amount of water is accumulating at the lower edge of the canvas weave suggesting a decrease in permeability in the sized canvas with increased water content. (orig.)

  16. Preparing the image: ground layers in Portuguese painting of 15th and 16th centuries – engraving and preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Antunes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ground layers in ancient painting covers different aspects of its production stages. One of the phases, which we will explore in this text, is the adequacy of the ground layer to receive the drawing. With this aim we made an approach to the type of drawing found in some of the works studied by identifying certain technical issues established in prints from metal engraving technique, with Northern European influences. Ground layers are mostly composed of calcium sulfate, mainly anhydrite in the case of gesso grosso, with addition of calcium carbonate grains in order to smooth the surface of the drawing and painting, or dihydrated gypsum, gesso mate or "gesso sottile", which alone provides the ideal smoothness and fineness to receive the minutia of the drawn details.

  17. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Identification of reaction compounds in micrometric layers from gothic paintings using combined SR-XRD and SR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, Nati; Butí, Salvador; Nicholson, James; Emerich, Hermann; Labrador, Ana; Pradell, Trinitat

    2009-07-15

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (micro-SR-XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-SR-FTIR) are used in the non-destructive identification of reaction and aging compounds from micrometric ancient painting layers. The combination of the micrometer size and non-destructive nature of the techniques together with the high resolution and brilliance of the synchrotron radiation has proved to be a procedure most advantageous for the study of reaction, aging and degradation processes. Copper, lead and calcium carboxylates and oxalates are determined in the chromatic, preparation and alteration layers from 15th century egg tempera and oil paintings. Their nature and crystallinity have been assessed. Some hypothesis about the mechanisms of development of both carboxylates and oxalates are presented.

  19. Green function formalism for nonlinear acoustic waves in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, A.; Tsoy, E.; De Sterke, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The applications of acoustic waves in identifying defects in adhesive bonds between metallic plates have received little attention at high intensities where the media respond nonlinearly. However, the effects of reduced bond strength are more distinct in the nonlinear response of the structure. Here we assume a weak nonlinearity acting as a small perturbation, thereby reducing the problem to a linear one. This enables us to develop a specialized Green function formalism for calculating acoustic fields in layered media

  20. Mineralogy of Bohemian green earth pigment and its microanalytical evidence in historical paintings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Píšková, Anna; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Lehrberger, G.; Gerzer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2011), s. 563-586 ISSN 0003-813X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Bohemian green earth * celadonite * smectite * microanalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.183, year: 2011

  1. On the Unsteadiness of a Transitional Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction Using Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, E. Lara; Schmisseur, John

    2017-11-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint has been used to evaluate the unsteady dynamics of transitional and turbulent shock wave-boundary layer interactions generated by a vertical cylinder on a flat plate in a Mach 2 freestream. The resulting shock structure consists of an inviscid bow shock that bifurcates into a separation shock and trailing shock. The primary features of interest are the separation shock and an upstream influence shock that is intermittently present in transitional boundary layer interactions, but not observed in turbulent interactions. The power spectral densities, frequency peaks, and normalized wall pressures are analyzed as the incoming boundary layer state changes from transitional to fully turbulent, comparing both centerline and outboard regions of the interaction. The present study compares the scales and frequencies of the dynamics of the separation shock structure in different boundary layer regimes. Synchronized high-speed Schlieren imaging provides quantitative statistical analyses as well as qualitative comparisons to the fast-response pressure sensitive paint measurements. Materials based on research supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-15-1-2269.

  2. Identification of Painting Layers of Sennefer Tomb by Ion Beam Analysis;PACS: 78.70.En, 07.60.Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Aal, S [Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Fayoum University, P.O. Box 63511 (Egypt)

    2011-07-15

    Egypt has many pharaonic tombs for kings, queens and noblemen. The Sennefer tomb, one of the most important nobleman tombs, is located in the southern hillside of Sheikh Abd El-Qurna - west side of Luxor. It is dated back to 1439-1413 B.C. (18{sup th} Dynasty) and is usually referred as the Tomb of Vines, due to the large part of the ceiling of the burial chamber. The vine tomb was carved inside a mountain, its walls are covered with plaster and were painted using the tempera technique (pigments mixed with organic binding medium). The analysis was performed by using particle-induced X-ray emission, microbeam particle-induced X-ray emission and optical microscope for the six samples from the Vine tomb such as white, black, red, yellow, blue and green pigments and for the ground layers of the tomb in order to identify the composition of plaster layers and pigments. The data about the nature of these materials are indispensable for conservation and cleaning. (author)

  3. Latex paint as a delivery vehicle for diethylphthalate and di-n-butylphthalate: predictable boundary layer concentrations and emission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripp, Tobias; Salthammer, Tunga; Fauck, Christian; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J

    2014-10-01

    The description of emission processes of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) from building products requires a detailed understanding of the material and the air flow conditions at the surface boundary. The mass flux between the surface of the material and air depends on the mass transfer coefficient (hm) through the boundary layer, the gas phase concentration of the target compound immediately adjacent to the material (y0), and the gas-phase concentration in bulk air (y(t)). In the present study emission experiments were performed in two chambers of quite different sizes (0.25 m(3) and 55 m(3)), and, in the larger chamber, at two different temperatures (23°C and 30°C). The emitting material was latex wall paint that had been doped with two plasticizers, diethylphthalate (DEP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP). The phthalate content in the paint was varied in the small chamber experiment to evaluate the impact of the initial concentration in the bulk material (C0) on the emission rate. Boundary layer theory was applied to calculate hm for the specific phthalates from the Sherwood number (Sh) and the diffusion coefficient (Dair). Then y0 was determined based on the bulk gas-phase concentration at steady state (y¯). For both, DEP and DnBP, the y0 obtained was lower than the respective saturation vapor pressure (Ps). Furthermore, for both phthalates in latex paint, the material/air partition coefficient (C0/y0) was close in value to the octanol/air partition coefficient (KOA). This study provides a basis for designing phthalate emitting reference materials that mimic the emission behavior of common building materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  5. Self-trapped excitonic green emission from layered semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-08-15

    Crystals of layered semiconductor are grown by Bridgman technique and are studied them under two-photon excitation by a Q-switched 20-ns pulse laser. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the crystals are measured at various pumping powers and temperatures. The PL spectra appear broad and structureless emissions with their peaks in the green spectral region. The characteristic emissions are from self-trapped excitons of the crystals. An analysis of the spectra measured at various pumping powers shows a quadratic dependence of the PL peak intensity on the power, confirming a biphotonic process of the two-photon pumping. The temperature dependence shows an enhancement of the nonlinear response at low temperatures. The activation energy is estimated and found to be 2.4 meV. The roles of the bound excitons in the observed PL are discussed briefly.

  6. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Raman spectroscopic examination of uncovered and covered paint layers of a real painting. ► Deconvolution of Raman peaks of lead white. ► Comparison of results with energy-dispersive analysis and X-ray diffraction. - Abstract: In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM–EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  7. Identification of lapis-lazuli pigments in paint layers by PIGE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.; Mandò, P. A.; Calvo del Castillo, H.

    2004-06-01

    Lapis-lazuli is a semi-precious stone used in the past to produce a blue pigment. Its main component is lazurite, 3Na 2O·3Al 2O 3·6SiO 2·2Na 2S. The possibility of using PIXE to identify this pigment in canvas and wood painting is severely limited by the strong absorption of low-energy X-rays in the protective varnish and - when, as typical, the pigment is mixed with lead white - by the overlapping of Pb M lines with S K α. In this work we discuss the possibility of identifying lapis-lazuli by detecting sodium with PIGE. PIXE and PIGE measurements have been performed on samples containing lapis-lazuli mixed to lead white in different percentage, covered with polymeric foils to simulate the presence of varnish. At a percentage of lapis-lazuli below 50%, Na X-rays are hardly detectable even with the thinner foil; on the contrary the characteristic γ-rays are clearly detected down to about 1%. A first application has been successfully performed on the "Madonna dei fusi" by Leonardo da Vinci, in the framework of an extensive scientific investigation on the painting techniques used by the Renaissance genius.

  8. The influence of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs on rainwater runoff quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua

    2017-08-15

    This study investigates the ability of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs to retain rainwater and reduce pollutant leaching. The substrates in dual-substrate-layer green roofs consist of an upper organic nutrition layer for plant growth and a lower inorganic adsorption layer for water retention and pollutant reduction. One traditional single-substrate-layer extensive green roof was built for comparison with dual-substrate-layer green roofs. During the experimental period, dual-substrate-layer green roofs supported better natural vegetation growth, with coverage exceeding 90%, while the coverage in single-substrate-layer green roof was over 80%. Based on the average retention value of the total rainfall for four types of simulated rains (the total rainfall depth (mm) was 43.2, 54.6, 76.2 and 86.4, respectively), the dual-substrate-layer green roofs, which used the mixture of activated charcoal with perlite and vermiculite as the adsorption substrate, possessed better rainfall retention performance (65.9% and 55.4%) than the single-substrate-layer green roof (52.5%). All of the dual-substrate-layer green roofs appeared to be sinks for organics, heavy metals and all forms of nitrogen in all cases, while acted as sources of phosphorus contaminants in the case of heavy rains. In consideration of the factors of water retention, pollution reduction and service life of the green roof, a mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with perlite and vermiculite is recommended as the adsorption substrate. The green roofs were able to mitigate mild acid rain, raising the pH from approximately 5.6 in rainfall to 6.5-7.6 in green roof runoff. No signs of a first flush effect for phosphate, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen, organics, zinc, lead, chromium, manganese, copper, pH or turbidity were found in the green roof runoff. Cost analysis further proved the practicability of dual-substrate-layer green roofs in retaining rainwater, and

  9. Acid Green 1 removal from wastewater by layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhattabi, El Hassan; Lakraimi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha; Legrouri, Ahmed; Hammal, Radouan; El Gaini, Layla

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the removal of Acid Green 1 (AG1) from aqueous solutions by [Zn-Al-Cl]-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The LDH was prepared by coprecipitation at constant pH. The affinity of this material for AG1 was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solution, LDH dose and AG1/LDH mass ratio. It was found that 32 h are enough to reach the equilibrium with a maximum retention at pH 8 for an LDH dose of 100 mg and with an AG1/LDH mass ratio higher than 2. The adsorption isotherm is of L-type, as described by the Langmuir model. The results demonstrate that AG1 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when AG1/LDH mass ratio is equal or lower than 2 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 2. A mechanism for the AG1 removal has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. A generic hydrological model for a green roof drainage layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesuviano, Gianni; Stovin, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    A rainfall simulator of length 5 m and width 1 m was used to supply constant intensity and largely spatially uniform water inflow events to 100 different configurations of commercially available green roof drainage layer and protection mat. The runoff from each inflow event was collected and sampled at one-second intervals. Time-series runoff responses were subsequently produced for each of the tested configurations, using the average response of three repeat tests. Runoff models, based on storage routing (dS/dt = I-Q) and a power-law relationship between storage and runoff (Q = kS(n)), and incorporating a delay parameter, were created. The parameters k, n and delay were optimized to best fit each of the runoff responses individually. The range and pattern of optimized parameter values was analysed with respect to roof and event configuration. An analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity of the shape of the runoff profile to changes in parameter values. There appears to be potential to consolidate values of n by roof slope and drainage component material.

  11. Historical recipes for preparatory layers for oil paintings in manuals, manuscripts and handbooks in North West Europe, 1550-1900: analysis and reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stols-Witlox, M.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Grounds, or preparatory layers, form the basis of nearly all artistic oil paintings. They influence both a painting’s visual characteristics and its longevity. This thesis investigates a collection of c. 700 historical recipes for ground preparation and c. 300 related quotes from historical sources.

  12. Palaeoproteomic Profiling of Conservation Layers on a 14th Century Italian Wall Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackie, Meaghan Emma; Rüther, Patrick Leopold; Samodova, Diana

    2018-01-01

    : sheep and cow glue and chicken and duck egg white. Analysis of post-translational modifications detected several photo-oxidation products, which suggest that the egg experienced prolonged exposure to UV light and was likely applied long before the glue layer. Additionally, glycation products detected...

  13. Effects of Layering Milling Technology on Distribution of Green Wheat Main Physicochemical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Li, Yong-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Cheng; Qiao, Yong-Feng

    2017-01-01

    With layered milling flour technology, the efficiency of the nutrient distribution and hardness was demonstrated with the green and normal wheat separation milling. The results showed that the total content of amino acid in green wheat was 8.3%–13.0% higher compared to the common wheat. Comparing the main nutriments Se, Fe, and Ca between green wheat and common wheat, the results showed that different milling treatment methods are capable of separating the different wheat flour from endosperm...

  14. "Revealing hidden paint layers in oil paintings by means of scanning macro-XRF: a mock-up study based on Rembrandt's ""An old man in military costume"""

    OpenAIRE

    Alfeld, Matthias; De Nolf, Wout; Cagno, Simone; Appel, Karen; Siddons, D. Peter; Kuczewski, Anthony; Janssens, Koen; Dik, Joris; Trentelman, Karen; Walton, Marc; Sartorius, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades the oeuvre of Rembrandt has been the subject of extensive art historical and scientific investigations. One of the most striking features to emerge is his frequent re-use of canvases and panels. The painting An Old Man in Military Costume (78.PB.246), in the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, is an example of such a re-used panel. Conventional imaging techniques revealed the presence of a second portrait under the surface portrait, but the details of this hi...

  15. The Hydrological Performance of Lightweight Green Roofs Made From Recycled Waste Materials As the Drainage Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Asman Nurul Shahadahtul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs can be used for promoting infiltration and provide temporary storage spaces. Hence, in urban stormwater structural design, the investigation of the hydrological performance investigation is often required. Thus, this paper presents the results of a hydrological investigation in term of peak flow reduction and green roof’s weight using 0, 2, and 6% slope for three specimens drainage layer in green roofs. Three types of recycled waste are selected for each test bed which is rubber crumbs, palm oil shell, and polyfoam. Another test bed without a drainage layer as a control. The result indicates that rubber crumbs can be used as a stormwater control and runoff reduction while ensuring a good drainage and aeration of the substrate and roofs. From the results obtained shows that rubber crumbs are suitable as a drainage layer and a proposed slope of 6% are suitable for lightweight green roofs.

  16. Ground penetrating radar water content mapping of golf course green sand layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the spatial distribution of water content across the sand layer component of a golf course green can be important to golf course superintendents for evaluating drainage effectiveness and scheduling irrigation. To estimate the bulk water content of the sand layer at point locations ac...

  17. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  18. Layer potentials, Green's formulae, Kac's problem, and refined Hardy inequality on homogeneous Carnot groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzhansky, Michael; Suragan, Durvudkhan

    2015-01-01

    We propose the analogues of boundary layer potentials for the sub-Laplacian on homogeneous Carnot groups/stratified Lie groups and prove continuity results for them. In particular, we show continuity of the single layer potential and establish the Plemelj type jump relations for the double layer potential. We prove sub-Laplacian adapted versions of the Stokes theorem as well as of Green's first and second formulae on homogeneous Carnot groups. Several applications to boundary value problems a...

  19. Layer-by-layer assembly of multicolored semiconductor quantum dots towards efficient blue, green, red and full color optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Li Qian; Di Xiaowei; Liu Zhiliang; Xu Gang

    2008-01-01

    Multicolored semiconductor quantum dots have shown great promise for construction of miniaturized light-emitting diodes with compact size, low weight and cost, and high luminescent efficiency. The unique size-dependent luminescent property of quantum dots offers the feasibility of constructing single-color or full-color output light-emitting diodes with one type of material. In this paper, we have demonstrated the facile fabrication of blue-, green-, red- and full-color-emitting semiconductor quantum dot optical films via a layer-by-layer assembly technique. The optical films were constructed by alternative deposition of different colored quantum dots with a series of oppositely charged species, in particular, the new use of cationic starch on glass substrates. Semiconductor ZnSe quantum dots exhibiting blue emission were deposited for fabrication of blue-emitting optical films, while semiconductor CdTe quantum dots with green and red emission were utilized for construction of green- and red-emitting optical films. The assembly of integrated blue, green and red semiconductor quantum dots resulted in full-color-emitting optical films. The luminescent optical films showed very bright emitting colors under UV irradiation, and displayed dense, smooth and efficient luminous features, showing brighter luminescence in comparison with their corresponding quantum dot aqueous colloid solutions. The assembled optical films provide the prospect of miniaturized light-emitting-diode applications.

  20. Evaluation of the standard normal variate method for Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data treatment applied to the discrimination of painting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Trichereau, B.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is frequently used for in situ analyses to identify pigments from mural paintings. Nonetheless, in situ analyses require a robust instrumentation in order to face to hard experimental conditions. This may imply variation of fluencies and thus inducing variation of LIBS signal, which degrades spectra and then results. Usually, to overcome these experimental errors, LIBS signal is processed. Signal processing methods most commonly used are the baseline subtraction and the normalization by using a spectral line. However, the latter suggests that this chosen element is a constant component of the material, which may not be the case in paint layers organized in stratigraphic layers. For this reason, it is sometimes difficult to apply this normalization. In this study, another normalization will be carried out to throw off these signal variations. Standard normal variate (SNV) is a normalization designed for these conditions. It is sometimes implemented in Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and in Raman Spectroscopy but rarely in LIBS. The SNV transformation is not newly applied on LIBS data, but for the first time the effect of SNV on LIBS spectra was evaluated in details (energy of laser, shot by shot, quantification). The aim of this paper is the quick visualization of the different layers of a stratigraphic painting sample by simple data representations (3D or 2D) after SNV normalization. In this investigation, we showed the potential power of SNV transformation to overcome undesired LIBS signal variations but also its limit of application. This method appears as a promising way to normalize LIBS data, which may be interesting for in-situ depth analyses.

  1. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  2. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  3. Glycine buffered synthesis of layered iron(II)-iron(III) hydroxides (green rusts)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Weizhao; Huang, Lizhi; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund

    2017-01-01

    Layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rusts, GRs) are efficient reducing agents against oxidizing contaminants such as chromate, nitrate, selenite, and nitroaromatic compounds and chlorinated solvents. In this study, we adopted a buffered precipitation approach where glycine (GLY) was used...

  4. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  5. A multi-analytical study of the fifteenth century mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Portugal) in view of their conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, S.; Candeias, A.; Dias, C.; Schiavon, N.; Cotovio, M.; Pestana, J.; Gil, M.; Mirão, J.

    2013-12-01

    The systematic characterization of the painting's palette and technique applied on the execution of the mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Batalha, Leiria, Portugal) is presented. These are the oldest mural paintings known in Portugal (apart from Roman frescoes) and represent the beginning of an artistic Portuguese tradition that continues until the nineteenth century. The aim of the study was to identify for the first time by adopting a multi-analytical physico-chemical approach of the pigments, binder, and alteration products (white veils, crusts, and pigment alteration) of these unique works of arts in order not only to better understand the painting technique, but also to support a conservation-restoration intervention that took place from April to August 2010. Micro-sampling of paint layers was performed on representative areas of the paintings. The characterization of the pigments and binders was carried out by microscopy and microanalysis of cross sections using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), micro-FTIR, and micro X-ray diffraction. The combined analysis of the paintings allowed the identification of the painting's palette: Vermillion (HgS) and red ochre for the reds, yellow ochres for the yellows, green earths and malachite for the greens, azurite for the blues, and carbon for the blacks. The use of the pigment is dependent of the motive painted while the most expensive materials were used in the most important iconographic motives. Alteration of malachite was identified in darkened layers in green areas of the paintings. White veil areas on the surface of the paintings were identified as calcite from precipitation/dissolution processes due to water run-off on the sacristy dome ceiling and walls.

  6. Green living roof implementation and influences of the soil layer on its properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Dragana G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by undeniable climatic change, the temperature of the urban areas rises continually, increasing rapidly the energy problem of cities and amplifying the pollution problems. The thermal stress is increased, thus both the indoor and the outdoor thermal comfort levels are decreased, enhancing the health problems. Green roof implementation in the building envelope is strategy that provides heat island amelioration, thermal comfort for occupants and reduces energy consumption of buildings. Green living roofs are a passive cooling technique, which can stop the incoming solar radiation from reaching the building structure below. In this paper, we assessed the importance of the green roofs in providing environmental and building energy benefits, and brief investigation on the different configuration of the soil layer in the green roof assembly influences to the temperature of the roof surface was presented. Investigation was conducted for first phase of the living roof growth. Four cells were designed in SolidWorks software where the transient thermal study was performed in order to determine differences between the behavior of the conventional roof and three green roof types.

  7. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  8. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  9. Structural changes of green roof growing substrate layer studied by X-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Dohnal, Michal; Snehota, Michal

    2017-04-01

    Increasing interest in green infrastructure linked with newly implemented legislation/rules/laws worldwide opens up research potential for field of soil hydrology. A better understanding of function of engineered soils involved in green infrastructure solutions such as green roofs or rain garden is needed. A soil layer is considered as a highly significant component of the aforesaid systems. In comparison with a natural soil, the engineered soil is assumed to be the more challenging case due to rapid structure changes early stages after its build-up. The green infrastructure efficiency depends on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which are, in the case of engineered soils, a function of its initial composition and subsequent soil formation processes. The project presented in this paper is focused on fundamental processes in the relatively thick layer of engineered soil. The initial structure development, during which the pore geometry is altered by the growth of plant roots, water influx, solid particles translocation and other soil formation processes, is investigated with the help of noninvasive imaging technique  X-ray computed tomography. The soil development has been studied on undisturbed soil samples taken periodically from green roof test system during early stages of its life cycle. Two approaches and sample sizes were employed. In the first approach, undisturbed samples (volume of about 63 cm3) were taken each time from the test site and scanned by X-ray CT. In the second approach, samples (volume of about 630 cm3) were permanently installed at the test site and has been repeatedly removed to perform X-ray CT imaging. CT-derived macroporosity profiles reveal significant temporal changes of soil structure. Clogging of pores by fine particles and fissures development are two most significant changes that would affect the green roof system efficiency. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within

  10. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Donderici, B.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  11. Stable evaluation of Green's functions in cylindrically stratified regions with uniaxial anisotropic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H., E-mail: haksu.moon@gmail.com [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Donderici, B., E-mail: burkay.donderici@halliburton.com [Sensor Physics & Technology, Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 (United States); Teixeira, F.L., E-mail: teixeira@ece.osu.edu [ElectroScience Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present a robust algorithm for the computation of electromagnetic fields radiated by point sources (Hertzian dipoles) in cylindrically stratified media where each layer may exhibit material properties (permittivity, permeability, and conductivity) with uniaxial anisotropy. Analytical expressions are obtained based on the spectral representation of the tensor Green's function based on cylindrical Bessel and Hankel eigenfunctions, and extended for layered uniaxial media. Due to the poor scaling of these eigenfunctions for extreme arguments and/or orders, direct numerical evaluation of such expressions can produce numerical instability, i.e., underflow, overflow, and/or round-off errors under finite precision arithmetic. To circumvent these problems, we develop a numerically stable formulation through suitable rescaling of various expressions involved in the computational chain, to yield a robust algorithm for all parameter ranges. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the robustness of the formulation including cases of practical interest.

  12. XRF, μ-XRD and μ-spectroscopic techniques for revealing the composition and structure of paint layers on polychrome sculptures after multiple restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franquelo, M L; Duran, A; Castaing, J; Arquillo, D; Perez-Rodriguez, J L

    2012-01-30

    This paper presents the novel application of recently developed analytical techniques to the study of paint layers on sculptures that have been restored/repainted several times across centuries. Analyses were performed using portable XRF, μ-XRD and μ-Raman instruments. Other techniques, such as optical microscopy, SEM-EDX and μ-FTIR, were also used. Pigments and other materials including vermilion, minium, red lac, ivory black, lead white, barium white, zinc white (zincite), titanium white (rutile and anatase), lithopone, gold and brass were detected. Pigments from both ancient and modern times were found due to the different restorations/repaintings carried out. μ-Raman was very useful to characterise some pigments that were difficult to determine by μ-XRD. In some cases, pigments identification was only possible by combining results from the different analytical techniques used in this work. This work is the first article devoted to the study of sculpture cross-section samples using laboratory-made μ-XRD systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Revealing hidden paint layers in oil paintings by means of scanning macro-XRF : A mock-up study based on Rembrandt's “An old man in military costume”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfeld, M.; De Nolf, W.; Cagno, S.; Appel, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Kuczewski, A.; Janssens, K.; Dik, J.; Trentelman, K.; Walton, M.; Sartorius, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades the oeuvre of Rembrandt has been the subject of extensive art historical and scientific investigations. One of the most striking features to emerge is his frequent re-use of canvases and panels. The painting An Old Man in Military Costume (78.PB.246), in the collection

  14. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  15. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanayng.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis of XIV century wall paintings from Patriarchate of Peć Monastery, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić-Stojanović, M.; Bajuk-Bogdanović, D.; Uskoković-Marković, S.; Holclajtner-Antunović, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Church of the Holy Mother of God Hodegetria in Peć is decorated with wall paintings that date from the beginning of the 14th century. In terms of style they correspond to Byzantine wall paintings from the epoch of Paleologos. The painting technique and pigment pallete has been examined on micro fragments in thin cross-sections by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and micro- Raman spectroscopy. Use of the fresco technique and two supporting plaster layers was noted on the majority of samples, while in large blue painted areas, a combination of fresco and secco techniques was used. The SEM-EDS results showed the presence of Ca as the main component of plaster besides the traces of Si and Mg. In some samples egg white as a binder was identified. The paint film is often multilayered. Twelve pigments were identified, mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining desirable optical and aesthetical impressions. As decay product only weddelite was detected in many preparatory and painted samples.

  17. Hydrological performance of dual-substrate-layer green roofs using porous inert substrates with high sorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui

    2017-06-01

    Given that the common medium in existing green roofs is a single layer composed of organic and inorganic substrates, seven pilot-scale dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs (G1-G7), which include nutrition and adsorption substrate layers, were constructed in this study. The effectiveness of porous inert substrates (activated charcoal, zeolite, pumice, lava, vermiculite and expanded perlite) used as the adsorption substrate for stormwater retention was investigated. A single-substrate-layer green roof (G8) was built for comparison with G1-G7. Despite the larger total rainfall depth (mm) of six types of simulated rains (43.2, 54.6, 76.2, 87.0, 85.2 and 86.4, respectively), the total percent retention of G1-G7 varied between 14% and 82% with an average of 43%, exhibiting better runoff-retaining capacity than G8 based on the maximum potential rainfall storage depth per unit height of adsorption substrate. Regression analysis showed that there was a logarithmic relationship between cumulative rainfall depth with non-zero runoff and stormwater retention for G1-G4 and a linear relationship for G5-G8. To enhance the water retention capacity and extend the service life of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs, the mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with expanded perlite and/or vermiculite is more suitable as the adsorption substrate than the mixture containing lava and/or zeolite.

  18. Painting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  19. Study of the Wall Paintings of the Cenador Del Leon in the Real Alcazar of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Maria Dolores; Mancera, Inmaculada; Perez-Maqueda, Rafael; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The paintings on the walls of the Cenador del Leon located in the gardens of the Real Alcazar in Seville next to the Pabellon de Carlos V in the Jardin Ingles area have been studied. The components of the wall paintings cross-sections, which were prepared using small samples taken from the walls of Cenador del Leon, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The cross-sections of the collected samples indicated that the paint layer is well adhered to the preparation layer without any discontinuity, and only one carbonation layer exists at the top of the sequence of layers. These data suggest that the paint was applied on a fresco surface, and therefore, the adopted technique was fresco. Based on the different elements detected by EDX analysis of the cross-sections, the detected pigments included iron oxides accompanied by clay minerals (or earths) in the red pink, golden yellow and yellow colours, blue smelt for the blue colour and basic copper chloride (atacamite) for the green colour. In one sample, the particles were composed of Ba and S from barium sulphate and Ti and O from rutile titanium oxide due to a modern pigment.

  20. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  1. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  2. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  3. Performance analysis and experimental study on rainfall water purification with an extensive green roof matrix layer in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiankang; Zhang, Yanting; Che, Shengquan

    2018-02-01

    Current research has validated the purification of rainwater by a substrate layer of green roofs to some extent, though the effects of the substrate layer on rainwater purification have not been adequately quantified. The present study set up nine extensive green roof experiment combinations based on the current conditions of precipitation characteristics observed in Shanghai, China. Different rain with pollutants were simulated, and the orthogonal design L9 (33) test was conducted to measure purification performance. The purification influences of the extensive green roof substrate layer were quantitatively analyzed in Shanghai to optimize the thickness, proportion of substrate, and sodium polyacrylate content. The experimental outcomes resulted in ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) removal of up to 93.87%, 98.81%, and 94.55% in the artificial rainfall, respectively, and NH 4 + -N, Pb, and Zn event mean concentration (EMC) was depressed to 0.263 mg/L, 0.002 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively, which were all well below the pollutant concentrations of artificial rainfall. With reference to the rainfall chemical characteristics of Shanghai, a combination of a 200 mm thickness, proportions of 1:1:2 of Loam: Perlite: Cocopeat and 2 g/L sodium polyacrylate content was suggested for the design of an extensive green roof substrate to purify NH 4 + -N, Pb and Zn.

  4. High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layer and thick N-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuki, Shunichiro, E-mail: shunichiro.nobuki.nb@hitachi.com [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Wakana, Hironori; Ishihara, Shingo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Mikami, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichimachi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have developed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W at 2.73 V at 0.053 mA/cm{sup 2}. A double emission layer and a thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted to improve the exciton recombination factor. A high refractive index hemispherical lens was attached to a high refractive index substrate for extracting light trapped inside the substrate and the multiple-layers of OLEDs to air. Additionally, we analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify room for the improvement of our OLEDs including the charge balance factor. - Highlights: • We developed high efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED). • Our OLED had external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W. • A double emission layer and thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted. • High refractive index media (hemispherical lens and substrate) were also used. • We analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify the charge balance factor of our OLED.

  5. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  6. Characterization of Ancient Egyptian Wall Paintings, the Excavations of Cairo University at Saqqara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein MAREY MAHMOUD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at characterizing some Egyptian wall paintings discovered during the excavations of Cairo University (since 1988 and recently in 2005 at Saqqara area in the south of Cairo. There, a number of tombs dating back to the 19th dynasty (c.1293–1185 BC were discovered. The walls of these tombs are carved with bass and raised reliefs and painted with different colours. The characterization of the wall paintings was done by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (backscattered electron mode, BSE equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS, micro XRF spectrometry (µ-XRF, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The analysis of the examined samples indicated that the blue pigment is Egyptian blue (Cuprorivaite, the green pigment is Egyptian green, the red pigment is red ochre, and the yellow pigment is a blended layer of yellow ochre and orpiment (As2S3. The results will help in providing an image concerning some painting materials used during the new Kingdom in ancient Egypt

  7. Non-destructive micro-analytical differentiation of copper pigments in paint layers of works of art using laboratory-based techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švarcová, Silvie; Čermáková, Zdeňka; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 132, NOV (2014), s. 514-525 ISSN 1386-1425 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Copper pigments * Infrared spectroscopy * Microanalysis * Model experiments * Paintings * Powder X-ray micro-diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2014

  8. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1984-01-01

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of γ-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  9. Multi-layer planting as a strategy of greening the transitional space in high-rise buildings: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihatmanti, Rani; Taib, Nooriati

    2018-03-01

    The issues regarding the rapid development in the urban have resulted in the increasing number of infrastructure built, including the high-rise buildings to accommodate the urban dwellers. Lack of greeneries due to the land limitation in the urban area has increased the surface radiation as well as the air temperature that leads to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena. Where urban land is limited, growing plants vertically could be a solution. Plants, which are widely known as one of the sustainability elements in the built environment could be integrated in building as a part of urban faming by growing edible plant species. This is also to address the food security issue in the urban as well as high-density cities. Since space is limited, the function of transitional space could be optimized for the green space. This paper explores the strategy of greening transitional space in the high-rise setting. To give a maximum impact in a limited space, multi-layer planting concept could be introduced. This concept is believed that multiple layers of plants could modify the microclimate, as well as the radiation to the building, compare to single layer plant. In addition to that, the method selected also determines the efficacy of the vertical greeneries. However, there are many other limitations related to the multi-layer planting method if installed in a transitional space that needs to be further studied. Despite its limitations, the application of vertical greeneries with multi-layer planting concept could be a promising solution for greening the limited space as well as improving the thermal comfort in the high-rise building.

  10. Spectrally selective paint coatings. Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crnjak Orel, Z.C.; Klanjsek Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2001-06-01

    Preparation and characterization of spectrally selective paint coating for photothermal solar energy conversion are discussed. The applied methods for preparation of paints with described measurements and calculations of black-pigmented coatings were reviewed. The article represents not only possible future applications but also past and current applications of spectrally selective paint coating which are used all over the world since the 1980s. Spectrally selective paint coatings based on combinations of two types of resins, various types of pigments and three types of silica, were prepared. The influence of pigment type and pigment volume concentration (PVC) was studied by applying the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory. The relation between the degrees of dispersion and distribution of pigment particles across the paint layer is discussed in terms of K-M coefficients.

  11. Characterization of the Mamluk painting materials in Cairo, Egypt: El-Ashraf Bersbay Madrasa (826 A.H/ 1423 A.D a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    prof.Atef Brania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The painting materials in the Islamic monuments in Cairo were variable and distinguished. The accurate identification and characterization of painting materials in an art object or in a paint layer is certainly an important step in the history of art, technology and conservation. The main objective of the present paper is to examine and investigate the different painting materials (pigments, gilding, binding media and painting ground employed in the decorated ceilings of Madrasa of Al-Ashraf Bersbay (Mamluk Jarkasy period. X-ray diffraction (X.R.D., scanning electron microscope SEM (EDAX, light optical microscope (LOM and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, together with determination of physical properties of the support (water content and density and microbiological study, adapted for analysis, investigation and evaluation of the current status. The study revealed the severe damage of painting materials. Gypsum, ultramarine, smalt, prussian blue, red ochre, emerald green, red lead (minium and gold leaves were identified in El-Ashraf Bersbay Madrasa decoration painting.

  12. Fabrication and performance of ACTFEL display devices using manganese-doped zinc germanate as a green-emitting electroluminescent layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Han; Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices fabricated using manganese-doped zinc germanate (Zn 2 GeO 4 :Mn) as a green-emitting electroluminescent layer material are described. The ACTFEL display devices were fabricated with a standard bottom emission structure having a multilayer stack of thin films in the metal/semiconductor/insulator/ metal (MSIM) configuration. The device was constructed on a transparent Corning glass substrate through which the emitted EL light passed. The Zn 2 GeO 4 :Mn emission layer was synthesized by using a RF magnetron sputter deposition method, followed by post-annealing at 700 .deg. C in air ambient for 1 hour. The obtained Zn 2 GeO 4 :Mn films were found to be polycrystalline with a rhombohedral crystal structure. A green emission spectrum with a maximum at approximately 538 nm was produced from the fabricated device. The chromaticity color coordinates of the EL emission were measured to be x = 0.308 and y = 0.657. The device demonstrated a sharp increase in the intensity of green EL emission upon increasing the AC peak voltage applied to the device above a threshold of 148 V.

  13. Egyptian Tomb Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Liesa

    1999-01-01

    Provides an activity where sixth-grade students replicated the Egyptian art form of tomb painting. Explains that the students researched information about Egyptian culture and history in order to familiarize themselves with Egyptian wall-painting style. Discusses the process of creating tomb paintings in detail. (CMK)

  14. Characterization of paint and varnish on a medieval Coptic-Byzantine icon: Novel usage of dammar resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Stern, B.; Janaway, R.

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken into a 13th century Coptic-Byzantine icon from the St. Mercurius Church, St. Mercurius monastery, Old Cairo, Egypt. The layered structure, pigment composition and varnish identification were revealed by means of optical and Raman microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of the icon comprised six layers; wooden panel, canvas, white ground, two bole layers and a single paint layer. Azurite (2CuCO 3·Cu(OH) 2), cinnabar (mercuric (II) sulfide α-HgS), yellow ochre (Fe 2O 3·H 2O), hydromagnesite Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O and lamp black (carbon, C) are the pigments identified in the icon. The green paint area is of interest as it is applied neither with a green pigment nor with a mixture of a blue and yellow pigment. Instead, a yellow layer of dammar resin was applied on top of blue azurite to obtain the green colour. Pinaceae sp. resin mixed with drying oil was used as a protective varnish.

  15. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  16. Spectroscopic study of an icon painted on wooden panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sofija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian icon painted on wooden panel analyzed in this work is interesting for art historians because there is no precise information in which workshops it was made or who the author was. Similar icons are often found in churches and monasteries in our region. In order to obtain information about materials used for creation of investigated icon two micro-analytical techniques were used: Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed presence of following materials: lead-white, vermilion, minium, ultramarine, brown and green earth pigments and silver in combination with yellow organic varnish, which served to an iconographer for gilding. Ground layer was made of calcite. Blue pigment ultramarine was probably used for blue colour as well as for obtaining particulars hues in several parts of the paint layer. This can be important information for further research concerning particular workshop in which the icon was made. Identified materials are typical for Russian iconography of the 19th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 177021 i OI 177012

  17. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  18. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  19. The characterization of canvas painting by the Serbian artist Milo Milunović using X-ray fluorescence, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanović, Lj.; Gajić-Kvaščev, M.; Đurđević, J.; Andrić, V.; Marić-Stojanović, M.; Lazić, T.; Nikolić, S.

    2015-01-01

    A canvas painting by Milo Milunović “The Inspiration of the poet” was studied by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF), micro-Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in order to identify materials used by the artist and his painting technique. Study is perfomed combining in situ non-destructive method with the preparation and study of cross-section samples and raw fragments of the samples. Milo Milunović, an eminent painter from Balkan region, made a copy of the Nicolas Poussin's original painting in Louvre in 1926/27. Obtained results revealed following pigments on the investigated canvas painting: vermilion, minium, cobalt blue, ultramarine, lead white, zinc white, cadmium yellow, chrome-based green pigment and several earth pigments – red and yellow ocher, green earth and umber. Ground layer was made of lead white mixed with calcium carbonate. - Highlights: • In situ EDXRF, micro-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were employed. • Pallete of painting “The Inspiration of the poet” by Milunović has been determined. • Obtained results allowed evaluation of the painter’s technique. • Milo Milunović worked on the clay ground imitating Nicoals Poussin’s technique

  20. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  1. Redox process at solid-liquid interfaces: studies with thin layers of green rusts electrodeposited on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peulon, S.; Taghdai, Y.; Mercier, F.; Barre, N.; Legrand, L.; Chauss, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The redox reactions which can occur between radioelements and natural phases in the environment are taken still little into account although their importance is established on natural sites; the consequences are significant since they can modify radically the behaviour of the species by increasing or decreasing their migration. The iron compounds are very implicated in these redox processes because iron is one of the most abundant element on earth; moreover, it is also present in the containers used for the storage of the nuclear waste. We exhibited in previous works that electrochemistry is a convenient way to generate the main iron oxidation compounds as thin layers on different inert substrates. The electrochemical behaviour of these deposits that are adherent, homogeneous and well crystallized [1-3], was investigated with the principle advantage that iron metal and its reactivity is eliminate. Moreover, they could be analysed directly by techniques like IRRAS, XRD, SEM, EDS and XPS without any preparation. In the present study, we develop an original way to investigate redox processes at solid-liquid interfaces based on the utilisation of these thin layers; the samples are more commonly powders and/or pieces of corroded steel in the literature. Results obtained with two different systems, chromate and uranyl ions, in interaction with thin layers of sulfated green rusts are presented. Green rusts is chosen because it is a mixed Fe(II-III) compound which could be formed in anoxic conditions like in the case of the storage of the nuclear waste. After various contact times with the solutions containing the reactive species, the thin layers are characterised by different ex-situ methods. The results show clearly the oxidation of the green rust into a Fe(III) compound and the formation of a new solid phase on the electrode due to the reduction and the precipitation of the reactive species present initially in solution. Because thin

  2. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  3. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  5. The effect of BaM/PANI composition with epoxy paint matrix on single and double layers coating with spray coating method for radar absorbing materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyastuti, Fajarin, Rindang; Pratiwi, Vania Mitha; Kholid, Rifki Rachman; Habib, Abdulloh

    2018-04-01

    In this study, RAM composite has been succesfully synthesized by mixing BaM as magnetic materials and PANI as conductive materials. BaM and PANI materials were prepared separately by solid state method and polymerization method, respectively. To investigated the presence of BaM phase and magnetic property of the as prepared BaM, XRD pert PAN analytical and VSM 250 Dexing Magnet were employed. Inductance Capacitance Resistance technique was carried out to measure electrical conductivity of the synthesized PANI materials. In order to further characterized the structural features of BaM and PANI, SEM-EDX FEI 850 and FTIR characterizations were conducted. RAM composite was prepared by mixing BaM and PANI powders with ultrasonic cleaner. Afterwards, VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) characterization was carried out to determine reflection loss value of RAM by applying mixed RAM composite and epoxy paint on aluminum plate using spray gun. Microscopic characterization was employed to investigated the distribution of RAM particles on the substrate. It was found that reflection loss value as low as -27.153 dB was achieved when applied 15 wt% BaM/PANi composite at 100.6 µm thickness. In addition, the absorption of electromagnetic waves value increase as the addition of RAM composite composition increases.

  6. Normal and Reversed-Phase Thin Layer Chromatography of Green Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjursnes, Birte Johanne; Kvittingen, Lise; Schmid, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Introductory experiments of chromatography are often conducted by separating colored samples, such as inks, dyes, and plant extracts, using filter paper, chalk, or thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates with various solvent systems. Many simple experiments have been reported. The relationship between normal chromatography and reversed-phase…

  7. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Archer Daniels Midland, developed Archer RC, a nonvolatile, biobased, reactive coalescent that replaces volatile organic coalescents in architectural latex paints.

  9. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of paints used for industry, the arts, and hobbies. Years ago, lead and mercury were used in ... high amounts of toluene – higher exposure than a hobby or professional painter would likely have. I work ...

  10. Mechanically fractionated flour isolated from green bananas (M. cavendishii var. nanica) as a tool to increase the dietary fiber and phytochemical bioactivity of layer and sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segundo, Cristina; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; Martínez, Mario M

    2017-03-15

    This article describes the effect of mechanically fractionated flours from green bananas on the nutritional, physical and sensory attributes of two types of cakes (sponge and layer). A plausible 30% replacement of banana flour in the formulation of layer cakes is demonstrated, finding only a small decline in the sensory perception. On the contrary, sponge cakes were noticeable worsened with the use of banana flours (lower specific volume, worse sensory attributes and higher hardness), which was minimized when using fine flour. Both layer and sponge cakes exhibited an enhancement of the resistant starch and dietary fiber content with the replacement of green banana flour (up to a fivefold improvement in RS performance). Moreover, sponge cakes yielded more polyphenols and antioxidant capacity with banana flours, especially with the coarse fraction. Therefore, results showed that a mechanical fractionation allowed a feasible nutritional enhancement of cakes with the use of banana flours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Solid Base Catalysts for Henry Reaction: A Green Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda H. Abdellattif

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-HT, the calcined form at 500 °C (MgAlOx, and the rehydrated one at 25 °C (MgAl-HT-RH were synthesized. Physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Surface area of the as-synthesized, calcined, and rehydrated catalysts was determined by N2 physisorption at −196 °C. CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD was applied to determine the basic sites of catalysts. The catalytic test reaction was carried out using benzaldehyde and their derivatives with nitromethane and their derivatives. The Henry products (1–15 were obtained in a very good yield using MgAl-HT-RH catalyst either by conventional method at 90 °C in liquid phase or under microwave irradiation method. The mesoporous structure and basic nature of the rehydrated solid catalyst were responsible for its superior catalytic efficiency. The robust nature was determined by using the same catalyst five times, where the product % yield was almost unchanged significantly.

  12. Study by micro-Raman spectroscopy of wall paints (external parts and cross-sections) from reales alcazares of Seville (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, José Luis; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Robador, María Dolores; Siguenza, Belinda; Durán, Adrián

    2013-04-01

    The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla was originally builded by the Arabic in the year 913. The Mudejar Palace was built by Christian King Pedro I between 1364 and 1366. At the end of XV century the Catholic Kings, Isabel and Fernando made important transformations especially in the Mudejar Palace. Recently, wall paints from Catholic Kings periods were found during works of conservations in the first floor of the Palace. The study of these paints by non-destructive techniques was considered of great interest in order to determine the technology of manufacture and the originality of the artwork. The main objective of this work was to apply the Raman spectroscopy technique on the surface of the wall and on the different layers of the cross-sections prepared in order to characterize the pigments and the plaster present in these wall paints. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer. In this case the dispersive integrated Horiba Jobin-Yvon LabRaman HR800 system was employed. Small samples of black, red, yellow, white and green colour were taken from the artwork. The surface of the samples were directly studed by the Raman spectroscopy instrument using red (785 nm) and green (522 nm) lasers, similarly to non-invasive experimental technique. This technique showed the presence of gypsum (SO4Ca.2H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) in all the studied samples However, the pigments responsible of different colours were not detected. The surface of these wall paints was covered with gypsum and calcite due to contamination. These mineras were also characterized by XRD and SEM-EDX. The presence of these compounds and the heterogeneous surface did not permit the characterization of the pigments responsible of the colour. In order to better characterization of the pigments and plaster used the study was carried out on cross-sections. The black colour was performed using carbon black. Two different red layers were detected one constituted by cinnabar and lead carbonate and

  13. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B.; Cobo, J.; Schorr, M.; Cota, L.; Oviedo, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called s tone on stone , explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  14. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Department of Environmental Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Davis, Jeffrey [CSIRO Energy Flagship, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); O' Connor, Gary [Queensland Department of Environment & Heritage Protection, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using {sup 206}Pb/{sup 208}Pb vs {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. - Highlights: • Soil Pb values up to 1200 mg/kg below Pb painted bridge • Microscopy & SEM characterised up to 6 different paint layers. • Isotopes identified different sources of Pb including paint and gasoline. • Multiple methods provide definitive answers.

  15. Non-Destructive Multi-Analytical Approach to Study the Pigments of Wall Painting Fragments Reused in Mortars from the Archaeological Site of Pompeii (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Miriello

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the excavations carried out in Via di Mercurio (Regio VI, 9, 3 in Pompeii, in 2015, some red, green, black, and brown wall painting fragments were found in the preparatory layer of an ancient pavement which was probably built after the 62 AD earthquake. These fragments, derived from the rubble, were used as coarse aggregate to prepare the mortar for building the pavement. The wall painting fragments are exceptionally well preserved, which is an uncommon occurrence in the city of Pompeii. However, as they were enclosed in the mortar, the wall painting fragments were protected from the high temperatures (probably ranging between 180 °C and 380 °C produced by the eruption in 79 AD. The pigmented outer surface of each sample was analyzed using a non-destructive multi-analytical approach, by combining spectrophotometric colorimetry and portable X-ray fluorescence with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The compositional characterization of the samples revealed the presence of cuprorivaite, goethite, and celadonite in the green pigments; hematite in the red pigments; goethite in the brown pigment; and charcoal in the black pigment. These data probably provide us with the most “faithful picture” of the various red, green, black, and brown pigments used in Pompeii prior to the 79 AD eruption.

  16. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  17. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  18. Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, K.; Dik, J.; Leeuw, M.; Whitson, A. den; Tortora, J.; Coan, P.; Nemoz, C.; Bravin, A.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray radiography plays an important role in the study of artworks and archaeological artifacts. The internal structure of objects provides information on genesis, authenticity, painting technique, material condition and conservation history. Transmission radiography, however, does not provide information on the exact elemental composition of objects and heavy metal layers can shadow or obscure the ones including lighter elements. This paper presents the first application of synchrotron-based K-edge absorption imaging applied to paintings. Using highly monochromatic radiation, K-edge imaging is used to obtain elemental distribution images over large areas. Such elemental maps visualize the distribution of an individual pigment throughout the paint stratigraphy. This provides color information on hidden paint layers, which is of great relevance to art historians and painting conservators. The main advantage is the quick data acquisition time and the sensitivity to elements throughout the entire paint stratigraphy. The examination of a test painting is shown and further instrumental developments are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Imagined memories of painting

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Maia Schmidt, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Pintura, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2011 A Tese é compsota por dois volumes, um em portugês, outro em inglês Visual imagery, narratives and locations have always been linked to the study of memory. Memory has always been linked to art history and historical shifts in the study of memory had a direct impact on the history of painting. Painting was based on stories and served to make those stories memorable. Since then there have been numerous inve...

  20. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available , and have doubts about it, you are wel- come to contact the NBRl for advice. It is always best when buying a paint system to select the products of a single manufacturer. the grain as it dries. Several coats can be used to give a high-gloss finish... rendering Those who have lived on a farm will probably remember how surplus fat used to be treated with an alkali to make soap. The same thing can happen at the point where some oil paints come in contact with the wall. The alkali, which is always...

  1. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is open-quote Paint Shop wasteclose quotes -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so

  2. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  3. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  4. Immunoaffinity column clean-up and thin layer chromatography for determination of ochratoxin A in green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E A; Vargas, E A

    2002-05-01

    An immunoaffinity clean-up-based method for determining ochratoxin A (OTA) in green coffee aiming at one-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was established. OTA was extracted with a mixture of methanol and aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, purified through an immunoaffinity column, separated on normal or reversed-phase (RP) TLC plates and detected and quantified by visual and densitometric analysis. The linear equation of the standard calibration curve by densitometric analysis gave R(2) > 0.999 (0.04-84 ng). The mean recovery (R) of OTA from spiked samples (1.8-109 microg kg(-1)) by densitometric and visual analyses were 98.4 and 103.8%, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for densitometric and visual analysis varied from 1.1 to 24.9% and from 0.0 to 18.8%, respectively. The RSD for naturally contaminated samples by densitometry (three levels of contamination, n = 3) varied from 11.1 to 18.1%. The correlation (R(2)) between high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and densitometry, and between visual and densitometric analysis for spiked samples were > 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.5 microg kg(-1) for normal TLC. Toluene-ethyl acetate-88% formic acid (6:3:1 v/v/v) and acetonitrile-methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (35:35:29:10 v/v/v/v) were regarded as the suitable TLC solvents for eluting both standards and samples on normal and RP TLC plates, respectively. Toluene-acetic acid (99:1 v/v) was chosen as the spotting solvent among several others for giving the best sensitivity and resolution of OTA on TLC plates as well as the best recovery of OTA from standard and sample extract residues. Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the reuse of the immunoaffinity column and the interference of caffeine in the OTA recovery.

  5. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  6. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1CIDEPINT (CONICET–CICPBA): Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Tecnología de Pinturas,. Calle 52e/121 y 122, .... plus SOFTCORR 352 software. 2.2 Experimental paints ..... tigaciones Científicas y Técnicas), CICPBA (Comisión de.

  7. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  8. Painting and Writing Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    materialization. At the same time as O’Hara and Rivers investigate the often conflicting powers of both genres to incarnate the reality of the material world (especially the human body) in their respective media, they also playfully foreground the materiality of painterly/poetic text as paint and writing...

  9. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    at 50% RH but increased the stress level severely in dry conditions and offered no support to the painting at 70-80 % RH. This means that the traditional glue-paste lining techniques and the wax-resin technique in high RH seem to limit the advisable RH fluctuation in a cultural institution. Conversely...

  10. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  11. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  12. Identification of copper-based green pigments in Jaume Huguet's Gothic altarpieces by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, N; Pradell, T; Pantos, E; Papiz, M Z; Molera, J; Seco, M; Vendrell-Saz, M

    2002-07-01

    The scientific investigation of ancient paintings gives a unique insight into ancient painting techniques and their evolution through time and geographic location. This study deals with the identification of the green pigments used by one of the most important Catalan masters in Gothic times, Jaume Huguet. Other pigments and materials have also been characterized by means of conventional techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction has been used to produce maps of phases at a spatial resolution of 100 microm across chromatic layers.

  13. Characterization of the Mamluk painting materials in Cairo, Egypt: El-Ashraf Bersbay Madrasa (826 A.H/ 1423 A.D) a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    prof.Atef Brania

    2010-01-01

    The painting materials in the Islamic monuments in Cairo were variable and distinguished. The accurate identification and characterization of painting materials in an art object or in a paint layer is certainly an important step in the history of art, technology and conservation. The main objective of the present paper is to examine and investigate the different painting materials (pigments, gilding, binding media and painting ground) employed in the decorated ceilings of Madrasa of Al-Ashraf...

  14. Software to compute elastostatic Green's functions for sources in 3D homogeneous elastic layers above a (visco)elastic halfspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. M.; Segall, P.

    2012-12-01

    We describe software, in development, to calculate elastostatic displacement Green's functions and their derivatives for point and polygonal dislocations in three-dimensional homogeneous elastic layers above an elastic or a viscoelastic halfspace. The steps to calculate a Green's function for a point source at depth zs are as follows. 1. A grid in wavenumber space is chosen. 2. A six-element complex rotated stress-displacement vector x is obtained at each grid point by solving a two-point boundary value problem (2P-BVP). If the halfspace is viscoelastic, the solution is inverse Laplace transformed. 3. For each receiver, x is propagated to the receiver depth zr (often zr = 0) and then, 4, inverse Fourier transformed, with the Fourier component corresponding to the receiver's horizontal position. 5. The six elements are linearly combined into displacements and their derivatives. The dominant work is in step 2. The grid is chosen to represent the wavenumber-space solution with as few points as possible. First, the wavenumber space is transformed to increase sampling density near 0 wavenumber. Second, a tensor-product grid of Chebyshev points of the first kind is constructed in each quadrant of the transformed wavenumber space. Moment-tensor-dependent symmetries further reduce work. The numerical solution of the 2P-BVP problem in step 2 involves solving a linear equation A x = b. Half of the elements of x are of geophysical interest; the subset depends on whether zr ≤ zs. Denote these \\hat x. As wavenumber k increases, \\hat x can become inaccurate in finite precision arithmetic for two reasons: 1. The condition number of A becomes too large. 2. The norm-wise relative error (NWRE) in \\hat x is large even though it is small in x. To address this problem, a number of researchers have used determinants to obtain x. This may be the best approach for 6-dimensional or smaller 2P-BVP, where the combinatorial increase in work is still moderate. But there is an alternative

  15. On Degradation of Cast Iron Surface-Protective Paint Coat Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupaj M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a presentation of a study on issues concerning degradation of protective paint coat having an adverse impact on aesthetic qualities of thin-walled cast-iron castings fabricated in furan resin sand. Microscopic examination and microanalyses of chemistry indicated that under the coat of paint covering the surface of a thin-walled casting, layers of oxides could be found presence of which can be most probably attributed to careless cleaning of the casting surface before the paint application process, as well as corrosion pits evidencing existence of damp residues under the paint layers contributing to creation of corrosion micro-cells

  16. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  17. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  18. Study of Materials and Techniques for the Conservation of Two Miniature Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Attia Mohie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research includes a study on the conservation of two miniature paintings produced by unknown artists and probably dated to the second half of the 18th century. These paintings are registered at the Museum of Helwan University, Faculty of Applied Arts, Giza, Egypt, No. (A of 100/6.This research also includes a historical and artistic study of the paintings. To study the materials and techniques used in their execution, several methods were used. XRD, XRD-EDAX was used for the examination and analysis of inorganic materials; in the case of organic materials, FTIR, UV was used to identify the pigment materials, glue, varnish, isolation layer or condition of the paper support. The oil medium in the paint layer was identified by the GLC method. Cross sections of both paintings were examined to find out about the technical knowledge used in constructing the painting / pictorial layers.Finally, this research involves a study of how to separate two oil paintings executed on one paper support, and the most important procedures needed to carry out this step, as well as those necessary for reconstructing the painting layers. In addition, a new method is described to treat cracks.Another new method was used to protect the paper support of these paintings from high relative humidity. This research also proposes a new tear mending method for paper objects instead of the traditional methods used in international paper and manuscript conservation laboratories.

  19. The art in science: electron microscopy and paintings conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: When examining a painting, a conservator uses many different and complementary methods of analysis to build an understanding of the materials and way the painting was constructed. Common methods of examination include x-radiography, infrared reflectography, ultraviolet fluorescence and optical microscopy of the surface of the painting. Minute samples of paint prepared as cross-sections are sometimes taken for optical examination under the microscope, and it is these that can, conveniently, be further analysed with electron microscopy to yield another level of information. Electron microscopy has a valuable role to play within the examination of paintings, be it for pigment identification alone, or at the other end of the spectrum, for informing issues around the attribution of works of art. This paper provides an overview of the use of electron microscopy in the conservation of paintings by discussing examples of work undertaken by the National Gallery of Victoria and the CSIRO. Work described includes the problem of distinguishing between restorers' original paint in a landscape by Arthur Streeton, and the examination of the ground or priming layer in a Rembrandt portrait which clarified its attribution to his studio. Copyright (2003) Australian Microbeam Analysis Society

  20. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  1. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayle, M.; Waugh, D.G.; Colston, B.J.; Lawrence, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  2. On the study of oil paint adhesion on optically transparent glass: Conservation of reverse paintings on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Waugh, D.G., E-mail: d.waugh@chester.ac.uk [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom); Colston, B.J. [Historic and Ancient Materials Group, School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J. [Laser Engineering and Manufacturing Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Chester, Thornton Science Park, Ince, Chester CH2 4NU (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Adhesion characteristics analysed with respect to reverse paintings on glass. • Physical properties of surfaces and pigments found to affect cohesion and adhesion. • Environmental effects on pigment adhesion to glass have been documented. • Vermillion pigment hardest compared to other pigments, especially with adhesives. • Wettability used to assess adhesion properties relating to reverse paintings on glass. - Abstract: Reverse painting on glass is a technique which consists of applying a cold paint layer on the reverse-side of glass. The main challenge facing these artworks is the fragile adhesion of the pictorial layer – a simple movement can modify the appearance of the painting. This paper details a study into the adhesion parameters of pigments on glass and the comparison between different pigments. The relationships between the binder (linseed oil) with pigments and the glass with or without the use of an adhesive are studied. Physical analyses by surface characterisation have been carried out to better understand the influence of the pigment. The use of a sessile drop device, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a surface 3D profiler and a pencil hardness scratch tester were necessary to establish a comparison of the pictorial layer adhesion. A comparison of the effect of two adhesives, namely ox gall and gum arabic, has shown that the adhesion is not only linked to the physical parameters but that possible chemical reactions can influence the results. Finally, a treatment based on humidity-extreme storage has shown the weakness of some pictorial layers.

  3. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  4. Electron injection mechanisms of green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a double electron injection layer consisting of cesium carbonate and fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.S.; Choo, D.C.; Kim, T.W.; Jin, Y.Y.; Seo, J.H.; Kim, Y.K.

    2010-01-01

    Electron injection mechanisms of the luminance efficiency of green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 )/fullerene (C 60 ) heterostructure acting as an electron injection layer (EIL) were investigated. Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage measurements showed that the current densities and the luminances of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 or Cs 2 CO 3 /C 60 EIL were higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL was almost three times higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. Because the electron injection efficiency of the Cs 2 CO 3 layer in OLEDs was different from that of the C 60 layer, the luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a double EIL consisting of a Cs 2 CO 3 layer and a C 60 layer was smaller than that of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL. The electron injection mechanisms of OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 and C 60 double EIL are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  5. Green function as an integral superposition of Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26 (2016), s. 131-153 ISSN 2336-3827 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05237S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : elastodynamic Green function * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * integral superposition of Gaussian beams Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, L; Bozzoli, F; Rainieri, S; Pagliarini, G; Bochicchio, G; Tessadri, B

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect

  7. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  8. Studies on irradiation resisting paints for concrete structures in nuclear power plant, (8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Daizo; Sumino, Masahiro

    1981-01-01

    It is necessary for layers of irradiation resisting paints to adhere tightly to each other in order to exhibit superior effects. It is said that such adhesion is greatly affected by the interval between painting of the layers. Further, the adhesion will be affected by dirt soiling dried undercoat surfaces. Therefore, experiments were conducted to make clear the effects of painting intervals, dirt soiling and preparation method of dried coat surfaces. The following results were obtained. (1) Adhesion between layers of paint coats was not affected very much by painting intervals. (2) Rotary disk sanders and rotary cup wire brushes were useful tools for removing dirt in preparation of dried undercoat surfaces. (3) Thinner should be added to the middle coat at a rate of dilution by the thinner of 5 to 10% in order to improve adhesion with the undercoat. (author)

  9. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  10. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  11. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  12. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  13. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...

  14. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschau, Margit; Kraetke, Renate

    2005-01-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  15. An Investigation of the Painting Technique in Portraits by Jens Juel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsgaard, Tine Louise

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of the first technical art historical study executed on paintings by the Danish portrait painter Jens Juel. Eight portrait paintings on canvas from two different time periods in the career of Jens Juel have been examined and compared in order to establish the use...... of materials, working methods and painting techniques, and whether an artistic development can be traced. The findings include the characteristics of the canvas structure and painting grounds, how the canvas was prepared and the artist’s use of underdrawing, as well as the layered build up of the carnation...

  16. Onoufrios, the famous XVI's century iconographer, creator of the ``Berati School'': studying the technique and materials used in wall paintings of inscribed churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, E.; Arapi, M.; Zorba, T.; Anastasiou, M.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2006-06-01

    The study of the materials and techniques employed for wall painting, complementing the information from historical and aesthetic data, contributes to the integrated knowledge of the iconographer and his period. In the 16th century, regarding the iconography in the former Byzantine area, besides the School of Crete and Francos Catelanos and his school, a third artistic personality who also created his own school, Onoufrios, appeared in central Albania and expanded his activity as a painter to northern Greece as well as nearby areas, such as Ohrid. Inscriptions documenting the works of Onoufrios are found in some of the churches that he decorated with wall paintings: “St. Apostles” (1547) Kastoria Greece, “St. Nicolas” Shelcan Albania, “St. Paraskevi” (1554), Valsh Albania, while are attributed to him the church of “St. Theodores” in Berati, Albania (before 1547) and others. He is one of the best icon painters of the whole Balkan region, and the best painter that has ever worked in Albanian territory. Onoufrios managed to combine the local painting tradition with the best tradition of the eastern (Paleologian) and western (Italian) schools, resulting in a realistic and natural depiction. He is the creator of the “Berati School” that expanded to other parts of the peninsula. His individual character can be distinguished in the work of his students: his son Nikolaos (who inherited his style in painting), Onoufrios from Cyprus, etc. Based on careful observations, we extracted number of paint samples from wall paintings of three of the above mentioned churches. Ground and paint layers were examined using micro-FTIR, Optical Microscopy, TXRF and SEM-EDS, to characterize materials and methods used by the artist to create these works. Our findings in each church are discussed and compared with the others in order to understand how and with what material and resources the painter worked and how he developed his technique. The presence of calcium

  17. Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skapin, A. Sever; Ropret, P.; Bukovec, P.

    2007-01-01

    For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods

  18. Atomic Oxygen Treatment Technique for Removal of Smoke Damage from Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. K.; Banks, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Soot deposits that can accumulate on surfaces of a painting during a fire can be difficult to clean from some types of paintings without damaging the underlying paint layers. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove the soot by allowing a gas containing atomic oxygen to flow over the surface and chemically react with the soot to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The reaction is limited to the surface, so the underlying paint is not touched. The process can be controlled so that the cleaning can be stopped once the paint surface is reached. This paper describes the smoke exposure and cleaning of untreated canvas, acrylic gesso, and sections of an oil painting using this technique. The samples were characterized by optical microscopy and reflectance spectroscopy.

  19. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L.; Gutierrez, P.C.; Salomon, J.; Menu, M.; Sorieul, S.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  20. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; de Viguerie, L.; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L.; Gutiérrez, P. C.; Salomon, J.; Menu, M.; Sorieul, S.

    2010-06-01

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  1. New approaches for investigating paintings by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: Lucile.beck@cea.f [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Viguerie, L. de; Walter, Ph.; Pichon, L. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutierrez, P.C. [Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Salomon, J.; Menu, M. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), CNRS-UMR 171, Palais du Louvre - Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Sorieul, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3, UMR 5797, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Chemin du Solarium BP120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2010-06-15

    Up to now, among the IBA techniques, only PIXE has been used for analyzing paintings. However, quantitative PIXE analysis is sometimes difficult to interpret due to the layered structure, the presence of varnish and organic binder and, in some cases, discoloration of the pigments has been observed due to the interaction of the ion beam with the compounds. In order to improve the characterization of paintings, we propose some alternative experimental procedures. First of all, backscattering spectrometry (BS) and PIXE are simultaneously combined in order to collect complementary information such as layer thickness and organic compound quantification. The simultaneous PIXE and BS experiments also have the advantage of being able to analyze the same area in one experiment. This combination, implemented with an external beam, was directly applied on paintings and on painting cross-sections for the study of Italian Renaissance masterpieces. We have obtained valuable results not only on the pigment itself but also, for the first time, on the binder to pigment proportion which is not well documented in the ancient recipes. Moreover, in order to restrain beam damages due to the ion stopping power, we propose to analyze very thin painting cross-sections by a combination of PIXE-RBS and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM).

  2. Moessbauer study of rock paintings from Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, G.M. da; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Cruz Souza, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Four samples of a wall containing rock paintings have been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction. Hematite and goethite were identified as the pigments responsible for the colors and the mineral tinsleyite, as the principal component of a light pink layer that is present in some parts of the wall. (orig.)

  3. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates ... silicates; nanocomposites; rheological modifier; drug delivery; waste water. 1. ... enhance the rheological properties of the paint system. .... tems (thermoset and thermoplastic) including epoxy .... involves adding organoclay as a dry powder prior to, or.

  4. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  5. Novel Organic Phototransistor-Based Nonvolatile Memory Integrated with UV-Sensing/Green-Emissive Aggregation Enhanced Emission (AEE)-Active Aromatic Polyamide Electret Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shun-Wen; Han, Ting; Huang, Teng-Yung; Chang Chien, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2018-05-30

    A novel aggregation enhanced emission (AEE)-active polyamide TPA-CN-TPE with a high photoluminesence characteristic was successfully synthesized by the direct polymerization of 4-cyanotriphenyl diamine (TPA-CN) and tetraphenylethene (TPE)-containing dicarboxylic acid. The obtained luminescent polyamide plays a significant role as the polymer electret layer in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs)-type memory. The strong green emission of TPA-CN-TPE under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be directly absorbed by the pentacene channel, displaying a light-induced programming and voltage-driven erasing organic phototransistor-based nonvolatile memory. Memory window can be effectively manipulated between the programming and erasing states by applying UV light illumination and electrical field, respectively. The photoinduced memory behavior can be maintained for over 10 4 s between these two states with an on/off ratio of 10 4 , and the memory switching can be steadily operated for many cycles. With high photoresponsivity ( R) and photosensitivity ( S), this organic phototransistor integrated with AEE-active polyamide electret layer could serve as an excellent candidate for UV photodetectors in optical applications. For comparison, an AEE-inactive aromatic polyimide TPA-PIS electret with much weaker solid-state emission was also applied in the same OFETs device architecture, but this device did not show any UV-sensitive and UV-induced memory characteristics, which further confirmed the significance of the light-emitting capability of the electret layer.

  6. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  7. A review on paint sludge from automotive industries: Generation, characteristics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Guray; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2016-03-15

    The automotive manufacturing process results in the consumption of several natural sources and the generation of various types of wastes. The primary source of hazardous wastes at an automotive manufacturing plant is the painting process, and the major waste fraction is paint sludge, which is classified with EU waste code of 080113* implying hazardous characteristics. The amount of the paint sludge generated increases every year with the worldwide increase in the car production. The characteristics of the paint sludge, which mainly designate the management route, are mainly determined by the type of the paint used, application technique employed, and the chemicals applied such as flocculants, detackifiers, pH boosters, antifoam agents, and biocides as well as the dewatering techniques preferred. Major routes for the disposal of the paint sludges are incineration as hazardous waste or combustion at cement kilns. Because of high dissolved organic carbon content of the paint, the paint sludge cannot be accepted by landfills according to European Union Legislations. More investigations are needed in the field of paint sludge recycling such as recycling it as a new paint or as other formulations, or making use of the sludge for the production of construction materials. Research on the applicability of the paint sludge in composting and biogasification can also be useful. Ongoing research is currently being conducted on new application techniques to increase the effectiveness of paint transfer, which helps to prevent the generation of paint sludge. Advancements in paint and coating chemistry such as the reduction in the coating layers with its thickness also help to decrease the level of paint sludge generation. Investigations on the effects of the chemicals on the recycling potential of paint sludges and consideration of these effects by the chemical manufacturer companies would be extremely important. This review presents the formation of paint sludge, the factors

  8. Black painted pottery, Kildehuse II, Odense County, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trąbska, Joanna; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Zięba-Palus, Janina; Runge, Mads Thagård

    2011-08-01

    This work aimed at characterization of a black layer covering a Bronze Age (period VI) pot surface. To solve research problems plane polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning microscopy with X-ray microanalyser (SEM/EDS), Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies were applied. Observation of the black layer under the PLM suggests that we deal with an opaque, isotropic layer, purposely put on leather-hard, burnished surface of a pot. No traces of organic substances that might have modified a pot surface before painting were detected. The black layer coats the pot with a continuous 0.2-0.4 μm thick layer. The black layer must have been applied while warm or hot. It is recognized that the black layer is a true painting layer. Spectroscopic analyses (Raman and FTIR) point that birch tar or a birch-pine tar had been applied. Carbon black should be definitely excluded. The analyzed organic substance is structurally ordered in various degrees, due to varying temperature influence. Some Raman spectra reveal, in second-order region of the spectrum (>2000 cm -1), the graphite presence. Scarce points reveal the presence of inorganic admixtures: clay minerals, feldspars and quartz. The next question is: Is it an organic paint or a carbon-based, "mixed" paint? Inorganic admixtures are only casual. Relatively high concentration of alumina is expected to have appeared due to aluminum mobility in acidic environment and this was provided by organic tar/pitch substances. Phosphorus (usually with calcium) mostly concentrates together with clay minerals. Thus, hypothesis on bone powder or ash addition to tar/pitch should be excluded. Some elements may originate not only from inorganic substances but also from wood ashes.

  9. Nuclear Weapon Yield Determination through Nano Indentation of Thermally Degraded Automobile Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    function of the layer. When less complicated paint systems were used, the primer filled the role of surfacer. As each layer of paint became more...majority of the property changes caused by the irradiation would be near the surface. Unfortunately, surface effects are complicated , difficult...are two values recorded in the bubble and whitening rows under the Highest Temperature not Observed because the experiment that yielded the

  10. Green tide deactivation with layered-structure cuboids of Ag/CaTiO3 under UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Wohn; Lozano-Sánchez, L.M.; Rodríguez-González, V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Synergic reasons such as mass transfer, morphology, biocide properties, UV-A photoresponse, and electron trapping that reduce recombination on Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposites, have the potential for the generation of reactive radicals that promote the fatal irreversible deactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min under UV-A irradiation. -- Highlights: • An alternative to deactivate harmful green tide is proposed by employing Ag/CaTiO 3 . • Particles of perovskite-like have rectangular prisms morphology with AgNPs ∼13 nm. • The cuboids achieve complete inactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min. • AgNPs functionalization induce fatal irreversible damages on the algae surface. -- Abstract: In this work, an alternative to deactivate noxious green tide Tetraselmis suecica in the short-term is proposed by employing Perovskite-like cube-shaped, crystalline CaTiO 3 semiconductors functionalized with atomic silver nanoparticles. CaTiO 3 was prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and then Ag 0 NPs (1 wt% of CaTiO 3 ), were added by the photoreduction method. The XRD results show that crystalline CaTiO 3 has an orthorhombic unit cell with a Perovskite-like structure. Images obtained by FESEM and HRTEM microscopies show well-faceted CaTiO 3 rectangular prismatic morphology functionalizated with silver nanoparticles ∼13.5 nm. XPS and EDS-FESEM has confirmed the composition of CaTiO 3 and silver occurring mainly as reduced metal. The UV inactivation of noxious T. suecica with Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposites formed on bare materials results in complete deactivation of the algae in 12 min. The direct contact between harmful algae and Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposite is necessary to deactivate the algae and inhibits algae viability

  11. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  12. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  13. Tapestry paintings in the main church in Breda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Leeflang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is an adaptation of some reports made between 2005 and 2007 for the art-historical preliminary research into the restorations of the wall paintings in the main church in Breda. In addition, a proposal for restoration is given for the paintings dealt with, emphasizing the preservation of the representations. The first priority in all the paintings is consolidating loose paint and removing dirt from the surface. Subsequently, old putty is removed so as to expose the original painting as much as possible. During the restoration large voids will have to be filled up in a neutral shade – in a lighter shade than the original – so that the distinction between original and restoration remains visible. On the south choir wall in the second bay of the ambulatory at the top three pairs of yellow cloth scissors are painted on a green field (illustration 1. As scissors were an important element in the textile industry, it is plausible that this chapel was painted on the instructions of the cloth guild (illustration 2. The various stages in the production process of the cloth were strictly inspected. These inspections were accompanied by affixing lead seals (illustration 3, which could be considered a full guarantee for the client. Around the scissors in the cloth- scissors chapel in Breda small circles are painted, which were not mentioned in the literature. Although the exact meaning is unknown, these circles could represent lead seals and could thus be a reference to the high quality of the products of the cloth guild in Breda. Both on the second choir pillar at the southside and on the freestanding clustered pillar in the south ambulatory angels with a red cloth of honour are painted (illustration 7, 9 and 10. The former painting dates from approximately 1510-1520 and the latter from the second half of the sixteenth century. It is very likely that the red painted cloth of honour functioned as a background for a sculpture. In miniature art

  14. The abstract unconscious in painting

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, David

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Unconscious in Painting addresses painting as experiential process, critically examining the psychological factors involved in the formation of imagery as it emerges through imaginative responses to the process of mark making and the structuring of space and form. The paper sets this process in relation to theoretical material drawn from Jungian and Post Jungian Psychology ( Avens, 1980; Hillman, 1975) the arts ( Gombrich, 1960; Kuspit, 2000; McKeever, 2005; Worringer, 1908) and ...

  15. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  16. Low-Cost and Green Fabrication of Polymer Electronic Devices by Push-Coating of the Polymer Active Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Mróz, Wojciech; Inaba, Shusei; Porzio, William; Giovanella, Umberto; Galeotti, Francesco

    2017-08-02

    Because of both its easy processability and compatibility with roll-to-roll processes, polymer electronics is considered to be the most promising technology for the future generation of low-cost electronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells. However, the state-of-the-art deposition technique for polymer electronics (spin-coating) generates a high volume of chlorinated solution wastes during the active layer fabrication. Here, we demonstrate that devices with similar or higher performances can be manufactured using the push-coating technique in which a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layer is simply laid over a very small amount of solution (less than 1μL/covered cm 2 ), which is then left for drying. Using mm thick PDMS provides a means to control the solvent diffusion kinetics (sorption/retention) and removes the necessity for additional applied pressure to generate the desired active layer thickness. Unlike spin-coating, push-coating is a slow drying process that induces a higher degree of crystallinity in the polymer thin film without the necessity for a post-annealing step. The polymer light-emitting diodes and solar cells prepared by push-coating exhibit slightly higher performances with respect to the reference spin-coated devices, whereas at the same time reduce the amounts of active layer materials and chlorinated solvents by 50 and 20 times, respectively. These increased performances can be correlated to the higher polymer crystallinities obtained without applying a post-annealing treatment. As push-coating is a roll-to-roll compatible method, the results presented here open the path to low-cost and eco-friendly fabrication of a wide range of emerging devices based on conjugated polymer materials.

  17. New insights into the painting stratigraphy of L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet combining scanning macro-XRF and confocal micro-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Ina; Eveno, Myriam; Pichon, Laurent; Laval, Eric; Mottin, Bruno; Mueller, Katharina; Calligaro, Thomas; Mysak, Erin

    2016-01-01

    The painting L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet kept at the Musee d'Orsay in Paris has been recently studied by X-ray radiography, SEM-EDX observation of paint cross sections and confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analyses (CXRF) at locations where the cross section samples were taken. This study allowed the establishment of the paint palette used by Courbet for the three paint compositions. Eight or more paint layers could be evidenced. In the view of the complexity of this painting, further analyses using two-dimensional scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (MA-XRF) providing chemical images corresponding to the superimposition of all detectable paint layers were employed. This method is combined with CXRF for depth-resolved paint layer analysis. Large elemental maps of Hg, Cu, As, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ca were obtained by MA-XRF on the painting and are discussed in combination with depth profiles obtained by CXRF on strategic points where three painting compositions overlap. The order of three successive compositions of this painting were determined in this study. This work also highlights the benefits of using complementary imaging methods to obtain a complete three-dimensional vision of the chemistry and stratigraphy of paintings. (orig.)

  18. New insights into the painting stratigraphy of L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet combining scanning macro-XRF and confocal micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Ina [Staatliche Museen zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Berlin (Germany); Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, Sorbonne Universites, Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Paris (France); Eveno, Myriam; Pichon, Laurent; Laval, Eric; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); Mueller, Katharina [Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, Sorbonne Universites, Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Paris (France); Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, Paris (France); Mysak, Erin [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); Yale University, Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The painting L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet kept at the Musee d'Orsay in Paris has been recently studied by X-ray radiography, SEM-EDX observation of paint cross sections and confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analyses (CXRF) at locations where the cross section samples were taken. This study allowed the establishment of the paint palette used by Courbet for the three paint compositions. Eight or more paint layers could be evidenced. In the view of the complexity of this painting, further analyses using two-dimensional scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (MA-XRF) providing chemical images corresponding to the superimposition of all detectable paint layers were employed. This method is combined with CXRF for depth-resolved paint layer analysis. Large elemental maps of Hg, Cu, As, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ca were obtained by MA-XRF on the painting and are discussed in combination with depth profiles obtained by CXRF on strategic points where three painting compositions overlap. The order of three successive compositions of this painting were determined in this study. This work also highlights the benefits of using complementary imaging methods to obtain a complete three-dimensional vision of the chemistry and stratigraphy of paintings. (orig.)

  19. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corregidor, V.; Oliveira, A.R.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Alves, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings

  20. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Sherwin-Williams, developed water-based acrylic alkyd paints with VOCs that can be made from recycled soda bottle (PET), acrylics, and soybean oil.

  1. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn 4+ -doped TiO 2 based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn 4+ -doped nano-TiO 2 particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn 4+ /Ti(OBu n ) 4 ; mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 deg. C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property

  2. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Makoto; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Shota; Sato, Soh

    2013-01-01

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst

  3. Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

    2005-08-01

    Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

  4. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraparprachoom, N.; Mishima, K.

    1998-01-01

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137 Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  5. Elof Risebye – A Pioneer in the Transfer of Wall Paintings on the Wrong Path

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2001-01-01

    The transfer of wall paintings was introduced to Denmark by Italian restorers in 1913. A misunderstanding of this technique led to the development of a faulty method by Elof Risebye, an artist, who by chance got involved in the restoration of wall paintings. The use of the wrong adhesive resulted...... in massive damage of the paint layer. Risebye disguised his losses by overpainting, which he carried out according to his own style of painting, not at all following the style of the painter's whose work he was restoring. He also taught his students at the Fresco and Mosaic School how to detach frescoes......, thus disseminating his faulty method. Due to Risebye's activities there are a significant number of transferred wall paintings in Denmark which are in dire need of treatment today....

  6. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  7. Ultraviolet-radiation-curable paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosset, A M; Su, W F.A.; Vanderglas, E

    1981-09-30

    In product finishing lines, ultraviolet radiation curing of paints on prefabricated structures could be more energy efficient than curing by natural gas fired ovens, and could eliminate solvent emission. Diffuse ultraviolet light can cure paints on three dimensional metal parts. In the uv curing process, the spectral output of radiation sources must complement the absorption spectra of pigments and photoactive agents. Photosensitive compounds, such as thioxanthones, can photoinitiate unsaturated resins, such as acrylated polyurethanes, by a free radical mechanism. Newly developed cationic photoinitiators, such as sulfonium or iodonium salts (the so-called onium salts) of complex metal halide anions, can be used in polymerization of epoxy paints by ultraviolet light radiation. One-coat enamels, topcoats, and primers have been developed which can be photoinitiated to produce hard, adherent films. This process has been tested in a laboratory scale unit by spray coating these materials on three-dimensional objects and passing them through a tunnel containing uv lamps.

  8. Enhancing the performance of green solid-state electric double-layer capacitor incorporated with fumed silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mee Yoke; Numan, Arshid; Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ng, H. M.; Ramesh, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2018-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based on fumed silica nanoparticles as nanofillers, hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC) as host polymer, magnesium trifluoromethanesulfonate salt and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid is prepared by solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity, interactions of adsorbed ions on the host polymer, structural crystallinity and thermal stability are evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Ionic conductivity studies at room temperature reveals that the SPE with 2 wt. % of fumed silica nanoparticles gives the highest conductivity compared to its counterpart. The XRD and FTIR studies confirm the dissolution of salt, ionic liquid and successful incorporation of fumed silica nanoparticles with host polymer. In order to examine the performance of SPEs, electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are fabricated by using activated carbon electrodes. EDLC studies demonstrate that SPE incorporated with 2 wt. % fumed silica nanoparticles gives high specific capacitance (25.0 F/g) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s compared to SPE without fumed silica. Additionally, it is able to withstand 71.3% of capacitance from its initial capacitance value over 1600 cycles at a current density of 0.4 A/g.

  9. Probing the characteristics of casein as green binder for non-aqueous electrochemical double layer capacitors' electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Raccichini, Rinaldo; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Casein from bovine milk is evaluated in this work as binding agent for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) electrodes. It is demonstrated that casein provides excellent adhesion strength to the current collector (1187 kPa compared to 51 kPa achieved with PVdF), thus leading to mechanically stable electrodes. At the same time, it offers high thermal stability (above 200 °C) and electrochemical stability in organic electrolytes. Apparently though, the casein-based electrodes offer lower electronic conductivity than those based on other state-of-the-art binders, which can limit the rate performance of the resulting EDLC. In the attempt of improving the electrochemical performance, it is found that the application of a pressing step can solve this issue, leading to excellent rate capability (up to 84% capacitance retention at 50 mA cm-2) and cycling stability (96.8% after 10,000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2) in both PC- and ACN-based electrolytes. Although the adhesive power casein is known since ancient times, this report presents the first proof of concept of its employment in electrochemical power sources.

  10. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  11. From the ground up: Surface and sub-surface effects in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandivere, A.L.S.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation explores the techniques that were used to build up fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Netherlandish oil paintings, from the ground up. Paintings are more than two-dimensional images; they are physical objects composed of several layers, usually: the support, ground,

  12. Integrating imaging FTIR and secondary ion mass spectrometry for the analysis of embedded paint cross-sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeren, Ron M.A.; Boon, Jaap J.; Noble, Petria

    1999-01-01

    Novel chemical imaging techniques provide new insight in the organic chemistry of embedded paint cross-sections. FTIR imaging microscopy delivers a two-dimensional image of the functional group distribution, revealing chemical aspects of the binding medium in each individual paint layer. Secondar...... and identity of various lead soaps and lead hydroxychloride in these inclusions....

  13. Raman Identification of Pigments in Wall Paintings of the Colonial Period from Bolivian Churches in the Ruta De La Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rúa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze and identify pigments and determine the palette of color in wall paintings from four churches of the Colonial Period, in the Bolivian highlands. The ancient churches Santiago de Callapa, Curahuara de Carangas, NuestraSeñora de Copacabana de Andamarca and San José de Soracachi were constructed during the 17th and 18th centuries, around the important colonial Ruta de la Plata, between Potosí city and Arica harbor on the Pacific coast of South America. Most pigments used in the wall paintings correspond to inorganic minerals as well as to organic colorants. Fully chlorinated copper phthalocyanine (green, copper phthalocyanine (blue, β-naphthol (yellow and benzoimidazolone (red, were identified in the corresponding colored areas suggesting subsequent recent interventions or restorations. Ground layer materials were also characterized. The present results allow for discussion of the pictorial techniques used in the Andean highland during the colonial period and allow conservators and restorers to make important decisions regarding the type of intervention to perform in the case of these important historical and patrimonial monuments.

  14. Levels of lead in solvent and water-based paints manufactured in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rauf, M.A.; Chotona, G.A.; Bukhari, N.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of lead in eight popular brands of solvent- and water-based paint manufactured locally in Pakistan are reported. The analysis was done using the flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The lead concentration was found to vary from 3.3 mg/kg to 13179 in different solvent-based brands, whereas the concentration of the metal was in the range of 1768 to less than 0.5mg/kg in water based paints. The lead concentrations were especially high in oil based green (maximum value of 13170 mg/kg) and yellow paints (maximum value of 84940 mg/kg). The corresponding higher concentration were observed in case of emerald (maximum value of 1768 mg/kg) and gray (maximum value of 542 mg/kg) paints in the water-based category. (author)

  15. Global mapping of stratigraphy of an old-master painting using sparsity-based terahertz reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junliang; Locquet, Alexandre; Melis, Marcello; Citrin, D S

    2017-11-08

    The process by which art paintings are produced typically involves the successive applications of preparatory and paint layers to a canvas or other support; however, there is an absence of nondestructive modalities to provide a global mapping of the stratigraphy, information that is crucial for evaluation of its authenticity and attribution, for insights into historical or artist-specific techniques, as well as for conservation. We demonstrate sparsity-based terahertz reflectometry can be applied to extract a detailed 3D mapping of the layer structure of the 17th century easel painting Madonna in Preghiera by the workshop of Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato, in which the structure of the canvas support, the ground, imprimatura, underpainting, pictorial, and varnish layers are identified quantitatively. In addition, a hitherto unidentified restoration of the varnish has been found. Our approach unlocks the full promise of terahertz reflectometry to provide a global and detailed account of an easel painting's stratigraphy by exploiting the sparse deconvolution, without which terahertz reflectometry in the past has only provided a meager tool for the characterization of paintings with paint-layer thicknesses smaller than 50 μm. The proposed modality can also be employed across a broad range of applications in nondestructive testing and biomedical imaging.

  16. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  17. Building blocks for the development of an interface for high-throughput thin layer chromatography/ambient mass spectrometric analysis: a green methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Huang, Min-Zong; Wu, Li-Chieh; Chou, Chih-Chiang; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Jhang, Siou-Sian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2012-07-17

    Interfacing thin layer chromatography (TLC) with ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) has been an important area of analytical chemistry because of its capability to rapidly separate and characterize the chemical compounds. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput TLC-AMS system using building blocks to deal, deliver, and collect the TLC plate through an electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization (ELDI) source. This is the first demonstration of the use of building blocks to construct and test the TLC-MS interfacing system. With the advantages of being readily available, cheap, reusable, and extremely easy to modify without consuming any material or reagent, the use of building blocks to develop the TLC-AMS interface is undoubtedly a green methodology. The TLC plate delivery system consists of a storage box, plate dealing component, conveyer, light sensor, and plate collecting box. During a TLC-AMS analysis, the TLC plate was sent to the conveyer from a stack of TLC plates placed in the storage box. As the TLC plate passed through the ELDI source, the chemical compounds separated on the plate would be desorbed by laser desorption and subsequently postionized by electrospray ionization. The samples, including a mixture of synthetic dyes and extracts of pharmaceutical drugs, were analyzed to demonstrate the capability of this TLC-ELDI/MS system for high-throughput analysis.

  18. Removal of indigo carmine and green bezanyl-F2B from water using calcined and uncalcined Zn/Al + Fe layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bessaha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxide Zn/(Al + Fe with a molar ratio of 3:(0.85 + 0.15, designated as ZAF-HT, was synthetized by co-precipitation. Its calcined product CZAF was obtained by heat treatment of ZAF-HT at 500°C. The calcined and uncalcined materials were used to remove the acid dyes indigo carmine (IC and green bezanyl-F2B (F2B from water in batch mode. The synthetized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The sorption kinetic data fitted a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorbed amounts of the calcined material were much larger than ZAF-HT. The maximum adsorption capacity of CZAF was found to be 617.3 mg g−1 for IC and 1,501.4 mg g−1 for F2B. The isotherms showed that the removal of IC and F2B by ZAF-HT and CZAF could be described by a Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. The negative values of standard free energy ΔG° indicate the spontaneity of sorption process. The reuse of CZAF was studied for both dyes and the calcined material showed a good stability for four thermal cycles.

  19. Feasibility of correlating separation of ternary mixtures of neutral analytes via thin layer chromatography with supercritical fluid chromatography in support of green flash separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yan, Q; Akin, A; Riley, F; Aurigemma, C; Taylor, L T

    2015-10-30

    Method development for normal phase flash liquid chromatography traditionally employs preliminary screening using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with conventional solvents on bare silica. Extension to green flash chromatography via correlation of TLC migration results, with conventional polar/nonpolar liquid mixtures, and packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) retention times, via gradient elution on bare silica with a suite of carbon dioxide mobile phase modifiers, is reported. Feasibility of TLC/SFC correlation is individually described for eight ternary mixtures for a total of 24 neutral analytes. The experimental criteria for TLC/SFC correlation was assumed to be as follows: SFC/UV/MS retention (tR) increases among each of the three resolved mixture components; while, TLC migration (Rf) decreases among the same resolved mixture components. Successful correlation of TLC to SFC was observed for most of the polar organic solvents tested, with the best results observed via SFC on bare silica with methanol as the CO2 modifier and TLC on bare silica with a methanol/dichloromethane mixture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EDXRF portable system used in the analysis of altars, sculptures and paintings from XVII and XVIII centuries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, R.P.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Santos, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    the Main Chapel, revealed the original gold covering (hidden by commercial golden paint) and also the original layer of red color, at the bottom, obtained by the use of vermilion. In an altar table, presently covered with modern white paint, were found some layers of ancient paintings from different periods, and identified by the pigments used in each one. The analysis of 15 sculptures - dating from XVII and XVIII centuries - revealed the original pigments, the elemental composition of the clay and materials employed in recent restorations. In most of the cases the original gilding had been covered with commercial golden paint. The analysis of 14 wood panels (XVIII century), at the vault and side walls of the chapel - representing nine episodes of the saint's life - revealed original pigments and retouching regions. The original pigments used in the paintings were: lead white, vermilion, ochre (red, yellow and brown), umber, bone black, green earth, verdigris and Prussian blue. In some regions of retouching were identified: chromium yellow, viridian/chromium oxide and zinc white. (author)

  1. Micro-analytical study of interactions between oil and lead compounds in paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotte, M.; Checroun, E.; Susini, J.; Walter, P.

    2007-01-01

    Oil paintings are complex hybrid materials, made of organic binders associated with inorganic minerals, susceptible to evolving over centuries. In particular, interactions of oil with lead compounds may give rise to the formation of lead soap aggregates, so-called protrusions. This phenomenon is studied here via X-ray and FTIR micro-analysis of an ancient painting dated from 1610. In complement, the synthesis of modern preparations, reconstructed from ancient recipes was assessed. Molecular and atomic images are obtained by combining synchrotron-based FTIR and X-ray fluorescence microscopies. Protrusions are identified in both ancient and modern samples, more particularly, in the ground layer of the paintings, below the colored layer. These observations imply that lead oxide, introduced as a siccative and not as a pigment, may be the element mainly responsible for the protrusions formation, and that this degradation may appear very rapidly on paintings. (orig.)

  2. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  3. Materials science challenges in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-01-23

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  4. Materials science challenges in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-02-01

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  5. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  6. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  7. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Krarup Andersen, Cecil; Baadsgaard, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight painti...

  8. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment.

  9. Analytical characterization of the palette and painting techniques of Jorge Afonso, the great 16th century Master of Lisbon painting workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Vanessa; Candeias, António; Mirão, José; Carvalho, Maria L.; Dias, Cristina Barrocas; Manhita, Ana; Cardoso, Ana; Francisco, Maria J.; Lauw, Alexandra; Manso, Marta

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a study on a set of paintings from the most significant altarpiece assigned to Master Jorge Afonso (c. 1470-1540) painting workshop is presented. This altarpiece is composed by fourteen paintings made to the church of Convento de Jesus, in Setúbal, Portugal, and was made circa 1517-19/1530, according to art-history. This set of paintings is compared to one of the other most important Portuguese altarpieces from the 16th century: the panels of the Round Church of the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, made circa 1510-1515. The aim of this study is to characterize the wooden support, pigments, ground layers materials and technique used in Jorge Afonso workshop by means of complementary analyses. A dendrochronological approach was made in order to corroborate (or not) the historical date initially assigned. Infrared photography (IRP) and reflectography (IRR) allowed the study of the underdrawing technique and macro photography (MP) was used to recognize overlapping layers technique. Cross-sections from the paintings were examined by optical microscopy (OM), and analyzed by μ-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman), micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). The characterization of the palette and ground layers and the study of the overlapping of paint layers brought a new insight of the adopted painting techniques by the most important group of painters working in Portugal in the 16th century - the Lisbon workshop, leaded by Master Jorge Afonso.

  10. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Painting rusted steel: The role of aluminum phosphosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselli, S.N.; Amo, B. del; Carbonari, R.O.; Di Sarli, A.R.; Romagnoli, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Aluminum phosphosilicate is an acid pigment which could act as mild phosphating agent. •Aluminum phosphosilicate can phosphatize iron oxides on rusted surfaces. •Aluminum phosphosilicate is compatible with acid binders. •Aluminum phosphosilicate could replace chromate in complete painting schemes. •Aluminum phosphosilicate primers improve paints adhesion on rusted surfaces. -- Abstract: Surface preparation is a key factor for the adequate performance of a paint system. The aim of this investigation is to employ a wash-primer to accomplish the chemical conversion of rusted surface when current cleaning operations are difficult to carry out. The active component of the wash-primer was aluminum phosphosilicate whose electrochemical behavior and the composition of the generated protective layer, both, were studied by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Primed rusted steel panels were coated with an alkyd system to perform accelerated tests in the salt spray chamber and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). These tests were conducted in parallel with a chromate wash primer and the same alkyd system. Results showed that the wash-primer containing aluminum phosphosilicate could be used satisfactorily to paint rusted steel exhibiting a similar performance to the chromate primer

  12. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  13. Capabilities and limitations of handheld Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for the analysis of colourants and binders in 20th-century reverse paintings on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Simon; Stege, Heike; Bretz, Simone; Hahn, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    A non-invasive method has been carried out to show the capabilities and limitations of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for identifying of colourants and binders in modern reverse glass paintings. For this purpose, the reverse glass paintings "Zwei Frauen am Tisch" (1920-22), "Bäume" (1946) (both by Heinrich Campendonk), "Lofoten" (1933) (Edith Campendonk-van Leckwyck) and "Ohne Titel" (1954) (Marianne Uhlenhuth), were measured. In contrast to other techniques (e.g. panel and mural painting), the paint layers are applied in reverse succession. In multi-layered paint systems, the front paint layer may no longer be accessible. The work points out the different spectral appearance of a given substance (gypsum, basic lead white) in reverse glass paintings. However, inverted bands, band overlapping and derivative-shaped spectral features can be interpreted by comparing the spectra from the paintings with spectra from pure powders and pigment/linseed oil mock-ups. Moreover, the work focuses on this method's capabilities in identifying synthetic organic pigments (SOP). Reference spectra of three common SOP (PG7, PY1, PR83) were obtained from powders and historical colour charts. We identified PR83 and PY1 in two reverse glass paintings, using the measured reference spectra. The recorded DRIFTS spectra of pure linseed oil, gum Arabic, mastic, polyvinyl acetate resin and bees wax can be used to classify the binding media of the measured paintings.

  14. Assessing bio-available silver released from silver nanoparticles embedded in silica layers using the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as bio-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliara, Alessandro [nMat group-CEMES (Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales)-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); LAPLACE (LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Makasheva, Kremena; Despax, Bernard [LAPLACE (LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion d' Energie), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Bayle, Maxime; Carles, Robert; Benzo, Patrizio; BenAssayag, Gérard; Pécassou, Béatrice [nMat group-CEMES (Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales)-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sancho, Maria Carmen; Navarro, Enrique [IPE (Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología)-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, Zaragoza 50059 (Spain); Echegoyen, Yolanda [I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, C/ María de Luna 3, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Bonafos, Caroline, E-mail: bonafos@cemes.fr [nMat group-CEMES (Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales)-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2016-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their strong antibacterial activity are widely used in health-care sector and industrial applications. Their huge surface-volume ratio enhances the silver release compared to the bulk material, leading to an increased toxicity for microorganisms sensitive to this element. This work presents an assessment of the toxic effect on algal photosynthesis due to small (size < 20 nm) AgNPs embedded in silica layers. Two physical approaches were originally used to elaborate the nanocomposite structures: (i) low energy ion beam synthesis and (ii) combined silver sputtering and plasma polymerization. These techniques allow elaboration of a single layer of AgNPs embedded in silica films at defined nanometer distances (from 0 to 7 nm) beneath the free surface. The structural and optical properties of the nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy and optical reflectance. The silver release from the nanostructures after 20 h of immersion in buffered water was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ranges between 0.02 and 0.49 μM. The short-term toxicity of Ag to photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed by fluorometry. The obtained results show that embedding AgNPs reduces the interactions with the buffered water free media, protecting the AgNPs from fast oxidation. The release of bio-available silver (impacting on the algal photosynthesis) is controlled by the depth at which AgNPs are located for a given host matrix. This provides a procedure to tailor the toxicity of nanocomposites containing AgNPs. - Highlights: • Controlled synthesis of 2D arrays of silver nanoparticles embedded in silica. • Assessing bio-available silver release using the green algae as bio-sensors. • The Ag release can be controlled by the distance nanoparticles/dielectric surface. • All the Ag released in solution is in the form of Ag{sup +} ions. • Toxicity comparable to similar concentrations of

  15. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy study of iron corrosion underneath painting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, R.K.; Hajela, B.P.; Sengupta, S.; Srivastava, B.C.; Gupta, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of pigments on the development of corrosion products between the painting system and metal surface when exposed to marine environments has been discussed. The pigments studied were: red mud zinc chromate, zinc chromate, red oxide zinc phosphate, manganese phosphate barium chromate and basic lead silico chromate. Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that the upper rust layer in all the cases consisted of γ-Fe 2 O 3 , γ-FeOOH and α-FeOOH. The lower rust layer immediately in contact with the metal surface consisted of an asymmetrical doublet due to γ-FeOOH. (Auth.)

  17. Nondestructive analysis of automotive paints with spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue; Lawman, Samuel; Zheng, Yalin; Williams, Dominic; Zhang, Jinke; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an analytical tool for nondestructively characterizing the individual paint layer thickness of multiple layered automotive paints. A graph-based segmentation method was used for automatic analysis of the thickness distribution for the top layers of solid color paints. The thicknesses measured with OCT were in good agreement with the optical microscope and ultrasonic techniques that are the current standard in the automobile industry. Because of its high axial resolution (5.5 μm), the OCT technique was shown to be able to resolve the thickness of individual paint layers down to 11 μm. With its high lateral resolution (12.4 μm), the OCT system was also able to measure the cross-sectional area of the aluminum flakes in a metallic automotive paint. The range of values measured was 300-1850  μm2. In summary, the proposed OCT is a noncontact, high-resolution technique that has the potential for inclusion as part of the quality assurance process in automobile coating.

  18. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  19. Paint and binding material to be hardened by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binding material which can be hardened due to the effect of ionising radiation, consisting of a dispersion of a) an ethylene unsaturated material in b) at least one vinyl monomer. Component (a) is a reaction product of graded rubber particles (0.1 - 4 μm) and an ethylene unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy-, hydroxy- or carbonyl-group, which is connected to the rubber by ester or urethane links. The rubber particles have a core of cross linked elastomer acrylic polymers, an outer shell of reactive groups and an intermediate layer made from the core monomer and the shell. 157 examples explain the manufacturing process. The paint is suitable for covering articles which will later be subject to distortion. (UWI) [de

  20. A new concept for anti-fouling paint for Yachts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallstroem, Eva; Jespersen, Henrik T.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    It is shown to be possible to develop yacht paint with a reduction of 70% of biocide, without pigments/fillers (cuprous oxide and zinc oxide) that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, and to obtain application and usage properties that match present commercial anti......-fouling products for yachts. To be able to reduce the amount of biocide, in this case zinc pyrithione, it is necessary to have control over the amount of biocide present in the surface layer. The control is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in a silica gel. The silica gel is dispersed together with pigments...... that is formulated without introducing new compounds and with reduced amount of zinc pyrithione (1/3). Finally, it is shown that it is possible to make antifouling paint for yachts without zinc or copper based pigments by using other traditional pigments and fillers, which have no known long-term adverse effect...

  1. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  2. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm"2 or μC/cm"2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1–300 μC/cm"2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory

  3. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  4. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  6. Biofouling growth in cold estuarine waters and evaluation of some chitosan and copper anti-fouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Emilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-07-14

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  7. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lemarchand

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan- and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  8. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  9. Analysis of a 17C Panel Painting by Reflection Terahertz Time Domain-Imaging (THz-TDI): contribution of ultrafast optics to museum collections inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica; Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Uhd Jepsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    THz-TDI has been applied for imaging an hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a 17C panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. C- and B-scans realized by THz have been compared with images obtained by x-ray radiography, thus helping in a deep understanding...

  10. Zhang Qing and His Meticulous Chinese Paintings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JULIE; M.SEGRAVES

    2002-01-01

    ZHANG Qing was initially drawn to the bird and flower paint-ings of the Tang and Song dynasties (7th-12th centuries). Later,Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) artist Ren Bonian, famous for hispaintings of figures, also became an important influence.Although Zhang Qing considers his style to be firmly rooted in tradi-

  11. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  12. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  13. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of

  14. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  15. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  16. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  17. Analysis of the painting 'The first mass in Brazil' (Vitor Meireles) using a portable XRF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2007-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence was used to analyze the painting 'The First Mass in Brazil', identifying the pigments used by the artist, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and visible alterations in the paint layer, in order to settle the best procedures to its recovery. This painting, executed by Vitor Meireles in 1860, is one of the most powerful and definitive images ever created by a Brazilian artist. The measurements were carried out with a portable EDXRF system consisting of a TF3005 x-ray tube from Oxford with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of zinc and lead white pigments. Some pigments used by the artist were: ochre, umbra, vermilion, Prussian blue, chromium oxide and cobalt blue. (author)

  18. Thermal imaging method to visualize a hidden painting thermally excited by far infrared radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, T.; Wang, X.; Chabane, A.; Pawelko, R.; Guida, G.; Serio, B.; Hervé, P.

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of hidden painting is a major issue for cultural heritage. In this paper, a non-destructive active infrared thermographic technique was considered to reveal paintings covered by a lime layer. An extended infrared spectral range radiation was used as the excitation source. The external long wave infrared energy source delivered to the surface is then propagated through the material until it encounters a painting zone. Due to several thermal effects, the sample surface then presents non-uniformity patterns. Using a high sensitive infrared camera, the presence of covered pigments can thus be highlighted by the analysis of the non-stationary phenomena. Reconstituted thermal contrast images of mural samples covered by a lime layer are shown.

  19. An investigation of multispectral imaging for the mapping of pigments in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Berns, Roy S.; Taplin, Lawrence A.; Coddington, James

    2008-02-01

    Compared with colorimetric imaging, multispectral imaging has the advantage of retrieving spectral reflectance factor of each pixel of a painting. Using this spectral information, pigment mapping is concerned with decomposing the spectrum into its constituent pigments and their relative contributions. The output of pigment mapping is a series of spatial concentration maps of the pigments comprising the painting. This approach was used to study Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night. The artist's palette was approximated using ten oil pigments, selected from a large database of pigments used in oil paintings and a priori analytical research on one of his self portraits, executed during the same time period. The pigment mapping was based on single-constant Kubelka-Munk theory. It was found that the region of blue sky where the stars were located contained, predominantly, ultramarine blue while the swirling sky and region surrounding the moon contained, predominantly, cobalt blue. Emerald green, used in light bluish-green brushstrokes surrounding the moon, was not used to create the dark green in the cypresses. A measurement of lead white from Georges Seurat's La Grande Jatte was used as the white when mapping The Starry Night. The absorption and scattering properties of this white were replaced with a modern dispersion of lead white in linseed oil and used to simulate the painting's appearance before the natural darkening and yellowing of lead white oil paint. Pigment mapping based on spectral imaging was found to be a viable and practical approach for analyzing pigment composition, providing new insight into an artist's working method, the possibility for aiding in restorative inpainting, and lighting design.

  20. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Hannah U. K. S.; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Santos-Filho, Plinio B.

    2009-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few μm spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 μm. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 μm, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  1. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  2. Neutron-induced autoradiography used in the investigation of modern pigments in paintings of known composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderhold, H.C.; Taft, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron-Induced Autoradiography is an effective analytical technique for mapping the location of a number of specified pigments in paintings. Most paintings which have been examined through neutron-induced autoradiography to date were painted prior to the introduction of the most common of modern pigments. By understanding die nuclear properties of these pigments, as revealed by this technique, a more informed analysis of modem paintings may result This investigation is part of an ongoing program to develop case studies for presentation to an undergraduate class at Cornell University, 'Art, Isotopes and Analysis'. We have found that this technique is a graphic and effective method of presenting nuclear reactions and radioactivity to non-specialists. Sample paintings are produced using pigments of known composition. A sequence of discreet layers, each a separate image, is documented in order to establish a reference for accurately interpreting the autoradiographs. The painting is then activated in the Cornell TRIGA reactor and a series of autoradiographs produced Gamma spectra taken before and after each film exposure gives us detailed information on which radioisotopes (and therefore, which pigments), are active. (author)

  3. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka

    2017-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identi......Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could...... be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for Me......V Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples...

  4. Identification and imaging of modern paints using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with MeV ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Jembrih-Simbürger, Dubravka; Marković, Nikola; Anghelone, Marta; Stoytschew, Valentin; Jakšić, Milko

    2017-09-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry using MeV ion excitation was applied to analyse modern paint materials containing synthetic organic pigments and binders. It was demonstrated that synthetic organic pigments and binder components with molecular masses in the m/z range from 1 to 1200 could be identified in different paint samples with a high efficiency and in a single measurement. Different ways of mounting of mostly insulating paint samples were tested prior to the analysis in order to achieve the highest possible yield of pigment main molecular ions. As Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is attached to the heavy ion microprobe, molecular imaging on cross-sections of small paint fragments was performed using focused ions. Due to the fact that molecules are extracted from the uppermost layer of the sample and to avoid surface contamination, the paint samples were not embedded in the resin as is usually done when imaging of paint samples using different techniques in the field of cultural heritage.

  5. 3D synchrotron x-ray microtomography of paint samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Boon, Jaap J.; van der Horst, Jerre; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Synchrotron based X-ray microtomography is a novel way to examine paint samples. The three dimensional distribution of pigment particles, binding media and their deterioration products as well as other features such as voids, are made visible in their original context through a computing environment without the need of physical sectioning. This avoids manipulation related artefacts. Experiments on paint chips (approximately 500 micron wide) were done on the TOMCAT beam line (TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs) at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, CH, using an x-ray energy of up to 40 keV. The x-ray absorption images are obtained at a resolution of 350 nm. The 3D dataset was analysed using the commercial 3D imaging software Avizo 5.1. Through this process, virtual sections of the paint sample can be obtained in any orientation. One of the topics currently under research are the ground layers of paintings by Cuno Amiet (1868- 1961), one of the most important Swiss painters of classical modernism, whose early work is currently the focus of research at the Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA). This technique gives access to information such as sample surface morphology, porosity, particle size distribution and even particle identification. In the case of calcium carbonate grounds for example, features like microfossils present in natural chalks, can be reconstructed and their species identified, thus potentially providing information towards the mineral origin. One further elegant feature of this technique is that a target section can be selected within the 3D data set, before exposing it to obtain chemical data. Virtual sections can then be compared with cross sections of the same samples made in the traditional way.

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a `noli me tangere' painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a `noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition. This article is part of the themed issue "Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology".

  7. Raman spectroscopic analysis of a 'noli me tangere' painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberts, Stephen; Edwards, Howell G M; Abdel-Ghani, Mona; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-13

    The discovery of an oil painting in seriously damaged condition with an important historical and a heterodox detail with possible origins in the late fifteenth century has afforded the opportunity for Raman microscopic analysis prior to its restoration being undertaken. The painting depicts a risen Christ following His crucifixion in a 'noli me tangere' pose with three women in an Italian terrace garden with a stone balustrade overlooking a rural landscape and an undoubted view of late-medieval Florence. The picture has suffered much abuse and is in very poor condition, which is possibly attributable to its controversial portrayal of a polydactylic Christ with six toes on His right foot. By the late sixteenth century, after the Council of Trent, this portrayal would almost certainly have been frowned upon by the Church authorities or more controversially as a depiction of the holy. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the pigments places the painting as being consistent chronologically with the Renaissance period following the identification of cinnabar, haematite, red lead, lead white, goethite, verdigris, caput mortuum and azurite with no evidence of more modern synthetic pigments or of modern restoration having been carried out. An interesting pigment mixture found here is that of the organic dye carmine and cinnabar to produce a particular bright red pigment coloration. Stratigraphic examination of the paint fragments has demonstrated the presence of an orange resin layer immediately on top of the canvas substrate, effectively rendering the pigment as a sandwich between this substratal resin and the overlying varnish. The Raman spectroscopic evidence clearly indicates that an attribution of the artwork to the Renaissance is consistent with the scientific analysis of the pigment composition.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  9. Detection of paint polishing defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Wagner, M.; Mazal, J.; Rosén, B.-G.; Dahlén, M.

    2018-06-01

    Surface finish plays a major role on perceived product quality, and is the first thing a potential buyer sees. Today end-of-line repairs of the body of cars and trucks are inevitably to secure required surface quality. Defects that occur in the paint shop, like dust particles, are eliminated by manual sanding/polishing which lead to other types of defects when the last polishing step is not performed correctly or not fully completed. One of those defects is known as ‘polishing roses’ or holograms, which are incredibly hard to detect in artificial light but are clearly visible in sunlight. This paper will present the first tests with a measurement set-up newly developed to measure and analyse polishing roses. The results showed good correlations to human visual evaluations where repaired panels were estimated based on the defects’ intensity, severity and viewing angle.

  10. The development of a new analytical model for the identification of saccharide binders in paint samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, Anna; Mazurek, Joy; Restivo, Annalaura; Colombini, Maria Perla; Bonaduce, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for reliably identifying saccharide materials in paintings. Since the 3(rd) millennium B.C., polysaccharide materials such as plant gums, sugar, flour, and honey were used as binding media and sizing agents in paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and polychrome objects. Although it has been reported that plant gums have a stable composition, their identification in paint samples is often doubtful and rarely discussed. Our research was carried out independently at two different laboratories: the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI) and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI). It was shown in a previous stage of this research that the two methods give highly comparable data when analysing both reference paint samples and paint layers from art objects, thus the combined data was used to build a large database. In this study, the simultaneous presence of proteinaceous binders and pigments in fresh and artificially aged paint replicas was investigated, and it highlighted how these can affect the sugar profile of arabic, tragacanth, and fruit tree gums. The environmental contamination due to sugars from various plant tissues is also discussed. The results allowed the development of a new model for the reliable identification of saccharide binders in paintings based on the evaluation of markers that are stable to ageing and unaffected by pigments. This new model was applied to the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of a large number of samples from murals, easel paintings, manuscripts, and polychrome objects from different geographical areas and dating from the 13(th) century BC to the 20(th) century AD, thus demonstrating its reliability.

  11. Comparative analysis of automotive paints by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and nonparametric permutation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntee, Erin; Viglino, Emilie; Rinke, Caitlin; Kumor, Stephanie; Ni Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated for the discrimination of automobile paint samples. Paint samples from automobiles of different makes, models, and years were collected and separated into sets based on the color, presence or absence of effect pigments and the number of paint layers. Twelve LIBS spectra were obtained for each paint sample, each an average of a five single shot 'drill down' spectra from consecutive laser ablations in the same spot on the sample. Analyses by a nonparametric permutation test and a parametric Wald test were performed to determine the extent of discrimination within each set of paint samples. The discrimination power and Type I error were assessed for each data analysis method. Conversion of the spectral intensity to a log-scale (base 10) resulted in a higher overall discrimination power while observing the same significance level. Working on the log-scale, the nonparametric permutation tests gave an overall 89.83% discrimination power with a size of Type I error being 4.44% at the nominal significance level of 5%. White paint samples, as a group, were the most difficult to differentiate with the power being only 86.56% followed by 95.83% for black paint samples. Parametric analysis of the data set produced lower discrimination (85.17%) with 3.33% Type I errors, which is not recommended for both theoretical and practical considerations. The nonparametric testing method is applicable across many analytical comparisons, with the specific application described here being the pairwise comparison of automotive paint samples.

  12. The development of a new analytical model for the identification of saccharide binders in paint samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lluveras-Tenorio

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for reliably identifying saccharide materials in paintings. Since the 3(rd millennium B.C., polysaccharide materials such as plant gums, sugar, flour, and honey were used as binding media and sizing agents in paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and polychrome objects. Although it has been reported that plant gums have a stable composition, their identification in paint samples is often doubtful and rarely discussed. Our research was carried out independently at two different laboratories: the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI. It was shown in a previous stage of this research that the two methods give highly comparable data when analysing both reference paint samples and paint layers from art objects, thus the combined data was used to build a large database. In this study, the simultaneous presence of proteinaceous binders and pigments in fresh and artificially aged paint replicas was investigated, and it highlighted how these can affect the sugar profile of arabic, tragacanth, and fruit tree gums. The environmental contamination due to sugars from various plant tissues is also discussed. The results allowed the development of a new model for the reliable identification of saccharide binders in paintings based on the evaluation of markers that are stable to ageing and unaffected by pigments. This new model was applied to the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of a large number of samples from murals, easel paintings, manuscripts, and polychrome objects from different geographical areas and dating from the 13(th century BC to the 20(th century AD, thus demonstrating its reliability.

  13. The Development of a New Analytical Model for the Identification of Saccharide Binders in Paint Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, Annalaura; Colombini, Maria Perla; Bonaduce, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for reliably identifying saccharide materials in paintings. Since the 3rd millennium B.C., polysaccharide materials such as plant gums, sugar, flour, and honey were used as binding media and sizing agents in paintings, illuminated manuscripts, and polychrome objects. Although it has been reported that plant gums have a stable composition, their identification in paint samples is often doubtful and rarely discussed. Our research was carried out independently at two different laboratories: the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI) and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI). It was shown in a previous stage of this research that the two methods give highly comparable data when analysing both reference paint samples and paint layers from art objects, thus the combined data was used to build a large database. In this study, the simultaneous presence of proteinaceous binders and pigments in fresh and artificially aged paint replicas was investigated, and it highlighted how these can affect the sugar profile of arabic, tragacanth, and fruit tree gums. The environmental contamination due to sugars from various plant tissues is also discussed. The results allowed the development of a new model for the reliable identification of saccharide binders in paintings based on the evaluation of markers that are stable to ageing and unaffected by pigments. This new model was applied to the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of a large number of samples from murals, easel paintings, manuscripts, and polychrome objects from different geographical areas and dating from the 13th century BC to the 20th century AD, thus demonstrating its reliability. PMID:23166654

  14. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  15. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  16. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  17. Identification of Vivianite in Painted Works of Art and Its Significance for Provenance and Authorship Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Hradilová, J.; Jehlička, J.; Osterrothova, K.; Massanek, A.; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, suppl1 (2014), s. 148-167 ISSN 0003-813X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Vivianite * Pigment degradation * Jean george de hamilton * Microanalysis * Paint layers Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2014

  18. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurfacecomposition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18CDanish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time...

  19. The Measurement of the moisture transfer properties of paint films using the cup method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Spoel, van der W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The cup method has been used to measure the diffusion coefficient (or permeability) of water in free paint films. A dependence on the layer thickness of the diffusion coefficient could not be measured. The diffusion coefficient depends strongly on the relative humidity. The measured diffusion

  20. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  1. Applications of optical coherence tomography in the non-contact assessment of automotive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Samuel; Zhang, Jinke; Williams, Bryan M.; Zheng, Yalin; Shen, Yao-Chun

    2017-06-01

    The multiple layer paint systems on modern cars serve two end purposes, they firstly protect against corrosion and secondly give the desired visual appearance. To ensure consistent corrosion protection and appearance, suitable Quality Assurance (QA) measures on the final product are required. Various (layer thickness and consistency, layer composition, flake statistics, surface profile and layer dryness) parameters are of importance, each with specific techniques that can measure one or some of them but no technique that can measure all or most of them. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3D imaging technique with micrometre resolution. Since 2016, OCT measurements of layer thickness and consistency, layer composition fingerprint and flake statistics have been reported. In this paper we demonstrate two more novel applications of OCT to automotive paints. Firstly, we use OCT to quantify unwanted surface texture, which leads to an "orange peel" visual defect. This was done by measuring the surface profiles of automotive paints, with an unoptimised precision of 37 nm over lateral range of 7 mm, to quantify texture of less than 500 nm. Secondly, we demonstrate that OCT can measure how dry a coating layer is by measuring how fast it is still shrinking quasiinstantaneously, using Fourier phase sensitivity.

  2. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  3. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  4. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  5. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  6. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  7. The genesis of Jan Steens painting 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schroeder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, the Gemaeldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemaeldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic 'As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe' from a different context.

  8. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  9. Persistent phosphors for painting, medical and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiphase micro and nanoparticle persistent phosphors are synthesized and applied for different fields including painting, medical and biological investigations. A lot of examples show a broad range of applications of persistent luminescence from bulk materials to high tech products, especially in medicine. The development of high efficiency nanosized phosphor makes it possible to propose persistent materials as very good candidates for photodynamic therapy of cancer. An artificial block from slag, concrete, and sand covered with SrAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ based phosphor is prepared, and a new direction in biology for algae cultivation and artificial reef is discussed. For the first time, underwater luminescence is experimentally studied under real sea conditions. Bright blue-green long-lasting afterglow is registered at a depth of 5 m. The fishes are attracted by the light of the artificial reef. (author)

  10. Antifouling efficacy of a controlled depletion paint formulation with acetophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmok Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is an inevitable problem that occurs continually on marine fishing vessels and other small crafts. The nature of the antifouling (AF coatings used to prevent biofouling on these small vessels is of great environmental concern. Therefore, the efficacy of a non-toxic AF candidate, acetophenone, was evaluated in preliminary laboratory assays using marine bacteria, diatom and Ulva spores. At a low concentration of 100 μg cm–2 of acetophenone, spore attachment of a green fouling alga was significantly reduced (p < 0.01. Similarly, 40% acetophenone coatings significantly inhibited diatom attachment. This new non-toxic AF agent was incorporated into controlled depletion paint (CDP. Fouling coverage (%, biomass, and fouling resistance (% were estimated. On CDP coatings made with acetophenone (40%, a significant decrease in fouling biomass was estimated (p < 0.01.

  11. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  12. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  13. FTIR ANALYSIS OF PAINTING MATERIALS FROM THE CHURCH SAINT PARASCHIVA, OF POIENILE IZEI, MARAMUREŞ, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARUŢOIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research and the t results of FTIR analyses on samples of immobile paintings on the wooden walls, taken from the Church Saint Paraschiva from the Village of Poienile Izei, county of Maramureş,Romania, a UNESCO World Heritage List monument. These analyses were meant to certify the type and origin of the materials used in the grounding and paint layers of the late 18th c. pictures inside this wooden church. The results obtained, revealed us that other materials had been used than expected. Results also can help in the future conservation-restoration intervention, especially in cleaning and retouching.

  14. Pigment Identification on "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa" Painting by Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, D.; Marmontelli, M.; De Benedetto, G. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Vona, F.

    A study of the pigments of "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa," a seventeenth century oil painting on canvas, was performed by Raman microscopy. Lazurite was identified in both Jesus Christ's and St. Theresa's mantles as the pigment responsible for the blue coloration. Litharge was identified inside the black bitumen layer. Usually the bitumen needed a lot of time to dry in the air when mixed with drying oil. Litharge was used by the artist to decrease the oil drying time. A complementary study, using micro-Raman and SEM, allowed us to identify red ochre as the pigment responsible for the red coloration in the altar on the left side of the painting.

  15. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  16. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  17. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  18. Cleaning of Easel Paintings: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, R.; Morais, P.J.; Gouveia, H.; Young, C.

    2006-01-01

    The application of laser cleaning to paintings is relatively recent despite its use on stone-based materials for over 30 years. The cleaning of paintings is of high importance, because it is the least reversible invasive intervention, as well as the most usual of all conservation treatments. Paintings are multilayer system of heterogeneous nature, often very sensitive and inherent difficult to clean. Being a noncontact method, laser cleaning has advantages compared to alternative techniques. Over the last decade, there have been important research studies and advances. However, they are far from sufficient to study the effects on painting materials and to establish the best parameters for each material under investigation. This paper presents a historical overview of the application of laser technology to the cleaning of paintings giving special emphasis on the research of the last decade. An overview of the current research into the interaction between the radiation and the different painting materials (varnish, pigments, and medium) is also given. The pigment's mechanisms of discoloration and the presence of media as a variable factor in the discoloration of pigments are discussed.

  19. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  20. Novel paint design based on nanopowder to protection against X and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdi, Adibe; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Dehghan, Naser; Heidari, Emad; Masumi, Yusef; Abbaszadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based shields are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection in the radiology and nuclear medicine department. Human lead toxicity is well documented. The lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. The aim of this study was to design a lead free paint for protection against X and gamma rays. In this pilot st we evaluated several types of nano metal powder that seemed to have good absorption. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, was used to model the attenuation of X-ray photons in paints with different designs. Experimental measurements were carried out to assess the attenuation properties of each paint design. Among the different nano metal powder, nano tungsten trioxide and nano tin dioxide were the two most appropriate candidates for making paint in diagnostic photon energy range. Nano tungsten trioxide (15%) and nano tin dioxide (85%) provided the best protection in both simulation and experiments. After this step, attempts were made to produce appropriate nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paints. The density of this nano tungsten trioxide-nano tin dioxide paint was 4.2 g/cm 3 . The MCNP simulation and experimental measurements for HVL (Half-Value Layer) values of this shield at 100 kVp were 0.25 and 0.23 mm, respectively. The results showed the cost-effective lead-free paint can be a great power in absorbing the X-rays and gamma rays and it can be used instead of lead

  1. Enhancement of growth and lipid production from microalgae using fluorescent paint under the solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Cho, Changsoon; Lee, Jung-Yong; Han, Jong-In

    2014-12-01

    Solar radiation has intensity that is too high to inhibit microalgae activity and is composed of wide light spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) range which cannot be utilized for microalgae. For these reasons, the modification of solar radiation is required for effective microalgae cultivation, and to do that, fluorescent paint was used for not only blocking excessive solar energy but also converting UV to visible light. With fluorescent aqueous layer, microalgae was protected from photoinhibition and could grow well, but there was difference in growth and lipid accumulation efficiencies depending on the color; maximum dry weight of 1.7 g/L was achieved in red paint, whereas best lipid content of 30% was obtained in blue one. This phenomenon was due to the different light spectrum made by colors. With simple process using fluorescent paint, modification of light was successfully done and allowing microalgae to grow under strong radiation such as solar radiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil painting on tinplate by Francisco José Resende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Veiga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se concentre sur l'étude des techniques d'exécution, des matériaux et de l'état de conservation de trois peintures à l'huile sur fer-blanc (acier couvert d'étain du peintre portugais Francisco José Resende (1825 – 1893. Bien que le choix de peindre sur un support métallique n'était pas commun au XIXème siècle, cet auteur a exécuté au long de sa vie différentes œuvres sur ce substrat. Dans ces recherches, apparaissent les résultats comparatifs de la technique d'exécution de Francisco Resende et des matériaux présents dans les couches picturales et dans le support des trois œuvres faisant l'objet de l'étude. Bien qu'elles aient été exécutées à des dates similaires, on remarque des problèmes de conservation distincts - notamment les détachements, les cloques et la corrosion -, qui sont décrits et liés aux matériaux constituants des peintures.This article focuses on the study of execution techniques, material composition and condition of three oil paintings on tinplate – a thin sheet of steel coated with tin - by the Portuguese painter Francisco José Resende (1825-1893. Although the choice to paint on a metallic support was not very common in the nineteenth century, the painter executed several works on this support. The comparative results focus on Francisco Resende’s technique of execution, the materials used in the paint layers and on the support of the three works which are being studied. Although executed in the same period, they show different conservation problems - namely delamination and blistering of the paint layers, and also corrosion of the support.

  3. The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica de pigmentos y soportes en pinturas murales: caso Mayapan, Yucatan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdez, B.; Cobo, J.; Schorr, M. [Area de Corrosion y Materiales, Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juarez, S/N, 21280, Mexicali, B.C. (Mexico); Cota, L. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Oviedo, F. [Centro INAH - BC, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)]. e-mail: benval@iing.mxl.uabc.mx

    2006-07-01

    The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical characteristics, the microstructure and texture of these polychrome paintings, painted on rocks encountered in the mountainous, desert/arid zones of Baja California and Baja California South. The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. Tiny painting samples were collected and analyzed by SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white. The paint raw materials are mineral pigments: white (kaolin, calcite, and gypsum), red (hematite), yellow (ochre, limonite), black (charcoal from burnt wood or calcined bones) and water as a diluent and/or a binder, all encountered in the painters habitat. The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. The 100% solids, dry paint converts into a dense, hard layer, incrusted into the grainy, rough, hollow granite rock surface. This paint might be called {sup s}tone on stone{sup ,} explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock. Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. (Author)

  4. Response to growth and production of green beans (Vigna radiata L.) in various cropping spots and fertilizer provision of layer chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitinjak, L.; Purba, E.

    2018-02-01

    Agroecology affecting plant growth can be influenced by factors such as plant spacing and growing media. This study aims to determine the effect of plant spacing and chicken manure on the growth and production of green beans. Plants were planted at three spacing plants (20cm x 20cm, 20cm x 30cm, and 20cm x 40cm) while manure was applied at 3.75, 7.50 and 11.25 ton/ha and without manure as a comparison. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The result showed that the highest diameter of stem was resulted from the application of 11.25 ton/ha of manure combined with the planting space of 20cm x 40 cm. Similarly, the highest number of branch of stem we found at the plot where chicken manure of 11.25 ton/ha with planting space of 20cm x 30cm. The highest production (4,944.4 kg/ha) was resulted from 7.50 ton/ha manure with combined with planting space of 20cm x 40cm. There was an interaction between the treatment of manure and the planting space of soybean. The production of green bean was 24% higher in 7.50 ton/ha manure combined with 20cm x 40cm planting space compared to no manure (control).

  5. Library Search Prefilters for Vehicle Manufacturers to Assist in the Forensic Examination of Automotive Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Ding, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Pattern recognition techniques have been applied to the infrared (IR) spectral libraries of the Paint Data Query (PDQ) database to differentiate between nonidentical but similar IR spectra of automotive paints. To tackle the problem of library searching, search prefilters were developed to identify the vehicle make from IR spectra of the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers. To develop these search prefilters with the appropriate degree of accuracy, IR spectra from the PDQ database were preprocessed using the discrete wavelet transform to enhance subtle but significant features in the IR spectral data. Wavelet coefficients characteristic of vehicle make were identified using a genetic algorithm for pattern recognition and feature selection. Search prefilters to identify automotive manufacturer through IR spectra obtained from a paint chip recovered at a crime scene were developed using 1596 original manufacturer's paint systems spanning six makes (General Motors, Chrysler, Ford, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota) within a limited production year range (2000-2006). Search prefilters for vehicle manufacturer that were developed as part of this study were successfully validated using IR spectra obtained directly from the PDQ database. Information obtained from these search prefilters can serve to quantify the discrimination power of original automotive paint encountered in casework and further efforts to succinctly communicate trace evidential significance to the courts.

  6. The development of vector based 2.5D print methods for a painting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2013-02-01

    Through recent trends in the application of digitally printed decorative finishes to products, CAD, 3D additive layer manufacturing and research in material perception, [1, 2] there is a growing interest in the accurate rendering of materials and tangible displays. Although current advances in colour management and inkjet printing has meant that users can take for granted high-quality colour and resolution in their printed images, digital methods for transferring a photographic coloured image from screen to paper is constrained by pixel count, file size, colorimetric conversion between colour spaces and the gamut limits of input and output devices. This paper considers new approaches to applying alternative colour palettes by using a vector-based approach through the application of paint mixtures, towards what could be described as a 2.5D printing method. The objective is to not apply an image to a textured surface, but where texture and colour are integral to the mark, that like a brush, delineates the contours in the image. The paper describes the difference between the way inks and paints are mixed and applied. When transcribing the fluid appearance of a brush stroke, there is a difference between a halftone printed mark and a painted mark. The issue of surface quality is significant to subjective qualities when studying the appearance of ink or paint on paper. The paper provides examples of a range of vector marks that are then transcribed into brush stokes by the painting machine.

  7. Reproducing oil paint gloss in print for the purpose of creating reproductions of Old Masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhuizen, Willemijn S.; Lenseigne, Boris A. J.; Baar, Teun; Verhofstad, Wim; Tempelman, Erik; Geraedts, Jo M. P.; Dik, Joris

    2015-03-01

    In the field of Fine Art reproduction, 3D scanning plus 3D printing, combined with dedicated software, now allows to capture and reproduce the color and texture of oil paintings. However, for life-like reproduction of the material appearance of such paintings, the typical gloss and translucency must also be included, which is currently not the case. The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the challenges and results of capturing and reproducing oil paint gloss (next to texture and color) using a scanning and printing system. A sample was hand-made using oil paint and acrylic varnish, and its gloss was then reproduced. A gloss map of the painted sample was acquired using a high end DLSR camera and a simple acquisition protocol. Next, Océ High Resolution 3D printing technology was used to create samples with spatially varying gloss. For this, two different strategies were combined: (1) multilevel half-toning of the colors was used to reproduce matte color layers, and (2) varnish was half-toned on top in increasing coverage to recreate increasing gloss levels. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art literature in gloss reproduction and perception, our process of reproduction as well as the visual evaluation of the quality of the created reproduction.

  8. Multilayers quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applied to easel paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Sole, V Armando; Walter, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) allows a rapid and simple determination of the elemental composition of a material. As a non-destructive tool, it has been extensively used for analysis in art and archaeology since the early 1970s. Whereas it is commonly used for qualitative analysis, recent efforts have been made to develop quantitative treatment even with portable systems. However, the interpretation of the results obtained with this technique can turn out to be problematic in the case of layered structures such as easel paintings. The use of differential X-ray attenuation enables modelling of the various layers: indeed, the absorption of X-rays through different layers will result in modification of intensity ratio between the different characteristic lines. This work focuses on the possibility to use XRF with the fundamental parameters method to reconstruct the composition and thickness of the layers. This method was tested on several multilayers standards and gives a maximum error of 15% for thicknesses and errors of 10% for concentrations. On a painting test sample that was rather inhomogeneous, the XRF analysis provides an average value. This method was applied in situ to estimate the thickness of the layers a painting from Marco d'Oggiono, pupil of Leonardo da Vinci.

  9. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  10. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  11. Luminance mechanisms in green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Dong Chul; Seo, Su Yul; Kim, Tae Whan; Jin, You Young; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2010-05-01

    The electrical and the optical properties in green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer (ETL) were investigated. The operating voltage of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL increased with increasing the number of the Alq3/BPhen heterostructures because more electrons were accumulated at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerfaces. The number of the leakage holes existing in the multiple heterostructure ETL of the OLEDs at a low voltage range slightly increased due to an increase of the internal electric field generated from the accumulated electrons at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerface. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL at a high voltage range became stabilized because the increase of the number of the heterointerface decreased the quantity of electrons accumulated at each heterointerface.

  12. Identification of additives in poly(vinylacetate) artist's paints using PY-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Miguel F; Doménech-Carbó, Maria Teresa; Fuster-López, Laura; Mecklenburg, Marion F; Martin-Rey, Susana

    2010-05-01

    Commercial poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) paint formulations for artists include a number of compounds in addition to the PVAc polymer and pigments to improve the physical and chemical properties of the resulting product. Among the most common additives are surfactants, coalescing agents, defoamers, freeze-thaw agents and thickeners. These products significantly influence the behaviour of the dried film. Nevertheless, they are usually difficult to detect with conventional analytical methods given their low concentration. In order to identify these additives, present in the dried film as minor components, an analytical method based on in situ thermally assisted pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using hexamethyldisilazane as a derivatisation reagent is proposed. This method improves the conventional GC-MS analysis performed by direct pyrolysis and enables the simultaneous identification of the PVAc binding medium and the additives included by the manufacturer in the commercial paint. Five different commercial PVAc paints have been analysed, namely, armour green, burnt umber, oriental red, raw umber and white from Flashe. Internal plasticiser VeoVa consisting of C(10) fatty acids with highly branched chains has been recognised from the MS spectra. On the other hand, the differences found in the additive content of the studied paints, in particular the poly(ethylene glycol)-type surfactant, are in good agreement with their mechanical properties.

  13. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions.

  14. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

  15. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm 2 of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm 2 . To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. - Highlights: • A new XRF application for analysing metals in antifouling paints has been used. • Almost 700 leisure boats were analysed for tin, copper and zinc. • Over 10% of the leisure boats contained high, >400

  16. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  17. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2009-01-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 μA, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  18. Role of the masonry in paintings during a seismic event analyzed by infrared vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F.; Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Ambrosini, D.; Maldague, X. P. V.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, pulsed phase thermography (PPT), principal component thermography (PCT), and partial least squares thermography (PLST) techniques were applied in order to detect the masonry texture, as well as to map the subsurface damages formed beneath three different mural paintings. The latter were inspected after the 2009 earthquake, i.e., the seismic event that devastated L'Aquila City (Italy) and its surroundings. The mural supports explored by infrared thermography (IRT) are constituted by a single leaf, and the sides of the inspected paintings are confined by marble frames or by buried horizontal and vertical structures. Hence, the analyzed objects can be considered as monolithic structures. IRT can help to understand the masonry morphology, e.g. if there exist structural continuity between the arriccio layer (the first coat of plaster) and the support. In the present case, the heating phase was provided by lamps or propane gas and feature detection was enhanced by advanced signal processing. A comparison among the results is presented. Two of the three objects analyzed, painted by the art masters Serbucci and Avicola, are preserved inside Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church in Roio Poggio (L'Aquila, Italy); they were executed on two masonries built in different periods. The last one was realized in Montorio al Vomano (Teramo, Italy) on the internal cloister of the Zoccolanti's Church (undated). The villages are separated by 50 km as the crow flies. Finally, near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) technique was also used to investigate the condition of the painting layer.

  19. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Pedreira, Andrea [Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 {mu}A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  20. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  1. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  2. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  3. An investigation into the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of car paints and single textile fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, Janina; Wąs-Gubała, Jolanta

    2011-05-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied to identification and differentiation between criminalistic traces such as micropaint chips and single fibres. The aim was to determine the degree of discrimination between fibres coloured by defined chemical dye classes and to differentiate between paint samples on the basis of pigment/dye content. Samples of coloured cotton fibres and samples of green car paints were examined. It was found that the majority of the obtained Raman spectra provided information about the main dyes present in the sample. However, in some cases fluorescence of the samples made dye identification impossible. Spectral libraries for examined paint samples and single fibres were created in order to facilitate quick recognition of similar forensic traces using this analytical method.

  4. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  5. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  6. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Gonzalez, V. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Pichon, L. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm{sup 2} or μC/cm{sup 2}. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1–300 μC/cm{sup 2}) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using

  7. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  8. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  9. Perceptual dimensions of style in paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to specify the basic perceptual dimensions underlying the judgments of the physical features which define the style in paintings (e.g. salient form, colorful surface, oval contours etc.. The other aim of the study is to correlate these dimensions with the subjective (affective dimensions of the experience of paintings. In the preliminary study a set of 25 pairs of elementary perceptual descriptors were empirically specified, and a set of 25 bipolar scales were made (e.g. uncolored-multicolored. In the experiment 30 subjects judged 24 paintings (paintings were taken from the study of Radonjić and Marković, 2004 on 25 scales. Factor analysis revealed the four factors: form (scales: precise, neat, salient form etc., color (color contrast, lightness contrast, vivid colors, space (voluminosity, depth and oval contours and complexity (multicolored, ornate, detailed. Obtained factors reflected the nature of the phenomenological and neural segregation of form, color, depth processing, and partially of complexity processing (e.g. spatial frequency processing within both the form and color subsystem. The aim of the next step of analysis was to specify the correlations between two groups of judgments: (a mean judgments of 24 paintings on perceptual factors and (b mean judgments of the same set of 24 paintings on subjective (affective experience factors, i.e. regularity, attraction, arousal and relaxation (judgments taken from Radonjić and Marković, 2005. The following significant correlations were obtained: regularity-form, regularity-space, attraction-form and arousal-complexity (negative correlation. The reasons for the unexpected negative correlation between arousal and complexity should be specified in further studies.

  10. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  11. Ultrasonic backward radiation on painted rough interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Gyu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2002-01-01

    The angular dependence(profile) of backscattered ultrasound was measured for steel and brass specimens with periodical surface roughness (1-71μm). Backward radiations showed more linear dependency than normal profile. Direct amplitude increased and averaging amplitude decreased with surface roughness. Painting treatment improved the linearity in direct backward radiation below roughness of 0.03. Scholte and Rayleigh-like waves were observed in the spectrum of averaging backward radiation on periodically rough surface. Painting on periodically rough surface could be used in removing the interface mode effect by periodic roughness.

  12. Degradation of wall paints due to sodium sulphate and sodium chloride crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gonçalves, T.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A test method for evaluating wall paints behaviour to soluble salts crystallization was developed at LNEC. in the present paper, a recent set of tests is described and discussed. The major objectives were: analysing and comparing the behaviour of a common emulsion {"plastic" paint and a silicate-based paint; observing and comparing the effect of sodium sulphate, sodium chloride and distilled water on the paints and on a non-painted stone; evaluating this test method adequacy and effectiveness. The silicate-based paint showed a resistance to soluble salts crystallization greater than the one of the plastic paint. However, the degradation pattern of the silicate-based paint (blistering of a filmic layer was similar to the one of organic paints and distinct from the one of pure mineral paints. The amount of damage that a saline solution can cause to wall paints cannot be inferred from the amount of damage it can cause to stone. Sodium chloride seems to be able to cause more severe degradation to wall paints than sodium sulphate. To the unpainted stone, sodium sulphate seems to be more damaging than sodium chloride. The test method seems adequate to observe and compare the behaviour of wall paints under soluble salts action. However, lower (around 0.5% concentrations for both sodium sulphate and sodium chloride should be tested in the future.

    RESUMEN En el LNEC se desarrolló una metodología de ensayo para evaluar la respuesta de pinturas aplicadas sobre paredes, frente a la cristalización de sales solubles. En este trabajo, se describen y discuten un conjunto de ensayos recientes. Los principales objetivos fueron: el análisis y la comparación del comportamiento de una pintura de emulsión común {''pintura plástica" y la de una pintura de silicato; la observación y la comparación de los efectos del sulfato de sodio, del cloruro de sodio y del agua destilada sobre las pinturas y sobre piedra no pintada; la evaluación de la adecuaci

  13. Analytical Study of the Materials Used in Mural Paintings in the Love Chamber of El Sakakeny Palace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholod Khairy Salama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a comprehensive investigation has been undertaken into mural paintings dating to the 19 th century and painted by Italian students. They were initially located in El Sakakeny Palace in El Sakakeny Square in Egypt. The analytical instruments used for investigation were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy with EDX, X-Ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR. The analysis revealed that the pigments used in the mural paintings were hematite, litharge, zincate, gold oxide, Goethite (brown ochre and malachite mixed with linseed oil or animal glue. The original ground layer comprises zincate with gypsum. The medium used in the ground layer is animal glue and the support is limestone.

  14. Recent studies of laser science in paintings conservation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Selimis, Alexandros; Georgiou, Savas; Fotakis, Costas

    2010-06-15

    The removal of aged and deteriorated molecular overlayers from the surface of paintings is a delicate and critical intervention in Cultural Heritage (CH) conservation. This irreversible action gets particularly complicated given the multitude of materials that may be present within a painted work of art (often in ultrathin layers or traces), as well as the exceptional sensitivity of the original surfaces to environmental conditions such as heat, light, and so on. Lasers hold an important role among the available cleaning methodologies, as they enable high control and accuracy, material selectivity, and immediate feedback. Still, prior to their implementation, it is imperative to optimize the cleaning parameters, so to ensure that any potential implications to the remaining materials are minimal and well understood. Toward this aim, research at IESL-FORTH is focused on both refining and continuously updating the laser-cleaning protocols (by introducing novel laser technologies into the field, i.e., ultrashort laser pulses), as well as on investigating and studying the nature and extent of laser-induced physicochemical alterations to the involved materials. In this Account, extended work for the understanding of ultraviolet (UV) laser ablation of polymers is presented. Emphasis is placed on the use of model systems (polymers doped with chromophores of known photochemistry) to examine the in-depth laser-induced modifications at the processed surfaces and thus to illustrate the dependence of their nature and extent on laser parameters and material properties. Furthermore, studies for the potential use of femtosecond UV pulses to overcome certain limitations involved with the nanosecond ablation of molecular overlayers from CH surfaces are highlighted. In particular, it is demonstrated that in the femtosecond regime any chemical modifications are, qualitatively and quantitatively, highly defined, limited and nearly independent of the material properties, such as the

  15. Contribution to the improvement of heritage mural painting non-destructive testing by stimulated infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Di Pallo, Luigi; Detalle, Vincent; Vallet, Jean-Marc; Duvaut, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    Non-destructive testing of heritage mural paintings by means of stimulated infrared thermography has now become rather efficient [1-14]. However, pigments, which form a pictorial layer, have contrasting radiative properties possibly leading to artifact detection. In this paper, attempts to alleviate this difficulty are presented. Based on the spectroscopic study of different paint layers, one can argue that, in the medium infrared field, this radiative disparity decreases significantly. Then, with similar settings, it can be shown that ceramic radiative sources allow reaching this wavelength band. Finally, on the basis of a study carried out on an academic sample and a partial copy of a fresco from the cathedral of Angers, combining ceramic heat sources with a laboratory SAMMTHIR experimental setup enables to make real headway in terms of defects' detection.

  16. Compositional and quantitative microtextural characterization of historic paintings by micro-X-ray diffraction and Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Duran, Adrian; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro Basilio; Van Grieken, René; Cardell, Carolina

    2011-11-15

    This work shows the benefits of characterizing historic paintings via compositional and microtextural data from micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) combined with molecular information acquired with Raman microscopy (RM) along depth profiles in paint stratigraphies. The novel approach was applied to identify inorganic and organic components from paintings placed at the 14th century Islamic University-Madrasah Yusufiyya-in Granada (Spain), the only Islamic University still standing from the time of Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain). The use of μ-XRD to obtain quantitative microtextural information of crystalline phases provided by two-dimensional diffraction patterns to recognize pigments nature and manufacture, and decay processes in complex paint cross sections, has not been reported yet. A simple Nasrid (14th century) palette made of gypsum, vermilion, and azurite mixed with glue was identified in polychromed stuccos. Here also a Christian intervention was found via the use of smalt, barite, hematite, Brunswick green and gold; oil was the binding media employed. On mural paintings and wood ceilings, more complex palettes dated to the 19th century were found, made of gypsum, anhydrite, barite, dolomite, calcite, lead white, hematite, minium, synthetic ultramarine blue, and black carbon. The identified binders were glue, egg yolk, and oil.

  17. Matte painting in stereoscopic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2010-02-01

    While there have been numerous studies concerning human perception in stereoscopic environments, rules of thumb for cinematography in stereoscopy have not yet been well-established. To that aim, we present experiments and results of subject testing in a stereoscopic environment, similar to that of a theater (i.e. large flat screen without head-tracking). In particular we wish to empirically identify thresholds at which different types of backgrounds, referred to in the computer animation industry as matte paintings, can be used while still maintaining the illusion of seamless perspective and depth for a particular scene and camera shot. In monoscopic synthetic imagery, any type of matte painting that maintains proper perspective lines, depth cues, and coherent lighting and textures saves in production costs while still maintaining the illusion of an alternate cinematic reality. However, in stereoscopic synthetic imagery, a 2D matte painting that worked in monoscopy may fail to provide the intended illusion of depth because the viewer has added depth information provided by stereopsis. We intend to observe two stereoscopic perceptual thresholds in this study which will provide practical guidelines indicating when to use each of three types of matte paintings. We ran subject tests in two virtual testing environments, each with varying conditions. Data were collected showing how the choices of the users matched the correct response, and the resulting perceptual threshold patterns are discussed below.

  18. Using anti-corrosive paints on ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J

    1969-02-07

    Anit-corrosive paints on the outside of ship's hulls fall into 3 groups: the area below the water, the boot- topping area at the waterline, and the weatherwork including the hull and superstructure. Typical formulations of primer and paint are given for use in each section. Anti-corrosion paints must always be considered in conjunction with the kind and amount of surface preparation that can be given. The requirement for faster descaling techniques and higher standards of surface preparation has led to the introduction of automated centrifugal abrasive blasting machines for all new plates and sections. If it is not possible to remove old coatings by abrasive blasting, then the traditional method of chipping followed by wire brushing must be used. The removal of mill scale by abrasive blasting can produce a clean metal surface which is liable to rapid corrosion unless it is painted immediately. A pre-fabrication or shop primer is used which is normally applied by airless spray equipment synchronized with the sand blasting machinery.

  19. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  20. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  1. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...

  2. What is lead-based paint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    The number of variety of lead-abatement regulations and requirements make it difficult and confusing to identify and properly respond to dangerous levels of lead in every situation. Definitions of ''lead-based paint'' and three test methods for lead detection are described to help determine when and how to test for the presence of lead

  3. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art

  4. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  5. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  6. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  7. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  8. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  9. Simulations of color development in tinted paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent,

  10. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  12. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.

    1982-09-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr

  13. A Short History of the Chemistry of Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedstein, Harriet G.

    1981-01-01

    Includes information on: (1) relationship of art and science; (2) paintings' early history; (3) Egyptian, Greek, Chinese, Byzantine, and Medieval painting; (4) chemical analysis of pigments; (5) chemistry of early pigments; and (6) paint media. Tabular data are provided on chemical names for artists' pigments with their earliest known dates. (CS)

  14. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative...

  15. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark...... consists of an introduction to relevant concepts and literature followed by results, presented as research papers, and a patent application. Four research papers are introduced as individual chapters. Chapter 4 discusses the synthesis and optimisation of anatase TiO2 coated microspheres, chapter 5......-cleaning coatings containing TiO2 coated microspheres. The results show that introducing a photocatalyst into an organic paint system as a coating on inert carrier particles results in durable and weather stable paint films. The paint films exhibit selfcleaning properties and are able to resist the attack of micro...

  16. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  17. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  18. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  19. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  20. Analysis of painted arts by energy sensitive radiographic techniques with the Pixel Detector Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlicka, J; Jakubek, J; Kroupa, M; Hradil, D; Hradilova, J; Mislerova, H

    2011-01-01

    Non-invasive techniques utilizing X-ray radiation offer a significant advantage in scientific investigations of painted arts and other cultural artefacts such as painted artworks or statues. In addition, there is also great demand for a mobile analytical and real-time imaging device given the fact that many fine arts cannot be transported. The highly sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector, Timepix, is capable of detecting and resolving subtle and low-contrast differences in the inner composition of a wide variety of objects. Moreover, it is able to map the surface distribution of the contained elements. Several transmission and emission techniques are presented which have been proposed and tested for the analysis of painted artworks. This study focuses on the novel techniques of X-ray transmission radiography (conventional and energy sensitive) and X-ray induced fluorescence imaging (XRF) which can be realised at the table-top scale with the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. Transmission radiography analyses the changes in the X-ray beam intensity caused by specific attenuation of different components in the sample. The conventional approach uses all energies from the source spectrum for the creation of the image while the energy sensitive alternative creates images in given energy intervals which enable identification and separation of materials. The XRF setup is based on the detection of characteristic radiation induced by X-ray photons through a pinhole geometry collimator. The XRF method is extremely sensitive to the material composition but it creates only surface maps of the elemental distribution. For the purpose of the analysis several sets of painted layers have been prepared in a restoration laboratory. The composition of these layers corresponds to those of real historical paintings from the 19 th century. An overview of the current status of our methods will be given with respect to the instrumentation and the application in the field of

  1. Analysis of painted arts by energy sensitive radiographic techniques with the Pixel Detector Timepix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlicka, J; Jakubek, J; Kroupa, M [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University Prague, Horska 3a/22, 128 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Hradil, D [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, AS CR, v.v.i., ALMA, 50 68 Husinec-Oeez (Czech Republic); Hradilova, J; Mislerova, H, E-mail: jan.zemlicka@utef.cvut.cz [Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, ALMA, U Akademie 4, 170 2, Prague 7 (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Non-invasive techniques utilizing X-ray radiation offer a significant advantage in scientific investigations of painted arts and other cultural artefacts such as painted artworks or statues. In addition, there is also great demand for a mobile analytical and real-time imaging device given the fact that many fine arts cannot be transported. The highly sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector, Timepix, is capable of detecting and resolving subtle and low-contrast differences in the inner composition of a wide variety of objects. Moreover, it is able to map the surface distribution of the contained elements. Several transmission and emission techniques are presented which have been proposed and tested for the analysis of painted artworks. This study focuses on the novel techniques of X-ray transmission radiography (conventional and energy sensitive) and X-ray induced fluorescence imaging (XRF) which can be realised at the table-top scale with the state-of-the-art pixel detector Timepix. Transmission radiography analyses the changes in the X-ray beam intensity caused by specific attenuation of different components in the sample. The conventional approach uses all energies from the source spectrum for the creation of the image while the energy sensitive alternative creates images in given energy intervals which enable identification and separation of materials. The XRF setup is based on the detection of characteristic radiation induced by X-ray photons through a pinhole geometry collimator. The XRF method is extremely sensitive to the material composition but it creates only surface maps of the elemental distribution. For the purpose of the analysis several sets of painted layers have been prepared in a restoration laboratory. The composition of these layers corresponds to those of real historical paintings from the 19{sup th} century. An overview of the current status of our methods will be given with respect to the instrumentation and the application in the field

  2. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  3. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  4. Method Development for Binding Media Analysis in Painting Cross-Sections by Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kristen; Lagalante, Anthony

    2018-06-06

    Art conservation science is in need of a relatively nondestructive way of rapidly identifying the binding media within a painting cross-section and isolating binding media to specific layers within the cross-section. Knowledge of the stratigraphy of cross-sections can be helpful for removing possible unoriginal paint layers on the artistic work. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used in ambient mode to study cross-sections from mock-up layered paint samples and samples from a 17th century baroque painting. The DESI spray was raster scanned perpendicular to the cross-section layers to maximize lateral resolution then analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer in linear ion trap mode. From these scans, isobaric mass maps were created to map the locations of masses indicative of particular binding media onto the cross-sections. Line paint-outs of pigments in different binding media showed specific and unique ions to distinguish between the modern acrylic media and the lipid containing binding media. This included: OP (EO) 9 surfactant in positive ESI for acrylic (m/z 621), and oleic (m/z 281), stearic (m/z 283), and azelaic (m/z 187) acids in negative ESI for oil and egg tempera. DESI-MS maps of mock-up cross-sections of layered pigmented binding media showed correlation between these ions and the layers with a spatial resolution of 100 μm. DESI-MS is effective in monitoring binding media within an intact painting cross-section via mass spectrometric methods. This includes distinguishing between lipid-containing and modern binding materials present in a known mockup cross section matrix as well as identifying lipid binding media in a 17th century baroque era painting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and reevaluations. 35.1320 Section 35.1320 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT...

  6. Investigating the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2‑based oil paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, B.A.; van den Berg, K. J.; Smout, M.; Dekker, N; Kooyman, P.J.; Dik, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the effect of artists’ paint formulation on degradation rates of TiO2-based oil paints. Titanium white oil paint exists in a multitude of different recipes, and the effect of the formulation on photocatalytic binder
    degradation kinetics is unknown. These formulations

  7. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied....C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section... TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA...

  8. Study of Pictorial technique in a colonial wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation using XRF and complementary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Mendoza, A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation is based on the study of the pictorial technique employed in a wall painting from El Padre coffee plantation situation in Madruga, Havana, and built at beginning of XIX century. The knowledge about pictorical techniques that was used in a painting is a typical research in Archaeometry, because it is so important the art historical information as scientific results to conclude about the real materials and procedures that were used in the past by the artists . The prediction of a wall painting pictorical technique is carrying out trough the knowledge of pigments, mortars layers and binding substance composition. The non destructive inorganic microanalysis of mortars layers and pigments was determined by a portable XRF system, which is very useful because of the most of pigments are of inorganic nature. A pinpoint samples microanalysis of each color from the painting were done by complementary and traditional technique in stratigraphic studies such as: optical microscopy, micro- chemical drop test, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray attachment (SEM-EDX), gas chromatography and Fourier Transformed Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The overlapping of layers was obtained by optical microscopy, The mortars composition was investigated by micro-chemical drop test and SEM/EDX and further confirmed by FTIR. The presence of binding substances in colors layers was identified by specific staining test and Gas Chromatography

  9. Cleaning and Restoration of an Oil Painting with a Polymer Gel in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major stages in the conservation and restoration of a painting is to clean its colored surface of unwanted stains, and old and darkened varnishes. Various solvents have been used to date for this purpose; however, new cleaning materials have also come onto the market in the past decade that are still unknown and may never have been employed in Iran. The present study aims to introduce a polymer gel and use an in vitro sample of the substance for cleaning and to then present the results of the tests carried out. Applying a polymer gel in the cleaning of paintings yielded better results and greater advantages over the solvents previously used to clean artworks. The advantages include, performing on the surface without penetrating the lower layers, the absence of residues after application, flexibility, solubility and the gentle removal of old stains and varnishes, maintaining clarity and cleaning the surface by simple removal of the thin dried layer, which requires no mechanical pressure. Microscopic examinations and pH testing showed that this new alternative technique can be of use in cleaning the color layers of oil paintings.

  10. Combined computational-experimental approach to predict blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation based on "green" salting-out thin layer chromatography supported by simple molecular descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciura, Krzesimir; Belka, Mariusz; Kawczak, Piotr; Bączek, Tomasz; Markuszewski, Michał J; Nowakowska, Joanna

    2017-09-05

    The objective of this paper is to build QSRR/QSAR model for predicting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The obtained models are based on salting-out thin layer chromatography (SOTLC) constants and calculated molecular descriptors. Among chromatographic methods SOTLC was chosen, since the mobile phases are free of organic solvent. As consequences, there are less toxic, and have lower environmental impact compared to classical reserved phases liquid chromatography (RPLC). During the study three stationary phase silica gel, cellulose plates and neutral aluminum oxide were examined. The model set of solutes presents a wide range of log BB values, containing compounds which cross the BBB readily and molecules poorly distributed to the brain including drugs acting on the nervous system as well as peripheral acting drugs. Additionally, the comparison of three regression models: multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least-squares (PLS) and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) were performed. The designed QSRR/QSAR models could be useful to predict BBB of systematically synthesized newly compounds in the drug development pipeline and are attractive alternatives of time-consuming and demanding directed methods for log BB measurement. The study also shown that among several regression techniques, significant differences can be obtained in models performance, measured by R 2 and Q 2 , hence it is strongly suggested to evaluate all available options as MLR, PLS and OPLS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The microbial community characteristics of ancient painted sculptures in Maijishan Grottoes, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yulong; Wu, Fasi; Wang, Wanfu; He, Dongpeng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Feng, Huyuan; Chen, Tuo; Liu, Guangxiu; An, Lizhe

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a culture-independent Illumina MiSeq sequencing strategy was applied to investigate the microbial communities colonizing the ancient painted sculptures of the Maijishan Grottoes, a famous World Cultural Heritage site listed by UNESCO in China. Four mixed samples were collected from Cave 4-4 of the Maijishan Grottoes, the so-called Upper Seven Buddha Pavilion, which was built during the Northern Zhou Dynasty (557-581AD). The 16/18S rRNA gene-based sequences revealed a rich bacterial diversity and a relatively low fungal abundance, including the bacterial groups Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the fungal groups Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Among them, the bacteria genera of Pseudonocardia and Rubrobacter and unclassified fungi in the order of Capnodiales were dominant. The relative abundance of Pseudonocardia in the painted layer samples was higher than that in the dust sample, while Cyanobacteria dominated in the dust sample. Many of them have been discovered at other cultural heritage sites and associated with the biodeterioration of cultural relics. The presence and activity of these pioneering microorganisms may lead to an unexpected deterioration of the painted sculptures that are preserved in this heritage site. Thus, proper management strategies and potential risk monitoring should be used in the Maijishan Grottoes to improve the conservation of these precious painted sculptures.

  12. Computerized tomography of the painting 'The first mass in Brazil' (Vitor Meireles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Davi F.; Calza, Cristiane; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it was performed the radiographic analysis of the painting 'The First Mass in Brazil' ('Primeira Missa no Brasil) executed by Vitor Meireles, in 1860. Radiographic techniques have been used in museums to the study of cultural heritage objects in order to reveal internal details that would otherwise be invisible. This work used Computerized Radiography with an Imaging Plate detector (IP). It consists of a thin layer of photostimulable phosphor crystals (BaFBr:Eu 2+ ) deposited on a flexible polyester support film. When the IP is exposed to an x-ray source, part of the energy is stored as a latent image in the phosphor. Analyzing the radiographic images it is possible to observe the canvas weave, including stretching marks generated when the fabric was fixed on the wooden support. Several regions with detachment and cracking of painting were also revealed. When occurred losses of fabric, the holes were filled with mortar before the retouching; these areas, with higher density than the original painting support, can be clearly observed at the radiographs. The knowledge of all changes and its location is very important to the restoration process, especially in the first stage when the old reinforcement of the fabric will be replaced, in order to avoid the remove of painting pieces together to the reinforcement. (author)

  13. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Smoke damage, as a result of a fire, can be difficult to remove from some types of painting media without causing swelling, leaching or pigment movement or removal. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove soot from the surface of a painting by use of a gently flowing gas containing atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen chemically reacts with the soot on the surface creating gasses such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which can be removed through the use of an exhaust system. The reaction is limited to the surface so that the process can be timed to stop when the paint layer is reached. Atomic oxygen is a primary component of the low Earth orbital environment, but can be generated on Earth through various methods. This paper will discuss the results of atomic oxygen treatment of soot exposed acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and a varnished oil painting. Reflectance measurements were used to characterize the surfaces before and after treatment.

  14. Scientific evaluation of wall paintings from Bunesti Evangelical Church, Brasov county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Annamaria; MǎruÅ£oiu, Constantin; Bibire, Cristina; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Dreve, Simina

    2013-11-01

    Evangelical Church in the village Bunesti, Brasov county, is part of the fortified churches built since the XIV century at the south-eastern territory of Transylvania. Developed by addition in several stages during centuries, the church begun as Catholic chapel, then that was amplified in the sixteenth century, when Reform was adopted by the Saxon communities. In that period the building was extended in length and height and the catholic specific iconographic decorations were cancelled by covering with different layers of plaster and paint. The campaign of introducing in touristic circuit of old Saxon fortified churches generated, in terms of maintenance and renovations undertaken, the discovery of significant wall paintings, as treasures to be rescued and put into value. Our present efforts are focused on scientific evaluation of mural paintings found in Evangelical Church from Bunesti, by XRF and specific analysis performed on 10 different samples of mural paintings, completing visual and artistic analysis in order to establish the strategies for their recovering and preservation.

  15. Surface analysis characterisation of gum binders used in modern watercolour paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoko; Cumpson, Peter J.

    2016-02-01

    Conducting this study has demonstrated that not only SEM-EDX but also XPS can be an efficient tool for characterising watercolour paint surfaces. We find that surface effects are mediated by water. Once the powdered components in the watercolour come into contact with water they dramatically transform their chemical structures at the surface and show the presence of pigment components with a random dispersion within the gum layer. Hence the topmost surface of the paint is confirmed as being composed of the gum binder components. This result is difficult to confirm using just one analytical technique (either XPS or SEM-EDX). In addition, peak fitting of C1s XPS spectra suggests that the gum binder in the commercial watercolour paints is probably gum arabic (by comparison with the reference materials). This identification is not conclusive, but the combination techniques of XPS and SEM shows the surface structure with material distribution of the gum binder and the other ingredients of the watercolour paints. Therefore as a unique technique, XPS combined with SEM-EDX may prove a useful method in the study of surface structure for not only watercolour objects but also other art objects; which may in future help in the conservation for art.

  16. Internal contamination by tritium caused by radioluminescent paints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.

    1985-01-01

    The internal contamination investigations covered 23 persons using radioluminescence paints containing tritium, assembling devices painted with those paints, and those having no contact with active paints but working next to the painting room. Determined were concentrations of tritium excreted with urine, air contamination at workplaces, contamination of workplace areas and hand skin. At the time covered by the investigations, the mean annual equivalent doses for those using tritium paints were reduced from 14-20 mSv to about 5 mSv. In those working next to the painting room they were reduced from 5.8-15 to 0.23 mSv. The exposure of those assembling the devices does not exceed 1 mSv. It was demonstrated that the main cause of the tritium exposure level was air contamination in working rooms.

  17. Influence of barrier layer indium on efficiency and wavelength of InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) with and without semi-bulk InGaN buffer for blue to green regime emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Saiful [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble (France); Sundaram, Suresh; Li, Xin; El Gmili, Youssef [Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); Jamroz, Miryam E.; Robin, Ivan C. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, Grenoble (France); Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Georgia Tech-CNRS, UMI 2958, Metz (France); LMOPS, University of Lorraine, EA4423, Metz (France)

    2017-08-15

    The effect of indium (In) in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) has been studied for MQWs with and without semi-bulk InGaN buffer. From simulation, the optimum In content in the barrier with 3-5 nm width is 5-7% to get the optimal material quality and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of ∝65% for 450-480 nm emission range. Simulation shows a reduction of the potential barrier due to band flattening, a more homogeneous distribution of electrons and holes in the active region and subsequently, a more radiative recombination rate with InGaN as barrier layer. Both cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) experimental results show a blue-shift of emission wavelength along with an enhancement in the emission intensity when GaN barrier is replaced with InGaN barrier, for a MQW structure both with and without the semi-bulk InGaN buffer. We attribute this blue shift to the reduced polarization mismatch and increased effective bandgap. This InGaN barrier-related improvement in IQE and efficiency droop could be useful for the realization of longer wavelength ''green-gap'' range LEDs where poor IQE and efficiency droop are more prominent due to high indium (In) in the active region. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  19. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurikovič, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  20. NASA logo painted on orbiter Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A KSC worker paints the NASA logo on the port wing of the orbiter Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch in December for STS-88. The paint is a special pigment that takes 18 hours to dry; the whole process takes approximately two weeks to complete. The NASA logo, termed 'meatball,' was originally designed in the late 1950s. It symbolized NASA's role in aeronautics and space in the early years of the agency. The original design included a white border surrounding it. The border was dropped for the Apollo 7 mission in October 1968, replaced with royal blue to match the background of the emblem. In 1972 the logo was replaced by a simple and contemporary design -- the 'worm' -- which was retired from use last year. NASA reverted to its original logo in celebration of the agency's 40th anniversary in October, and the 'golden age' of America's space program. All the orbiters will bear the new logo.

  1. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  2. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchas Garcia-Zarco, S.; Alfosin Perez, V.; Suarez Garcia, A.; Urrejola Madrinan, S.; Sanchez Bermudez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  3. Methylisothiazolinone and benzisothiazolinone are widely used in paint: a multicentre study of paints from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    were found in paints from all five countries. Paints purchased in Denmark and Sweden contained especially high concentrations of BIT. CONCLUSION: The use of MI across European countries is extensive. In view of the ongoing epidemic of MI contact allergy, an evaluation of the safety of MI in paints......BACKGROUND: In view of the current epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), it is important to clarify the extent of use of MI and related isothiazolinones in paints currently available for the consumer and worker in Europe. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the use and concentrations...... of MI, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in paints on the European retail market. METHODS: Wall paints (n = 71) were randomly purchased in retail outlets in five European countries. The paints were quantitatively analysed for their contents of MI, MCI and BIT by high...

  4. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  5. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  6. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  7. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  8. Painting radioprotection at the nuclear eve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, Aurelien; Travadel, Sebastien; Guarnieri, Franck; Parizel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    The CEA Marcoule centre is one of the first pillar of the French nuclear industry. The radiation protection department (SPR) of the centre benefited from the artistic skill of Jacques Castan who illustrated the safety campaigns of the SPR since 1959 and fed an imagination about radiation protection. His most ambitious creation was a wall painting in a staircase, made in 1962. This article describes the symbolic meaning of this work of art, which is today missing

  9. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.

  10. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  11. A spectroscopic study of Brazilwood paints in medieval books of hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria João; Otero, Vanessa; Vitorino, Tatiana; Araújo, Rita; Muralha, Vânia S F; Lemos, Ana; Picollo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In this work, microspectrofluorimetry was for the first time applied to the identification of the red organic lakes that are characteristic of the lavish illuminations found in 15(th) century books of hours. Microspectrofluorimetry identified those red paints, ranging from opaque pink to dark red glazes, as brazilwood lakes. An unequivocal characterization was achieved by comparison with reference paints produced following recipes from the medieval treatise The Book on How to Make Colours, and was further confirmed by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). For these treasured cultural objects, microspectrofluorimetry and FORS proved to be the only techniques that could identify, in situ or in microsamples, the chromophore responsible for the pinkish hues: a brazilein-Al(3+) complex. Additionally, a multi-analytical approach provided a full characterization of the color paints, including pigments, additives, and binders. Microspectroscopic techniques, based on infrared and X-ray radiation, enabled us to disclose the full palette of these medieval manuscripts, including the elusive greens, for which, besides malachite, basic copper sulfates were found; Raman microscopy suggested a mixture of brochantite and langite. Infrared analysis proved invaluable for a full characterization of the additives that were applied as fillers or whites (chalk, gypsum, and white lead) as well as the proteinaceous and polysaccharide binders that were found pure or in mixture.

  12. External beam PIXE analysis of painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascholati, Paulo R.; Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Barbosa, Marcel D.L.; Albuquerque, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The preservation and conservation of mankind cultural heritage has become an important issue worldwide. Non-destructive analytical techniques are suitable, for example, to analyze precious and unique objects of art and archaeology. Among those techniques Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) has good advantage to identify elemental composition present in these kinds of objects. The Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais por Feixes Ionicos-LAMFI of the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo has been installed an external beam facility for PIXE analysis. This new setup is being used for the analysis of archaeological pottery artifacts, paintings and biological tissues (teeth and bones), which are not compatible with the high vacuum of the regular PIXE target chamber. In addition most art and archaeological objects are too large for the evacuated analysis chamber. Applications of this facility will be presented in the analysis of one painting of the beginning of the last century. The chemical elements identified in the painting were Ca, Ti, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ba. The PIXE measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated object. (author)

  13. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Y; Baz, A; Aldraihem, O

    2012-01-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  14. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement.

  15. Statistics Analysis Measures Painting of Cooling Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zacharopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the cooling tower of Megalopolis (construction 1975 and protection from corrosive environment. The maintenance of the cooling tower took place in 2008. The cooling tower was badly damaged from corrosion of reinforcement. The parabolic cooling towers (factory of electrical power are a typical example of construction, which has a special aggressive environment. The protection of cooling towers is usually achieved through organic coatings. Because of the different environmental impacts on the internal and external side of the cooling tower, a different system of paint application is required. The present study refers to the damages caused by corrosion process. The corrosive environments, the application of this painting, the quality control process, the measures and statistics analysis, and the results were discussed in this study. In the process of quality control the following measurements were taken into consideration: (1 examination of the adhesion with the cross-cut test, (2 examination of the film thickness, and (3 controlling of the pull-off resistance for concrete substrates and paintings. Finally, this study refers to the correlations of measurements, analysis of failures in relation to the quality of repair, and rehabilitation of the cooling tower. Also this study made a first attempt to apply the specific corrosion inhibitors in such a large structure.

  16. Photocatalytic surface reactions on indoor wall paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthammer, T; Fuhrmann, F

    2007-09-15

    The reduction of indoor air pollutants by air cleaning systems has received considerable interest, and a number of techniques are now available. So far, the method of photocatalysis was mainly applied by use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in flow reactors under UV light of high intensity. Nowadays, indoor wall paints are equipped with modified TiO2 to work as a catalyst under indoor daylight or artificial light. In chamber experiments carried out under indoor related conditions itwas shown thatthe method works for nitrogen dioxide with air exchange and for formaldehyde without air exchange at high concentrations. In further experiments with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a small effect was found for terpenoids with high kOH rate constants. For other VOCs and carbon monoxide there was no degradation at all or the surface acted as a reversible sink. Secondary emissions from the reaction of paint constituents were observed on exposure to light. From the results it is concluded that recipes of photocatalytic wall paints need to be optimized for better efficiency under indoor conditions.

  17. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori eMizokami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  18. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  19. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  20. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  1. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  2. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  3. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  4. The colours of a 16th century panel painting, from the church of Pavia (Mora, Portugal, attributed to Francisco João

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pinheiro de Melo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main altar of the church of Pavia (Mora, South of Portugal shows a 16th century panel painting depicting The Conversion of Saint Paul attributed to Francisco João, a local painter, born in Évora, active in that region between 1563 and 1595. With the aim of identifying the materials responsible for the colours exhibited by the painting and characterizing its technique, the panel was examined in situ with the naked eye and with the help of a magnifying lens. Nine paint samples were collected for analysis by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. On top of a ground layer made of gypsum and animal glue, the painting was done with lead white, lead-tin yellow, ochre, minium, red ochre, vermillion, azurite, verdigris or copper resinate, carbon black and a non identified red lake. In most cases, the samples show a succession of two or three layers of paint over the ground. Generally, this structure results from the modelling work of the painter and not from overlapping motives. In each layer, the colours were usually created by mixtures of a coloured pigment with white. In two cases, the pigments were used pure. Only the red areas show mixtures of a larger number of materials.

  5. Testing of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Renzhu; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Junliang; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wen, Tinglian [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    We have studied the properties of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for use with anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The porous cathode connects well with the electrolyte. A preliminary examination of a single tubular cell, consisting of a Ni-YSZ anode support tube, a Ni-ScSZ anode functional layer, a ScSZ electrolyte film, and a LSM-ScSZ cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen, has been carried out, and an improved performance is obtained. The ohmic resistance of the cathode side clearly decreases, falling to a value only 37% of that of the comparable cathode made by dip-coating at 850 C. The single cell with the painted cathode generates a maximum power density of 405 mW cm{sup -2} at 850 C, when operating with humidified hydrogen. (author)

  6. The Effect of Ash and Inorganic Pigment Fill on the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Paints (ISMSE-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Simmons, Julie C.; de Groh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    Low atomic oxygen fluence (below 1x10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm) exposure of polymers and paints that have a small ash content and/or inorganic pigment fill does not cause a significant difference in erosion yield compared to unfilled (neat) polymers or paints. However, if the ash and/or inorganic pigment content is increased, the surface population of the inorganic content will begin to occupy a significant fraction of the surface area as the atomic oxygen exposure increases because the ash is not volatile and remains as a loosely attached surface layer. This results in a reduction of the flux of atomic oxygen reacting with the polymer and a reduction in the rate of erosion of the polymer remaining. This paper presents the results of ground laboratory and low Earth orbital (LEO) investigations to evaluate the fluence dependence of atomic oxygen erosion yields of polymers and paints having inorganic fill content.

  7. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3ṡCu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite α-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4ṡ2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  8. Non-destructive and in situ analysis of Egyptian wall paintings by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence portable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages-Camagna, S.; Laval, E.; Vigears, D.; Duran, A.

    2010-01-01

    The concurrence and complementarities of obtained images under various wavelengths and the elemental and structural analyses provided by XRF and XRD, using portable non-invasive systems, have allowed for obtaining accurate data about the employed pictorial technique in two Egyptian wall paintings dating from the New Kingdom. Thus, compounds such as Egyptian blue, Egyptian green, goethite, jarosite, hematite, calcite, anhydrite or huntite have been detected in the paintings. The performance of the measurements by the different techniques and its contribution to the knowledge of the materials are discussed. They notably give a clue on the origin of arsenic compounds, unexpectedly detected in some decors. (orig.)

  9. Wall paintings in Castvlo. First contributions to the characterization of materials and techniques | Las pinturas murales de Castulo. Primeras aportaciones a la caracterización de materiales y técnicas de ejecución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa López Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the research carried out on the wall paintings of the “Sala del Mosaico de los Amores” in the archaeological site of Castulo, located in Linares (province of Jaén. The research in 2011 discovered a room with high-quality wall and mosaic decoration, especially on its western wall, which had collapsed over the pavement. It was moved to the laboratories of the University of Granada for consolidation and restoration works. Since previous information on wall paintings from Castulo was scarce, before the restoration took place the paintings were studied, including the characterization of the materials and painting techniques. These tests identified a very rich pictorial layer, consisting of green, red, ochre, white and black tones, among which some high-quality pigments stand out, such as the Egyptian blue, together with others that usually appear in the Roman palette, as red lead, red ochres, bone-black or calcium carbonate. | En este artículo se presenta la investigación que se está llevando a cabo sobre las pinturas murales de la Sala del Mosaico de los Amores en el Conjunto Arqueológico de Castulo, en Linares (Jaén. Durante la campaña efectuada en el año 2011, se descubrió una estancia que albergaba una decoración musivaria y parietal de gran calidad datada en el s. I-II d.C. Parte de esa decoración parietal, concretamente la correspondiente al muro oeste, fue encontrada derrumbada sobre el pavimento, y trasladada a los laboratorios de la Universidad de Granada para su intervención de consolidación y restauración. Dado que apenas existía información sobre pintura mural en Castulo, se está realizando un estudio de las pinturas, en el que se está llevando a cabo la caracterización de materiales y de su técnica de ejecución, como paso previo a su restauración. Estos análisis han permitido identificar una capa pictórica muy rica, constituida por tonos verdes, rojos, ocres, blancos y negros, entre los

  10. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S.; Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F.; Labrador, A.; Pradell, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10μm for FT-IR and 30 to 50 μm squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  11. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F. [CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Labrador, A. [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pradell, T. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10{mu}m for FT-IR and 30 to 50 {mu}m squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  12. Study on the Fabrication of Paint-Type Si Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hee-Je; Wang, Yuting; Uchida, Giichiro; Kamataki, Kunihiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2013-10-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention with their quantum characteristics in the research field of photochemical solar cells. Si QD was introduced as one of alternatives to conventional QD materials. However, their large particles could not penetrate inside TiO2 layer. Therefore, this work proposed the paint-type Si QD-sensitized solar cell. Its heat durability was suitable for the fabrication of paint-type solar cell. Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition and characterized. The paste type, sintering temperature, and Si ratio were controlled and analyzed for better performance. Finally, its performance was enhanced by ZnS surface modification and the whole process was much simplified without sensitizing process.

  13. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g -1 , respectively, and small proportions of these metals ( -1 , respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in 'background' sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  14. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Avda. Francisco Tomás y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gómez-Tejedor, J. García [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain); Martina, S. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Faraday 3, Madrid (Spain); Universitá degli Studi di Torino, Turin (Italy); Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N. [Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Departamento de Restauración, Calle Santa Isabel, 52, 28012 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  15. Removing paint from a metal substrate using a flattened top laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shu-Dong; Li Wei; Du Peng; Wang Meng; Song Feng; Liu Shu-Jing; Chen Nian-Jiang; Zhao Hong; Yang Wen-Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate laser cleaning using a flattened top laser to remove paint coating from a metal substrate. Under the irradiation of a flattened top laser, the coating paint of the metal substrate can be removed efficiently by laser induced ablation, stress, and displacement force. The temperature distribution, stress, and displacement are calculated in the coating layer and substrate using finite element analysis. The effects of a Gaussian laser and a flattened top laser and the results of different diameters of laser spot are compared. The investigation shows that the flattened top laser can reduce the substrate damage and enhance the cleaning efficiency. This method meets the need of large area industrial cleaning applications by optimizing the flattened top laser parameters

  16. Removing paint from a metal substrate using a flattened top laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shu-Dong; Li, Wei; Du, Peng; Wang, Meng; Song, Feng; Liu, Shu-Jing; Chen, Nian-Jiang; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Wen-Shi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate laser cleaning using a flattened top laser to remove paint coating from a metal substrate. Under the irradiation of a flattened top laser, the coating paint of the metal substrate can be removed efficiently by laser induced ablation, stress, and displacement force. The temperature distribution, stress, and displacement are calculated in the coating layer and substrate using finite element analysis. The effects of a Gaussian laser and a flattened top laser and the results of different diameters of laser spot are compared. The investigation shows that the flattened top laser can reduce the substrate damage and enhance the cleaning efficiency. This method meets the need of large area industrial cleaning applications by optimizing the flattened top laser parameters.

  17. A quasi-monochromatic X-rays source for art painting pigments investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, F.; Franconieri, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Chiozzi, S. [University of Ferrara, Department of Physics and INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Moro, D. [University of Padova, Department of Physics, Padova (Italy); LNL - INFN, Legnaro, Padova (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Monochromatic X-ray sources can be used for several applications, like in medicine or in studying our cultural heritage. We are investigating imaging systems based on a tuneable energy band X-ray source, to obtain an element mapping of painting layers using the K-edge technique. The narrow energy band beams are obtained with conventional X-ray source via Bragg diffraction on a mosaic crystal; such an analysis has been performed at different diffraction angles, tuning the energy to investigate spectra of interest from the artistic point of view, like zinc and copper. In this paper the characteristics of the system in terms of fluence rate are reported, and first results of this technique on canvas samples and painting are presented. (orig.)

  18. Raman spectroscopic study of a post-medieval wall painting in need of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Farwell, Dennis W; Brooke, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies of four specimens from an important angel wall painting in need of conservation work in a medieval church have provided some information about the pigments and pigment compositions which will influence possible future preservation and restoration strategies. Excitation of the Raman spectra at 1,064 nm in macroscopic mode and at 785 nm in microscopic mode revealed that the white pigment on the angel's wings was a mixture of barytes with calcite and lead white in minor composition. Although the specimens provided were not directly associated with coloured regions of the painting, yellow and blue microcrystals were found and they were identified as chrome yellow and lazurite, respectively. Red and brown particles were identified as cinnabar/vermilion and haematite. Several green particles were also found but could not be identified. The green and blue crystals could be related to neighbouring coloured regions of the artwork and the yellow colour could be identified as a background to the angel figure. Particles of carbon were found to be dispersed throughout the specimens and can be ascribed to soot from candles, heating stoves or oil lamps providing lighting in the church. No evidence for biological deterioration was found from the spectra. The unusual pigment palette is strongly suggestive of a later date of painting than was originally believed but there is a possibility that an earlier rendition exists underneath. Following a review of the spectroscopic data, a more extensive sampling protocol is recommended, from which some stratigraphic evidence could identify the underlying plaster and possible artwork.

  19. Are Shaman Paintings Material Religion or Religious Art?

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-chun Park

    2017-01-01

    Laurel Kendall, Jongsung Yang, and Yul Soo Yoon. God Pictures in Korean Contexts: The Ownership and Meaning of Shaman Paintings. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2015. God Pictures in Korean Contexts: The Ownership and Meaning of Shaman Paintings is a pioneering work, one that explores the proverbial “road not taken” by previous research on the subject. The authors situate “the lives of Korean shaman paintings [musindo] in a complex South Korean world; in shaman shrines, private co...

  20. Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses [pt

  1. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.; Gopinathan, E.; Bhagwath, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  2. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein Thein Win, Daw; Khin Aye Tint, Daw; Wai Min Than, Daw

    2003-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  3. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  4. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  5. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  6. Evaluation of stabilization of steel surface corrosion by paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Dvořák

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with laboratory experiments focused on protective and stabilizing effects of paints designed to protect rusted steel surfaces. Two well-known paints (the Hammerite No.1 Rustbeater synthetic paint and the Antirezin water-soluble paint have been evaluated. The standardized tests according to ČSN have been used for the evaluation. Stabilization of rusted steel surface hasn’t been demonstrated during the tests. The SEM test method that covers micro-analysis of elements has been used for the evaluation as well.

  7. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...

  8. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  9. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  10. Electronic Paint: Understanding Children's Representation through Their Interactions with Digital Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John; Seow, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates very young children's use of a stylus-driven, electronic painting and drawing on the tablet PC. The authors compare their development in the use of this device with their use of other mark-making media, including those which derive from pencil and paper technologies and also with mouse-driven electronic paintbox programs.…

  11. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  12. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.; Phillips, M.; Wuhrer, R.; Thomas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present

  13. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  14. Colour dematerialization in spiritual literature and painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Sudrajat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory and the knowledge of tasawwuf or sufism, the aesthetics, and arts. Results showed that both sufis, Ahmad Sadali and Suprapto Kadis, share similarities in doing dematerialization towards colour. For them, colour was initially taken from nature (the external territory which then experienced dematerialization when it made contact with inspiration that was created from the internal area (mental. On the other hand, the difference between the two art works lies on an understanding that colour in FJW is naturalistic mimesis in nature, meanwhile, the painting of Ahmad Sadali is naturaly abstract.

  15. Experimental study of canvas characterization for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The work described here fits in the context of a larger project on the objective and relevant characterization of paintings and painting canvas through the analysis of multimodal digital images. We captured, amongst others, X-ray images of different canvas types, characterized by a variety of textures and weave patterns (fine and rougher texture; single thread and multiple threads per weave), including raw canvas as well as canvas processed with different primers. In this paper, we study how to characterize the canvas by extracting global features such as average thread width, average distance between successive threads (i.e. thread density) and the spatial distribution of primers. These features are then used to construct a generic model of the canvas structure. Secondly, we investigate whether we can identify different pieces of canvas coming from the same bolt. This is an important element for dating, authentication and identification of restorations. Both the global characteristics mentioned earlier and some local properties (such as deviations from the average pattern model) are used to compare the "fingerprint" of different pieces of cloth coming from the same or different bolts.

  16. Emotion in Painting and Art Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečni, Vladimir J

    2015-01-01

    Paintings are static 2-dimensional images with limited narrative means. On the basis of a critical analysis of the relevant laboratory scaling studies, museum studies, and neuroaesthetic work, the article reaches a negative conclusion about most paintings' ability to engage sufficiently with general viewers' associative-memory systems, so as to lead to identification and empathy, and induce fundamental psychobiological emotions. In contrast, designers of art installations can draw on subtle combinations of several classes of stimulus properties with psychological significance subsumable under the classical concept of the sublime (physical grandeur, rarity, an association with beauty and with biologically significant outcomes), so that some installations may induce the peak aesthetic emotional response, aesthetic awe--as defined in Aesthetic Trinity Theory (Konečni, 2005, 2011), along with the states of being moved and physiological thrills. The approach also involves an analytical skepticism about emotivism, defined as a culturological proclivity for unnecessary insertion of emotion into accounts of mental life and behavior, especially in the arts. Implications for the role of emotion theory in empirical aesthetics are examined.

  17. Characterization of chemical agent transport in paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Matthew P; Gordon, Wesley; Lalain, Teri; Mantooth, Brent

    2013-09-15

    A combination of vacuum-based vapor emission measurements with a mass transport model was employed to determine the interaction of chemical warfare agents with various materials, including transport parameters of agents in paints. Accurate determination of mass transport parameters enables the simulation of the chemical agent distribution in a material for decontaminant performance modeling. The evaluation was performed with the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (distilled mustard, known as the chemical warfare blister agent HD) and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), an organophosphate nerve agent, deposited on to two different types of polyurethane paint coatings. The results demonstrated alignment between the experimentally measured vapor emission flux and the predicted vapor flux. Mass transport modeling demonstrated rapid transport of VX into the coatings; VX penetrated through the aliphatic polyurethane-based coating (100 μm) within approximately 107 min. By comparison, while HD was more soluble in the coatings, the penetration depth in the coatings was approximately 2× lower than VX. Applications of mass transport parameters include the ability to predict agent uptake, and subsequent long-term vapor emission or contact transfer where the agent could present exposure risks. Additionally, these parameters and model enable the ability to perform decontamination modeling to predict how decontaminants remove agent from these materials. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Performance evaluation on cool roofs for green remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yosun; Cho, Dongwoo; Cho, Kyungjoo

    2018-06-01

    Cool roofs refer that maximize heat emission, and minimize the absorption of solar radiation energy, by applying high solar reflectance paints, or materials to roofs or rooftops. The application of cool roofs to existing buildings does not need to take structural issues into consideration, as rooftop greening, is an alternative that can be applied to existing buildings easily. This study installed a cool roofs on existing buildings, and evaluated the performances, using the results to propose certification standards for green remodeling, considering the cool roof-related standards.

  19. Effects of Wood Roughness, Light Pigments, and Water Repellent on the Color Stability of Painted Spruce Subjected to Natural and Accelerated Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Reinprecht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the color stability of painted Norway spruce (Picea abies samples subjected to natural and accelerated weathering, using Duncan’s tests and correlation analyses. The following effects were studied: (1 the different initial roughness of the wood; (2 use of transparent or lightly-pigmented top-coat layers; and (3 the presence of the final water-repellent layer. Natural weathering at a 45° slope in an industrial zone lasted 104 weeks, whereas accelerated weathering in Xenotest with 0.55 W/m2 UV irradiation at 340 nm and sprayed water lasted 12 weeks. The color stability of painted spruce, measured in a CIE-L*a*b* system, was not, in the majority of cases, significantly affected by the initial roughness of the wood, the type of top-coat (WoodCare UV or PerlColor layer, or presence of the final water repellent (AquaStop layer. The light pine or larch pigments in the top-coat layers had positive color stabilizing effects. In their presence, the darkening (-L* and total color differences (E* of the painted samples dropped ca. 2.5 times during exterior weathering and ca. 5 times during Xenotest weathering. Samples painted with transparent coatings turned a reddish shade (+a* during the Xenotest, while those exposed to the exterior absorbed dirt and became more blue (-b*.

  20. Historical evolution of oil painting media: A rheological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Ducouret, Guylaine; Lequeux, François; Moutard-Martin, Thierry; Walter, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Rheology is the science of flow, which is a phenomenon found in every painting operation, such as decorative paintings or protective coatings. In this article, the principles of rheology as applied to paintings and coatings are recalled in a first part and the rheological criteria required in the paint industry presented. Indeed, different flow behaviours leads to different finishes. The same procedure and techniques as in industry can be employed to explain some evolutions in oil painting aspects over the centuries. The first recipes for oil painting indicate the use of treated oil, resins and spirits. This article deals with the evolution of the composition of these systems as media for oil painting, according to rheological clues. During the Renaissance period, the media used were Newtonian or slightly shear thinning and allowed one a perfect levelling. Then techniques changed, paints became more opaque with less addition of oil/resin media, and brushstrokes appeared visible. Some preparations containing lead, oil and mastic resin, whose flow behaviour is closed to those required in industry, may have appeared during the 17th century and are still used and sold today. To cite this article: L. de Viguerie et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  1. 33 CFR 118.140 - Painting bridge piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting bridge piers. 118.140 Section 118.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.140 Painting bridge piers. The District Commander may require...

  2. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  3. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is readily absorbed through the skin and may cause health problems. Adverse health effects in the developing fetus have been noted in laboratory animals exposed to some of the chemicals in paint strippers. Therefore, women of child-bearing age who work with or use paint strippers on a regular ...

  4. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, I K; Jensen, K A; Schneider, T

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  5. Gerbrand Bredero wants to borrow a painting: proleptic negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2013-01-01

    In a letter to Badens, his painting teacher, Gerbrand Bredero asks for the loan of a painting to make a copy of it. The act of writing (a letter) requires a proactive role in managing the reader’s reactions. In what at first sight may look like a simple, insignificant and most of all polite letter,

  6. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three ...

  7. 13 CFR 120.173 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead-based paint. 120.173 Section 120.173 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.173 Lead-based paint. If...

  8. The Monetary Appreciation of Paintings : From Realism to Magritte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; van Houte, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates how investments in painted arts compare to those in stocks in terms of risk return trade off using Sharpe and Treynor ratios and Markowitz efficient frontiers. A large database was analysed consisting of more than 10500 auction prices of Belgian painted art over the period

  9. Finite Element Modeling of Vibrations in Canvas Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiriboga Arroyo, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preventing vibration damage from occurring to valuable and sensitive canvas paintings is of main concern for museums and art conservation institutions. This concern has grown in recent years due to the increasing demand of paintings for exhibitions worldwide and the concomitant need for their

  10. Images of power in contemporary Nigerian paintings | Gbaden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary Nigerian paintings are replete with images and notions of power and power relations among the ethnically pluralistic peoples of Nigeria. This paper presents a select number of paintings that best manifest the idea of how power is depicted and how power influences human thinking and aspiration from a ...

  11. Dynamics of Anthropomorphic Painting Robot: Quality Analysis and Cost Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Djordjevic, G.; Kostic, D.; Rasic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of robots in spray-painting tasks results in low-cost production, persistent quality and protects humans from a hostile working environment. Automated planning of applicator’s trajectory requires a model of paint deposition onto the treated surface and formulation of an appropriate

  12. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  13. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-11

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  14. Automotive Painting Technology A Monozukuri-Hitozukuri Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, Abraham; Saito, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    This book offers unique and valuable contributions to the field. It offers breadth and inclusiveness. Most existing works on automotive painting cover only a single aspect of this complex topic, such as the chemistry of paint or paint booth technology. Monozukuri and Hitozukuri are Japanese terms that can be translated as “making things” and “developing people” but their implications in Japanese are richer and more complex than this minimal translation would indicate. The Monozukuri-Hitozukuri perspective is drawn from essential principles on which the Toyota approach to problem-solving and continuous improvement is based. From this perspective, neither painting technology R&D nor painting technology use in manufacturing can be done successfully without integrating technological and human concerns involved with making and learning in the broadest sense, as the hyphen is meant to indicate. The editors provide case studies and examples -- drawn from Mr. Toda’s 33 years of experience with automotiv...

  15. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  16. Evaluation of Tritium Behavior in the Epoxy Painted Concrete Wall of ITER Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    Tritium behavior released in the ITER hot cell has been investigated numerically using a combined analytical methods of a tritium transport analysis in the multi-layer wall (concrete and epoxy paint) with the one dimensional diffusion model and a tritium concentration analysis in the hot cell with the complete mixing model by the ventilation. As the results, it is revealed that tritium concentration decay and permeation issues are not serious problem in a viewpoint of safety, since it is expected that tritium concentration in the hot cell decrease rapidly within several days just after removing the tritium release source, and tritium permeation through the epoxy painted concrete wall will be negligible as long as the averaged realistic diffusion coefficient is ensured in the concrete wall. It is also revealed that the epoxy paint on the concrete wall prevents the tritium inventory increase in the concrete wall greatly (two orders of magnitudes), but still, the inventory in the wall is estimated to reach about 0.1 PBq for 20 years operation

  17. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  20. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  1. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  2. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  3. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15... renovation and remodeling activities of pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities in the State of...

  4. Facile and green synthesis of (La0.95Eu0.052O2S red phosphors with sulfate-ion pillared layered hydroxides as a new type of precursor: controlled hydrothermal processing, phase evolution and photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a facile and green route for the synthesis of (La0.95Eu0.052O2S red phosphors of controllable morphologies, with the sulfate-type layered hydroxides of Ln2(OH4SO4centerdot2H2O (Ln = La and Eu as a new type of precursor. The technique takes advantage of the fact that the precursor has had the exact Ln:S molar ratio of the targeted phosphor, thus saving the hazardous sulfurization reagents indispensable to traditional synthesis. Controlled hydrothermal processing at 120 °C yielded phase-pure Ln2(OH4SO4centerdot2H2O crystallites in the form of either nanoplates or microprisms, which can both be converted into Ln2O2S phosphor via a Ln2O2SO4 intermediate upon annealing in flowing H2 at a minimum temperature of ~ 700 °C. The nanoplates collapse into relatively rounded Ln2O2S particles while the microprisms retain well their initial morphologies at 1 200 °C, thus yielding two types of red phosphors. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE studies found two distinct charge transfer (CT excitation bands of O2− → Eu3+ at ~ 270 nm and S2− → Eu3+ at ~ 340 nm for the Ln2O2S phosphors, with the latter being stronger and both significantly stronger than the intrinsic intra-f transitions of Eu3+. The two types of phosphors share high similarities in the positions of PLE/PL (photoluminescence bands and both show the strongest red emission at 627 nm (5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ under S2− → Eu3+ CT excitation at 340 nm. The PLE/PL intensities show clear dependence on particle morphology and calcination temperature, which were investigated in detail. Fluorescence decay analysis reveals that the 627 nm red emission has a lifetime of ~ 0.5 ms for both types of the phosphors.

  5. THE FIRST CONTACT WITH MODERNITY IN THE TURKISH PAINTING: 1940-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfi BAŞKAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although 1920’s and 1930’s were the most important years of the westernization/innovation process for the Republican period Turkish community, the ‘comparability’ of the developments in this subject with the originated ‘West’, and its expanding to the larger public layers has happened during the period starting in mid-1940’s until 1960. Especially during these years, the connection with the modernism made by the official idealism of the government had the artists gain a feeling of an unprecedented importance, power and a great mission, unlike the impotence feeling the artist had in the later periods of the Republican era. In the art environment of the period which has gained its ‘form’ with the demands of the public authority just like in the 1930’s, the political and ideological burden of the artists for the creation of a ‘modern’ society have become important and great. Although the pictographic excitement and aesthetic creation levels have been under the art environment or artist’s general artistic level because of the plain expressivity burdened by these paintings which have their message part outweighs; because of various reasons, in these periods an important part of the artists have fulfilled their job as witnessing the history by reflecting the social – political and cultural aura of their period in their paintings. But beside this, they have made the first experiments of the ‘new trends’ enabled by the abstract painting, without excluding the figurative painting. With this concept the years of 1940-1960 have also become a period in which the ‘modernism’ has been interpreted without being ‘quotation’. The conditions and principles of the modern Turkish art environment, which is in an effort to exceed the very aspirated, style boundaries of the present day, are also had been grounded in the intellectual environment of the years between 1940-1960.

  6. Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassata, J.C.; Dickie, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000 [fr

  7. Diuretic plants in the paintings of Pompeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, L

    1994-01-01

    The plants that appear in the paintings and mosaics of Pompeii are chiefly edible and medicinal, though flowers with purely esthetic appeal are also shown. An important example is one of the floor mosaics from the House of the Faun, in which it is possible to identify lemon, cherry, strawberry, pomegranate, grape and olive, leaves of grape, fig, apple and olive, and flowers of corn cockle. The diuretic properties of some of these plants are mentioned in the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder. A silver cup from the House of Menandro, one of the most refined examples of plant decoration in antiquity, shows olive branches and fruits. The presence of plants in such artefacts confirms that people of classical times were conscious that plants were important producers of food, oils, fibers, woods and medicines.

  8. Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Murata, K.

    1975-01-01

    Paint compositions for indicating irradiation dose are prepared from chlorine-combined polyester, 5 to 30 percent by weight of a reductive discoloring substance or a mixture of said substances, and/or 0.005 to 2.0 percent by weight of a reducing dyestuff or a mixture of said dyestuffs, in which said chlorine-combined polyester is obtained by a chlorinated dibasic acid or its anhydride as an acid component or a part of an acid component selected from a group consisting of 3-chlorophthalic acid, 4-chlorophthalic acid, dichlorinated phthalic acid, tetrachlorophthalic acid, 1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachlorobicyclo-(2,2,1)-5-heptene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, 4-chloro-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and the anhydrides corresponding to said acids. (auth)

  9. [Optic mixing of colours in Seurat's painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Georges Seurat is the initiator and master of the divisionism. He founds the neoimpressionism current that tries to reproduce the nature exclusively through coloured vibration. Seurat applies the colours in small touches uniformly distributed on the canvas; the colours merge if they are looked by a certain distance, through optical interference. When the spectator approaches from the picture, the special frequency decreases, the optical merging does not appear and the onlooker looks a lot of coloured spots. When the spectator moves away from the picture, the optical interference appears and the clarity of the image becomes perfectly. This current opened the way of the future's modern painting performed by Cézanne, Renoir, Van Gogh.

  10. Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching

    OpenAIRE

    van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine; Rivenc, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that co...

  11. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  12. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  13. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  14. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  15. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  16. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires, G.

    1995-01-01

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered open-quotes Q.close quotes This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed

  17. Marine atmospheres provide a tough test for protective paint systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steptoe, G.G.C.

    1980-04-01

    Protective paints based on chlorinated rubber (CR) offer good resistance to salt-laden atmospheres and extreme climatic conditions, possess low moisture and oxygen permeability, and are resistant to a variety of chemicals, which allows them to counter the acidic and alkaline conditions tha arise from the corrosion of steel in salt water and from cathodic protection. Airless spray techniques allow CR paints to be applied much faster in thick coatings to large surface areas. CR paints can be formulated to produce a dry film thickness of 80-100 jm in one application. One study concluded that the extra expense for good surface preparation and high-performance paint can be regained in 2-4 yr as a result of lower maintenance costs. CR paints can be used successfully with cathodic protection; however, their tolerance to overprotection is less than that of some alternative systems; CR paints are considered to be suitable for use up to a maximum of -0.95 v. The numerous applications of CR paint include large crude carriers, offshore oil structures, oil terminals (e.g., the Flotta terminal in the Orkneys), and storage tanks.

  18. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon; Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong

    2015-01-01

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test

  19. Evidential significance of automotive paint trace evidence using a pattern recognition based infrared library search engine for the Paint Data Query Forensic Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Barry K; White, Collin G; Allen, Matthew D; Fasasi, Ayuba; Weakley, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    A prototype library search engine has been further developed to search the infrared spectral libraries of the paint data query database to identify the line and model of a vehicle from the clear coat, surfacer-primer, and e-coat layers of an intact paint chip. For this study, search prefilters were developed from 1181 automotive paint systems spanning 3 manufacturers: General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford. The best match between each unknown and the spectra in the hit list generated by the search prefilters was identified using a cross-correlation library search algorithm that performed both a forward and backward search. In the forward search, spectra were divided into intervals and further subdivided into windows (which corresponds to the time lag for the comparison) within those intervals. The top five hits identified in each search window were compiled; a histogram was computed that summarized the frequency of occurrence for each library sample, with the IR spectra most similar to the unknown flagged. The backward search computed the frequency and occurrence of each line and model without regard to the identity of the individual spectra. Only those lines and models with a frequency of occurrence greater than or equal to 20% were included in the final hit list. If there was agreement between the forward and backward search results, the specific line and model common to both hit lists was always the correct assignment. Samples assigned to the same line and model by both searches are always well represented in the library and correlate well on an individual basis to specific library samples. For these samples, one can have confidence in the accuracy of the match. This was not the case for the results obtained using commercial library search algorithms, as the hit quality index scores for the top twenty hits were always greater than 99%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  1. Toward a three-dimensional vision of the different compositions and the stratigraphy of the painting L'Homme blesse by G. Courbet: coupling SEM-EDX and confocal micro-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Ina; Mueller, Katharina; Mysak, Erin; Eveno, Myriam; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Examination of Gustave Courbet's L'Homme blesse (Musee d'Orsay, Paris), a painting with three successive compositions on a single canvas, was undertaken with scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzing system (SEM-EDX) on cross sections taken in the 1970s at the Laboratoire de Recherche de Musees de France, Paris and confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (CXRF) analysis adjacent to the sample locations of the three previously removed cross sections. Recent developments of in situ techniques such as CXRF have enabled investigation of the chemical composition of complicated paint layering without sampling. Here, we compare depth profiling by CXRF analysis with SEM-EDX data from cross sections with the goal of understanding how well CXRF data represent such a complicated paint stratigraphy. Beyond suggesting the paint palettes for Courbet's three compositions, this new data provide insight into the complex paint layer stratigraphy of eight or more layers and serve as the basis for interpreting further analyses by scanning XRF and CXRF of additional areas of interest on the painting. Data from these additional locations will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  2. Toward a three-dimensional vision of the different compositions and the stratigraphy of the painting L'Homme blesse by G. Courbet: coupling SEM-EDX and confocal micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Ina [Universite Paris 06 - Sorbonne Universites, Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, UMR 8220 CNRS UPMC, Paris (France); National Museums in Berlin-Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, Rathgen Research Laboratory, Berlin (Germany); Mueller, Katharina [Universite Paris 06 - Sorbonne Universites, Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, UMR 8220 CNRS UPMC, Paris (France); Mysak, Erin [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); Harvard Art Museums, Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yale University, Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, New Haven, CT (United States); Eveno, Myriam; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    Examination of Gustave Courbet's L'Homme blesse (Musee d'Orsay, Paris), a painting with three successive compositions on a single canvas, was undertaken with scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzing system (SEM-EDX) on cross sections taken in the 1970s at the Laboratoire de Recherche de Musees de France, Paris and confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (CXRF) analysis adjacent to the sample locations of the three previously removed cross sections. Recent developments of in situ techniques such as CXRF have enabled investigation of the chemical composition of complicated paint layering without sampling. Here, we compare depth profiling by CXRF analysis with SEM-EDX data from cross sections with the goal of understanding how well CXRF data represent such a complicated paint stratigraphy. Beyond suggesting the paint palettes for Courbet's three compositions, this new data provide insight into the complex paint layer stratigraphy of eight or more layers and serve as the basis for interpreting further analyses by scanning XRF and CXRF of additional areas of interest on the painting. Data from these additional locations will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  3. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  4. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Recognition and inference of crevice processing on digitized paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, S. P.; Srivatsa, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper is designed to detect and removal of cracks on digitized paintings. The cracks are detected by threshold. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using Median radial basis function neural network on hue and saturation data, Semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack is filled using wiener filter. The paper is well designed in such a way that most of the cracks on digitized paintings have identified and removed. The paper % of betterment is 90%. This paper helps us to perform not only on digitized paintings but also the medical images and bmp images. This paper is implemented by Mat Lab.

  6. Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Po; Williams, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.

  7. Studies on some Indian paints for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh Kumar, V.V.; Srinivasan, R.; Natarajan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The choice of paints in areas subjected to contamination and radiation in nuclear installation need special attention. The types of generic coatings are examined with reference to these requirements. Among those examined, certain types of epoxy paints are found to be attractive for these applications. Samples of epoxy paints obtained from some Indian manufacturers are tested for their suitability. Decontaminability and radiation resistance properties are also evaluated with special reference to radiochemical plants. Important specifications for such applications are listed. This report summarizes the results of these studies. (author)

  8. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on improvement of durability for reinforced concrete by surface-painting migrating corrosion inhibitor and engineering application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; WANG, Zixiao; LIU, Zhiyong; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zheng, Duo

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion currents of steel bar in concrete with three W/B and four chloride contents after surface-painting two migrating corrosion inhibitors (PCI-2015 and MCI-A) 14d to 150d in atmospheric condition were measured. The results showed that the corrosion current density (I corr) of steel bar reduced to 0.1 μA.cm-2 from the initial highest 3.833 μA.cm-2 (W/B=0.65, NaCl-1%) after surface-painting PCI-2015 14 d, and the I corr was still lower than 0.1 μA.cm-2 until 150d. The compressive strength and chloride migration coefficient of concrete specimens were tested. The possible reasons of the mechanisms of durability improvement for reinforced concrete by applying PCI-2015 inhibitor were PCI-2015 may be reacted with calcium hydroxide in cement concrete and lots of inhibitor particles may be adsorbed on the active sites first and then a stable protective layer may be formed. The I corr of steel bars in a hydraulic aqueduct concrete structure after painting PCI-2015, MCI-A (the United States) and MCI-B (Europe) during 6 months was monitored by Gecor 8 tester. The results showed that the average values of I corr of steel bars after painting the PCI-2015 150d fulfilled the specification requirements in “Design code for concrete structure strengthening (E.3) ”(GB 50367-2013).

  10. High mass and spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging of Nicolas Poussin painting cross section by cluster TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noun, M; Van Elslande, E; Touboul, D; Glanville, H; Bucklow, S; Walter, P; Brunelle, A

    2016-12-01

    The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue. This study paves the way to a wider use of ToF-SIMS for the analysis of ancient cultural heritage artefacts. Dr. Walter is the Director of the Molecular and Structural Archeology Laboratory (Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France). Dr. Brunelle is Head of the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). Their long standing collaboration has led to several seminal publications on the analysis of ancient artefacts by mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Nondestructive multispectral reflectoscopy between 800 and 1900 nm: An instrument for the investigation of the stratigraphy in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, G; Salpistis, Chr; Sergiadis, G; Chryssoulakis, Y

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, a powerful tool for the investigation of paintings is presented. This permits the tuneable multispectral real time imaging between 200 and 5000 nm and the simultaneous multispectral acquisition of spectroscopic data from the same region. We propose the term infrared reflectoscopy for tuneable infrared imaging in paintings (Chryssonlakis and Chassery, The Application of Physicochemical Methods of Analysis and Image Processing Techniques to Painted Works of Art, Erasmus Project ICP-88-006-6, Athens, June, 1989) for a technique that is effective especially when the spectroscopic data acquisition is performed between 800 and 1900 nm. Elements such as underdrawings, old damage that is not visible to the naked eye, later interventions or overpaintings, hidden signatures, nonvisible inscriptions, and authenticity features can thus be detected with the overlying paint layers becoming successively "transparent" due to the deep infrared penetration. The spectroscopic data are collected from each point of the studied area with a 5 nm step through grey level measurement, after adequate infrared reflectance (%R) and curve calibration. The detection limits of the infrared detector as well as the power distribution of the radiation coming out through the micrometer slit assembly of the monochromator in use are also taken into account. Inorganic pigments can thus be identified and their physicochemical properties directly compared to the corresponding infrared images at each wavelength within the optimum region. In order to check its effectiveness, this method was applied on an experimental portable icon of a known stratigraphy.

  12. Extensive Green Roof Ecological Benefits in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rušenieks, Rihards; Kamenders, Agris

    2013-01-01

    Extensive green roof ecological benefits are studiedin this paper. The research contains a brief explanation aboutgreen roof technology and green roof ecological benefits. Greenroof capability to retain rainwater runoff by accumulating it instorage layers and conducting it back into the atmospherethrough evapotranspiration is studied and modeled. Modeling isdone in Stormwater Management Model 5.0 software. The modelis based on an existing warehouse-type building located in Rigaand hourly Riga...

  13. Characterization of Aerosols Generated by nano-second Laser Ablation of an Acrylic Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle, P.; Vendel, J.; Dewalle, P.; Weulersse, J.M.; Dewalle, P.; Herve, Ph.; Dewalle, P.; Decobert, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on particles produced during laser ablation of a green colored acrylic wall paint, which is frequently used in industrial buildings and in particular in nuclear installations. Ablation is carried out with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse duration of 5 ns, in a cell at ambient pressure and temperature, which is ventilated by filtered air. The number of particles emitted was measured with a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and their size with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (or EEPS) for the nano-metric range, and an AEROSIZER (for the micrometric range). The mass and shape of particles were determined by sampling on filters as well as on the different impaction plates of a Low-Pressure Impactor (LPI). Two particle populations were detected: a population of aggregates of primary nano-particles with an electrical mobility diameter ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and a population of spherical submicron particles with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 400 to 1000 nm. The spherical particles are mainly composed of titanium dioxide, and the aggregates most likely of carbon. The presence of two types of particles with different size distributions, shapes, and chemical compositions, implies that particles originating from the ablation of paint are formed by two different mechanisms: agglomeration in the case of the nano-metric aggregates, which is preceded by steps of nucleation, condensation, and coagulation of the primary particles, while the submicron spheres result from a direct ejection mechanism. (authors)

  14. Interdisciplinary study of the panel painting depicting the "Pentecostes", attributed to Fernão Gomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Conde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the technique and materials used in the panel painting entitled Pentecostes, attributed to the artist Fernão Gomes (XVIIth century, housed in the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, in Lisbon. The study also includes the diagnosis of the conservation state of the painting and the description of the cleaning intervention. For identification of the materials and determination of the conservation state, several analytical techniques were used: micro-FTIR and GC-MS, for identification of the binder and varnish; micro-Raman and micro-FTIR, for identification of fillers and pigments; micro-XRF and SEM-EDX, for elemental analysis; optical microscopy, with visible and fluorescent radiation, and infrared photography, for morphological observation and study of pictorial technique. The analytical approach led to the identification of materials common at the time: gypsum with animal glue, lead white, yellow and red ochres, black earths (based on Mn, Bi, Fe, azurite, possible green earth, lead red, oil and oily varnish with residues of cholesterol. After various cleaning tests, a gel suggested by the literature was chosen (recipe no. 105.4 developed by R. Wolbers and proved to be effective in the removal of the aged and polymerized varnish.

  15. A multi-analytical approach for the characterization of wall painting materials on contemporary buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Donata; Bracci, Susanna; Cantisani, Emma; Conti, Claudia; Rava, Antonio; Sansonetti, Antonio; Shank, Will; Colombini, MariaPerla

    2017-02-01

    Samples from Keith Haring's wall painting of the Necker Children Hospital in Paris were studied by a multi-analytical protocol. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), Electron microscope (SEM-EDS), Infrared and Raman spectroscopy (μ-FT-IR and μ-Raman) measurements were performed in order to characterize the materials and to identify the art technique used to produce this contemporary work. Materials from the mural suffered from severe detachments of materials and several fragments were found on the ground beneath. Some of these fragments, which were representative of the whole palette and stratigraphic sequence, were collected and studied. The fragments were sufficiently large to enable non-invasive measurements to be performed in order to characterize the materials. A comparison of the data of the techniques applied revealed that Haring's palette was composed of organic pigments such as Naphtol red, phthalocyanine blue and green and Hansa yellow, in accordance with those used previously by the artist in other painted murals.

  16. Effects of Tactile Sensations during Finger Painting on Mindfulness, Emotions, and Scope of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja; Kaczmarek, Lukasz D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that creative performance, such as painting, influences affective and cognitive processes. Yet little is known about how tactile sensations experienced during painting determine what individuals feel and how they think while they create. Based on prior research, finger painting (compared to brush painting) was expected to…

  17. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  18. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  19. Innovationsallianz Green Carbody Technologies - mit energieeffizienterer und ressourcenschonenderer Technik produzieren: Presentation held at Conference on "Strategies in Car Body Engineering 2013", 19 - 20 March 2013, Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Innovation Alliance Green Carbody Technologies InnoCaT researched in the years 2010 - 2012 for efficient solutions along the process chain "painted car body" including the tool shop, the press shop through body shop to the painted body under the approach of holistic planning. Examples of the results are planning of low-energy production, the energy-efficient climate control of enclosures, the automatic adjustment of body devices, resource-efficient sheet metal hot stamping and so on. All ...

  20. Manganese and Iron Catalysts in Alkyd Paints and Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Hage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many paint, ink and coating formulations contain alkyd-based resins which cure via autoxidation mechanisms. Whilst cobalt-soaps have been used for many decades, there is a continuing and accelerating desire by paint companies to develop alternatives for the cobalt soaps, due to likely classification as carcinogens under the REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals legislation. Alternative driers, for example manganese and iron soaps, have been applied for this purpose. However, relatively poor curing capabilities make it necessary to increase the level of metal salts to such a level that often coloring of the paint formulation occurs. More recent developments include the application of manganese and iron complexes with a variety of organic ligands. This review will discuss the chemistry of alkyd resin curing, the applications and reactions of cobalt-soaps as curing agents, and, subsequently, the paint drying aspects and mechanisms of (model alkyd curing using manganese and iron catalysts.

  1. Opportunities application of cleaner production practices in paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Y. S. Y.

    2010-08-01

    There are releases of volatile organic compounds VOC from paint manufacturing process steps and from cleaning operations in El Mohandas Paint Factory. These emission can cause health, safety and productivity problems in the work area. Hence cleaner production application is necessary in this case. Some of the manufacturing processes and equipment used to accomplish these manufacturing are analyzed and generate cleaner production opportunities, implement some of cleaner production solutions of VOC emission control by some of the methods used by paint facilities in reducing emissions. It was found that there is no control available for emissions factors in paints manufacturing process, so that VOC emission based on raw material consumption rather than calculation emission from processes or equipment by alternative method. (Author)

  2. PORTRAIT ART IN NATIONAL PAINTING (1959-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOZOVANU VLADIMIR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article describes the portrait in national painting during the 1960s, years that marked political, social and cultural changes that contributed to the spiritual emancipation of the creative personality and the formation of new plastic tendencies in the field of portrait painting. He also describes the famous artists` portrait painting creations that have contributed to the spiritual emancipation of the creating personality and the establishment of new plastic tendencies in the fi eld of portrait painting. In the article, there are examples of representative portraits that are described in the context of the period when they were created. The author identifi es the methods, techniques, ideas and aspirations used in the works of plastic artists for drawing portraits that allow to form an ample conception about this phenomenon. The presented information is useful to artists, teachers and students who work in the field of visual art.

  3. Pendekatan Pemandangan Realistik dengan Menggunakan Digital Matte Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Movie is one entertainment that is favored by most people. Scenery appearance and spectacular shoots made movie needs high budget for the production. There are shoots looking difficult and needing extra efforts, but obviously it could be solved by using latest technology. Such technology is a combination of 3D and digital painting or image so it could bring digital painting alive: matte painting, a breakthrough in visual effects and movie. The research is conducted through exploration from manipulated images, references and retrieved real images in the specific place. Camera movement is also an important frame to define how far the image will be seen in the camera. So, when it is applied, it has no images that less-showed in camera framing. Although it has limitation in 2D images taken from limited frame, digital matte painting is able to answer industry needs in entertainment to create things that look real.  

  4. 4D Visualization of Painted Sculpture and Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, M. Y.; Tong, H.; Shen, L.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. C.; Hu, Q. W.; Zhu, Y. X.; Zhang, H.

    2015-08-01

    Most cultural heritage applications address visualization with using various media or platforms: desktop-based multimedia presentations, museum kiosks, or videos produced with computer animation. However, these techniques can not directly reveal or show the course that the colorful surface of painted sculpture and murals becomes faint along with the change of the climate and time. Most current techniques just preserve the current appearance and disseminate the current situation of the painted sculpture and murals. The course how these forms of cultural heritage change along the time has not been visualized. In this paper we developed an approach to modelling of painted sculpture and murals that has undergone changes over the years. Different hypotheses has also be given if there is uncertainty. A painted sculpture of Mogao Grottoes is used to demonstate this approach.

  5. Development of paint area estimation software for ship compartments and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-Yeoun Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The painting process of large ships is an intense manual operation that typically comprises 9–12% of the total shipbuilding cost. Accordingly, shipbuilders need to estimate the required amount of anti-corrosive coatings and painting resources for inventory and cost control. This study aims to develop a software system which enables the shipbuilders to estimate paint area using existing 3D CAD ship structural models. The geometric information of the ships structure are extracted from the existing shipbuilding CAD/CAM system and used to create painting zones. After specifying the painting zones, users can generate the paint faces by clipping structural parts inside each zone. Finally, the paint resources may be obtained from the product of the paint areas and required paint thickness. Implementing the developed software system to real shipbuilders' operations has contributed to improved productivity, faster resource estimation, better accuracy, and fewer coating defects over their conventional manual calculation methods for painting resource estimation.

  6. Experiments on an Exhaust Hood for the Paint Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Madsen, Ulla; Tveit, David J.

    There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air.......There is a great variation of production machinery and pollution sources in the paint industry. This paper shows the examination of a process where wood preservation is filled into cans in a process which releases organic solvents to the surrounding air....

  7. New data on painted stone slabs from Southern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Faron-Bartels, Renata

    2011-01-01

    After analysing museum collections, studying bibliographical sources and undertaking two surface prospections at Pampacolca the author carried out the archaeological project “Lajas Pintadas de Pampacolca” (painted stone slabs from Pampacolca) in August and September 2001 with the objective of investigating these stones or rather the painted ceramic boards in more detail. The essential task set for this project consisted in obtaining artefacts from preferably undisturbed contexts at various ar...

  8. Audience Perception of Effective Communication in Nigerian Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Adelani Abodunrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artists in Nigeria perceived effective communication differently irrespective of the socio-economic status.Communication effectiveness depends largely on the understanding of the message being passed between a sender and a receiver. Painting has been used over time to express emotion and feeling to the perceiving audience. The study is audience’s perception of communication in Nigeria painting and how it varies with the socio-economic characteristics such as age, education, gender, and being professional artist or art lovers. Questionnaires were distributed and administered to examine how the status of the art audience makes or mars effective communication in painting. The inferential statistics that were employed include “chi-square test” to test the relationship between different variables. The data were taken in ordinal form using Likert’s scale, and transformed into interval data. This was done by attaching statistical weights to the responses in the order of importance which were summed up for the parametric testing. Findings show that gender factor has nothing to do with the understanding of paintings. Also, the level of education obtained by the audience does not have much to do with understanding of contemporary Nigerian painting but a better exposure to the issue concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting. Art practitioners must adequately be guided on stylistic trend in painting, art education should be more intensified in educational curriculum in Nigeria. The paper concludes that audience requires a better exposure to the issues concerning the stylistic development of Nigerian painting for effective communication to take place.

  9. Clay ground in paintings: from Northern to Southern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Haack Christensen, Anne

    The use of clay grounds containing quartz was first observed in the Netherlands in artworks from Rembrandt’s workshop after 1640 [1, 2]. In addition, contemporary written sources outside the Netherlands mention this practice in Italy and Spain [2]. However, the reason for using clay as a constitu...... in Rembrandt´s workshop and in paintings by his contemporaries", in E. van de Wetering et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, 2011, 318-334 + 660-677. Springer, Dordrecht...

  10. Development and application of a green-chemistry solution deposition technique for buffer layer coating on cube-textured metal substrates in view of further deposition of rare-earth based superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P

    which consist of YBCO superconducting coatings on cube-textured Ni based alloy tapes.  Before the epitaxial deposition this superconducting layer, a buffer layer is applied on the metal substrate as a diffusion barrier which is also required to transfer the strong texture of the underlying substrate......, allowing the epitaxial growth of the superconducting layer. State-of-the-art coated conductor hetero structures are mainly based on CeO2 based buffer stacks that consist of a sequence of several different buffer layers. Buffer layers deposited by continuous chemical deposition techniques, which...... is expected to be very advantageous in reel-to-reel applications. The thickness of these SrTiO3 monolayers was large enough to stop the nickel and copper diffusion from the Cu/Ni substrate. Hence, the developed high quality buffer layers are expected to be acting as efficient diffusion barriers and also...

  11. Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn; Tian, Aiqin; Zhang, Feng; Feng, Meixin; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Shuming; Ikeda, Masao; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui [Key Lab of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); School of Nano Technology and Nano Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-08-29

    Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes (LDs) has been investigated by both simulations and experiments. It is found that holes can overflow from the green double quantum wells (DQWs) at high current density, which reduces carrier injection efficiency of c-plane InGaN-based green LDs. A heavily silicon-doped layer right below the green DQWs can effectively suppress hole overflow from the green DQWs.

  12. Painting Dose: The ART of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Hannah J. [College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was “viral.” What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy.

  13. Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraiko, Carol; Wright, Eva M; Ralston, Faye

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

  14. Painting Dose: The ART of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Hannah J.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of X rays in 1895 captivated society like no other scientific advance. Radiation instantly became the subject not only of numerous scientific papers but also of circus bazaars, poetry, fiction, costume design, comics, and marketing for household items. Its spread was “viral.” What is not well known, however, is its incorporation into visual art, despite the long tradition of medicine and surgery as a subject in art. Using several contemporary search methods, we identified 5 examples of paintings or sculpture that thematically feature radiation therapy. All were by artists with exhibited careers in art: Georges Chicotot, Marcel Duchamp, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Robert Pope, and Cookie Kerxton. Each artist portrays radiation differently, ranging from traditional healer, to mysterious danger, to futuristic propaganda, to the emotional challenges of undergoing cancer therapy. This range captures the complex role of radiation as both a therapy and a hazard. Whereas some of these artists are now world famous, none of these artworks are as well known as their surgical counterparts. The penetration of radiation into popular culture was rapid and pervasive; yet, its role as a thematic subject in art never fully caught on, perhaps because of a lack of understanding of the technology, radiation's intangibility, or even a suppressive effect of society's ambivalent relationship with it. These 5 artists have established a rich foundation upon which pop culture and art can further develop with time to reflect the extraordinary progress of modern radiation therapy.

  15. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    TiO2 9.5 Isobutyl ketone 0.1 Iron oxide hydrate 2.5 n-Butyl acid phosphate 0.1 Carbazole dioxazine violet ɘ.1 Bentone 0.5 Table 3: MIL-PRF-85285...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  16. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  17. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  18. Synthesis of goodness and beauty of Petrikivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting as a unique manifestation of Ukrainian national culture has been studied in the article. This painting is recognized all over the world as an intangible cultural heritage of humanity in the context of its philosophical principles. Petrykivsky decorative painting by its basis — murals,  reaches Tripoli and puts the Ukrainian culture among the ancient cultures of the world. At various stages of ethnos’ existence, Ukrainian folk decorative art was an important part of the spiritual life and reflected its identity, ensuring the continuity of spiritual connection between generations. Motives of Petrykivka decorative painting describe the local flora and fauna and the local historical tradition. Folk artists get their inspiration from the mother nature, traditional for the Ukrainian people worship to Mother-land and all beautiful things, which are created by it. However, Petrykivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist. Calocagathia (synthesis of beauty and goodness of Petrykivsky school is seen in high spiritual and moral culture of the Ukrainian people, in their pursuit to improve the space of their life, to perpetuate the generous beauty of the world by the love to beauty and goodness in all its forms using a variety of colors and patterns.

  19. Self-Cleaning Mineral Paint for Application in Architectural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipto Pal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mineral silicate paint has been developed for architectural heritage. To enhance durability, any type of organic additive has been avoided. Potassium silicate was the binder agent intended to give strong adherence and durability to stone and concretes. Incorporation of mainly anatase titanium dioxide was intended to act both as a white, bright pigment and as a photocatalyst. Reflectivity analyses on the paint in the visible-to-near infrared wavelength region show high solar heat reflection. The self-cleaning activity of the mineral paint was evaluated by the degradation of organic dyes under solar light irradiation. Anatase titania was effective in decomposing organic and airborne pollutants with the solar radiation. The optical properties and self-cleaning activity were compared with the organic binder-based paints and commercial paints. Developed paints possess high stability: since they contain only inorganic components that do not fade with exposure to solar radiation, photocatalytic self-cleaning capability further enhances such stability.

  20. Experiencing art: the influence of expertise and painting abstraction level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina ePihko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How does expertise influence the perception of representational and abstract paintings? We asked 20 experts on art history and 20 laypersons to explore and evaluate a series of paintings ranging in style from representational to abstract in five categories. We compared subjective aesthetic judgments and emotional evaluations, gaze patterns, and electrodermal reactivity between the two groups of participants. The level of abstraction affected aesthetic judgments and emotional valence ratings of the laypersons but had no effect on the opinions of the experts: the laypersons’ aesthetic and emotional ratings were highest for representational paintings and lowest for abstract paintings, whereas the opinions of the experts were independent of the abstraction level. The gaze patterns of both groups changed as the level of abstraction increased: the number of fixations and the length of the scanpaths increased while the duration of the fixations decreased. The viewing strategies—reflected in the target, location and path of the fixations—however indicated that experts and laypersons paid attention to different aspects of the paintings. The electrodermal reactivity did not vary according to the level of abstraction in either group but expertise was reflected in weaker responses, compared with laypersons, to information received about the paintings.