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Sample records for green cotyledon gene

  1. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 gene is required for boundary and shoot meristem formation in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vroemen, Casper W; Mordhorst, Andreas P; Albrecht, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    From an enhancer trap screen for genes expressed in Arabidopsis embryos, we identified a gene expressed from the octant stage onward in the boundary between the two presumptive cotyledons and in a variety of postembryonic organ and meristem boundaries. This gene, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3...

  2. TOR-inhibitor insensitive-1 (TRIN1) regulates cotyledons greening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxuan; Song, Yun; Wang, Kai; Dong, Pan; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Fuguang; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2015-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is an eukaryotic protein kinase and evolutionally conserved from the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) to humans. The growing evidences have shown that TOR signaling acts as a central controller of cell growth and development. The downstream effectors of TOR have been well-identified in yeast and animals by using the immunosuppression agent rapamycin. However, less is known about TOR in plants. This is largely due to the fact that plants are insensitive to rapamycin. In this study, AZD8055 (AZD), the novel ATP-competitive inhibitor of TOR, was employed to decipher the downstream effectors of TOR in Arabidopsis. One AZD insensitive mutant, T O R - i nhibitor i n sensitive- 1 (trin1), was screened from 10,000 EMS-induced mutation seeds. The cotyledons of trin1 can turn green when its seeds were germinated on ½ MS medium supplemented with 2 μM AZD, whereas the cotyledons greening of wild-type (WT) can be completely blocked at this concentration. Through genetic mapping, TRIN1 was mapped onto the long arm of chromosome 2, between markers SGCSNP26 and MI277. Positional cloning revealed that TRIN1 was an allele of ABI4, which encoded an ABA-regulated AP2 domain transcription factor. Plants containing P35S::TRIN1 or P35S::TRIN1-GUS were hypersensitive to AZD treatment and displayed the opposite phenotype observed in trin1. Importantly, GUS signaling was significantly enhanced in P35S::TRIN1-GUS transgenic plants in response to AZD treatment, indicating that suppression of TOR resulted in the accumulation of TRIN1. These observations revealed that TOR controlled seed-to-seedling transition by negatively regulating the stability of TRIN1 in Arabidopsis. For the first time, TRIN1, the downstream effector of TOR signaling, was identified through a chemical genetics approach.

  3. Expression of ribosomal genes in pea cotyledons at the initial stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Chumikhina, L.V.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    The time of appearance of newly synthesized rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the ribosomes of pea cotyledons (Pisum sativum L.) during germination was investigated. The ribosomal fraction was isolated and analyzed according to the method of germination of the embryo in the presence of labeled precursors or after pulse labeling of the embryos at different stages of germination. For the identification of newly synthesized rRNAs in the ribosomes we estimated the relative stability of labeled RNAs to the action of RNase, the sedimentation rate, the ability to be methylated in vivo in the presence of [ 14 C]CH 3 -methionine, and the localization in the subunits of dissociated ribosomes. The presence of newly synthesized r-proteins in the ribosomes was judged on the basis of the electrophoretic similarity in SDS-disc electrophoresis of labeled polypeptides of purified ribosome preparations and of genuine r-proteins, as well as according to the localization of labeled proteins in the subunits of the dissociated ribosomes. It was shown that the expression of the ribosomal genes in highly specialized cells of pea cotyledons that have completed their growth occurs at very early stages of germination

  4. New insights on the evolution of Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) type genes in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Korbes, Ana Paula; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos; Margis, Rogerio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    NF-Y is a conserved oligomeric transcription factor found in all eukaryotes. In plants, this regulator evolved with a broad diversification of the genes coding for its three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC). The NF-YB members can be divided into Leafy Cotyledon1 (LEC1) and non-LEC1 types. Here we presented a comparative genomic study using phylogenetic analyses to validate an evolutionary model for the origin of LEC-type genes in plants and their emergence from non-LEC1-type genes. We identified LEC1-type members in all vascular plant genomes, but not in amoebozoa, algae, fungi, metazoa and non-vascular plant representatives, which present exclusively non-LEC1-type genes as constituents of their NF-YB subunits. The non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (Ka/Ks) between LEC1 and non-LEC1-type genes indicate the presence of positive selection acting on LEC1-type members to the fixation of LEC1-specific amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that plant LEC1-type genes are evolutionary divergent from the non-LEC1-type genes of plants, fungi, amoebozoa, algae and animals. Our results point to a scenario in which LEC1-type genes have originated in vascular plants after gene expansion in plants. We suggest that processes of neofunctionalization and/or subfunctionalization were responsible for the emergence of a versatile role for LEC1-type genes in vascular plants, especially in seed plants. LEC1-type genes besides being phylogenetic divergent also present different expression profile when compared with non-LEC1-type genes. Altogether, our data provide new insights about the LEC1 and non-LEC1 evolutionary relationship during the vascular plant evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional sequencing and analysis of major genes involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Hong-Na; Wu, Qing-Song; Muday, Gloria K

    2017-06-01

    A total of 74,745 unigenes were generated and 1975 DEGs were identified. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment were revealed. Adventitious root formation is a crucial step in plant vegetative propagation, but the molecular mechanism of adventitious root formation remains unclear. Adventitious roots formed only at the proximal cut surface (PCS) of mango cotyledon segments, whereas no roots were formed on the opposite, distal cut surface (DCS). To identify the transcript abundance changes linked to adventitious root development, RNA was isolated from PCS and DCS at 0, 4 and 7 days after culture, respectively. Illumina sequencing of libraries generated from these samples yielded 62.36 Gb high-quality reads that were assembled into 74,745 unigenes with an average sequence length of 807 base pairs, and 33,252 of the assembled unigenes at least had homologs in one of the public databases. Comparative analysis of these transcriptome databases revealed that between the different time points at PCS there were 1966 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), while there were only 51 DEGs for the PCS vs. DCS when time-matched samples were compared. Of these DEGs, 1636 were assigned to gene ontology (GO) classes, the majority of that was involved in cellular processes, metabolic processes and single-organism processes. Candidate genes that may be involved in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segment are predicted to encode polar auxin transport carriers, auxin-regulated proteins, cell wall remodeling enzymes and ethylene-related proteins. In order to validate RNA-sequencing results, we further analyzed the expression profiles of 20 genes by quantitative real-time PCR. This study expands the transcriptome information for Mangifera indica and identifies candidate genes involved in adventitious root formation in cotyledon segments of mango.

  6. Wounding stimulates ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene and increases the level of jasmonic acid in Ipomoea nil cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wilmowicz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Allene oxide synthase (AOS encodes the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway, which is responsible for jasmonic acid (JA formation. In this study we report the molecular cloning and characterization of InAOS from Ipomoea nil. The full-length gene is composed of 1662 bp and encodes for 519 amino acids. The predicted InAOS contains PLN02648 motif, which is evolutionarily conserved and characteristic for functional enzymatic proteins. We have shown that wounding led to a strong stimulation of the examined gene activity in cotyledons and an increase in JA level, which suggest that this compound may be a modulator of stress responses in I. nil.

  7. AtGA3ox2, a key gene responsible for bioactive gibberellin biosynthesis, is regulated during embryogenesis by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and FUSCA3 in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curaba, J.; Moritz, T.; Blervaque, R.; Parcy, F.; Raz, V.; Herzog, M.; Vachon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic regulators LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) and FUS3 (FUSCA3) are involved in multiple aspects of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development, including repression of leaf traits and premature germination and activation of seed storage protein genes. In this study, we show that gibberellin

  8. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Julie; Plissonneau, Clémence; Linglin, Juliette; Meyer, Michel; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonization, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, the determinants of the late colonization stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences, leading to stem canker development, or the plant may develop an 'adult-stage' resistance reducing canker incidence. To obtain an insight into these determinants, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pilot project comparing fungal gene expression in infected cotyledons and in symptomless or necrotic stems. Despite the low fraction of fungal material in infected stems, sufficient fungal transcripts were detected and a large number of fungal genes were expressed, thus validating the feasibility of the approach. Our analysis showed that all avirulence genes previously identified are under-expressed during stem colonization compared with cotyledon colonization. A validation RNA-seq experiment was then performed to investigate the expression of candidate effector genes during systemic colonization. Three hundred and seven 'late' effector candidates, under-expressed in the early colonization stage and over-expressed in the infected stems, were identified. Finally, our analysis revealed a link between the regulation of expression of effectors and their genomic location: the 'late' effector candidates, putatively involved in systemic colonization, are located in gene-rich genomic regions, whereas the 'early' effector genes, over-expressed in the early colonization stage, are located in gene-poor regions of the genome. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Efimova, N.V.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, V.; Litvinovskaya, R. P.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, N.P.; Savchuk, A. L.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Kudryakova, N.V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, APR (2017), s. 32-40 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : lupinus-luteus cotyledons * arabidopsis-thaliana * de-etiolation * abscisic-acid * brassinosteroid biosynthesis * plant development * hormonal balance * mutant * expression * growth * Brassinosteroids * Cytokinin * Gene expression * Green light * Hordeum vulgare * Transcription Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  10. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Gervais, Julie; Rouxel, Thierry; Fudal, Isabelle; Balesdent, Marie-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, causal agent of blackleg disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon and leaf colonization leading to leaf spots development, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, determinants of late colonization stage are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that L. macula...

  11. Screening and Validation of Housekeeping Genes of the Root and Cotyledon of Cunninghamia lanceolata under Abiotic Stresses by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

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    Wenlong Bao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir is a fast-growing and commercially important conifer of the Cupressaceae family. Due to the unavailability of complete genome sequences and relatively poor genetic background information of the Chinese fir, it is necessary to identify and analyze the expression levels of suitable housekeeping genes (HKGs as internal reference for precise analysis. Based on the results of database analysis and transcriptome sequencing, we have chosen five candidate HKGs (Actin, GAPDH, EF1a, 18S rRNA, and UBQ with conservative sequences in the Chinese fir and related species for quantitative analysis. The expression levels of these HKGs in roots and cotyledons under five different abiotic stresses in different time intervals were measured by qRT-PCR. The data were statistically analyzed using the following algorithms: NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm. Finally, RankAggreg was applied to merge the sequences generated from three programs and rank these according to consensus sequences. The expression levels of these HKGs showed variable stabilities under different abiotic stresses. Among these, Actin was the most stable internal control in root, and GAPDH was the most stable housekeeping gene in cotyledon. We have also described an experimental procedure for selecting HKGs based on the de novo sequencing database of other non-model plants.

  12. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  13. The glyoxysomal and plastid molecular chaperones (70-kDa heat shock protein) of watermelon cotyledons are encoded by a single gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Klei, Ida van der; Veenhuis, Marten; Gietl, Christine

    1997-01-01

    The monoclonal a-70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) antibody recognizes in crude extracts from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cotyledons with molecular masses of 70 and 72 KDa, Immunocytochemistry on watermelon cotyledon tissue and on isolated glyoxysomes identified hsp70s in the matrix of

  14. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  15. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  16. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  17. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding an auxin efflux carrier and the auxin influx carriers associated with the adventitious root formation in mango (Mangifera indica L.) cotyledon segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Zou, Ming-Hong; Feng, Bi-Hong; Huang, Xia; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays an important role in the adventitious root formation of mango cotyledon segments, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cloned a gene encoding an auxin efflux carrier (designated as MiPIN1), and we cloned four genes encoding auxin influx carriers (designated as MiAUX1, MiAUX2, MiAUX3 and MiAUX4). The results of a phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs belong to plant PIN and AUXs/LAXs groups. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of MiPIN1 and the MiAUXs was lowest at 0 days but sharply increased on and after day 4. During the root formation in the mango cotyledon segments, the MiPIN1 expression in the distal cut surface (DCS) was always higher than the expression in the proximal cut surface (PCS) whereas the expression of the MiAUXs in the PCS was usually higher than in the DCS. This expression pattern might be result in the PAT from the DCS to the PCS, which is essential for the adventitious root formation in the PCS. Our previous study indicated that a pre-treatment of embryos with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) significantly promoted adventitious rooting in PCS whereas a pre-treatment with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) completely inhibited this rooting. In this study, however, IBA and TIBA pre-treatments slightly changed the expression of MiPIN1. In contrast, while the MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 expression levels were significantly up-regulated by the IBA pre-treatment, the expression levels were down-regulated by the TIBA pre-treatment. These findings imply that MiAUX3 and MiAUX4 are more sensitive to the IBA and TIBA treatments and that they might play important roles during adventitious root formation in mango cotyledon segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of a gymnosperm PIN homologous gene correlates with auxin immunolocalization pattern at cotyledon formation and in demarcation of the procambium during Picea abies somatic embryo development and in seedling tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palovaara, Joakim; Hallberg, Henrik; Stasolla, Claudio; Luit, Bert; Hakman, Inger

    2010-04-01

    In seed plants, the body organization is established during embryogenesis and is uniform across gymnosperms and angiosperms, despite differences during early embryogeny. Evidence from angiosperms implicates the plant hormone auxin and its polar transport, mainly established by the PIN family of auxin efflux transporters, in the patterning of embryos. Here, PaPIN1 from Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), a gene widely expressed in conifer tissues and organs, was characterized and its expression and localization patterns were determined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization during somatic embryo development and in seedlings. PaPIN1 shares the predicted structure of other PIN proteins, but its central hydrophilic loop is longer than most PINs. In phylogenetic analyses, PaPIN1 clusters with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7, but its expression pattern also suggests similarity to PIN1. The PaPIN1 expression signal was high in the protoderm of pre-cotyledonary embryos, but not if embryos were pre-treated with the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This, together with a high auxin immunolocalization signal in this cell layer, suggests a role of PaPIN1 during cotyledon formation. At later stages, high PaPIN1 expression was observed in differentiating procambium, running from the tip of incipient cotyledons down through the embryo axis and to the root apical meristem (RAM), although the mode of RAM specification in conifer embryos differs from that of most angiosperms. Also, the PaPIN1 in situ signal was high in seedling root tips including root cap columella cells. The results thus suggest that PaPIN1 provides an ancient function associated with auxin transport and embryo pattern formation prior to the separation of angiosperms and gymnosperms, in spite of some morphological differences.

  20. Characterization of photorespiration and photosynthesis in soybean cotyledons during seedling development, cotyledon senescence and rejuvenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    We measured light and dark carbon dioxide exchange rates (CER) in germinating, presenescent, and senescing soybean cotyledons and in cotyledons rejuvenated by epicotyl removal on different days after planting. In other aspects of cotyledon physiology, we observed significant differences between rejuvenated and presenescent soybean cotyledons. Rejuvenated cotyledons accumulated chlorophyll to levels greater than the maximal amount measured in presenescent cotyledons. A second difference was the observation that during rejuvenation, the post-illumination outburst of CO 2 (the PIB), a qualitative indication of photorespiration, appeared to recover more slowly than light CER when compared with presenescent but equivalent light CERs. To investigate the relationship between the PIB and light CER, we labelled cotyledons with 14 CO 2 during photosynthesis. We measured the amount of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RubisCO) in the cotyledons by rocket immunoelectrophoresis

  1. Molecular quantification of genes encoding for green-fluorescent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felske, A; Vandieken, V; Pauling, B V

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative PCR approach is presented to analyze the amount of recombinant green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes in environmental DNA samples. The quantification assay is a combination of specific PCR amplification and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Gene quantification...... PCR strategy is a highly specific and sensitive way to monitor recombinant DNA in environments like the efflux of a biotechnological plant....

  2. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renake N; Ligterink, Wilco; França-Neto, José de B; Hilhorst, Henk W M; da Silva, Edvaldo A A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in mature seeds and is associated with lower oil and seed quality, thus negatively impacting the production of soybean seeds. Here we show that heat and drought stress result in a "mild" stay-green phenotype and impaired expression of the STAY-GREEN 1 and STAY-GREEN 2 (D1, D2), PHEOPHORBIDASE 2 (PPH2) and NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1_1) genes in soybean seeds of a susceptible soybean cultivar. We suggest that the higher expression of these genes in fully mature seeds of a tolerant cultivar allows these seeds to cope with stressful conditions and complete chlorophyll degradation. The gene expression results obtained in this study represent a significant advance in understanding chlorophyll retention in mature soybean seeds produced under stressful conditions. This will open new research possibilities towards finding molecular markers for breeding programs to produce cultivars which are less susceptible to chlorophyll retention under the hot and dry climate conditions which are increasingly common in the largest soybean production areas of the world.

  3. RNA transcription in isolated chloroplasts during senescence and rejuvenation of intact cotyledons of CUCURBITA PEPO L. (ZUCCHINI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, K.; Ananiev, E.; Denev, L.; Radeva, G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA transcription was studied in intact chloroplasts isolated from cotyledons of Cucurbita pepoL. (zucchini) during their growth and development including natural senescence and rejuvenation. Rejuvenation of cotyledons was studied after decapitation of the epicotyl above the senescing yellow cotyledons. Maximal incorporation of [32P] UTP into overall chloroplast RNA was measured two days after exposure of seedlings to light (day 6 th after the onset of germination), followed by a gradual decrease reaching minimal values at the age of 25-28 days when cotyledons began to yellow and eventually die. Rejuvenation of cotyledons completely restored chloroplast RNA synthesis and fifteen days after decapitation (at the age of 40 days), the values of chloroplast transcription even exceeded that of the maximal transcriptional activity in young cotyledons. Inhibitory analysis with tagetitoxin (a specific inhibitor of plastid encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase (PEP)) showed that in young and rejuvenated cotyledons about 85% of chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was due to PEP and only 15% corresponded to the nuclear encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP). Definite regions of two chloroplast encoded genes were amplified by means of PCR technique using specific DNA primers for Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) and the housekeeping gene for chloroplast 16S rRNA as well as chloroplast DNA as a template. The appropriate lengths of the amplified DNA fragments were checked by restriction analysis

  4. Cotyledon persistence and seedling growth in fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photosynthetic activity of exposed cotyledons of Telfairia occidentalis during seed germination and the growth of seedlings with removed or attached cotyledons were investigated. The experiment investigated how early cotyledon removal affects seedling growth. Seedlings from seeds germinated in light and those ...

  5. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-01-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing 14 C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day -1 in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day -1 to 0.515 day -1 during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with 2 H 2 O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of 14 C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes

  6. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tobacco as a production platform for biofuel: overexpression of Arabidopsis DGAT and LEC2 genes increases accumulation and shifts the composition of lipids in green biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, Vyacheslav; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Brinker, Anita; Dixon, Joseph; Spitsin, Sergei; Flynn, John; Matyszczuk, Paulina; Andryszak, Karolina; Laurelli, Marilyn; Golovkin, Maxim; Koprowski, Hilary

    2010-04-01

    When grown for energy production instead for smoking, tobacco can generate a large amount of inexpensive biomass more efficiently than almost any other agricultural crop. Tobacco possesses potent oil biosynthesis machinery and can accumulate up to 40% of seed weight in oil. In this work, we explored two metabolic engineering approaches to enhance the oil content in tobacco green tissues for potential biofuel production. First, an Arabidopsis thaliana gene diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) coding for a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, was expressed in tobacco under the control of a strong ribulose-biphosphate carboxylase small subunit promoter. This modification led to up to a 20-fold increase in TAG accumulation in tobacco leaves and translated into an overall of about a twofold increase in extracted fatty acids (FA) up to 5.8% of dry biomass in Nicotiana tabacum cv Wisconsin, and up to 6% in high-sugar tobacco variety NC-55. Modified tobacco plants also contained elevated amounts of phospholipids. This increase in lipids was accompanied by a shift in the FA composition favourable for their utilization as biodiesel. Second, we expressed in tobacco Arabidopsis gene LEAFY COTYLEDON 2 (LEC2), a master regulator of seed maturation and seed oil storage under the control of an inducible Alc promoter. Stimulation of LEC2 expression in mature tobacco plants by acetaldehyde led to the accumulation of up to 6.8% per dry weight of total extracted FA. The obtained data reveal the potential of metabolically modified plant biomass for the production of biofuel.

  8. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  9. Plant regeneration system from cotyledons-derived calluses cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to successfully establish plant regeneration system with cotyledons of. Stylosanthes guianensis Sw. cv. 'Reyan 2' as explants. In this study, the following results were obtained; (1) the highest rates of callus induction on medium MS with 3.0 mg L-1 2, 4-D with cotyledons.

  10. Analysis of organogenic competence of cotyledons of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of organogenic competence of cotyledons of Jatropha curcas and their in vitro histological behavior. ARC Nogueira, AA Soares, AB Ibrahim, FAP Campos. Abstract. Using cut pieces cotyledons from germinating zygotic embryos of Jatropha curcas, we monitored the series of anatomical events leading to the ...

  11. Aminopeptidase Activity from Germinated Jojoba Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell; Storey, Richard

    1985-01-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline. The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg2+ or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-β-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence. PMID:16664465

  12. Aminopeptidase activity from germinated jojoba cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R; Storey, R

    1985-11-01

    One major and two minor aminopeptidase activities from germinated jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) cotyledon extracts were separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatofocusing. None of the activities were inhibited by 1,10 phenanthroline.The major aminopeptidase, purified 260-fold, showed a pH optimum of 6.9 with leucine-p-nitroanilide as substrate, a molecular weight estimated at 14,200 by electrophoretic analysis, and an isoelectric point of 4.5 according to the chromatofocusing pattern. Activity was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, slightly stimulated by 1,10 phenanthroline and 2-mercaptoethanol, and not influenced by Mg(2+) or diethyl pyrocarbonate. Inhibition by p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by the presence of cysteine in the assay. Leucine-p-nitroanilide and leucine-beta-naphthylamide were the most rapidly hydrolyzed of 11 carboxy-terminal end blocked synthetic substrates tested. No activity on endopeptidase or carboxypeptidase specific substrates was detected. The major aminopeptidase showed activity on a saline soluble, jojoba seed protein preparation and we suggest a possible physiological role for the enzyme in the concerted degradation of globulin reserve proteins during cotyledon senescence.

  13. Hamowanie syntezy chlorofilu i RNA w izolowanych liścieniach ogórka przez N-hydroksymocznik [Inhibition of chlorophyll and RNA synthesis by N-hydroxyurea in detached cucumber cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-hydroxyurea (HU at the concentration of 5 x 10-4 M decreased the content of chlorophyll in detached cucumber cotyledons; at this concentration it has no inhibitory effect on growth. Benzylaminopurine, gibberelic acid and KCl partially reversed the inhibitory effect of HU on chlorophyll synthesis. HU stimulated yellowing of barley first leaf sections. The compound had little effect on leucine-14C incorporation to protein, and markedly inhibited uracil-14C incorporation in to RNA of the greening cucumber cotyledons. It is suggested that the inhibition of RNA and chlorophyll synthesis in HU-treated cucumber cotyledons follows the HU-dependent inhibition of DNA replication.

  14. Study on transferring improved green fluorescent protein gene into wheat via low energy Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lifang; Li Hong; Song Daojun

    2000-01-01

    An improved GFP gene (mGFP4) was introduced into mature embryo cells of wheat cultivars Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 via low energy ion beam-mediated delivery technique. Resistant calli were selected on medium containing paromomycin (100-140 mg/L). Five green plants were regenerated from resistant calli of Wan 9210 derived from 387 implated mature embryos. 32 green plants were obtained from 776 irradiated mature embryos in Wanmai 32. No green plant was regenerated from calli of 200 non-transformed embryos. PCR assays of 37 green plants showed that they all obtained the expected size of amplified DNA fragment (600 bp). Southern blot of 4 well-developed green plants confirmed stable integration of GFP gene into wheat genome. The average transformation frequencies of Wan 9210 and Wanmai 32 were 1.3% and 4.1%, respectively, according to the results of PCR assays

  15. In vitro performances of hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Key words: Cotyledons, hypocotyls, In vitro, salt stress, tomato. ... the use of irrigation water containing a high percentage of salts, in ... of small scale with clear visibility for observation shoot ..... Metabolic fingerprinting of salt.

  16. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Teixeira, Renake; Ligterink, Wilco; B. França-Neto, de José; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Silva, da E.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in

  17. Influence of UV-A or UV-B light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in etiolated tomato cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet A (UV-A) or B (UV-B) light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) was examined in etiolated cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum L.). The Fd-GOGAT activity increased upon illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons with UV-A or UV-B light. This stimulation of Fd-GOGAT activity was correlated with an increase in both the Fd-GOGAT transcript level and the Fd-GOGAT protein abundance. These results suggest that UV-A or UV-B light stimulates the de novo synthesis of Fd-GOGAT in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Both UV-A and UV-B light failed to influence the activity of NADH-GOGAT (EC 1.4.1.14) in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Taken together, our data indicate that the tomato genes encoding Fd- or NADH-dependent glutamate synthase are regulated differently by UV-A or UV-B light. No difference with respect to both the Fd-GOGAT transcript and protein abundance was found between cotyledons of tomato seedlings grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole N-source in the dark or in white light. In addition, the increase in the Fd-GOGAT protein pool induced by white light in etiolated nitrate-grown tomato seedling cotyledons was similar to that induced by white light in etiolated ammonium-grown tomato seedling cotyledons. These results show that the tomato Fd-GOGAT protein level does not depend strongly on the nature of the nitrogen source and that there appears to be no major stimulatory effect on the Fd-GOGAT protein pool produced by nitrate during the illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons

  18. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fučíková, K.; Pažoutová, Marie; Rindi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2015), s. 419-430 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : algal genomes * Chlorophyta * green algae * meiotic genes * sexual reproduction * Trebouxiophyceae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2015

  20. [Identification of an auxin response factor-like protein cDNA from mango cotyledon section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Huang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Auxin-responsive elements (AuxRE) interact with a new class of plant-specific transcription factors, auxin response factors (ARFs). Some of ARFs have been shown to repress or activate expression of genes with an AuxRE promotor element. In Arabidopsis, ARFs play important roles in early embryo development and vascular strand formation (ARF5), floral patterning (ARF3) and photo- and gravitropic responses (ARF7). Two cut surfaces (distal and proximal) of mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Zi-Hua) cotyledon showed different patterns of adventitious root formation, with only the proximal cut surface, but not the distal one, could be induced to form the roots. Thus, the mango cotyledon is a good system for studying adventitious root formation. A cDNA fragment homologous to the Arabidopsis auxin response factor-like protein and relates to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two cDNA clones, designated as MiARF1 (mango auxin response factor 1 gene, GenBank accession number AY255705) and MiARF2 (mango auxin response factor 2 gene, GenBank accession number is AY300808), were identified by 3'RACE. MiARF1, 3 272bp long, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 523bp, 5'UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 464bp, MiARF2, 1 474bp long, contains an ORF of 981bp, 5' UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 208bp. The deduced MiARF1 and MiARF2 are homologues of auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcriptional regulators, and show high similarity to ARF of Arabidopsis in conserved domains. The motifs of MiARF1 EL-WHACAGPL in DBD (DNA binding domain) and GDDPW in IV domain are identical to that of ARF-like protein of Arabidopsis. MiARF2 is identical to MiARF1 in a large part of DBD, but lacks a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved motifs III and IV. Virtual Northern blot showed that the expression of MiARF2 was high in rooting tissue of cultured cotyledon sections but low in non-rooting tissue, and the MiARF1 was

  1. Elongation-related functions of LEAFY COTYLEDON1 during the development of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Astrid; Mönke, Gudrun; Rutten, Twan; Keilwagen, Jens; Seifert, Michael; Thi, Tuyet Minh Nguyen; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Balzergue, Sandrine; Viehöver, Prisca; Hähnel, Urs; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Altschmied, Lothar; Conrad, Udo; Weisshaar, Bernd; Bäumlein, Helmut

    2012-08-01

    The transcription factor LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) controls aspects of early embryogenesis and seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify components of the LEC1 regulon, transgenic plants were derived in which LEC1 expression was inducible by dexamethasone treatment. The cotyledon-like leaves and swollen root tips developed by these plants contained seed-storage compounds and resemble the phenotypes produced by increased auxin levels. In agreement with this, LEC1 was found to mediate up-regulation of the auxin synthesis gene YUCCA10. Auxin accumulated primarily in the elongation zone at the root-hypocotyl junction (collet). This accumulation correlates with hypocotyl growth, which is either inhibited in LEC1-induced embryonic seedlings or stimulated in the LEC1-induced long-hypocotyl phenotype, therefore resembling etiolated seedlings. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed a number of phytohormone- and elongation-related genes among the putative LEC1 target genes. LEC1 appears to be an integrator of various regulatory events, involving the transcription factor itself as well as light and hormone signalling, especially during somatic and early zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, the data suggest non-embryonic functions for LEC1 during post-germinative etiolation. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  3. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa Qiong; Li, Ang; Lan, Jing Jing; Wang, Yue Ming; Yan, Mei Jiao; Lian, Sen Yang; Wu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC) supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated) with ABCG2 (up-regulated) and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  4. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  5. In vitro performances of hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A plant tissue culture technique is a good method for the evaluation and screening of plant genotypes for salt tolerance. In vitro evaluations of sodium chloride (NaCl) effects on two tomato cultivars (Pearl and Beril) were investigated with four NaCl levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mM) using hypocotyl and cotyledon explants.

  6. callus induction and proliferation from cotyledon explants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2013-07-19

    Jul 19, 2013 ... between the tested cytokinins and the 2,4-D in callus induction and growth index. Similar results have also been obtained in soybean (Glycine max L.) (Sairam et al., 2003). In contrast to this finding, calli were reportedly induced from cotyledon explants on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D in combination ...

  7. In vitro response from cotyledon and hypocotyls explants in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... 1Institute of Tropical Agriculture, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Faculty of Agriculture ... shoot length was significantly different between cotyledon and hypocotyls derived explants. No adventitious shoots ... growth regulator used in culture medium (Bhatia et al.,. 2004a).

  8. Induction of callus and somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore the potential for in vitro rapid regeneration of Parkia biglobosa, an endangered multipurpose woody angiosperm, cotyledon explants obtained from 7-day old aseptically germinated seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.4-1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid ...

  9. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  10. Modulations of RNA sequences by cytokinin in pumpkin cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Ertl, J.; Chen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Polyadenylated mRNAs from excised pumpkin cotyledons treated with or without 10 -4 M benzyladenine (BA) for various time periods in suspension culture were assayed by in vitro translation in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine. The radioactive polypeptides were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Specific sequences of mRNAs were enhanced, reduced, induced, or suppressed by the hormone within 60 min of the application of BA to the cotyledons. Four independent cDNA clones of cytokinin-modulated mRNAs have been selected and characterized. RNA blot hybridization using the four cDNA probes also indicates that the levels of specific mRNAs are modulated upward or downward by the hormone

  11. Identification of a locus control region for quadruplicated green-sensitive opsin genes in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Taro; Chinen, Akito; Kawamura, Shoji

    2007-01-01

    Duplication of opsin genes has a crucial role in the evolution of visual system. Zebrafish have four green-sensitive (RH2) opsin genes (RH2–1, RH2–2, RH2–3, and RH2–4) arrayed in tandem. They are expressed in the short member of the double cones (SDC) but differ in expression areas in the retina and absorption spectra of their encoding photopigments. The shortest and the second shortest wavelength subtypes, RH2–1 and RH2–2, are expressed in the central-to-dorsal retina. The longer wavelength subtype, RH2–3, is expressed circumscribing the RH2–1/RH2–2 area, and the longest subtype, RH2–4, is expressed further circumscribing the RH2–3 area and mainly occupying the ventral retina. The present report shows that a 0.5-kb region located 15 kb upstream of the RH2 gene array is an essential regulator for their expression. When the 0.5-kb region was deleted from a P1-artificial chromosome (PAC) clone encompassing the four RH2 genes and when one of these genes was replaced with a reporter GFP gene, the GFP expression in SDCs was abolished in the zebrafish to which a series of the modified PAC clones were introduced. Transgenic studies also showed that the 0.5-kb region conferred the SDC-specific expression for promoters of a non-SDC (UV opsin) and a nonretinal (keratin 8) gene. Changing the location of the 0.5-kb region in the PAC clone conferred the highest expression for its proximal gene. The 0.5-kb region was thus designated as RH2-LCR analogous to the locus control region of the L-M opsin genes of primates. PMID:17646658

  12. Changes in the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system in Brassica juncea cotyledons during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S K; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2002-02-01

    Optimal defense theory (ODT) predicts that plant defenses will be allocated to plant organs and tissues in proportion to their relative fitness values and susceptibilities to attack. This study was designed to test ODT predictions on the myrosinase-glucosinolate defense system in Brassica juncea by examining the relationships between the fitness value of B. juncea cotyledons and the levels and effectiveness of cotyledon defenses. Specifically, we estimated fitness value of cotyledons during plant development by measuring plant growth and seed production after cotyledon damage or removal at successive seedling ages. Cotyledon removal within five days of emergence had a significant impact on growth and seed production, but cotyledon removal at later stages did not. Consistent with ODT, glucosinolate and myrosinase levels in cotyledons also declined with seedling age, as did relative defenses against a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera eridania, as estimated by bioassay. Declines in glucosinolates were as predicted by a passive, allometric dilution model based on cotyledon expansion. Declines in myrosinase activity were significantly more gradual than predicted by allometric dilution, suggesting active retention of myrosinase activity as young cotyledons expand.

  13. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  14. Green tea catechins potentiate the effect of antibiotics and modulate adherence and gene expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Morin, Marie-Pierre; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    A number of studies have brought evidence that green tea catechins may contribute to periodontal health. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of a green tea extract and its principal constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to potentiate the antibacterial effects of antibiotics (metronidazole, tetracycline) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, and to modulate the adherence to oral epithelial cells and expression of genes coding for virulence factors and the high temperature requirement A (HtrA) stress protein in P. gingivalis. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the green tea extract and EGCG. The synergistic effects of either compounds in association with metronidazole or tetracycline were evaluated using the checkerboard technique. A fluorescent assay was used to determine bacterial adherence to oral epithelial cells. The modulation of gene expression in P. gingivalis was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The Vibrio harveyi bioassay was used for monitoring quorum sensing inhibitory activity. The MIC values of the green tea extract on P. gingivalis ranged from 250 to 1000 μg/ml, while those of EGCG ranged from 125 to 500 μg/ml. A marked synergistic effect on P. gingivalis growth was observed for the green tea extract or EGCG in combination with metronidazole. Both the green tea extract and EGCG caused a dose-dependent inhibition of P. gingivalis adherence to oral epithelial cells. On the one hand, green tea extract and EGCG dose-dependently inhibited the expression of several P. gingivalis genes involved in host colonization (fimA, hagA, hagB), tissue destruction (rgpA, kgp), and heme acquisition (hem). On the other hand, both compounds increased the expression of the stress protein htrA gene. The ability of the green tea extract and EGCG to inhibit quorum sensing may contribute to the modulation of gene expression. This study explored the preventive and therapeutic potential of green tea

  15. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    KAUST Repository

    Fučíková, Karolina

    2015-04-06

    © 2015 Phycological Society of America. Sexual reproduction is widespread in eukaryotes and is well documented in chlorophytan green algae. In this lineage, however, the Trebouxiophyceae represent a striking exception: in contrast to its relatives Chlorophyceae and Ulvophyceae this group appears to be mostly asexual, as fertilization has been rarely observed. Assessments of sexual reproduction in the Trebouxiophyceae have been based on microscopic observation of gametes fusing. New genomic data offer now the opportunity to check for the presence of meiotic genes, which represent an indirect evidence of a sexual life cycle. Using genomic and transcriptomic data for 12 taxa spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the class, we tried to clarify whether genuine asexuality or cryptic sexuality is the most likely case for the numerous putatively asexual trebouxiophytes. On the basis of these data and a bibliographic review, we conclude that the view of trebouxiophytes as primarily asexual is incorrect. In contrast to the limited number of reports of fertilization, meiotic genes were found in all genomes and transcriptomes examined, even in species presumed asexual. In the taxa examined the totality or majority of the genes were present, Helicosporidium and Auxenochlorella being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological or ecological trait. On the basis of the results, we expect that the existence of the meiotic genes will be documented in all trebouxiophycean genomes that will become available in the future.

  16. Ultrastructural and biochemical investigations of protein mobilization of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccifora, Simonetta; Guerranti, Roberto; Muzzi, Chiara; Hope-Onyekwere, Nnadozies S; Pagani, Roberto; Leoncini, Roberto; Bellani, Lorenza M

    2010-03-01

    The mobilization of storage reserves, with particular emphasis on storage proteins of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC., cotyledons, and embryo was investigated from the ultrastructural and biochemical points of view. Proteins and starch were the two main storage substances in cotyledons, and proteins and lipids were the main ones in the embryo. Embryo protein bodies were smaller and fewer in number than those of cotyledons. Structural and ultrastructural data determined between 24 and 48 h after imbibition and between 48 and 72 h after imbibition, the end of significant embryo and cotyledon protein mobilization, respectively, indicating more precocious storage protein mobilization in the axis than cotyledons. Moreover, storage protein mobilization in embryo and cotyledons occurred before the end of germination. Water soluble proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, producing 29 bands with molecular weights from 14 to 90 KDa. Embryo extract contained more proteins than cotyledon extract, contained seven characteristic bands, and showed a higher variability of the optical density trend than cotyledon.

  17. Some Anti-Nutritional and Mineral Contents of Extra-Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The edible extra-cotyledonous deposit of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) was investigated for some minerals and antinutritional factors. Results obtained showed that while phytohaemagglutinin was absent, vanadium was very low in the extra-cotyledons of this legume. However, oxalate, trypsin inhibitor, ...

  18. Fermentation characteristics of polysaccharide fractions extracted from the cell walls of soya bean cotyledons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Tamminga, S.; Williams, B.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schols, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full-fat soya beans were separated into hulls and cotyledons. After separation the cell wall fraction was extracted from the cotyledons. These purified cell walls were sequentially extracted with 0.05 M cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine-N,N,N ,N -tetraacetate (CDTA) 0.05 M NH4 oxalate (extract 1), 0.05

  19. The effect of seed mass and cotyledon removal on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seed mass was strongly positively correlated with the observed parameters. These results show that seedlings originating from large seeds can better endure loss of cotyledons and aerial biomass and are thus better adapted to withstand cotyledon damage due to soil fauna and other deteriorating factors in the early ...

  20. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  1. Cell wall proteins in seedling cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J G; Cardemil, L

    1994-01-01

    Four cell wall proteins of cotyledons of Prosopis chilensis seedlings were characterized by PAGE and Western analyses using a polyclonal antibody, generated against soybean seed coat extensin. These proteins had M(r)s of 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 and 63,000, as determined by SDS-PAGE. The proteins exhibited a fluorescent positive reaction with dansylhydrazine suggesting that they are glycoproteins; they did not show peroxidase activity. The cell wall proteins were also characterized by their amino acid composition and by their amino-terminal sequence. These analyses revealed that there are two groups of related cell wall proteins in the cotyledons. The first group comprises the proteins of M(r)s 180,000, 126,000, 107,000 which are rich in glutamic acid/glutamine and aspartic acid/asparagine and they have almost identical NH2-terminal sequences. The second group comprises the M(r) 63,000 protein which is rich in proline, glycine, valine and tyrosine, with an NH2-terminal sequence which was very similar to that of soybean proline-rich proteins.

  2. Proglobulin processing enzyme in vacuoles isolated from developing pumpkin cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara-Nishimura, I.; Nishimura, M.

    1987-01-01

    The enzymic conversion of proglobulin to globulin catalyzed by the extracts of vacuoles isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita sp. cv Kurokawa Amakuri Nankin) cotyledons was investigated. The endoplasmic reticulum fraction isolated from the developing cotyledons pulse-labeled with [ 35 S]methionine was shown to contain mainly the radiolabeled proglobulin, which was used as a substrate for assaying the proteolytic processing in vitro. The vacuolar extracts catalyzed the proteolytic processing of the proglobulin molecule to produce globulin containing two kinds of polypeptide chains, γ and δ. The pH optimum for the vacuole-mediated conversion was at pH 5.0. The proteolytic processing of proglobulin by the vacuolar extracts was inhibited in the presence of various thiol reagents, e.g. p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetic acid, Hg 2+ , and Cu 2+ , but not phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, EDTA, o-phenanthroline, leupeptin, antipain, pepstatin, chymostatin, or pumpkin trypsin inhibitor, and was activated in the presence of dithiothreitol and cysteine, indicating that the processing enzyme is a thiol protease. The suborganellar fractionation of the vacuoles showed that the processing activity was localized in the matrix fraction, but not in the membrane or crystalloid fractions. During the seed development, the enzyme was shown to increase, exhibiting the maximal activity at the late developmental stage. The matrix fraction of the protein bodies isolated from the dry castor bean (Ricinus communis) exhibited the processing activity toward the pumpkin proglobulin molecules in the same manner as that by the matrix fraction of pumpkin vacuoles

  3. IR-FEL-induced green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene transfer into plant cell

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, K; Tamiya, E

    2002-01-01

    A Free Electron Laser (FEL) holds potential for various biotechnological applications due to its characteristics such as flexible wavelength tunability, short pulse and high peak power. We could successfully introduce the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene into tobacco BY2 cells by IR-FEL laser irradiation. The irradiated area of the solution containing BY2 cells and plasmid was about 0.1 mm sup 2. FEL irradiation at a wavelength of 5.75 and 6.1 mu m, targeting absorption by the ester bond of the lipid and the amide I bond of the protein, respectively, was shown to cause the introduction of the fluorescent dye into the cell. On the other hand, transient expression of the GFP fluorescence was only observed after irradiation at 5.75 mu m. The maximum transfer efficiency was about 0.5%.

  4. Transformation of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum with the Green Fluorescent Protein Gene and Fluorescence of Hyphae in Four Inoculated Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important pathogen of a wide variety of crops. To obtain a genetic marker to observe and study the interaction of the pathogen with its hosts, isolates ND30 and ND21 were transformed using pCT74 and gGFP constructs both containing genes for the green fluorescent protei...

  5. GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, M; Nakano, Y; Kitaoka, S [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U-/sup 14/C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also.

  6. Growth and morphological changes of cucumber cotyledons as influenced by fluorine exhalations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niznansky, A; Erdelska, O

    1964-01-01

    The biological effects of particulate air pollution which was rich in fluorine compounds was studied. Cucumber cotyledons were used as experimental organisms, and the types of injuries they received were categorized.

  7. Arabidopsis FH1 Formin Affects Cotyledon Pavement Cell Shape by Modulating Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosero, A.; Oulehlová, Denisa; Stillerová, L.; Schiebertová, P.; Gunt, M.; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2016), s. 488-504 ISSN 0032-0781 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Confocal microscopy * Cotyledon pavement cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.760, year: 2016

  8. Fitness consequences of cotyledon and mature-leaf damage in the ivyleaf morning glory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R

    2002-04-01

    To understand the evolutionary and ecological consequences of natural enemy damage to plants, it is essential to determine how the fitness effects of damage differ depending on the tissues damaged and the subsequent pattern of damage. In a field experiment with the ivyleaf morning glory, the direct and indirect effects on fitness of herbivore damage to cotyledons and mature leaves was evaluated. Damage to mature leaves had negligible direct effects on fitness and no indirect effects on fitness through other correlated traits. Damage to cotyledons also did not directly affect fitness, but did so indirectly through its effects on plant size. These findings suggest that increased resistance to cotyledon damage or increased compensatory growth following cotyledon damage could be effective strategies for plants of this species to counteract the negative effects of herbivory.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the chlorophycean green alga Scenedesmus obliquus reveals a compact gene organization and a biased distribution of genes on the two DNA strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cambiaire, Jean-Charles; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. While the basal position of the Prasinophyceae is well established, the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae (UTC) remains uncertain. The five complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences currently available for representatives of these classes display considerable variability in overall structure, gene content, gene density, intron content and gene order. Among these genomes, that of the chlorophycean green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has retained the least ancestral features. The two single-copy regions, which are separated from one another by the large inverted repeat (IR), have similar sizes, rather than unequal sizes, and differ radically in both gene contents and gene organizations relative to the single-copy regions of prasinophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs. To gain insights into the various changes that underwent the chloroplast genome during the evolution of chlorophycean green algae, we have sequenced the cpDNA of Scenedesmus obliquus, a member of a distinct chlorophycean lineage. Results The 161,452 bp IR-containing genome of Scenedesmus features single-copy regions of similar sizes, encodes 96 genes, i.e. only two additional genes (infA and rpl12) relative to its Chlamydomonas homologue and contains seven group I and two group II introns. It is clearly more compact than the four UTC algal cpDNAs that have been examined so far, displays the lowest proportion of short repeats among these algae and shows a stronger bias in clustering of genes on the same DNA strand compared to Chlamydomonas cpDNA. Like the latter genome, Scenedesmus cpDNA displays only a few ancestral gene clusters. The two chlorophycean genomes share 11 gene clusters that are not found in previously sequenced trebouxiophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs as well as a few genes that have an unusual structure; however, their single-copy regions differ

  10. [Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, A M; Escobar, B; Ugarte, V

    2000-06-01

    Cereal bars with peanut and walnut has shown to be snack foods of good organoleptic characteristics and high caloric value, due to their content of protein, lipids and carbohydrates. Cotyledons of mezquite seeds have a high protein content which biological quality improves with thermal processing like toasting, microwave or moist heat under pressure. The purposes of this research were to study the use of mezquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz) in cereal bars with two different levels of peanut or walnut; and to determine the effect of two thermal treatment applied on the cotyledon upon the bar characteristics. Twelve different kind of bars were developed through the combination of two levels of peanut or walnut (15% and 18%); the use of mezquite cotyledon (0% and 6%); and the application of two thermal processing to the cotyledon (microwave and toasting). Cereal bars were analysed for chemical, physical and sensory characteristics: moisture, water activity, proximate chemical composition, sensory quality and acceptability. Moisture content of bars with peanut ranged between 10.4% and 10.9%; and for those with walnut, between 10.5% and 12.3%. Protein content was higher in the bars with mezquite cotiledon, being higher those with peanut. Thermal processing did not have any effect on the chemical composition. Bars with mezquite cotyledon treated by microwave showed a higher acceptability.

  11. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as a reporter gene for the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko Riedel; Gautier Calmin; Lassaad Belbahri; Francois Lefort; Monika Gotz; Stefan Wagner; Sabine. Werres

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic Phytophthora ramorum strains that produce green fluorescent protein (GFP) constitutively were obtained after stable DNA integration using a polyethylene glycol and CaCl2-based transformation protocol. Green fluorescent protein production was studied in developing colonies and in different propagules of the pathogen...

  12. Some physiological and biochemical responses to copper of detached cucumber (cucumis sativus l.) cotyledons pre-floated in salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulengul, S.C.; Yildiz, T.; Deveci, D.

    2017-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a growth regulator that promotes growth of plants under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present investigation we studied the role of salicylic acid in copper induced physiological and biochemical changes and the possible induction of oxidative stress in detached cucumber cotyledons. Detached cotyledons of young cucumber seedlings were floated in 150 ppm SA. Then, the responses of these cotyledons to different concentrations (0, 10, 20 ve 50 mM) of copper (CuCl2. H2O) were investigated. In detached cucumber cotyledons exposed to increasing Cu concentrations, the fresh weight accumulation and the photosynthetic pigment content were decreased. Furthermore, the levels of some important parameters regarding oxidative stress in the cotyledons, namely lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and proline were increased. In the detached cucumber cotyledons pre-floation process with SA alleviated the negative effect of Cu ( 20 mM and 50 mM Cu) on growth parameters. (author)

  13. Dynamical behavior of psb gene transcripts in greening wheat seedlings. I. Time course of accumulation of the pshA through psbN gene transcripts during light-induced greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, H; Fukuda, I; Shiina, T; Toyoshima, Y

    1992-11-01

    The time course of the accumulation of the transcripts from 13 psb genes encoding a major part of the proteins composing photosystem II during light-induced greening of dark-grown wheat seedlings was examined focusing on early stages of plastid development (0.5 h through 72 h). The 13 genes can be divided into three groups. (1) The psbA gene is transcribed as a single transcript of 1.3 kb in the dark-grown seedlings, but its level increases 5- to 7-fold in response to light due to selective increase in RNA stability as well as in transcription activity. (2) The psbE-F-L-J operon, psbM and psbN genes are transcribed as a single transcript of 1.1 kb, two transcripts of 0.5 and 0.7 kb and a single transcript of 0.3 kb, respectively, in the dark-grown seedlings. The levels of accumulation of every transcript remain unchanged or rather decrease during plastid development under illumination. (3) The psbK-I-D-C gene cluster and psbB-H operon exhibit fairly complicated northern hybridization patterns during the greening process. When a psbC or psbD gene probe was used for northern hybridization, five transcripts differing in length were detected in the etioplasts from 5-day old dark-grown seedlings. After 2 h illumination, two new transcripts of different length appeared. Light induction of new transcripts was also observed in the psbB-H operon.

  14. Effects of Cotyledon Area and Gibberellin A3 on Photoperiodic Flower Induction in Pharbitis nil Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Yukiyoshi; 小川, 幸持

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the cotyledon area reduced before or after an inductive dark period and its photoperiodic response was examined with Pharbitis nil seedlings. Plants with 0.25- to 1-cm2 cotyledon area flowered, showing almost the same critical length of dark period, 11 or 12 h, as is the case with a single intact cotyledon (about 8.5 cm2), but the floral response of plants with reduced cotyledon area did not increase with dark periods longer than 14 h, but it was far greater per unit ...

  15. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane

    1997-01-01

    An apparent species-specific relatedness of SIVagm suggests a coevolution with their natural hosts. However, the exact species or subspecies classification of African green monkeys, AGM, is uncertain because current classification schemes rely on phenotype markers, while more definitive genetic d...

  16. New unstable variants of green fluorescent protein for studies of transient gene expression in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Bo; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, Lars K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of the green fluorescent protein (Gfp) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria ia is a powerful method for nondestructive in situ monitoring, since expression of green fluorescence does not require any substrate addition. To expand the use of Gfp as a reporter protein, new variants have been...... constructed by the addition of short peptide sequences to the C-terminal end of intact Gfp. This rendered the Gfp susceptible to the action of indigenous housekeeping proteases, resulting in protein variants with half-lives ranging from 40 min to a few hours when synthesized in Escherichia coli...

  17. Meiotic genes and sexual reproduction in the green algal class Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta)

    KAUST Repository

    Fučí ková , Karolina; Pažoutová , Marie; Rindi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    being the only partial exceptions (only four genes present). The evidence of sex provided by the meiotic genes is phylogenetically widespread in the class and indicates that sexual reproduction is not associated with any particular morphological

  18. Large Diversity of Nonstandard Genes and Dynamic Evolution of Chloroplast Genomes in Siphonous Green Algae (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremen, Ma Chiela M; Leliaert, Frederik; Marcelino, Vanessa R; Verbruggen, Heroen

    2018-04-01

    Chloroplast genomes have undergone tremendous alterations through the evolutionary history of the green algae (Chloroplastida). This study focuses on the evolution of chloroplast genomes in the siphonous green algae (order Bryopsidales). We present five new chloroplast genomes, which along with existing sequences, yield a data set representing all but one families of the order. Using comparative phylogenetic methods, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of genomic features in the order. Our results show extensive variation in chloroplast genome architecture and intron content. Variation in genome size is accounted for by the amount of intergenic space and freestanding open reading frames that do not show significant homology to standard plastid genes. We show the diversity of these nonstandard genes based on their conserved protein domains, which are often associated with mobile functions (reverse transcriptase/intron maturase, integrases, phage- or plasmid-DNA primases, transposases, integrases, ligases). Investigation of the introns showed proliferation of group II introns in the early evolution of the order and their subsequent loss in the core Halimedineae, possibly through RT-mediated intron loss.

  19. The cotyledon cell wall of the common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) resists digestion in the upper intestine and thus may limit iron bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies that enhance the Fe bioavailability from the bean are of keen interest to nutritionists, bean breeders and growers. In beans, the cotyledon contains 75-80% of the total seed Fe, most of which appears to be located within the cotyledon cell. The cotyledon cell wall is known to be resistan...

  20. Functional analysis of three type-2 DGAT homologue genes for triacylglycerol production in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Russa, M; Bogen, C; Uhmeyer, A; Doebbe, A; Filippone, E; Kruse, O; Mussgnug, J H

    2012-11-30

    Photosynthetic organisms like plants and algae can use sunlight to produce lipids as important metabolic compounds. Plant-derived triacylglycerols (TAGs) are valuable for human and animal nutrition because of their high energy content and are becoming increasingly important for the production of renewable biofuels. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the accumulation of TAG compounds in higher plants. DGAT homologue genes have been identified in the genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, however their function in vivo is still unknown. In this work, the three most promising type-2 DGAT candidate genes potentially involved in TAG lipid accumulation (CrDGAT2a, b and c) were investigated by constructing overexpression strains. For each of the genes, three strains were identified which showed enhanced mRNA levels of between 1.7 and 29.1 times that of the wild type (wt). Total lipid contents, neutral lipids and fatty acid profiles were determined and showed that an enhanced mRNA expression level of the investigated DGAT genes did not boost the intracellular TAG accumulation or resulted in alterations of the fatty acid profiles compared to wild type during standard growth condition or during nitrogen or sulfur stress conditions. We conclude that biotechnological efforts to enhance cellular TAG amount in microalgae need further insights into the complex network of lipid biosynthesis to identify potential bottlenecks of neutral lipid production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification and evolutionary analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix gene family in the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ake; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Debao; Wang, Xuhua; Song, Huifang; Dang, Chunwang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2013-08-01

    Helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. These highly conserved proteins form a large transcription factor superfamily, and are commonly identified in large numbers within animal, plant, and fungal genomes. The bHLH domain has been well studied in many animal species, but has not yet been characterized in non-avian reptiles. In this study, we identified 102 putative bHLH genes in the genome of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Based on phylogenetic analysis, these genes were classified into 43 families, with 43, 24, 16, 3, 10, and 3 members assigned into groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, and 3 members categorized as "orphans". Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with highly conserved patterns observed for introns and additional domains. Results from phylogenetic analysis of the H/E(spl) family suggest that genome and tandem gene duplications have contributed to this family's expansion. Our classification and evolutionary analysis has provided insights into the evolutionary diversification of animal bHLH genes, and should aid future studies on bHLH protein regulation of key growth and developmental processes.

  2. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  3. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Hoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du; Kim, Sunju; Han, Ji Hee; Han, Jong Won; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2013-01-01

    The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons) obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value genes involved in the Calvin-Benson cycle were found, genes of the light-dependent reaction were also identified. Also genes of associated pathways including the chorismate pathway and genes involved in starch metabolism were discovered. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these plastid-associated genes originated from several different photosynthetic ancestors. The Calvin-Benson cycle genes are mostly associated with genes derived from the secondary plastids of peridinin-containing dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses) to renew photosynthetic function.

  4. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  5. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  6. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in pig tissues using SYBR green qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    -microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT I), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), TATA box binding protein (TPB) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5......-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The stability of these reference genes in different pig tissues was investigated using the geNorm application. The range of expression stability in the genes analysed was (from the most stable to the least stable): ACTB/RPL4, TBP, HPRT, HMBS, YWHAZ...

  7. A multi-stage color model revisited: implications for a gene therapy cure for red-green colorblindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C; Kuchenbecker, James A; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a 'multi-stage color model' to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson's Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined in a later opponent organization, which has been the accepted dogma in color vision. DeValois' model attempts to satisfy the long-remaining question of how the visual system separates luminance information from color, but what are the cellular mechanisms that establish the complicated neural wiring and higher-order operations required by the Multi-stage Model? During the last decade and a half, results from molecular biology have shed new light on the evolution of primate color vision, thus constraining the possibilities for the visual circuits. The evolutionary constraints allow for an extension of DeValois' model that is more explicit about the biology of color vision circuitry, and it predicts that human red-green colorblindness can be cured using a retinal gene therapy approach to add the missing photopigment, without any additional changes to the post-synaptic circuitry.

  8. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Manjul; Barthe, Gary; Irey, Michael; Grosser, Jude

    2015-01-01

    Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB), a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2) promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree.

  9. Transgenic Citrus Expressing an Arabidopsis NPR1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Resistance against Huanglongbing (HLB; Citrus Greening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Dutt

    Full Text Available Commercial sweet orange cultivars lack resistance to Huanglongbing (HLB, a serious phloem limited bacterial disease that is usually fatal. In order to develop sustained disease resistance to HLB, transgenic sweet orange cultivars 'Hamlin' and 'Valencia' expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene under the control of a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter or a phloem specific Arabidopsis SUC2 (AtSUC2 promoter were produced. Overexpression of AtNPR1 resulted in trees with normal phenotypes that exhibited enhanced resistance to HLB. Phloem specific expression of NPR1 was equally effective for enhancing disease resistance. Transgenic trees exhibited reduced diseased severity and a few lines remained disease-free even after 36 months of planting in a high-disease pressure field site. Expression of the NPR1 gene induced expression of several native genes involved in the plant defense signaling pathways. The AtNPR1 gene being plant derived can serve as a component for the development of an all plant T-DNA derived consumer friendly GM tree.

  10. FLO1 is a variable green beard gene that drives biofilm-like cooperation in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukalla, Scott; Caldara, Marina; Pochet, Nathalie; Beauvais, Anne; Guadagnini, Stephanie; Yan, Chen; Vinces, Marcelo D.; Jansen, An; Prevost, Marie Christine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fink, Gerald R.; Foster, Kevin R.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as an archetype of eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that S. cerevisiae is also a model for the evolution of cooperative behavior by revisiting flocculation, a self-adherence phenotype lacking in most laboratory strains. Expression of the gene FLO1 in the laboratory strain S288C restores flocculation, an altered physiological state, reminiscent of bacterial biofilms. Flocculation protects the FLO1-expressing cells from multiple stresses, including antimicrobials and ethanol. Furthermore, FLO1+ cells avoid exploitation by non-expressing flo1 cells by self/non-self recognition: FLO1+ cells preferentially stick to one another, regardless of genetic relatedness across the rest of the genome. Flocculation, therefore, is driven by one of a few known “green beard genes”, which direct cooperation towards other carriers of the same gene. Moreover, FLO1 is highly variable among strains both in expression and in sequence, suggesting that flocculation in S. cerevisiae is a dynamic, rapidly-evolving social trait. PMID:19013280

  11. A vector carrying the GFP gene (Green fluorescent protein as a yeast marker for fermentation processes Um vetor com o gene da GFP (Green fluorescent protein para a marcação de leveduras em processos fermentativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Humberto Gomes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Contaminant yeasts spoil pure culture fermentations and cause great losses in quality and product yields. They can be detected by a variety of methods although none being so efficient for early detection of contaminant yeast cells that appear at low frequency. Pure cultures bearing genetic markers can ease the direct identification of cells and colonies among contaminants. Fast and easy detection are desired and morphological markers would even help the direct visualization of marked pure cultures among contaminants. The GFP gene for green fluorescent protein of Aquorea victoria, proved to be a very efficient marker to visualize transformed cells in mixed populations and tissues. To test this marker in the study of contaminated yeast fermentations, the GFP gene was used to construct a vector under the control of the ADH2 promoter (pYGFP3. Since ADH2 is repressed by glucose the expression of the protein would not interfere in the course of fermentation. The transformed yeasts with the vector pYGFP3 showed high stability and high bioluminescence to permit identification of marked cells among a mixed population of cells. The vector opens the possibility to conduct further studies aiming to develop an efficient method for early detection of spoilage yeasts in industrial fermentative processes.Leveduras contaminantes podem causar grandes perdas em processos fermentativos quando infectam culturas puras e degradam a qualidade do produto final. Estas leveduras podem ser detectadas por diversos métodos mas nenhum deles oferece resultados com a exatidão e precisão necessárias, quando os contaminantes estão em baixa freqüência. Culturas puras contendo um gene marcador podem ser utilizadas para a direta identificação de células e colônias contaminantes. Detecção rápida e fácil é desejada e marcadores morfológicos podem auxiliar na visualização da cultura marcada. O gene da GFP (green fluorescent protein extraído da Aequorea victoria

  12. Age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum under UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestyana, A.M.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.; Kryipka, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    The age-related changes of DNA methylation in cotyledonous leaves of Linum usitatissimum subjected to UV-B radiation in the interval 4.23-12.69 kJ/m 2 have been studied. The level of methylation is determined by the restriction analysis. Although the study showed no dose-dependence, some methylation spectrum changes in the process of aging of the Linum usitatissimum cotyledonous leaves occurred.

  13. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  14. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Barinderjit; Singh, Narpinder; Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal

    2017-03-01

    In this study, extraction of polyphenols using different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and water) with ultrasound and conventional method from whole mung bean (WMB), hull and cotyledon was conducted. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total antioxidant activities (TAA), ferric reducing power (FRP) and DPPH radical scavenging activity were determined. Ultrasound treated extracts exhibited higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH in different mung bean fractions than CSE. Among the solvents, acetone showed better TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH. Hull had significantly higher TPC, TFC, TAA, FRP and DPPH than WMB and cotyledon. Sinapic acid (SA) was the major polyphenol in different fractions. Acetone extract of hull showed high polyphenol content. SA, ferulic acid, catechin, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, quercetin and luteolin were the major contributors to antioxidant activity of acetone extract. Mung bean hull contained the maximum polyphenols and acetone was observed to be the best extraction medium for polyphenols in combination with ultrasound.

  15. Influence of pericarp, cotyledon and inhibitory substances on sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (STO, mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS, removing the pericarp (RP, and cutting off 1/2 (HC and 2/3 (TC cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis seeds (CCS were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergencies were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g · ml(-1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns.

  16. The effect of seed mass and cotyledon removal on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to determine the effect of seed mass and cotyledon removal on the germination and growth of African fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis, Hook. F.). The seeds of pumpkin were divided into 3 weight classes A (13.10-13.05 g), B (11.10-11.05 g), C (8.60-8.55 g) and planted in a 1:1 mixture of ...

  17. Induction of shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of the oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masochon Zimik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesamum indicum is an ancient oilseed crop known for its high quality edible oil and its medicinally important lignans. The crop is said to be recalcitrant to plant tissue culture thus limiting the use of modern biotechnology for its genetic improvement. We present here a protocol describing plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons dissected from sesame seeds soaked for four hours in water. Subculturing of the cotyledons after two weeks of culture on to a fresh Murashige and Skoog medium leads to differentiation of adventitious shoots from the proximal cut end of the explant. Culture of cotyledons on a medium containing 9% sucrose for a couple of weeks prior to transfer to MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose induced a higher frequency of shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of 25% adventitious shoot regeneration was observed for S. indicum variety UMA. This variety also turned out to be the best among the ten genotypes tested for shoot regeneration through tissue culture. While addition of IAA marginally improved regeneration, silver nitrate was found essential for enhancing the frequency of shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots formed roots on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA and the rooted plants were established in soil.

  18. Arabidopsis FH1 Formin Affects Cotyledon Pavement Cell Shape by Modulating Cytoskeleton Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Amparo; Oulehlová, Denisa; Stillerová, Lenka; Schiebertová, Petra; Grunt, Michal; Žárský, Viktor; Cvrčková, Fatima

    2016-03-01

    Plant cell morphogenesis involves concerted rearrangements of microtubules and actin microfilaments. We previously reported that FH1, the main Arabidopsis thaliana housekeeping Class I membrane-anchored formin, contributes to actin dynamics and microtubule stability in rhizodermis cells. Here we examine the effects of mutations affecting FH1 (At3g25500) on cell morphogenesis and above-ground organ development in seedlings, as well as on cytoskeletal organization and dynamics, using a combination of confocal and variable angle epifluorescence microscopy with a pharmacological approach. Homozygous fh1 mutants exhibited cotyledon epinasty and had larger cotyledon pavement cells with more pronounced lobes than the wild type. The pavement cell shape alterations were enhanced by expression of the fluorescent microtubule marker GFP-microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Mutant cotyledon pavement cells exhibited reduced density and increased stability of microfilament bundles, as well as enhanced dynamics of microtubules. Analogous results were also obtained upon treatments with the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 (small molecule inhibitor of formin homology 2 domains). Pavement cell shape in wild-type (wt) and fh1 plants in some situations exhibited a differential response towards anti-cytoskeletal drugs, especially the microtubule disruptor oryzalin. Our observations indicate that FH1 participates in the control of microtubule dynamics, possibly via its effects on actin, subsequently influencing cell morphogenesis and macroscopic organ development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A Novel Phytase with Sequence Similarity to Purple Acid Phosphatases Is Expressed in Cotyledons of Germinating Soybean Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegeman, Carla E.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) is the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds. During germination, stored reserves are used as a source of nutrients by the plant seedling. Phytic acid is degraded by the activity of phytases to yield inositol and free phosphate. Due to the lack of phytases in the non-ruminant digestive tract, monogastric animals cannot utilize dietary phytic acid and it is excreted into manure. High phytic acid content in manure results in elevated phosphorus levels in soil and water and accompanying environmental concerns. The use of phytases to degrade seed phytic acid has potential for reducing the negative environmental impact of livestock production. A phytase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from cotyledons of germinated soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.). Peptide sequence data generated from the purified enzyme facilitated the cloning of the phytase sequence (GmPhy) employing a polymerase chain reaction strategy. The introduction of GmPhy into soybean tissue culture resulted in increased phytase activity in transformed cells, which confirmed the identity of the phytase gene. It is surprising that the soybean phytase was unrelated to previously characterized microbial or maize (Zea mays) phytases, which were classified as histidine acid phosphatases. The soybean phytase sequence exhibited a high degree of similarity to purple acid phosphatases, a class of metallophosphoesterases. PMID:11500558

  20. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  1. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  2. Green tissue-specific co-expression of chitinase and oxalate oxidase 4 genes in rice for enhanced resistance against sheath blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhasis; Molla, Kutubuddin Ali; Chanda, Palas K; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-01-01

    Green tissue-specific simultaneous overexpression of two defense-related genes ( OsCHI11 & OsOXO4 ) in rice leads to significant resistance against sheath blight pathogen ( R. solani ) without distressing any agronomically important traits. Overexpressing two defense-related genes (OsOXO4 and OsCHI11) cloned from rice is effective at enhancing resistance against sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. These genes were expressed under the control of two different green tissue-specific promoters, viz. maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter, PEPC, and rice cis-acting 544-bp DNA element, immediately upstream of the D54O translational start site, P D54O-544 . Putative T0 transgenic rice plants were screened by PCR and integration of genes was confirmed by Southern hybridization of progeny (T1) rice plants. Successful expression of OsOXO4 and OsCHI11 in all tested plants was confirmed. Expression of PR genes increased significantly following pathogen infection in overexpressing transgenic plants. Following infection, transgenic plants exhibited elevated hydrogen peroxide levels, significant changes in activity of ROS scavenging enzymes and reduced membrane damage when compared to their wild-type counterpart. In a Rhizoctonia solani toxin assay, a detached leaf inoculation test and an in vivo plant bioassay, transgenic plants showed a significant reduction in disease symptoms in comparison to non-transgenic control plants. This is the first report of overexpression of two different PR genes driven by two green tissue-specific promoters providing enhanced sheath blight resistance in transgenic rice.

  3. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  4. Cloning and characterisation of the SpToll gene from green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongyang; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Yueling; Guo, Lingling; Huang, He; Yan, Fang; Li, Yuanyou; Wang, Xiuying

    2012-05-01

    Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs), one of the most important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), play a crucial role in innate immune responses in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we cloned and characterised a Toll gene from Scylla paramamosain (SpToll). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SpToll contained one open reading frame of 3018bp and encoded a single-pass transmembrane domain protein of 1005 amino acids. Further, SpToll could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod Tolls in a phylogenetic tree. SpToll transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR from all tissues examined including the heart, gill, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, muscle, eyestalk and hemocytes. Infection by Vibrio parahemolyticus up-regulated SpToll mRNA expression in hemocytes after 48h. The profile of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain of SpToll in three healthy crabs was then evaluated. Two hundred and twenty SNPs with a frequency of about 1.0-4.0% were identified in hemocyte DNA/cDNA. Surprisingly, the adenine to guanine transition at position 1372 (c.1372A>G) had a frequency of about 50%. Finally, the results showed that challenge with V. parahemolyticus stimulated the appearance of two sets of SNPs in crabs. More importantly, the c.1372A>G mutation could contribute to a low mortality after V. parahemolyticus infection and introduce variation of charge and secondary structure into the SpToll polypeptide. In summary, these studies suggested a novel Toll homologue in crab and identified a SNP with potential pathogen-resistant activities. The result will be important for the investigation of crab immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  6. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  7. A Multiplex SYBR Green Real-Time PCR Assay for the Detection of Three Colistin Resistance Genes from Cultured Bacteria, Feces, and Environment Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyun Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop a multiplex assay for rapid detection of mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-3, a group of genes of conferring resistance to colistin mediated by plasmid in Enterobacteriaceae. A SYBR Green based real-time PCR assay has been designed to detect the mcr genes, and applied to cultured bacteria, feces and soil samples. All three mcr genes could be detected with a lower limit of 102 cultured bacteria. This test was highly specific and sensitive, and generated no false-positive results. The assay was also conclusive when applied to feces and soil samples containing mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli, which could facilitate the screening of mcr genes not only in the bacteria, but also directly from the environment. This simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific multiplex assay will be useful for rapid screening of the colistin resistance in both clinical medicine and animal husbandry.

  8. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  9. An effective placental cotyledons proteins extraction method for 2D gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Niu J; Daim, Leona D J; Jamil, Amilia A M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2017-03-01

    Effective protein extraction is essential especially in producing a well-resolved proteome on 2D gels. A well-resolved placental cotyledon proteome, with good reproducibility, have allowed researchers to study the proteins underlying the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the best protein extraction protocol for the extraction of protein from placental cotyledons tissues for a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Based on widely used protein extraction strategies, 12 different extraction methodologies were carefully selected, which included one chemical extraction, two mechanical extraction coupled protein precipitations, and nine chemical extraction coupled protein precipitations. Extracted proteins were resolved in a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 2D-GE; then, it was compared with set criteria: extraction efficacy, protein resolution, reproducibility, and recovery efficiency. Our results revealed that a better profile was obtained by chemical extraction in comparison to mechanical extraction. We further compared chemical extraction coupled protein precipitation methodologies, where the DNase/lithium chloride-dense sucrose homogenization coupled dichloromethane-methanol precipitation (DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE) method showed good protein extraction efficiency. This, however, was carried out with the best protein resolution and proteome reproducibility on 2D-gels. DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE was efficient in the extraction of proteins from placental cotyledons tissues. In addition, this methodology could hypothetically allow the protein extraction of any tissue that contains highly abundant lipid and glycogen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Gene into β-Casein Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5' arm and 3' arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.

  11. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the aleurone grains of Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Konopska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleurone grains from Iris pseudoacorus endosperm and Pisum sativum cotyledons were isolated partly according to Tombs's method (1967. Nitrogen compounds content was determined in them by Kjeldahl's micromethod, and in the particular fractions after Thiman and Laloraya (1960. Mainly protein N was detected in the aleurone grains, constituting 14.8 and 15.2 per cent of the dry mass of pea and Iris seeds, respectively. Moreover, phosphorus compounds were fractionated according to Holden and Pirie (1955. Analyses demonstrated the presence in aleurone grains of inorganic P, acid-soluble organophosphorus compounds, phospholipids and RNA.

  12. Formation of Calcium Carbonate Deposition in the Cotyledons during he Germination of Justicia procumbens L. (Acanthaceae Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ling Lin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available During seed germination of Justicia procumbens, the formation of lithocysts, trichomes and diacytic stomata in the epidermis of cotyledons was following a specific distribution pattern. During the first 1-3 days, many young stomata and trichome initial cells were formed sporadically in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, but no lithocyst was found. Three to five days after seed sawing, two cotyledons were exposed to light and then opened. In the meantime, some lithocysts were recognized on both adaxial and abaxial epidermises. The lithocysts on the adaxial epidermis occurred in the radially arranged cells located between the central area and the margin. However on the abaxial epidermis, they were found only in the marginal cell layer and their axes were along the margin of cotyledons. The total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon at this stage was 32.2 ± 4.3 and the cystolith inside the lithocyst was spindle in shape and 48.2 ± 21.1 μm in length. Three weeks after seed sowing, the cotyledons were mature and the total number of lithocysts in a cotyledon was 112.2 ± 10.1 and the cystolith in the lithocyst was enlarged to be 119.8 ± 27.8 μm in length. The cystolith was extracellularly formed in the cell wall of lithocyst. Its surface was with many protuberances and surrounded by a cystolith sheath connecting to cytoplasmic strands. The core of cystolith was surrounded by concentrically stratified fibrils and the calcium carbonate was concentrically accumulated. The waved stratified fibrils were also deposited in the protuberances. The EDX spectra showed that the main mineral elemental compositions of cystoliths were Ca and P. Ca was deposited more in the central part of cystolith than in the marginal area.

  13. Real-time PCR based on SYBR-Green I fluorescence: An alternative to the TaqMan assay for a relative quantification of gene rearrangements, gene amplifications and micro gene deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puisieux Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR is increasingly being adopted for RNA quantification and genetic analysis. At present the most popular real-time PCR assay is based on the hybridisation of a dual-labelled probe to the PCR product, and the development of a signal by loss of fluorescence quenching as PCR degrades the probe. Though this so-called 'TaqMan' approach has proved easy to optimise in practice, the dual-labelled probes are relatively expensive. Results We have designed a new assay based on SYBR-Green I binding that is quick, reliable, easily optimised and compares well with the published assay. Here we demonstrate its general applicability by measuring copy number in three different genetic contexts; the quantification of a gene rearrangement (T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; the detection and quantification of GLI, MYC-C and MYC-N gene amplification in cell lines and cancer biopsies; and detection of deletions in the OPA1 gene in dominant optic atrophy. Conclusion Our assay has important clinical applications, providing accurate diagnostic results in less time, from less biopsy material and at less cost than assays currently employed such as FISH or Southern blotting.

  14. Establishment of a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes: sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Won Jung; Koo, Bon Chul; Kwon, Mo Sun

    2007-01-01

    Dual reporter gene imaging has several advantages for more sophisticated molecular imaging studies such as gene therapy monitoring. Herein, we have constructed hepatoma cell line expressing dual reporter genes of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and the functionalities of the genes were evaluated in vivo by nuclear and optical imaging. A pRetro-PN vector was constructed after separating NIS gene from pcDNA-NIS. RSV-EGFP-WPRE fragment separated from pLNRGW was cloned into pRetro-PN vector. The final vector expressing dual reporter genes was named pRetro-PNRGW. A human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected by the retrovirus containing NIS and EGFP gene (HepG2-NE). Expression of NIS gene was confirmed by RT-PCR, radioiodine uptake and efflux studies. Expression of EGFP was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscope. The HepG2 and HepG2-NE cells were implanted in shoulder and hindlimb of nude mice, then fluorescence image, gamma camera image and I-124 microPET image were undertaken. The HepG2-NE cell was successfully constructed. RT-PCR showed NIS and EGFP mRNA expression. About 50% of cells showed fluorescence. The iodine uptake of NIS-expressed cells was about 9 times higher than control. In efflux study, T 1/2 of HepG2-NE cells was 9 min. HepG2-NE xenograft showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots and higher iodine-uptake compared to those of HepG2 xenograft. A hepatoma cell line expressing NIS and EGFP dual reporter genes was successfully constructed and could be used as a potential either by therapeutic gene or imaging reporter gene

  15. Gene expression of a green fluorescent protein homolog as a host-specific biomarker of heat stress within a reef-building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Keune, C; Dove, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent incidences of mass coral bleaching indicate that major reef building corals are increasingly suffering thermal stress associated with climate-related temperature increases. The development of pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry has enabled rapid detection of the onset of thermal stress within coral algal symbionts, but sensitive biomarkers of thermal stress specific to the host coral have been slower to emerge. Differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) was used to produce fingerprints of gene expression for the reef-building coral Acropora millepora exposed to 33 degrees C. Changes in the expression of 23 out of 399 putative genes occurred within 144 h. Down-regulation of one host-specific gene (AmA1a) occurred within just 6 h. Full-length sequencing revealed the product of this gene to be an all-protein chromatophore (green fluorescent protein [GFP]-homolog). RT-PCR revealed consistent down-regulation of this GFP-homolog for three replicate colonies within 6 h at both 32 degrees C and 33 degrees C but not at lower temperatures. Down-regulation of this host gene preceded significant decreases in the photosynthetic activity of photosystem II (dark-adapted F (v)/F (m)) of algal symbionts as measured by PAM fluorometry. Gene expression of host-specific genes such as GFP-homologs may therefore prove to be highly sensitive indicators for the onset of thermal stress within host coral cells.

  16. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, William J; Barton, Deborah A; Law, Andrew M K; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-09-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential Growth in Periclinal and Anticlinal Walls during Lobe Formation in Arabidopsis Cotyledon Pavement Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Deborah A.; Law, Andrew M.K.; Overall, Robyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Lobe development in the epidermal pavement cells of Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledons and leaves is thought to take place via tip-like growth on the concave side of lobes driven by localized concentrations of actin filaments and associated proteins, with a predicted role for cortical microtubules in establishing the direction of restricted growth at the convex side. We used homologous landmarks fixed to the outer walls of pavement cells and thin-plate spline analysis to demonstrate that lobes form by differential growth of both the anticlinal and periclinal walls. Most lobes formed within the first 24 h of the cotyledons unfurling, during the period of rapid cell expansion. Cortical microtubules adjacent to the periclinal wall were persistently enriched at the convex side of lobes during development where growth was anisotropic and were less concentrated or absent at the concave side where growth was promoted. Alternating microtubule-enriched and microtubule-free zones at the periclinal wall in neighboring cells predicted sites of new lobes. There was no particular arrangement of cortical actin filaments that could predict where lobes would form. However, drug studies demonstrate that both filamentous actin and microtubules are required for lobe formation. PMID:26296967

  18. Plant regeneration from cotyledons of mature soybean (Glycine max L.) Wilis cultivar using gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, D.; Ratna, R.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean Wilis cultivar was efficiently regenerated in vitro via somatic embryogenesis. Cotyledonary explants were excised from mature germinating seeds. Seeds were germinated on agar solution and on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Cotyledonary nodes from both germinating seeds were excised and cultured on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate. Age of seedlings had a remarkable influence on shoot regeneration. Cotyledon from seeds germinated on agar solution with light gave better result in shoot regeneration compare with those germinated in darkness. The highest number of regenerants per explants (5 shoots) was produced by cotyledon from seeds germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate in darkness. The seeds of soybean were exposed to gamma-rays doses 10 Gy then germinated on B5 medium enriched with 5 ppm BA, 0.25 ppm IBA and 500 ppm casein hydrolyzate did not improve the number of plant regeneration. Only 5-day-old seedlings from seeds were exposed to gamma-rays dose 30 Gy could improve the number of shoot regeneration, one of the cotyledonary node treated produced 21 regeneration shoots

  19. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  20. Electron-cytochemical study of Ca2+ in cotyledon cells of soybean seedlings grown in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O.; Brown, C. S.; Kordyum, E.; Piastuch, W. C.; Guikema, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity and horizontal clinorotation are known to cause the rearrangement of the structural-functional organization of plant cells, leading to accelerated aging. Altered gravity conditions resulted in an increase in the droplets volume in cells and the destruction of chloroplast structure in Arabidopsis thaliana plants, an enhancement of cytosolic autophagaous processes, an increase in the respiration rate and a greater number of multimolecular forms of succinate- and malate dehydrogenases in cells of the Funaria hygrometrica protonema and Chlorella vulgaris, and changes in calcium balance of cells. Because ethylene is known to be involved in cell aging and microgravity appears to speed the process, and because soybean seedlings grown in space produce higher ethylene levels we asked: 1) does an acceleration of soybean cotyledon cell development and aging occur in microgravity? 2) what roles do Ca2+ ions and the enhanced ethylene level play in these events? Therefore, the goal of our investigation was to examine of the interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the localization of Ca2+ in cotyledon mesophyll of soybean seedlings.

  1. [Storage of cereal bars with mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Stuntz)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Guiñez, M A

    2000-06-01

    The use of walnut or peanut in the elaboration of cereal bars represents a possible risk of undesirable changes during their storage due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil; oxidizing of the fatty acids is one of the main causes of deterioration. Development of new snack products implies the use of packages that should protect the food against the damage caused by light and reduce the oxygen concentration of in their interior. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the physical, chemical and sensory changes in the storage of cereal bars with peanut or walnut and mezquite cotyledon subjected to two thermal treatments, packed in cellophane or milky polypropilene. Four types of bars were elaborated with 6% of mezquite cotyledon, treated by microwaves or toasted, and with 18% of peanut or walnut. The bars were stored for 90 days at room temperature; and each 30 days it was measured moisture content, peroxides index, water activity, sensory quality and acceptability. The peroxides values (4.9-13.8 meq/kg of oil) indicates that the shelf life of the bars in all the studied treatments was 90 days. The packaging materials used allows to maintain in good conditions, for 3 months, the cereals bars of moisture (7.4-11.2%), water activity (0.50-0.65) and sensory acceptability.

  2. Intracellular localization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in cotyledons of cotton seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, K.D.; Trelease, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Subfractionation of clarified cotyledon homogenates of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings on sucrose gradients revealed a single coincident peak of cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) and ethanolaminephosphotransferase (EPT) activities, which equilibrated with the main peak of Anti-mycin A-insensitive NADH: cytochrome c reductase (CCR) activity. The small percentage of CPT and EPT activities in glyoxysome-enriched pellets equilibrated with cytochrome c oxidase activity, not with catalase activity. Preincubation of microsomes in 0.2 millimolar MgCl 2 followed by subfractionation on sucrose gradients resulted in peak CPT and EPT activities equilibrating with peak CCR activity at 24% (w/w) sucrose. Preincubation of microsomes with 14 C-CCP choline (or 14 C-CDPethanolamine) resulted in synthesis and incorporation of 14 C-phosphatidylcholine (PC) (or 14 C-phosphatidylethanolamine, PE) into membranes at the same density. Increasing the Mg 2+ concentration to 2.0 millimolar facilitated binding of ribosomes and caused a concomitant shift in density (to 34% w/w sucrose) of peak CPT, EPT, and CCR activities. under these conditions, newly synthesized and incorporated 14 C-PC (or PE) was recovered in these membranes. These results indicate that Er in cotyledons of germinated cotton seedlings is the primary subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis. This is similar to the situation in endosperm tissue but distinctly different from root and hypocotyl tissue where Golgi are a major subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis

  3. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  4. Cross-platform comparison of SYBR® Green real-time PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other gene expression measurement technologies evaluated in the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dial Stacey L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project evaluated the inter- and intra-platform reproducibility of seven microarray platforms and three quantitative gene expression assays in profiling the expression of two commercially available Reference RNA samples (Nat Biotechnol 24:1115-22, 2006. The tested microarrays were the platforms from Affymetrix, Agilent Technologies, Applied Biosystems, GE Healthcare, Illumina, Eppendorf and the National Cancer Institute, and quantitative gene expression assays included TaqMan® Gene Expression PCR Assay, Standardized (Sta RT-PCR™ and QuantiGene®. The data showed great consistency in gene expression measurements across different microarray platforms, different technologies and test sites. However, SYBR® Green real-time PCR, another common technique utilized by half of all real-time PCR users for gene expression measurement, was not addressed in the MAQC study. In the present study, we compared the performance of SYBR Green PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other quantitative technologies using the same two Reference RNA samples as the MAQC project. We assessed SYBR Green real-time PCR using commercially available RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays from SuperArray, containing primer pairs that have been experimentally validated to ensure gene-specificity and high amplification efficiency. Results The SYBR Green PCR Arrays exhibit good reproducibility among different users, PCR instruments and test sites. In addition, the SYBR Green PCR Arrays have the highest concordance with TaqMan PCR, and a high level of concordance with other quantitative methods and microarrays that were evaluated in this study in terms of fold-change correlation and overlap of lists of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data demonstrate that SYBR Green real-time PCR delivers highly comparable results in gene expression measurement with TaqMan PCR and other high-density microarrays.

  5. De novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map of Vicia faba (L. for transfer cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruba Shankari eArun Chinnappa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba (L. is an important cool-season grain legume species used widely in agriculture but also in plant physiology research, particularly as an experimental model to study transfer cell (TC development. Adaxial epidermal cells of isolated cotyledons can be induced to form functional TCs, thus providing a valuable experimental system to investigate genetic regulation of TC development. The genome of V. faba is exceedingly large (ca. 13 Gb, however, and limited genomic information is available for this species. To provide a resource for transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, we have undertaken de novo assembly of a cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map for V. faba. Illumina paired-end sequencing of total RNA pooled from different tissues and different stages, including isolated cotyledons induced to form TCs, generated 69.5M reads, of which 65.8M were used for assembly following trimming and quality control. Assembly using a De-Bruijn graph-based approach within CLC Genomics Workbench v6.1 generated 21,297 contigs, of which 80.6% were successfully annotated against GO terms. The assembly was validated against known V. faba cDNAs held in GenBank, including transcripts previously identified as being specifically expressed in epidermal cells across TC trans-differentiation. This cotyledon-enriched transcriptome map therefore provides a valuable tool for future transcript profiling of epidermal TC development, and also enriches the genetic resources available for this important legume crop species.

  6. Flow cytometric analysis of variation in the level of nuclear DNA endoreduplication in the cotyledons amongst Vigna radiata cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pal, A.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2004), s. 262-266 ISSN 0008-7114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Grant - others:Indian National Science Academy(IN) INSA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cotyledon * endoreduplication * flow cytometry Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2004

  7. Metabolism of 14C-aspartate during shoot bud formation in cultured cotyledon explants of radiata pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konschuh, M.N.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aspartate metabolism was investigated in excised cotyledons of radiata pine (Pinus radiate D. Don). These cotyledons were cultured under shoot-forming (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, SF), non-shoot-forming (minus N 6 -benzyladenine, NSF) and unresponsive (plus N 6 -benzyladenine, OLD) conditions, then incubated with [ 14 C]-aspartate for 3-h pulse treatments followed by 3-h chase treatments with cold aspartate. The majority of label was recovered in the CO 2 , amino acid, organic acid and pellet fractions. Uptake was greatest in all tissue types early in culture. Most (over 80%) of the [ 14 C 9-aspartate taken up by the tissues was converted to CO 2 at day 0 in SF and NSF tissues. CO 2 accounted for less than 50% of the total radioactivity in other tissues. Greater incorporation into fractions was observed in SF tissues during promeristemoid formation, while in NSF tissues the greatest incorporation was observed during a period of rapid elongation. Generally, less incorporation was observed in OLD cotyledons than in SF and NSF cotyledons. Analysis of the amino acid fraction showed that labelled aspartate was converted to other amino acids, mainly glutamate, glutamine, asparagine and 4-aminobutyric acid. (au)

  8. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to variation in cell wall composition in mature desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Collins, Helen M; Yap, Kuok; Khor, Shi Fang; Lim, Wai Li; Xing, Xiaohui; Bulone, Vincent; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Tucker, Matthew R

    2018-03-13

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important nutritionally rich legume crop that is consumed worldwide. Prior to cooking, desi chickpea seeds are most often dehulled and cleaved to release the split cotyledons, referred to as dhal. Compositional variation between desi genotypes has a significant impact on nutritional quality and downstream processing, and this has been investigated mainly in terms of starch and protein content. Studies in pulses such as bean and lupin have also implicated cell wall polysaccharides in cooking time variation, but the underlying relationship between desi chickpea cotyledon composition and cooking performance remains unclear. Here, we utilized a variety of chemical and immunohistological assays to examine details of polysaccharide composition, structure, abundance, and location within the desi chickpea cotyledon. Pectic polysaccharides were the most abundant cell wall components, and differences in monosaccharide and glycosidic linkage content suggest both environmental and genetic factors contribute to cotyledon composition. Genotype-specific differences were identified in arabinan structure, pectin methylesterification, and calcium-mediated pectin dimerization. These differences were replicated in distinct field sites and suggest a potentially important role for cell wall polysaccharides and their underlying regulatory machinery in the control of cooking time in chickpea. © 2018 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  10. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  11. The GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masao; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kitaoka, Shozaburo

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U- 14 C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also. (auth.)

  12. Protein characterization of protein bodies from cotyledons of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Lorenza; Giglioni, Stefania; Muccifora, Simonetta

    2013-03-01

    Seeds of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) were analyzed for protein composition of protein bodies isolated from cotyledons. Protein bodies were successfully separated by Lympholyte and those of dry seeds, observed by scanning electron microscope, were elliptical or spherical in shape with a diameter of 5-12 μm. Protein content in dry seed protein bodies was 10.6 mg/g dry weight. Globulin was the largest protein fraction isolated (62.5 %), followed by albumin (18.3 %), glutelin (15.8 %) and prolamin (3.4 %). The prolamin fraction and high glutelin content are uncommon in legumes. SDS-PAGE of albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins provided different band numbers and molecular weights under reducing and non reducing conditions and suggested that the albumin fraction is rich in disulphide bonds.

  13. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  14. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  15. Incorporation of exogenous L-phenylalanine into C-glycosylflavones in buckwheat cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margna, U.; Margna, E.

    1978-01-01

    By tracer experiments it was demonstrated that in excised buckwheat cotyledons L-phenylalanine fed exogeneously was incorporated predominantly into the luteolinic C-glycosylflavones orientin and iso-orientin, but not into their simpler apigeninic analogues vitexin and isovitexin, as it could be expected theoretically. Evidence is presented that L-phenylalanine supplied exogenously does not mix with the endogenous pool of that precursor, and that ratios of L-phenylalanine distribution between pathways of apigeninic and luteolinic C-glycosylflavones are different depending on wether the flavonoids are synthesized from endogenous or exogenous material. This phenomenon is suggested to be caused by the differences between enzyme complexes responsible for the biosynthesis of separate C-glycosylflavones in their capability of consuming common endogenous precursors. (author)

  16. Active calcium transport in plasma membrane vesicles from developing cotyledons of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianzhong; Chen Ziyuan

    1995-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were prepared from the developing cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L cv Diyundou) by aqueous two-phase partitioning and characterized as to their purity by assaying marker enzymes for other membranes. The putative plasma membrane fraction was minimally contaminated by membranes other than plasma membrane and hence was of high purity. It exhibited a Ca 2+ -dependent ATPase activity, which was inhibited by 1 μmol/L EB and promoted by calcium ionophore A23187. Such an activity was responsible for the observed ATP-dependent 45 Ca 2+ uptake into inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. This process was stimulated by 0.6 μmol/L CaM and 20 μmol/L IAA but inhibited by 2 μmol/L ABA and abolished by A23187. Possible role of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in mediating phytohormones activity is discussed

  17. Influence of gamma radiation on the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the cotyledons and the leaves of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) bean seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahanotu, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies indicated that 21-day old cotyledons from gamma irradiated seeds of fenugreek beans were heavier and had more starch and sugar than their non-irradiated controls. To test whether these effects occurred in the leaves and to seek a possible biochemical explanation for these results, the activities of five enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were studied. Three groups of fenugreek bean seeds were irradiated (100-300 Gy) and then allowed to grow for 21 days. On harvest, wet and dry weights of both cotyledons and leaves were determined. Starch and sugar contents in cotyledons and leaves were measured. The five enzymes α-amylase, β-amylase, starch phosphorylase, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase and ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase were extracted from cotyledons and leaves, respectively. The protein contents and activities of the enzyme extracts were determined. The results suggest an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in cotyldeons and a decrease in leaves due to the radiation treatment of the seeds before germination. Thus, increased amounts of starch and sugars are observed in the cotyledons, and decreased amounts in the leaves. Radiation damage to the translocatory system of the plant may retard the movement of sugars from the cotyledons to the other parts of the plant. This may cause accumulation of sugars and starch in the cotyledons, leading to an increase in their size and weight

  18. Properties of a membrane-bound triglyceride lipase of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnitschek, I; Theimer, R R

    1980-04-01

    The properties of the alkaline lipase activity (EC 3.1.1.3) that was recovered almost completely from a microsomal membrane fraction of 4-d-old rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cotyledons were studied employing a titrimetric test procedure. The apparent KM was 6.5 mmol l(-1), with emulgated sunflower oil as the substrate. The products of triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro were glycerol, free fatty acids, and minor amounts of mono- and diglycerides. Maximum lipase activity depended on the preincubation of the lipolytic membrane fraction in 0.15 mol l(-1) NaCl and on the presence of at least 0.1 mol l(-1) NaCl in the test mixture. Desoxycholate and up to 0.1 mol l(-1) CaCl2 also activated the enzyme while EDTA and detergents such as trito x-100, digitonin, tween 85, and sodium dodecylsulfate were inhibitory. The rapeseed lipase displayed a conspicuous substrate selectivity among different plant triglycerides; the activity was inversely correlated with the oleic acid content of the oils. Water-soluble triacetin and the phospholipid lecithin were not hydrolyzed. Increasing amounts of free fatty acids reduced lipase activity; erucic acid, a major component of rapeseed oil, exhibited the strongest effect, suggesting a possible role in the regulation of lipase activity in vivo. The data demonstrate that the lipolytic membrane fraction houses a triglyceride lipase with properties similar to other plant and animal lipases. It can both qualitatively and quantitatively account for the fat degradation in rapeseed cotyledons. The evidence that provides further reason to acknowledge the membranous appendices of the spherosomes as the intracellular site of lipolysis is discussed.

  19. Morphological aspects of starch and cell wall material mobilization in developing lupine cotyledons and the effect of kinetin on these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunat Młodzianowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cotyledons of dry lupine seeds the presence of starch was not demonstrated. Its formation during seed imbibition in darkness is accompanied by a reduction in the thickness of cell walls containing hemicelluloses. It is believed that the products of hemicellulose hydrolysis, particullarily in isolated cotyledons, arę the main source of materials for the synthesis of starch, In the process of cell wall decomposition the invaginations of plasmalemma appear to be involved. Kinetin enhance the hydrolysis of cell walls and the mobilization of starch in isolated cotyledons.

  20. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  1. Caulogenic induction in cotyledons of stone pine (Pinus pinea): relationship between organogenic response and benzyladenine trends in selected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Candela; Rodríguez, Ana; Centeno, María Luz; Ordás, Ricardo J; Fernández, Belén

    2009-07-15

    Adventitious bud formation in stone pine cotyledons cultured in the presence of benzyladenine (BA) has been proposed as a model for the study of in vitro shoot organogenesis in conifers. This is because of its advantageous characteristics including the requirement of only one plant growth regulator (BA), the synchronous fashion of its induction, and the homogeneity and low degree of differentiation of cotyledons. Although optimal culture conditions have been developed and are currently in use, we still lack data for BA dynamics in cotyledons cultured under these conditions, and the morphological description of the early induction stages has not, until now, been approached from a histological perspective. Consequently, this is the focus of the present report. Additionally, we examined uptake and metabolism of BA in cotyledons from two selected families, previously characterized by, and selected for, the difference in the magnitude of their organogenic response. Media transfer experiments established that cotyledons should be in contact with 44.4 microM BA for at least 6h to obtain any caulogenic response (minimum shoot-induction period). Histological observations, carried out here for the first time in this species, determined that meristemoid structures had already begun to appear in explants within 12 h of culture. Moreover, results from the BA uptake and metabolism experiments indicated that the point at which explants reached the maximum concentration of active forms of BA (276.60 microM at 6 h) and the onset of the determination phase of shoot organogenesis were directly related. A direct relationship was also observed between the intensity of the caulogenic response in cotyledons from families 36 and 61 and the endogenous concentration of BA and its riboside at the start of the induction phase. Hence, family 36, characterized by its higher bud production, reached concentrations of 251.56 microM, while family 61, selected for its low bud-producing trait, only

  2. Candidacy of a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive gene for a major locus affecting plant height in rice that is closely linked to Green Revolution gene sd1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Zhang, Yushan; Yu, Sibin; Yang, Gaiyu; Yan, Wenhao; Xing, Yongzhong

    2011-09-01

    Appropriate plant height is crucial for lodging resistance to improve the rice crop yield. The application of semi-dwarf 1 led to the green revolution in the 1960s, by predominantly increasing the rice yield. However, the frequent use of single sd1 gene sources may cause genetic vulnerability to pests and diseases. Identifying useful novel semi-dwarf genes is important for the genetic manipulation of plant architecture in practical rice breeding. In this study, introgression lines derived from two parents contrasting in plant height, Zhenshan 97 and Pokkali were employed to locate a gene with a large effect on plant height by the bulk segregant analysis method. A major gene, ph1, was mapped to a region closely linked to sd1 on chromosome 1; the additive effects of ph1 were more than 50 cm on the plant height and 2 days on the heading date in a BC(4)F(2) population and its progeny. ph1 was then fine mapped to BAC AP003227. Gene annotation indicated that LOC_OS01g65990 encoding a chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive protein (CIGR), which belongs to the GRAS family, might be the right candidate gene of ph1. Co-segregation analysis of the candidate gene-derived marker finally confirmed its identity as the candidate gene. A higher expression level of the CIGR was detected in all the tested tissues in tall plants compared to those of short plants, especially in the young leaf sheath containing elongating tissues, which indicated its importance role in regulating plant height. ph1 showed a tremendous genetic effect on plant height, which is distinct from sd1 and could be a new resource for breeding semi-dwarf varieties.

  3. Genome-wide identification of regulatory elements and reconstruction of gene regulatory networks of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under carbon deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Vischi Winck

    Full Text Available The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a long-established model organism for studies on photosynthesis and carbon metabolism-related physiology. Under conditions of air-level carbon dioxide concentration [CO2], a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM is induced to facilitate cellular carbon uptake. CCM increases the availability of carbon dioxide at the site of cellular carbon fixation. To improve our understanding of the transcriptional control of the CCM, we employed FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements, followed by deep sequencing to determine nucleosome-depleted chromatin regions of algal cells subjected to carbon deprivation. Our FAIRE data recapitulated the positions of known regulatory elements in the promoter of the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase (Cah1 gene, which is upregulated during CCM induction, and revealed new candidate regulatory elements at a genome-wide scale. In addition, time series expression patterns of 130 transcription factor (TF and transcription regulator (TR genes were obtained for cells cultured under photoautotrophic condition and subjected to a shift from high to low [CO2]. Groups of co-expressed genes were identified and a putative directed gene-regulatory network underlying the CCM was reconstructed from the gene expression data using the recently developed IOTA (inner composition alignment method. Among the candidate regulatory genes, two members of the MYB-related TF family, Lcr1 (Low-CO 2 response regulator 1 and Lcr2 (Low-CO2 response regulator 2, may play an important role in down-regulating the expression of a particular set of TF and TR genes in response to low [CO2]. The results obtained provide new insights into the transcriptional control of the CCM and revealed more than 60 new candidate regulatory genes. Deep sequencing of nucleosome-depleted genomic regions indicated the presence of new, previously unknown regulatory elements in the C. reinhardtii genome

  4. A MULTI-STAGE COLOR MODEL REVISITED: IMPLICATIONS FOR A GENE THERAPY CURE FOR RED-GREEN COLORBLINDNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Katherine; Mauck, Matthew C.; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2010-01-01

    In 1993, DeValois and DeValois proposed a “multi-stage color model” to explain how the cortex is ultimately able to deconfound the responses of neurons receiving input from three cone types in order to produce separate red-green and blue-yellow systems, as well as segregate luminance percepts (black-white) from color. This model extended the biological implementation of Hurvich and Jameson’s Opponent-Process Theory of color vision, a two-stage model encompassing the three cone types combined ...

  5. STAY-GREEN and Chlorophyll Catabolic Enzymes Interact at Light-Harvesting Complex II for Chlorophyll Detoxification during Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Schelbert, Silvia; Park, So-Yon; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Byoung-Doo; Andrès, Céline Besagni; Kessler, Felix; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2012-01-01

    During leaf senescence, plants degrade chlorophyll to colorless linear tetrapyrroles that are stored in the vacuole of senescing cells. The early steps of chlorophyll breakdown occur in plastids. To date, five chlorophyll catabolic enzymes (CCEs), NONYELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), NYC1-LIKE, pheophytinase, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase, have been identified; these enzymes catalyze the stepwise degradation of chlorophyll to a fluorescent intermediate, pFCC, which is then exported from the plastid. In addition, STAY-GREEN (SGR), Mendel’s green cotyledon gene encoding a chloroplast protein, is required for the initiation of chlorophyll breakdown in plastids. Senescence-induced SGR binds to light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), but its exact role remains elusive. Here, we show that all five CCEs also specifically interact with LHCII. In addition, SGR and CCEs interact directly or indirectly with each other at LHCII, and SGR is essential for recruiting CCEs in senescing chloroplasts. PAO, which had been attributed to the inner envelope, is found to localize in the thylakoid membrane. These data indicate a predominant role for the SGR-CCE-LHCII protein interaction in the breakdown of LHCII-located chlorophyll, likely to allow metabolic channeling of phototoxic chlorophyll breakdown intermediates upstream of nontoxic pFCC. PMID:22366162

  6. Development and validation of a SYBR Green I-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detection of haptoglobin gene deletion in clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Mikiko; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Egashira, Kouichi; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Koda, Yoshiro

    2010-06-01

    Anhaptoglobinemic patients run the risk of severe anaphylactic transfusion reaction because they produce serum haptoglobin (Hp) antibodies. Being homozygous for the Hp gene deletion (HP(del)) is the only known cause of congenital anhaptoglobinemia, and clinical diagnosis of HP(del) before transfusion is important to prevent anaphylactic shock. We recently developed a 5'-nuclease (TaqMan) real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A SYBR Green I-based duplex real-time PCR assay using two forward primers and a common reverse primer followed by melting curve analysis was developed to determine HP(del) zygosity in a single tube. In addition, to obviate initial DNA extraction, we examined serially diluted blood samples as PCR templates. Allelic discrimination of HP(del) yielded optimal results at blood sample dilutions of 1:64 to 1:1024. The results from 2231 blood samples were fully concordant with those obtained by the TaqMan-based real-time PCR method. The detection rate of the HP(del) allele by the SYBR Green I-based method is comparable with that using the TaqMan-based method. This method is readily applicable due to its low initial cost and analyzability using economical real-time PCR machines and is suitable for high-throughput analysis as an alternative method for allelic discrimination of HP(del).

  7. Chromosomal gene inactivation in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by natural transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, N-U; Bryant, D A

    2001-01-01

    Conditions for inactivating chromosomal genes of Chlorobium tepidum by natural transformation and homologous recombination were established. As a model, mutants unable to perform nitrogen fixation were constructed by interrupting nifD with various antibiotic resistance markers. Growth of wild...

  8. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  9. Activation of anthocyanin synthesis genes by white light in eggplant hypocotyl tissues, and identification of an inducible P-450 cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toguri, T.; Umemoto, N.; Kobayashi, O.; Ohtani, T.

    1993-01-01

    Eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena) grown under red light irradiation showed a normal morphology with green, fully expanded cotyledons. When the seedlings grown under red light were irradiated with ultraviolet-containing white light, anthocyanin synthesis was induced in the hypocotyl tissues, especially when a UV light supplement was added. The accumulation of pigments was closely associated with the expression of genes involved in flavonoid synthesis. These genes include chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR). Using subtracted probes, which had been enriched for the accumulated mRNA, one white light-responsive cDNA was identified as being a P450 gene by comparison with database sequences. The maximal amino acid homology this cDNA had with other P450s was 36%. This was with CYP71 from avocado (Persea americana). Thus it represents a new P-450 family, which has been named CYP75. The mRNA of this gene was localized in the hypocotyl tissues of eggplant seedlings, which had been white light-irradiated. The transcript was accumulated by changing the light source, as in the case of other flavonoid biosynthesis genes. In delphinidin producing petunia plants, the mRNAs corresponding to the eggplant P-450 and flavonoid biosynthesis genes such as CHS and DFR were most abundant during the mid stage of flower bud development, but could not be detected in leaf tissues. These results suggest that this P-450 gene encodes a hydroxylating enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. (author)

  10. The development and geometry of shape change in Arabidopsis thaliana cotyledon pavement cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Halsey, Leah E; Szymanski, Daniel B

    2011-02-01

    The leaf epidermis is an important architectural control element that influences the growth properties of underlying tissues and the overall form of the organ. In dicots, interdigitated pavement cells are the building blocks of the tissue, and their morphogenesis includes the assembly of specialized cell walls that surround the apical, basal, and lateral (anticlinal) cell surfaces. The microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are highly polarized along the cortex of the anticlinal wall; however, the relationships between these arrays and cell morphogenesis are unclear. We developed new quantitative tools to compare population-level growth statistics with time-lapse imaging of cotyledon pavement cells in an intact tissue. The analysis revealed alternating waves of lobe initiation and a phase of lateral isotropic expansion that persisted for days. During lateral isotropic diffuse growth, microtubule organization varied greatly between cell surfaces. Parallel microtubule bundles were distributed unevenly along the anticlinal surface, with subsets marking stable cortical domains at cell indentations and others clearly populating the cortex within convex cell protrusions. Pavement cell morphogenesis is discontinuous, and includes punctuated phases of lobe initiation and lateral isotropic expansion. In the epidermis, lateral isotropic growth is independent of pavement cell size and shape. Cortical microtubules along the upper cell surface and stable cortical patches of anticlinal microtubules may coordinate the growth behaviors of orthogonal cell walls. This work illustrates the importance of directly linking protein localization data to the growth behavior of leaf epidermal cells.

  11. Evidence for an operative glutamine translocator in chloroplasts from maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, M G; Aguilar, M L; Cánovas, F M

    2010-09-01

    In higher plants, ammonium is assimilated into amino acids through the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) cycle. This metabolic cycle is distributed in different cellular compartments in conifer seedlings: glutamine synthesis occurs in the cytosol and glutamate synthesis within the chloroplast. A method for preparing intact chloroplasts of pine cotyledons is presented with the aim of identifying a glutamine-glutamate translocator. Glutamine-glutamate exchange has been studied using the double silicone layer system, suggesting the existence of a translocator that imports glutamine into the chloroplast and exports glutamate to the cytoplasm. The translocator identified is specific for glutamine and glutamate, and the kinetic constants for both substrates indicate that it is unsaturated at intracellular concentrations. Thus, the experimental evidence obtained supports the model of the GS/GOGAT cycle in developing pine seedlings that accounts for the stoichiometric balance of metabolites. As a result, the efficient assimilation of free ammonia produced by photorespiration, nitrate reduction, storage protein mobilisation, phenylpropanoid pathway or S-adenosylmethionine synthesis is guaranteed.

  12. Phosphorylation of glyoxysomal malate synthase from castor oil seed endosperm and cucumber cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.P; Randall, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Glyoxysomal malate synthase (MS) was purified to apparent homogeneity from 3-d germinating castor oil seed endosperm by a relatively simple procedure including two sucrose density gradient centrifugations. Antibodies raised to the caster oil seed MS crossreacted with MS from cucumber cotyledon. MS was phosphorylated in both tissues in an MgATP dependent reaction. The phosphorylation pattern was similar for both enzymes and both enzymes were inhibited by NaF, NaMo, (NH 4 )SO 4 , glyoxylate and high concentration of MgCl 2 (60 mM), but was not inhibited by NaCl and malate. Further characterization of the phosphorylation of MS from castor oil seed endosperms showed that the 5S form of MS is the form which is labelled by 32 P. The addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase to MS not only decreased enzyme activity, but could also dephosphorylate phospho-MS. The relationship between dephosphorylation of MS and the decrease of MS activity is currently under investigation

  13. Chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Oedogonium cardiacum (Chlorophyceae: Unique genome architecture, derived characters shared with the Chaetophorales and novel genes acquired through horizontal transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the branching order of the five main lineages currently recognized in the green algal class Chlorophyceae and to expand our understanding of chloroplast genome evolution, we have undertaken the sequencing of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA from representative taxa. The complete cpDNA sequences previously reported for Chlamydomonas (Chlamydomonadales, Scenedesmus (Sphaeropleales, and Stigeoclonium (Chaetophorales revealed tremendous variability in their architecture, the retention of only few ancestral gene clusters, and derived clusters shared by Chlamydomonas and Scenedesmus. Unexpectedly, our recent phylogenies inferred from these cpDNAs and the partial sequences of three other chlorophycean cpDNAs disclosed two major clades, one uniting the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales (CS clade and the other uniting the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales (OCC clade. Although molecular signatures provided strong support for this dichotomy and for the branching of the Oedogoniales as the earliest-diverging lineage of the OCC clade, more data are required to validate these phylogenies. We describe here the complete cpDNA sequence of Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales. Results Like its three chlorophycean homologues, the 196,547-bp Oedogonium chloroplast genome displays a distinctive architecture. This genome is one of the most compact among photosynthetic chlorophytes. It has an atypical quadripartite structure, is intron-rich (17 group I and 4 group II introns, and displays 99 different conserved genes and four long open reading frames (ORFs, three of which are clustered in the spacious inverted repeat of 35,493 bp. Intriguingly, two of these ORFs (int and dpoB revealed high similarities to genes not usually found in cpDNA. At the gene content and gene order levels, the Oedogonium genome most closely resembles its Stigeoclonium counterpart. Characters shared by these chlorophyceans but missing in members

  14. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  15. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  16. Distribution and biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in Camellia sinensis seedlings and expression of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-04-01

    The distribution of phenolic compounds in young and developing leaves, stems, main and lateral roots and cotyledons of 8-week-old tea (Camellia sinensis) seedlings was investigated using HPLC-MS(2). Fourteen compounds, flavan-3-ols, chlorogenic acids, and kaempferol-O-glycosides, were identified on the basis of their retention time, absorbance spectrum, and MS fragmentation pattern. The major phenolics were (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, located principally in the green parts of the seedlings. Considerable amounts of radioactivity from [ring-(14)C]phenylalanine were incorporated in (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, by tissues of young and developing leaves and stems. Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in flavan-3-ol biosynthesis, CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'5'H, DFR, ANS, ANR and LAR was investigated. Transcripts of all genes, except LAR, were more abundant in leaves and stems than in roots and cotyledons. No significant difference was found in the amount of transcript of LAR. These findings indicate that in tea seedlings flavan-3-ols are produced by a naringenin-chalcone-->naringenin-->dihydrokaempferol pathway. Dihydrokaempferol is a branch point in the synthesis of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and other flavan-3-ols which can be formed by routes beginning with either a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase mediated conversion of the flavonol to dihydroquercetin or a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase-catalysed conversion to dihydromyricetin with subsequent steps involving sequential reactions catalysed by dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin reductase and flavan-3-ol gallate synthase. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Refactoring the six-gene photosystem II core in the chloroplast of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Javier A.; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Scranton, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    production, particularly under specific environmental conditions. PSII is a complex multisubunit enzyme with strong interdependence among its components. In this work, we have deleted the six core genes of PSII in the eukaryotic alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and refactored them in a single DNA construct...

  18. Novel X-Linked Genes Revealed by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Green Anole, Anolis carolinensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Kratochvíl, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2014), s. 2107-2113 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0718 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : gene dosage * lizard * qPCR Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  19. Feasibility of dual reporter gene in rat myoblast cell line using human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To develop a non-invasive combined imaging method of gamma camera and optical imaging to assess rat myoblast cell line, H9c2, we constructed retrovirus containing hNIS and EGFP gene, and transfected to rat myoblast cell and monitored hNIS and EGFP expression. Rat myoblast cell line, H9C2, was transfected with hNIS and EGFP gene using retrovirus (H9C2-NG). The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was determined by RT-PCR and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. The uptake and efflux of I-125 were measured in the transfected and wild type cell lines. Each cell line was injected to 4 flank sites (H9c2: 1X107 or 2X107, H9C2-NG: 1X107 or 2X107) in nude mouse. Scintigraphic image was performed at 3h, 1 day after H9C2 and H9C2-NG cell inoculation. We performed gamma camera and animal PET imaging to evaluate NIS expression. Also, GFP image obtained using optical imaging system. The expression of hNIS and EGFP gene was confirmed by RT-PCR. In iodide uptake, H9C2-NG cells accumulated 274.52.2 pmol/ mg protein at 30 min. But wild type cell line did not uptake iodide. In fluorescent microscopy, H9C2-NG cells were highly fluorescent than that of H9C2 cells. In iodide efflux study, 50% of radioactivity flowed out during the first 10min. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake of Tc-99m in H9c2-NG than in H9C2 for 1 day. Also, H9C2-NG cells showed high signal-to-background fluorescent spots in animal body. In this study, NIS and EGFP reporter gene were successfully transfected by a retrovirus in myoblast cell line, and the transfected cell can be easily visualized in vivo. These results suggest that NIS and EGFP gene has an excellent feasibility as a reporter gene, and it can be used to monitor cell trafficking for monitoring.

  20. Uptake and expression of bacterial and cyanobacterial genes by isolated cucumber etioplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniell, H.; McFadden, B.A.

    1987-09-01

    The uptake and expression by plastids isolated from dark-grown cucumber cotyledons (etioplasts) of two pUC derivatives, pCS75 and pUC9-CM, respectively carrying genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of Anacystis nidulans or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is reported. Untreated etioplasts take up only 3% as much DNA as that taken up by EDTA-washed etioplasts after 2 hr of incubation with nick-translated (/sup 32/P)-pCS75. The presence or absence of light does not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. Calcium or magnesium ions inhibit DNA uptake by 86% but enhance binding and breakdown of donor DNA by EDTA-treated etioplasts. Uncouplers that abolish membrane potential, transmembrane proton gradient, or both do not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. However, both DNA uptake and binding are severely inhibited by ATP. After the incubation of EDTA-treated etioplasts with pCS75, immunoprecipitation using antiserum to the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from A. nidulans reveals the synthesis of small subunits. Treatment of etioplasts with 10 mM EDTA shows a 10-min duration to be optimal for the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by pUC9-CM. A progressive increase in the expression of this enzyme is observed with an increase in the concentration of pUC9-CM in the DNA uptake medium. The plasmid-dependent incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine by EDTA-treated organelles declines markedly during cotyledon greening in vivo.

  1. Study on transformation of cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor (CpTI) gene was transferred into cauliflower by agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and 14 transgenic cauliflower plants were obtained. Cotyledons and hypocotyls were used as explants. The putative transformants were assayed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. The results ...

  2. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  3. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Chen, Wei; Sheng, G Daniel; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  4. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping; Fu Zhengwei

    2008-01-01

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris

  5. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  6. Quercetin and Green Tea Extract Supplementation Downregulates Genes Related to Tissue Inflammatory Responses to a 12-Week High Fat-Diet in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Cialdella-Kam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin (Q and green tea extract (E are reported to counter insulin resistance and inflammation and favorably alter fat metabolism. We investigated whether a mixture of E + Q (EQ could synergistically influence metabolic and inflammation endpoints in a high-fat diet (HFD fed to mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 40 were put on HFD (fat = 60%kcal for 12 weeks and randomly assigned to Q (25 mg/kg of body weight (BW/day, E (3 mg of epigallocatechin gallate/kg BW/day, EQ, or control groups for four weeks. At 16 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured via the glucose tolerance test (GTT, followed by area-under-the-curve (AUC estimations. Plasma cytokines and quercetin were also measured, along with whole genome transcriptome analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR on adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues. Univariate analyses were conducted via analysis of variance (ANOVA, and whole-genome expression profiles were examined via gene set enrichment. At 16 weeks, plasma quercetin levels were higher in Q and EQ groups vs. the control and E groups (p < 0.05. Plasma cytokines were similar among groups (p > 0.05. AUC estimations for GTT was 14% lower for Q vs. E (p = 0.0311, but non-significant from control (p = 0.0809. Genes for cholesterol metabolism and immune and inflammatory response were downregulated in Q and EQ groups vs. control in adipose tissue and soleus muscle tissue. These data support an anti-inflammatory role for Q and EQ, a result best captured when measured with tissue gene downregulation in comparison to changes in plasma cytokine levels.

  7. Rapid and Specific Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Amplification of the YD-Repeat Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Duck Hwan; Ahn, Tae-Young; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, which causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious disease of cucurbit plants. The molecular and serological methods currently available for the detection of this pathogen are insufficiently sensitive and specific. Thus, a novel SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the YD-repeat protein gene of A. avenae subsp. citrulli was developed. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using DNA purified from 6 isolates of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 7 other Acidovorax species, and 22 of non-targeted strains, including pathogens and non-pathogens. The AC158F/R primer set amplified a single band of the expected size from genomic DNA obtained from the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains but not from the genomic DNA of other Acidovorax species, including that of other bacterial genera. Using this assay, it was possible to detect at least one genomeequivalents of the cloned amplified target DNA using 5 × 10(0) fg/μl of purified genomic DNA per reaction or using a calibrated cell suspension, with 6.5 colony-forming units per reaction being employed. In addition, this assay is a highly sensitive and reliable method for identifying and quantifying the target pathogen in infected samples that does not require DNA extraction. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is suitable for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of A. avenae subsp. citrulli contaminations of seed lots and plants.

  8. The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on gene expression and pigment composition in etiolated and green pea leaf tissue: UV-B-induced changes are gene-specific and dependent upon the developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Strid, A.; Anthony, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–320nm) on gene expression and pigment composition has been investigated in pea tissue at different stages of development. Pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Feltham First) seedlings were grown for 17d and then exposed to supplementary UV-B radiation. Chlorophyll a per unit fresh weight decreased by more than 20% compared with control levels after exposure to UV-B radiation for 7d. In contrast, chlorophyll b content remained the same or increased slightly. Leaf protein biosynthesis, as determined by 35 S-methionine incorporation, was rapidly inhibited by UV-B radiation, although the steady-state levels of proteins were either unchanged or only slightly altered. RNA transcripts for the chlorophyll a/b binding protein (cab) were also rapidly reduced to low or even undetectable levels in the expanded third leaf or younger leaf bud tissue after exposure to UV-B radiation. In contrast, cab RNA transcripts were either low or undetectable in etiolated pea tissue, but increased substantially in light and during exposure to UV-B radiation. The cab RNA transcripts were still present at control levels in pea plants after 7d of greening under supplementary UV-B radiation or UV-B alone. The protein composition changed significantly over the 7d of greening, but no differences could be detected between the light treatments. The increase in chlorophyll content was slightly greater during de-etiolation under supplementary UV-B radiation than under control irradiance. Under UV-B radiation alone, chlorophyll was synthesized at a greatly reduced rate. Changes in protective pigments were also determined. Anthocyanins did not change in either etiolated or green tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. However, other flavonoids increased substantially in either tissue during exposure to light and UV-B radiation. The RNA levels for chalcone synthase were measured in green and etiolated tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. The chs RNA transcripts were

  9. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  10. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  11. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  13. Validation of the Antiproliferative Effects of Organic Extracts from the Green Husk of Juglans regia L. on PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells by Assessment of Apoptosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alshatwi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased use of plant-based cancer chemotherapy, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals for anticancer drug design has gained considerable attention worldwide. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of walnut green husk extracts on cell proliferation and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of extract-induced cell death by quantifying the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspases-3, and Tp53. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In this study, we found that green husk extracts suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by modulating expression of apoptosis-related genes. This involved DNA fragmentation (determined by TUNEL assay and significant changes in levels of mRNA and the expression of corresponding proteins. An increase in expressions of Bax, caspase-3, and tp53 genes and their corresponding proteins was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis in PC-3 cells treated with the green husk organic extracts. In contrast, Bcl2 expression was downregulated after exposure to the extracts. Our data suggest the presence of bioactive compound(s in walnut green husks that are capable of killing prostate carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and that the husks are a candidate source of anticancer drugs.

  14. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  15. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  16. Staying green postharvest: how three mutations in the Arabidopsis chlorophyll b reductase gene NYC1 delay degreening by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibran, Rubina; Sullivan, Kerry L; Crowhurst, Ross; Erridge, Zoe A; Chagné, David; McLachlan, Andrew R G; Brummell, David A; Dijkwel, Paul P; Hunter, Donald A

    2015-11-01

    Stresses such as energy deprivation, wounding and water-supply disruption often contribute to rapid deterioration of harvested tissues. To uncover the genetic regulation behind such stresses, a simple assessment system was used to detect senescence mutants in conjunction with two rapid mapping techniques to identify the causal mutations. To demonstrate the power of this approach, immature inflorescences of Arabidopsis plants that contained ethyl methanesulfonate-induced lesions were detached and screened for altered timing of dark-induced senescence. Numerous mutant lines displaying accelerated or delayed timing of senescence relative to wild type were discovered. The underlying mutations in three of these were identified using High Resolution Melting analysis to map to a chromosomal arm followed by a whole-genome sequencing-based mapping method, termed 'Needle in the K-Stack', to identify the causal lesions. All three mutations were single base pair changes and occurred in the same gene, NON-YELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), a chlorophyll b reductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. This was consistent with the mutants preferentially retaining chlorophyll b, although substantial amounts of chlorophyll b were still lost. The single base pair mutations disrupted NYC1 function by three distinct mechanisms, one by producing a termination codon, the second by interfering with correct intron splicing and the third by replacing a highly conserved proline with a non-equivalent serine residue. This non-synonymous amino acid change, which occurred in the NADPH binding domain of NYC1, is the first example of such a mutation in an SDR protein inhibiting a physiological response in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  18. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  19. Induction of 33-kD and 60-kD peroxidases during ethylene-induced senescence of cucumber cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeles, F.B.; Dunn, L.J.; Morgens, P.; Callahan, A.; Dinterman, R.E.; Schmidt, J.

    1988-01-01

    Ethylene enhanced the senescence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76) cotyledons. The effect of 10 microliters per liter ethylene was inhibited by 1 millimolar silver thiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action. An increase in proteins with molecular weights of 33 to 30 kilodaltons and lower molecular weights (25, 23, 20, 16, 12 and 10 kilodaltons) were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels after ethylene enhanced senescence. The measurement of DNase and RNase activity in gels indicated that these new proteins were not nucleases. Two proteins from ethylene-treated cotyledons were purified on the basis of their association with a red chromaphore and subsequently were identified as peroxidases. The molecular weights and isoelectric points (pI) of two of these peroxidases were 33 kilodaltons (cationic, pI = 8.9) and 60 kilodaltons (anionic, pI = 4.0). The observation that [ 35 S]Na 2 SO 4 was incorporated into these proteins during ethylene-enhanced senescence suggests that these peroxidases represent newly synthesized proteins. Antibodies to the 33-kilodalton peroxidase precipitated two in vitro translation products from RNA isolated from ethylene-treated but not from control cucumber seedlings. This indicates that the increase in 33-kilodalton peroxidase activity represents de novo protein synthesis. Both forms of peroxidase degraded chlorophyll in vitro, which is consistent with the hypothesis that peroxidases have catabolic or scavenging functions in senescent tissues

  20. Halting a Wilful Degeneration into the Abyss: Rhapsodizing the Morass of Despair in Esiaba Irobi’s Inflorescence and Cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Akingbe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An examination of Nigeria’s nationhood in the themes of Inflorescence (1989 and Cotyledons (2009 reveals a dogged inscription of Esiaba Irobi’s poems within the context of Nigeria’s interweaving socio-political tragedies: the rapacious rape of her resources by the successive political class, the continuous violation of her humanistic ethos by the rampaging military institution, and the ignoble dispossession of her hopeless downtrodden masses. Irobi portrays a dialectical juxtaposition of the fragmented and haunted existentialism in Nigeria against the sanity and sanctity for human rights obtainable in the Western nations. The grounding of Nigeria’s disillusionment further underscores Nigeria’s stand on the brink of a political precipice. The paper aims to evaluate how Esiaba Irobi’s Inflorescence and Cotyledons have implicitly challenged Nigeria’s inability to live up to its expectations of fulfilling the present and future aspirations of its teeming population in the areas of  human and infrastructural developments.

  1. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  2. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  3. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  4. Green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene visualizes parvovirus B19 non-structural segment 1 (NS1 transfected endothelial modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wurster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Parvovirus B19 (PVB19 has been associated with myocarditis putative due to endothelial infection. Whether PVB19 infects endothelial cells and causes a modification of endothelial function and inflammation and, thus, disturbance of microcirculation has not been elucidated and could not be visualized so far. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To examine the PVB19-induced endothelial modification, we used green fluorescent protein (GFP color reporter gene in the non-structural segment 1 (NS1 of PVB19. NS1-GFP-PVB19 or GFP plasmid as control were transfected in an endothelial-like cell line (ECV304. The endothelial surface expression of intercellular-adhesion molecule-1 (CD54/ICAM-1 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN/CD147 were evaluated by flow cytometry after NS-1-GFP or control-GFP transfection. To evaluate platelet adhesion on NS-1 transfected ECs, we performed a dynamic adhesion assay (flow chamber. NS-1 transfection causes endothelial activation and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 (CD54: mean ± standard deviation: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 85.3 ± 11.2 vs. 61.6 ± 8.1; P<0.05 and induces endothelial expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 (CD147: mean ± SEM: NS1-GFP vs. control-GFP: 114 ± 15.3 vs. 80 ± 0.91; P<0.05 compared to control-GFP transfected cells. Dynamic adhesion assays showed that adhesion of platelets is significantly enhanced on NS1 transfected ECs when compared to control-GFP (P<0.05. The transfection of ECs was verified simultaneously through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. CONCLUSIONS: GFP color reporter gene shows transfection of ECs and may help to visualize NS1-PVB19 induced endothelial activation and platelet adhesion as well as an enhanced monocyte adhesion directly, providing in vitro evidence of possible microcirculatory dysfunction in PVB19-induced myocarditis and, thus, myocardial tissue damage.

  5. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  6. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  7. Methyl jasmonate is a more effective senescence-promoting factor in Culcurbita pepo (zucchini) cotyledons when compared with darkness at the early stage of senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, K.; Ananiev, E. D.; Mishev, K.; Georgieva, K.; Malbeck, Jiří; Kamínek, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 9 (2007), s. 1179-1187 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600380507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : cotyledons * cytokinins * dark treatment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2007

  8. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. SYBR green-based real-time reverse transcription-PCR for typing and subtyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of avian influenza viruses and comparison to standard serological subtyping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Javier, P.C.; Shishido, M.; Noguchi, D.; Pearce, J.; Kang, H.-M.; Jeong, O.M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Nakanishi, K.; Ashizawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) infections of wild birds and poultry worldwide emphasize the need for global surveillance of wild birds. To support the future surveillance activities, we developed a SYBR green-based, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for detecting nucleoprotein (NP) genes and subtyping 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes simultaneously. Primers were improved by focusing on Eurasian or North American lineage genes; the number of mixed-base positions per primer was set to five or fewer, and the concentration of each primer set was optimized empirically. Also, 30 cycles of amplification of 1:10 dilutions of cDNAs from cultured viruses effectively reduced minor cross- or nonspecific reactions. Under these conditions, 346 HA and 345 NA genes of 349 AIVs were detected, with average sensitivities of NP, HA, and NA genes of 10 1.5, 10 2.3, and 10 3.1 50% egg infective doses, respectively. Utility of rRT-PCR for subtyping AIVs was compared with that of current standard serological tests by using 104 recent migratory duck virus isolates. As a result, all HA genes and 99% of the NA genes were genetically subtyped, while only 45% of HA genes and 74% of NA genes were serologically subtyped. Additionally, direct subtyping of AIVs in fecal samples was possible by 40 cycles of amplification: approximately 70% of HA and NA genes of NP gene-positive samples were successfully subtyped. This validation study indicates that rRT-PCR with optimized primers and reaction conditions is a powerful tool for subtyping varied AIVs in clinical and cultured samples. Copyright ?? 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Degradation of the endosperm cell walls of Lactuca sativa L., cv. grand rapids in relation to the mobilisation of proteins and the production of hydrolytic enzymes in the axis, cotyledons and endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D W; Reid, J S; Bewley, J D

    1979-01-01

    The timing of changes in total nitrogen and soluble amino nitrogen content, and in the activities of proteinase (pH 7.0), isocitrate lyase, catalase, phytase, phosphatase (pH 5.0), α-galactosidase and β-mannosidase were studied in extracts from the cotyledons, axis and endosperms of germinating and germinated light-promoted lettuce seeds. The largest amount of total nitrogen (2.7% seed dry weight) occurs within the cotyledons, as storage protein. As this decreases the total nitrogen content of the axis increases and the soluble amino nitrogen in the cotyledons and axis increases. Proteinase activity in the cotyledons increases coincidentally with the depletion of total nitrogen therein. Enzymes for phytate mobilisation and for gluconeogenesis of hydrolysed lipids increase in activity in the cotyledons as the appropriate stored reserves decline. Beta-mannosidase, an enzyme involved in the hydrolysis of oligo-mannans released by the action of endo-β-mannase on mannan reserves in the endosperm, arises within the cotyledons. This indicates that complete hydrolysis of mannans to the monomer does not occur within the endosperm. Mobilisation of all cotyledon reserves occurs after the endosperm has been degraded, providing further evidence that the endosperm is an early source of food reserves for the growing embryo.

  11. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  12. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 and 3 genes have a post-meristematic effect on Arabidopsis thaliana phyllotaxis

    KAUST Repository

    Burian, Agata; Raczyńska-Szajgin, Magdalena; Borowska-Wykręt, Dorota; Piatek, Agnieszka Anna; Aida, Mitsuhiro; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: The arrangement of flowers in inflorescence shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a regular spiral Fibonacci phyllotaxis. However, in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant, flower pedicels are fused to the inflorescence stem

  13. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 and 3 genes have a post-meristematic effect on Arabidopsis thaliana phyllotaxis

    KAUST Repository

    Burian, Agata

    2015-02-12

    Background and Aims: The arrangement of flowers in inflorescence shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a regular spiral Fibonacci phyllotaxis. However, in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant, flower pedicels are fused to the inflorescence stem, and phyllotaxis is aberrant in the mature shoot regions. This study examined the causes of this altered development, and in particular whether the mutant phenotype is a consequence of defects at the shoot apex, or whether post-meristematic events are involved. Methods: The distribution of flower pedicels and vascular traces was examined in cross-sections of mature shoots; sequential replicas were used to investigate the phyllotaxis and geometry of shoot apices, and growth of the young stem surface. The expression pattern of CUC3 was analysed by examining its promoter activity. Key Results: Phyllotaxis irregularity in the cuc2 cuc3 double mutant arises during the post-meristematic phase of shoot development. In particular, growth and cell divisions in nodes of the elongating stem are not restricted in the mutant, resulting in pedicel-stem fusion. On the other hand, phyllotaxis in the mutant shoot apex is nearly as regular as that of the wild type. Vascular phyllotaxis, generated almost simultaneously with the phyllotaxis at the apex, is also much more regular than pedicel phyllotaxis. The most apparent phenotype of the mutant apices is a higher number of contact parastichies. This phenotype is associated with increased meristem size, decreased angular width of primordia and a shorter plastochron. In addition, the appearance of a sharp and deep crease, a characteristic shape of the adaxial primordium boundary, is slightly delayed and reduced in the mutant shoot apices. Conclusions: The cuc2 cuc3 double mutant displays irregular phyllotaxis in the mature shoot but not in the shoot apex, thus showing a post-meristematic effect of the mutations on phyllotaxis. The main cause of this effect is the formation of pedicel-stem fusions, leading to an alteration of the axial positioning of flowers. Phyllotaxis based on the position of vascular flower traces suggests an additional mechanism of post-meristematic phyllotaxis alteration. Higher density of flower primordia may be involved in the post-meristematic effect on phyllotaxis, whereas delayed crease formation may be involved in the fusion phenotype. Promoter activity of CUC3 is consistent with its post-meristematic role in phyllotaxis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved.

  14. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  15. Nitric oxide and iron modulate heme oxygenase activity as a long distance signaling response to salt stress in sunflower seedling cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Bhatla, Satish C

    2016-02-29

    Nitric oxide is a significant component of iron signaling in plants. Heme is one of the iron sensors in plants. Free heme is highly toxic and can cause cell damage as it catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Its catabolism is carried out by heme oxygenase (HOs; EC 1.14.99.3) which uses heme both as a prosthetic group and as a substrate. Two significant events, which accompany adaptation to salt stress in sunflower seedlings, are accumulation of ROS and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) in roots and cotyledons. Present investigations on the immunolocalization of heme oxygenase distribution in sunflower seedling cotyledons by confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging provide new information on the differential spatial distribution of the inducible form of HO (HO-1) as a long distance in response to NaCl stress. The enzyme is abundantly distributed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals (SCs) in seedling cotyledons. Abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins has also been observed in the specialized cells around the secretory canals in cotyledons derived from salt stressed seedlings. The spatial distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins and HO-1 expression further correlates with the abundance of mitochondria in these cells. Present findings, thus, highlight a link among distribution of HO-1 expression, abundance of tyrosine nitrated proteins and mitochondria in specialized cells around the secretory canal as a long distance mechanism of salt stress tolerance in sunflower seedlings. Enhanced spatial distribution of HO-1 in response to NaCl stress in seedling cotyledons is in congruence with the observed increase in specific activity of HO-1 in NaCl stressed conditions. The enzyme activity is further enhanced by hemin (HO-1 inducer) both in the absence or presence of NaCl stress and inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin. Western blot analysis of cotyledon homogenates using anti-HO-1 polyclonal antibody shows one major band (29

  16. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  17. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  18. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  19. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  20. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  1. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  2. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  3. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  4. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  5. Labelling of glycerolipids in the cotyledons of developing oilseeds by (1-/sup 14/C) acetate and (2-/sup 3/H) glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, C R; Roughan, P G; Balasingham, N [Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand). Div. of Plant Physiology

    1978-02-15

    3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine was identified as the major lipid in cotyledons from the developing seeds of soya bean, linseed and safflower when tissue was steamed before lipid extraction. Incubation for up to 3h changed the composition of this lipid and of diacylglycerol. Labelling studies, including pulse-chase experiments, were carried out with (1-/sup 14/C) acetate and (2-/sup 3/H) glycerol supplied to detached cotyledons. The results suggest a rapid turnover of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol accumulation in developing oilseeds, and are consistent with the operation of a biosynthetic route whereby oleate initially esterified to the phospholipid is first desaturated, then polyunsaturated fatty acids transferred to triacylglycerol, via diacylglycerol. The possible role of oleoyl phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for oleate desaturation is discussed.

  6. Labelling of glycerolipids in the cotyledons of developing oilseeds by [1-14C] acetate and brace2-3H] glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, C.R.; Roughan, P.G.; Balasingham, N.

    1978-01-01

    3-sn-Phosphatidylcholine was identified as the major lipid in cotyledons from the developing seeds of soya bean, linseed and safflower when tissue was steamed before lipid extraction. Incubation for up to 3h changed the composition of this lipid and of diacylglycerol. Labelling studies, including pulse-chase experiments, were carried out with [1- 14 C] acetate and [2- 3 H] glycerol supplied to detached cotyledons. The results suggest a rapid turnover of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol accumu-lation in developing oilseeds, and are consistent with the operation of a biosynthetic route whereby oleate initially esterified to the phospholipid is first desaturated, then polyunsaturated fatty acids transferred to triacylglycerol, via diacylglycerol. The possible role of oleoyl phosphatidylcholine as a substrate for oleate desaturation is discussed. (author)

  7. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  8. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  9. Local induction of senescence by darkness in Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) cotyledons or the primary leaf induces opposite effects in the adjacent illuminated organ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, K.; Ananiev, E. D.; Doncheva, S.; Stefanov, D.; Mishev, K.; Kamínek, Miroslav; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre; Malbeck, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2011), s. 459-471 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600380701; GA AV ČR IAA600380805; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06034; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cotyledons * Cytokinins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2011

  10. Functional and RNA-sequencing analysis revealed expression of a novel stay-green gene from Zoysia japonica (ZjSGR caused chlorophyll degradation and accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Teng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is not only an important developmental process, but also a responsive regulation to abiotic and biotic stress for plants. Stay-green protein plays crucial roles in plant senescence and chlorophyll degradation. However, the underlying mechanisms were not well studied, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, a novel stay-green gene, ZjSGR, was isolated from Zoysia japonica. Subcellular localization result demonstrated that ZjSGR was localized in the chloroplasts. Quantitative real-time PCR results together with promoter activity determination using transgenic Arabidopsis confirmed that ZjSGR could be induced by darkness, ABA and MeJA. Its expression levels could also be up-regulated by natural senescence, but suppressed by SA treatments. Overexpression of ZjSGR in Arabidopsis resulted in a rapid yellowing phenotype; complementary experiments proved that ZjSGR was a functional homologue of AtNYE1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of ZjSGR accelerated chlorophyll degradation and impaired photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that overexpression of ZjSGR decomposed the chloroplasts structure. RNA sequencing analysis showed that ZjSGR could play multiple roles in senescence and chlorophyll degradation by regulating hormone signal transduction and the expression of a large number of senescence and environmental stress related genes. Our study provides a better understanding of the roles of SGRs, and new insight into the senescence and chlorophyll degradation mechanisms in plants.

  11. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  12. Influência da remoção de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de leguminosas Effect of cotyledon removal on cotyledonal axillary shooting in seedlings of leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaci Fernandes de Oliveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos inteiramente casualizados foram conduzidos em condições de viveiro com o objetivo de verificar a importância da permanência de cotilédones no desenvolvimento de ramificações nas axilas cotiledonares de plântulas de Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. e Delonix regia L. Os tratamentos foram: remoção de ambos os cotilédones nos primeiro, segundo e terceiro dias da emergência, remoção de um só cotilédone no primeiro dia da emergência e não remoção de cotilédones. A recuperação do desenvolvimento em plântulas de P. vulgaris, avaliada através da ocorrência de ramificações, independe do número de cotilédones removidos no período de um a três dias da emergência, mas é menos eficiente que em V. unguiculata. A remoção de ambos os cotilédones em plântulas de V. unguiculata, no dia da emergência, afetou a recuperação do desenvolvimento dessas plântulas em comparação com os outros tratamentos. Em plântulas de L leucocephala, P. juliflora, T. indica e D. regia, a remoção de ambos os cotilédones, no período de um a três dias da emergência, sugere o aumento de mortalidade nessas plântulas. A remoção de um único cotilédone não afetou significativamente o percentual de sobrevivência das plântulas nem limitou o surgimento de brotações à axila cotiledonar correspondente ao cotilédone removido.Completely randomized experiments under greenhouse conditions were carried to study the role of cotyledons on the cotyledonal axillary shooting of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De Wit, Prosopis juliflora (Sw., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia L. The seedlings underwent the following treatments: removal of both cotyledons on the first to the third day after emergence, removal of only one cotyledon on the first day of emergence, and no cotyledon

  13. Effects of gamma-rays irradiation in seed of mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) composition of media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Dameria; H, Soeranto

    1998-01-01

    Study the effects of gamma-rays irradiation and composition and media on shoot regeneration of explants from node of cotyledon of mungbean. Wallet variety have been conducted. The explants derived of irradiated seeds of 10-20 Gy of gamma rays were planted in the 0.7% agar solution. One day after planting in the agar media the embryo axis of germinate seed were removed and the node of cotyledon were cultured in the regeneration media as examples. The results shown that shoot regeneration was influenced by media composition and the doses of gamma rays irradiation in seed. In the MURASHIGE and SKOOG medium which contain of BAP or 2-iP or Kinetin with 3 ppm concentrate respectively the explants could produced 100% of shoots. However, the highest. number of produced shoot (3 shoots) was showed in the medium which contained of BAP. The medium with I ppm concentrate od BAP could produced 100% shoot regeneration and the maximum number of shoots (4 shoots) per explant was showed in with 5 ppm. concentrate of BAP. The effectivity off BAP for shoot regeneration by enrichment of 12 ppm Ag 2 SO 4 in the media. Irradiation of 10-20 Gy gamma rays on seeds of mungbean walet variety could improved shoot regeneration of explants from node cotyledon. (author)

  14. Ultraviolet light inhibition of phytochrome-induced flavonoid biosynthesis and DNA photolyase formation in mustard cotyledons (Sinapis alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, G.; Ehmann, B.; Wellmann, E.

    1995-01-01

    In cotyledons of etiolated mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, phytochrome-far-red-absorbing form-induced flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be inhibited by short-term ultraviolet (UV) irradiations. UV inhibition was shown for the synthesis of quercetin, anthocyanin, and also for the accumulation of the mRNA for chalcone synthase, the key enzyme of this pathway. The UV effect was more pronounced on flavonoid biosynthesis, a process that selectively occurs in the epidermal layers, than on the synthesis of mRNA for chlorophyll a/b-binding protein localized in the mesophyll tissue. These UV inhibitory effects were accompanied by cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation showing a linear fluence-response relationship. CPD formation and UV inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be partially reversible by blue/UV-A light via DNA photolyase (PRE), allowing photoreactivation of the DNA by splitting of CPDs, which are the cause of the UV effect. Like flavonoid formation PRE was also induced by the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome and induction was inhibited by UV. A potential risk of inhibition, in response to solar UV-B irradiation, was shown for anthocyanin formation. This inhibition, however, occurred only if photoreactivation was experimentally reduced. The PRE activity present in the etiolated seedlings (further increasing about 5-fold during light acclimatization) appears to be sufficient to prevent the persistence of CPDs even under conditions of high solar irradiation

  15. Effect of elevated manganese on the ultraviolet- and blue light-absorbing compounds of cucumber cotyledons and leaf tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of manganese [Mn(II)] on the pigments of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Poinsett 76) leaf and cotyledon tissues was investigated. Tissue disks (7 mm) were exposed to increasing Mn(II) concentrations from 100 micromolar to 2.5 mM. Acetone (carotenoid-rich fraction) and acidified methanol (flavonoid-rich fraction) extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Although none of the Mn(II)-treated tissues showed visible damage, Mn(II) at concentrations of 250 micromolar and above significantly reduced (60%) the beta-carotene levels of light-incubated leaf tissues. A major Mn(II)-induced, UV-absorbing compound was observed in methanol extracts of cotyledonary tissues exposed to Mn(II) in the dark. In leaf tissues, Mn(II) reduced the levels of certain UV-absorbing compounds under both light conditions. These results demonstrate that excess leaf Mn(II) can rapidly impair isoprenoid metabolism, altering tissue carotenoid composition. Furthermore, Mn(II) may also modify phenylpropanoid metabolism, changing the tissue flavonoid composition. Both situations could sensitize plant tissues to oxidative stresses, particularly enhanced solar UV-B radiation, and may reduce the nutritional quality of leafy vegetables

  16. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  18. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  19. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  20. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  1. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  2. Molecular basis of processing-induced changes in protein structure in relation to intestinal digestion in yellow and green type pea (Pisum sativum L.): A molecular spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Warkentin, Tom; Niu, Zhiyuan; Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-12-05

    The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify the protein inherent molecular structural features of green cotyledon (CDC Striker) and yellow cotyledon (CDC Meadow) pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds using molecular spectroscopic technique (FT/IR-ATR); (2) measure the denaturation of protein molecular makeup in the two types of pea during dry roasting (120°C for 60 min), autoclaving (120°C for 60 min) or microwaving (for 5 min); and (3) correlate the heat-induced changes in protein molecular makeup to the corresponding changes in protein digestibility determined using modified three-step in vitro procedure. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had higher (Pprotein content. Compared with yellow-type, the green-type peas had lower (Pprotein secondary structure makeup. All processing applications increased α-helix:β-sheet ratio, with the largest (Pprotein within the green (r=-0. 86) and yellow (r=0.81) pea-types. However, across the pea types the correlation was not significant. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses on the entire spectral data from the amide region (ca. 1727-1480 cm(-1)) were able to visualize and discriminate the structural difference between pea varieties and processing treatments. This study shows that the molecular spectroscopy can be used as a rapid tool to screen the protein value of raw and heat-treated peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of heat shock protein 70 gene from the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis responding to thermal stress and exposure of Cu(2+) and malachite green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Qizhong

    2012-04-15

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) acts mostly as a molecular chaperone and plays a key role in the process of protecting cells by facilitating the folding of nascent peptides and the cellular stress response. The cDNA of the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis hsp70 (designated chhsp70) was cloned with the techniques of homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length chhsp70 cDNA was 2251bp, consisting of a 130bp 5'-UTR, 216bp 3'-UTR with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 1905bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 634 amino acids. Three classical HSP signature motifs were detected in ChHSP70, i.e., DLGTT-S-V, IFDLGGGTFDVSIL and VVLVGGSTRIPKIQK. BLAST analysis revealed that the ChHSP70 shared high identity with other bivalve HSP70. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ChHSP70 was a member of the HSP70 family. The chhsp70 mRNA transcripts were quantified by fluorescent real time RT-PCR under both unstressed and stressed conditions, i. e., heat shock and exposure to Cu(2+) and malachite green. Basal expression level was similar in mantle, gill, digestive gland, and heart, but higher in muscle than that in the others. A similar trend showed that the chhsp70 mRNA expression significantly increased at 3-6h, then dropped and returned to control level at 24h in the five tissues and organs mentioned above after heat shock. A clearly time-dependent expression pattern of chhsp70 mRNA in digestive gland and gill of the oyster was observed after exposure of Cu(2+) and malachite green. In the two tissues, the chhsp70 mRNA level reached the maximum at 6h after malachite green exposure and on day 4 after Cu(2+) exposure, and then decreased progressively to the control level. The results indicated that ChHSP70 of the oyster is an inducible protein, and plays an important role in response to the Cu(2+) and malachite green polluted stress, so chhsp70 might be used as a potential molecular

  4. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  5. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  6. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  7. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  8. Changes in the levels of major sulfur metabolites and free amino acids in pea cotyledons recovering from sulfur deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnicol, P.K.; Randall, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in levels of sulfur metabolites and free amino acids were followed in cotyledons of sulfur-deficient, developing pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) for 24 hours after resupply of sulfate, during which time the legumin mRNA levels returned almost to normal. Two recovery situations were studied: cultured seeds, with sulfate added to the medium, and seeds attached to the intact plant, with sulfate added to the roots. In both situations the levels of cysteine, glutathione, and methionine rose rapidly, glutathione exhibiting an initial lag. In attached but not cultured seeds methionine markedly overshot the level normally found in sulfur-sufficient seeds. In the cultured seed S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), but not S-methylmethionine, showed a sustained rise; in the attached seed the changes were slight. The composition of the free amino acid pool did not change substantially in either recovery situation. In the cultured seed the large rise in AdoMet level occurred equally in nonrecovering seeds. It was accompanied by 6-fold and 10-fold increases in γ-aminobutyrate and alanine, respectively. These effects are attributed to wounding resulting from excision of the seed. 35 S-labeling experiments showed that there was no significant accumulation of label in unidentified sulfur-containing amino compounds in either recovery situation. It was concluded from these results and those of other workers that, at the present level of knowledge, the most probable candidate for a signal compound, eliciting recovery of legumin mRNA level in response to sulfur-feeding, is cysteine

  9. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  10. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  11. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effect of the harvest season on the composition of raw and fermented cotyledons of 2 varieties of cacao and shell fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios Alvarado, J; Villacís, F E; Zamora, G F

    1983-06-01

    A study was carried out wherein during the period August 1979 to January 1980, samples of raw and fermented cacao were analyzed monthly. These included two varieties: Arriba, taken from a farm in "Quevedo", and the EET-19, grown in "Pichilingüe" by the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP). Taking the ear of cacao as a basis, the weight of its main parts was determined. The proximal composition was established in the cotyledons, with significant statistical differences in regard to moisture, protein, and ether extract content according to the month of harvest. As to the fermentation process, differences in moisture, ether extract and ash content were detected; differences in the ether extract and ash content were found between the two varieties. The fat extracted from the cotyledons presented different iodine, saponification and acidity index values between the raw and fermented samples, but none were determined between the varieties; as far as the month of harvest is concerned, differences in the acidity index were observed. The percentage composition of the main fatty acids is reported (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids). In order to suggest possible industrial ways of utilizing the cacao shell by-product which is discarded by the shelling machine, the chemical characteristics of five fractions were determined based on the functioning of the shelling machine. The moisture, protein, ether extract, ash, crude fiber, theobromine, and caffeine contents varied among the fractions, and it was dependent on the broken "nibs" content. Differences in the protein, ether extract, and ash content, according to the months of production, were found. Obviously, the high fat content in fractions A (fine dust) and B (fine ground), which varied from 30 to 11 g/100 g, merits its extraction; the remainder meal has a valuable protein and alkaloid content. The chemical characteristics of the fat extracted from the shell of two fractions were similar to

  13. Some studies on the composition and surface properties of oil bodies from the seed cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and linseed (Linum ustatissimum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, C R; Bertaud, W S; Shaw, B D; Holland, R; Browse, J; Wright, H

    1980-01-01

    1. The average oil-body diameter in intact cells of developing linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cotyledons was similar (about 1.4 micrometer), and there was little change in size after oil bodies were isolated and repeatedly washed. 2. The glycerolipid composition of washed oil bodies from both developing and mature cotyledons of the two species was similar; oil bodies from ten different batches of cotyledons contained 4.3 +/- 0.16 mumol of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine and 25.2 +/- 1.7 mumol of diacylglycerol per 1000 mumol of triacylglycerol. During four successive washings of a once-washed oil-body preparation, the proportion of diacylglycerol to triacylglycerol remained constant and that of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine to triacylglycerol decreased by only 20%. 3. The protein content of thrice-washed oil bodies from the two species was similar, about 2.4% of the weight of glycerolipids, and appeared to be independent of the stage of cotyledon maturity. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis indicated that the protein of purified oil bodies from the two species consisted mainly of only four polypeptides and that two of the polypeptides from each species had apparent mol.wts. of 17500 and 15500. Similar patterns of polypeptides were obtained after the hydrolysis of the 15500-mol.wt. polypeptides from linseed and safflower oil bodies by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, whereas the proteolysis of the 17500-mol.wt. polypeptides from the two species produced different patterns of polypeptides. 4. The 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine in oil-body preparations was hydrolysed about 85% by bee-venom phospholipase A2 without any apparent coalescence of the oil bodies. Incubation with lipase from Rhizopus arrhizus caused rapid coalescence of the oil bodies, and this lipase appeared to initially hydrolyse diacylglycerols in preference to triacylglycerol. 5. Oil bodies from both species were almost completely dispersed in suspensions of

  14. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  15. Cryopreservation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled primordial germ cells with GFP fused to the 3' untranslated region of the nanos gene by vitrification of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) somite stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Y; Ishihara, M; Saito, T; Fujimoto, T; Adachi, S; Arai, K; Yamaha, E

    2012-12-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the only cell type in developing embryos with the potential to transmit genetic information to the next generation. In this study, PGC of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) were visualized by injection of mRNA synthesized from a construct carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene fused to the 3' untranslated region of the Japanese eel nanos gene. We investigated the feasibility of cryopreserving Japanese eel PGC by vitrification of dechorionated whole somite stage embryos. The GFP-labeled PGC were rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen after exposure to a pretreatment solution containing 1.5 M cryoprotectant (methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and glycerol for 10 min and ethylene glycol for 10, 20, and 30 min) and a vitrification solution containing 3 M cryoprotectant and 0.5 M sucrose for 1, 5, and 10 min. Ethylene glycerol is an effective cryoprotectant for embryonic cells and shows no evidence of ice formation after thawing. Vitrified and thawed PGC were transplanted into blastula stage embryos from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The GFP-labeled PGC migrated toward the host gonadal ridge, suggesting maintenance of their normal migration motility. These techniques may assist in achieving inter- and intraspecies germ-line chimers using donor Japanese eel PGC.

  16. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  17. A new recycling technique for human placental cotyledon perfusion: application to studies of the fetomaternal transfer of glucose, inulin, and antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, J.M.; Tavoloni, N.; Potter, B.J.; Sarkozi, L.; Shepard, M.D.; Berk, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    A previously described technique has been modified to permit the continuously recirculating perfusion of the separate maternal and fetal circulations of an isolated cotyledon of human placenta. Viability of the perfused cotyledons was established by measurements of oxygen consumption (average, 0.18 ml/gm/hr), glucose utilization (average, 1.0 mg/gm/hr), and lactate production (less than 0.01 mumol/gm/hr), and integrity of the placental barrier by the failure of India ink, 125I-albumin, or 35S-sulfobromophthalein to cross from fetal to maternal circulation. Clearance of 3H-inulin from the fetal circuit, 0.0059 +/- 0.0005 (SE) ml/min/gm, corresponded to 2.5% of its clearance by the adult human kidney. Clearance of 14C-antipyrine was 0.013 +/- 0.003 ml/min/gm. After introduction into the fetal circuit, the observed appearance of both inulin and antipyrine in the maternal circuit closely paralleled curves predicted by a simple mathematical model. The use of a continuously recirculating perfusion system is technically feasible, and has advantages over the single-pass technique for studying transplacental transfer of metabolites with a low efficiency of extraction

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of a Dual-Function Green Fluorescent Protein–HSV1-Thymidine Kinase Reporter Gene Driven by the Human Elongation Factor 1α Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Luker

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Toward the goal of monitoring activity of native mammalian promoters with molecular imaging techniques, we stably transfected DU145 prostate carcinoma cells with a fusion construct of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and wild-type herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK as a reporter gene driven by the promoter for human elongation factor 1α (EF-1α-EGFP-TK. Using this model system, expression of EGFP was quantified by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while the HSV1-TK component of the reporter was quantified with 8-[3H]ganciclovir (8-[3H]GCV. As analyzed by flow cytometry, passage of EGFP-TK-DU145 transfected cells (ETK in vitro resulted in populations of cells with high and low expression of EGFP over time. High and low ETK cells retained 23-fold and 5-fold more GCV, respectively, than control. While differences in uptake and retention of GCV corresponded to relative expression of the reporter gene in each subpopulation of cells as determined by both flow cytometry (EGFP and quantitative RT-PCR, the correlation was not linear. Furthermore, in high ETK cells, net retention of various radiolabeled nucleoside analogues varied; the rank order was 8-[3H]GCV < 9-(4-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutylguanine ([18F]FHBG ≈ 8-[3H]penciclovir (8-[3H]PCV < 2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-5-iodouracil-beta-d-arabinofuranoside (2-[14C]FIAU. Xenograft tumors of ETK cells in vivo accumulated 2.5-fold more 8-[3H]GCV per gram of tissue and showed greater fluorescence from EGFP than control DU145 cells, demonstrating that the reporter gene functioned in vivo. These data extend previous reports by showing that a human promoter can be detected in vitro and in vivo with a dual-function reporter exploiting optical and radiotracer techniques.

  19. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarrouf, J; Castro-Quezada, P; Mallard, S; Caromel, B; Lizzi, Y; Lefebvre, V

    2012-02-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated with the two constructs pBIN-gus and pHKN29-gfp of A. rhizogenes strain A4RS. Foliar explants of both pepper genotypes infected by A4RS-pBIN-gus or A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced transformed roots. Optimal results were obtained using the combination of the foliar explants with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp. 20.5% of YW foliar explants and 14.6% of CM334 foliar explants inoculated with A4RS-pHKN29-gfp produced at least one root expressing uniform green fluorescent protein. We confirmed by polymerase chain reaction the presence of the rolB and gfp genes in the co-transformed roots ensuring that they integrated both the T-DNA from the Ri plasmid and the reporter gene. We also demonstrated that co-transformed roots of YW and CM334 displayed the same resistance response to Phytophthora capsici than the corresponding untransformed roots. Our novel procedure to produce C. annuum hairy roots will thus support the functional analysis of potential resistance genes involved in pepper P. capsici interaction.

  20. Effects of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proteolipid protein and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 messenger RNA gene expression in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Semnani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuprizone multiple sclerosis (MS animal model is characteristic for toxic demyelination and represents a reversible demyelination and remyelination system. It has been shown that green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG might be effective in improving the symptoms and pathological conditions associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases in several animal models. In this study the effects of EGCG on proteolipid protein (PLP and oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a murine model of cuprizone-induced demyelination was investigated. C57BL/6 mice were treated with cuprizone for six weeks in order to induce demyelination. Immediately after the cessation of cuprizone the animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 10 for each group. The first two groups were injected intraperitoneally (IP with EGCG in the amount of 50 mg/kg/daily body weight for 2 and 4 weeks. The second two groups (SHAM were injected IP with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS for 2 and 4 weeks, and the third two groups were left without injection as controls. After two and four weeks the mice were killed and the cerebral cortex was collected and the expression of Plp and Olig1 was studied by real-time PCR. The results showed significant increases in PLP and Olig1 expression in the EGCG-treated groups as compared to the SHAM and control groups (p < 0.0001. It is concluded that EGCG increases PLP and Olig1 expression in the cerebral cortex of a mouse model of MS induced by cuprizone.

  1. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  2. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  4. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  5. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  6. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  7. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  8. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  9. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  11. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Haojie; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lü, Beibei; Zhang, Shuping; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Ruoxue; Qian, Jun; Sun, Weiwei; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong

    2011-01-13

    Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2), one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana) plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. The repression in phloem-feeding activities of M. persicae as a result of AtPP2-A1 overexpression, and

  12. Natural modifiers of seed longevity in the Arabidopsis mutants abscisic acid insensitive3-5 (abi3-5) and leafy cotyledon1-3 (lec1-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.R.L.; Rajjou, L.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    • Seed longevity is an important trait in many crops and is essential for the success of most land plant species. Current knowledge of its molecular regulation is limited. The Arabidopsis mutants abscisic acid insensitive3-5 (abi3-5) and leafy cotyledon1-3 (lec1-3) have impaired seed maturation and

  13. Digestion of polysaccharides, protein and lipids by adult cockerels fed on diets containing a pectic cell-wall material from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Leclercq, B

    1985-11-01

    1. The cell-wall material of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) cotyledon is characterized by low contents of cellulose (47 g/kg) and lignin (17 g/kg) and a high content of pectic substances (710 g/kg). The digestion of lupin cell-wall material by adult cockerels was estimated using gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of alditol acetates derived from polysaccharide sugars. The analyses were performed in the destarched water-insoluble fractions of feed and excreta. Digestibility measurements were carried out using a 3 d balance period including a 2 d feeding period and a 24 h final starvation period. 2. In the first experiment, six animals were given a diet containing 510 g white lupin cotyledon flour/kg which was the only source of protein and cell walls in the diet. The apparent digestibility of cell-wall components was near zero. 3. In the second experiment, three diets were prepared by diluting a fibre-free basal diet (diet A) by a semi-purified cell-wall preparation introduced at two different levels: 100 g/kg (diet B) and 200 g/kg (diet C). The semi-purified cell walls were prepared from the white lupin cotyledon flour used in the first experiment. The true digestibilities of polysaccharides measured in birds given diets B and C were near zero. It is suggested that the measurement of the neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) content according to Van Soest & Wine (1967) is not a suitable procedure for estimating the undigestible fibre content in poultry nutrition as the cell-wall pectic substances are not included in the NDF measurement. 4. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) resulted in a slight decrease in the apparent protein digestibility. This decrease might be explained by the addition of undigestible cell-wall protein. 5. Addition of the semi-purified cell-wall preparation (Expt 2) had no effect on the apparent lipid digestibility. 6. The metabolizable energy values of the basal diet fraction of diets B and C were calculated assuming that

  14. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  15. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  16. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  17. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  18. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  19. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  20. Nuclear transfer alters placental gene expression and associated histone modifications of the placental-specific imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Daniel R; Gaspar, Roberta C; da Rocha, Carlos V; Sangalli, Juliano R; de Bem, Tiago H C; Corrêa, Carolina A P; Penteado, João C T; Meirelles, Flavio V; Lopes, Flavia L

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal placental development is frequent in nuclear transfer (NT) pregnancies and is likely to be associated with altered epigenetic reprogramming. In the present study, fetal and placental measurements were taken on Day 60 of gestation in cows with pregnancies produced by AI, IVF and NT. Placentas were collected and subjected to histological evaluation, the expression of genes important in trophoblast differentiation and expression of the placental imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2), as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for histone marks within the promoter of PHLDA2. Fewer binucleated cells were observed in NT cotyledons, followed by IVF and AI cotyledons (P<0.05). Expression of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 1 (HAND1), placental lactogen (PL), pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 9 (PAG-9) and PHLDA2 was elevated in NT cotyledons compared with AI cotyledons. Expression of PHLDA2 was higher in IVF than AI samples (P<0.05). ChIP revealed an increase in the permissive mark dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me2), surprisingly associated with the silent allele of PHLDA2, and a decrease in the inhibitory mark H3K9me2 in NT samples. Thus, genes critical for placental development were altered in NT placentas, including an imprinted gene. Allele-specific changes in the permissive histone mark in the PHLDA2 promoter indicate misregulation of imprinting in clones. Abnormal trophoblast differentiation could have resulted in lower numbers of binucleated cells following NT. These results suggest that the altered expression of imprinted genes associated with NT are also caused by changes in histone modifications.

  1. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  2. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of miRNAs in the hypocotyl and cotyledon of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Meijuan; Li, Hui; Jin, Chuan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Chengbin; Song, Wenqin; Wang, Chunguo

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that have key regulatory functions in plant growth, development, and other biological processes. Hypocotyl and cotyledon are the two major tissues of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) seedlings. Tissue culture experiments have indicated that the regenerative abilities of these two tissues are significantly different. However, the characterization of miRNAs and their roles in regulating organ development in cauliflower remain unexplored. In the present study, two small RNA libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing technology. 99 known miRNAs belonging to 28 miRNA families were identified, in which 6 miRNA families were detected only in Brassicaceae. A total of 162 new miRNA sequences with single nucleotide substitutions corresponding to the known miRNAs, and 32 potentially novel miRNAs were also first discovered. Comparative analysis indicated that 42 of 99 known miRNAs and 17 of 32 novel miRNAs exhibited significantly differential expression between hypocotyl and cotyledon, and the differential expression of several miRNAs was further validated by stem-loop RT-PCR. In addition, 235 targets for 89 known miRNAs and 198 targets for 24 novel miRNAs were predicted, and their functions were further discussed. The expression patterns of several representative targets were also confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. The results identified that the transcriptional expression patterns of miRNAs were negatively correlated with their targets. These findings gave new insights into the characteristics of miRNAs in cauliflower, and provided important clues to elucidate the roles of miRNAs in the tissue differentiation and development of cauliflower.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  5. Trichoderma (Hypocrea) species with green ascospores from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.X.; Zhuang, W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Stromata of Trichoderma species having green ascospores were collected in various regions of China. Based on morphology of the sexual and asexual morph, culture characteristics, and sequence analyses of rpb2 and tef1 genes, 17 species with green ascospores were identified. Among them, Trichoderma

  6. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  7. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  8. Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Ahmed, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Bouhaouala-Zahar, B.; Stal, L.J.; Boudabbous, A.; El Bour, M.

    2018-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga Ulva rigida, collected from the coast of Tunisia, were isolated andsubsequently identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences and by phylogenetic analysis. The 71 isolates belong to four phyla:Proteobacteria (Alpha-and Gamma- subclasses),

  9. Cause of the Scion Death in Green Pepper Grafting System by a Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gug-Seoun Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was attempted to investigate a cause of the scion death in green pepper grafting system. A tobamovirus particle examined in the rootstock of the sample but not in the scion showing necrosis. The virus isolated from the rootstock was identified as Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. (PMMoV-2, by nucleotide sequence analysis and host plant reaction. The virus isolate infected systematically in 6 commercial rootstock varieties using for green pepper grafting seedling production. Green pepper varieties ``Long green mart`` and ``Daechan`` represented resistance to the virus showing local lesions only on the inoculated leaves and ``Manitda`` was systematically infected. In the experiment with grafting ``Long green mart`` or ``Daechan`` onto the those rootstocks, the upper leaves of the scions first showed vein necrosis and wilt symptoms 7 days after inoculation with PMMoV-2 on the cotyledon of the rootstock, following to the scion stem necrosis and then only the scion death. The virus was detected in the rootstock but not in the scion. However, ``Manitda`` of susceptible variety in the grafting system showed mottle symptom on the leaves of the scion but not necrosis on the plant. PMMoV-3 isolate, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2.3, did not cause the scion death in the grafting system. All of the varieties were susceptible to PMMoV-3. These results suggest that the scion death is caused by infecting with pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. in the green pepper grafting system combined with the susceptible rootstock and the resistance scion to the virus pathotype.

  10. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  11. Green tea proanthocyanidins cause impairment of hormone-regulated larval development and reproductive fitness via repression of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase, insulin-like peptide and cytochrome P450 genes in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson M Muema

    Full Text Available Successful optimization of plant-derived compounds into control of nuisance insects would benefit from scientifically validated targets. However, the close association between the genotypic responses and physiological toxicity effects mediated by these compounds remains underexplored. In this study, we evaluated the sublethal dose effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs sourced from green tea (Camellia sinensis on life history traits of Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto mosquitoes with an aim to unravel the probable molecular targets. Based on the induced phenotypic effects, genes selected for study targeted juvenile hormone (JH biosynthesis, signal transduction, oxidative stress response and xenobiotic detoxification in addition to vitellogenesis in females. Our findings suggest that chronic exposure of larval stages (L3/L4 to sublethal dose of 5 ppm dramatically extended larval developmental period for up to 12 days, slowed down pupation rates, induced abnormal larval-pupal intermediates and caused 100% inhibition of adult emergence. Further, females exhibited significant interference of fecundity and egg hatchability relative to controls (p < 0.001. Using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, our findings show that PA-treated larvae exhibited significant repression of AgamJHAMT (p < 0.001, AgamILP1 (p < 0.001 and AgamCYP6M2 (p < 0.001 with up-regulation of Hsp70 (p < 0.001. Females exposed as larvae demonstrated down-regulation of AgamVg (p = 0.03, AgamILP1 (p = 0.009, AgamCYP6M2 (p = 0.05 and AgamJHAMT (p = 0.02. Our findings support that C. sinensis proanthocyanidins affect important vectorial capacity components such as mosquito survival rates and reproductive fitness thus could be potentially used for controlling populations of malaria vectors.

  12. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  13. Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolic and its phytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Lima, Carolina A; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Mayworm, Marco A S

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolis. Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3-prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α-terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl-radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2, one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. Results The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. Conclusions The repression in phloem-feeding activities of

  16. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  17. Overexpression of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) WRKY gene, GhWRKY34, in Arabidopsis enhances salt-tolerance of the transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Na-Na; Gong, Si-Ying; Lu, Rui; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious threats in world agriculture, and often influences cotton growth and development, resulting in a significant loss in cotton crop yield. WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant response to high salinity stress, but little is known about the role of WRKY transcription factors in cotton so far. In this study, a member (GhWRKY34) of cotton WRKY family was functionally characterized. This protein containing a WRKY domain and a zinc-finger motif belongs to group III of cotton WRKY family. Subcellular localization assay indicated that GhWRKY34 is localized to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhWRKY34 in Arabidopsis enhanced the transgenic plant tolerance to salt stress. Several parameters (such as seed germination, green cotyledons, root length and chlorophyll content) in the GhWRKY34 transgenic lines were significantly higher than those in wild type under NaCl treatment. On the contrary, the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants exhibited a substantially lower ratio of Na(+)/K(+) in leaves and roots dealing with salt stress, compared with wild type. Growth status of the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants was much better than that of wild type under salt stress. Expressions of the stress-related genes were remarkably up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress, compared with those in wild type. Based on the data presented in this study, we hypothesize that GhWRKY34 as a positive transcription regulator may function in plant response to high salinity stress through maintaining the Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis as well as activating the salt stress-related genes in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  19. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  20. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  1. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  2. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  3. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  4. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  5. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  6. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  7. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Fei, Zhangjun; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2011-11-23

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5) was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  10. Green economy and green jobs; Vihreae talous ja vihreaet tyoet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkasalo, A.

    2012-05-15

    This report looks at discussions on a green economy and green jobs in international organizations such as the OECD, EU and UNEP. It also studies the structural change in the green economy in Finland and how this change will be brought forward by the year 2050 through low carbon technology and innovations. It draws special attention to how citizens' perception of risks and their development impact the approval and acceptance of climate policies and measures. Finland will continue to be a country that utilises natural resources, and where a large part of its industrial sector will be energy- and material-intensive forest, mining and basic metal industries. The following factors will have an impact on work: Energy production is mainly based on renewable energy sources such as bio-, wind and solar power. Energy and material efficiency are important targets; emissions will decrease also in work places. Repairs and wood-based building will increase; new houses will produce energy. Reuse will increase; former waste disposal sites will function as mines. Organic and GMO foodstuffs will become popular. Electric and hybrid cars will take over the markets. Environmental applications of gene- and nanotechnology will become widely used. Physical workplaces and strictly controlled working times will lose their importance; virtual offices and remote work become popular. Products will be produced to last, with renewable usage in mind, and repair and maintenance of products will become more common. Occupational health and safety issues are of paramount importance especially in bio-energy production, repair and maintenance work, as well as waste management. Especially nano- and biotechnology and hazardous chemicals require careful risk management; the precautionary principle is applied to them. Studies on a green economy and green jobs usually look very positively at the possibilities of creating new jobs through environmental policies. Employment estimates done in the past may

  11. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  12. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  13. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  15. Profiling the Phenolic Compounds of the Four Major Seed Coat Types and Their Relation to Color Genes in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirali, Mahla; Purves, Randy W; Vandenberg, Albert

    2017-05-26

    Phenolic compounds can provide antioxidant health benefits for humans, and foods such as lentils can be valuable dietary sources of different subclasses of these secondary metabolites. This study used LC-MS analyses to compare the phenolic profiles of lentil genotypes with four seed coat background colors (green, gray, tan, and brown) and two cotyledon colors (red and yellow) grown at two locations. The mean area ratio per mg sample (MARS) values of various phenolic compounds in lentil seeds varied with the different seed coat colors conferred by specific genotypes. Seed coats of lentil genotypes with the homozygous recessive tgc allele (green and gray seed coats) had higher MARS values of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and some flavonols. This suggests lentils featuring green and gray seed coats might be more promising as health-promoting foods.

  16. Plant regeneration from pulse-treated longitudinally sliced half cotyledon node explants of Turkish ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saglam S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage legume ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.] which is distributed in the Mediterranean region, is gaining importance in terms of economy and agriculture in Turkey. However, the full potential of the legume has yet to be realized due to the presence of neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-L-a, β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP causing lathyrism. This study aimed to develop an efficient micropropagation system using longitudinally sliced cotyledon node explants for use in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in the future. The results show that the maximum number of shoots per explant was achieved on MS medium solidified with 8 g/l isubgol gelled medium containing 0.30 mg/l BA-0.2 mg/l NAA. Well-developed shoots were rooted by pulse treatment with 50 mg/l IBA and culturing on an 8 g/l isubgol gel solidified MS medium. The results showed 60% rooting in the treated shoots. The rooted plantlets were transferred to pots containing sand and organic matter and acclimatized.

  17. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  18. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  19. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  20. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  1. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  2. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  3. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  4. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  5. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  6. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  7. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  8. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  9. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  10. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  11. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  12. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  13. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  14. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  15. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  16. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a catalase gene "HuCAT3" from pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) and its expression under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qiong; Gao, Guo-Li; Fan, Qing-jie; Qiao, Guang; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Tao; Peng, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Yong-Qiang

    2015-05-25

    Abiotic stresses usually cause H2O2 accumulation, with harmful effects, in plants. Catalase may play a key protective role in plant cells by detoxifying this excess H2O2. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) shows broad ecological adaptation due to its high tolerance to abiotic stresses, e.g. drought, heat and poor soil. However, involvement of the pitaya catalase gene (HuCAT) in tolerance to abiotic stresses is unknown. In the present study, a full-length HuCAT3 cDNA (1870 bp) was isolated from pitaya based on our previous microarray data and RACE method. The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid sequence shared 73-77% and 75-80% identity with other plant catalases, respectively. HuCAT3 contains conserved catalase family domain and catalytic sites. Pairwise comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that HuCAT3 is most similar to Eriobotrya japonica CAT, followed by Dimocarpus longan CAT and Nicotiana tabacum CAT1. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that HuCAT3 is mainly expressed in green cotyledons and mature stems, and was regulated by H2O2, drought, cold and salt stress, whereas, its expression patterns and maximum expression levels varied with stress types. HuCAT activity increased as exposure to the tested stresses, and the fluctuation of HuCAT activity was consistent with HuCAT3 mRNA abundance (except for 0.5 days upon drought stress). HuCAT3 mRNA elevations and HuCAT activities changes under cold stress were also in conformity with the cold tolerances among the four genotypes. The obtained results confirmed a major role of HuCAT3 in abiotic stress response of pitaya. This may prove useful in understanding pitaya's high tolerance to abiotic stresses at molecular level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  19. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  20. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  1. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  2. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  3. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  4. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  5. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  6. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  7. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  8. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  10. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  11. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  12. Putting on the green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  13. Green, Brown, and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kai Lai

    1995-01-01

    This volume shows modern probabilistic methods in action: Brownian Motion Process as applied to the electrical phenomena investigated by Green et al., beginning with the Newton-Coulomb potential and ending with solutions by first and last exits of Brownian paths from conductors.

  14. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  15. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  16. The Green Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  17. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  18. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their

  19. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  20. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  1. Lean Green Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  2. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  3. Nanoreactors for green catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Martino, M.T.; Abdelmohsen, L.K.E.A.; Rutjes, Floris P.J.T.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Hessel, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable and environmentally benign production are key drivers for developments in the chemical industrial sector, as protecting our planet has become a significant element that should be considered for every industrial breakthrough or technological advancement. As a result, the concept of green

  4. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve ...

  5. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  6. Frobenius Green functors

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    These notes provide an informal introduction to a type of Mackey functor that arises naturally in algebraic topology in connection with Morava $K$-theory of classifying spaces of finite groups. The main aim is to identify key algebraic aspects of the Green functor structure obtained by applying a Morava $K$-theory to such classifying spaces.

  7. Global Green Growth Institute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    Har man fulgt historien om Venstres gruppeformand Lars Løkkes rejser på 1. klasse i forbindelse med formandsposten for Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) er der sikkert nogle der undrer sig over, hvad GGGI er for en størrelse. Medierne præsenterer GGGI som en international klimaorganisation, der...

  8. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  9. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  10. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  11. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  12. Green function on product networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz Lombardía, Cristina; Carmona Mejías, Ángeles; Encinas Bachiller, Andrés Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Our objective is to determine the Green function of product networks in terms of the Green function of one of the factor networks and the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Schr odinger operator of the other factor network, which we consider that are known. Moreover, we use these results to obtain the Green function of spider networks in terms of Green functions over cicles and paths. Peer Reviewed

  13. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  14. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  15. Green mortgages in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, N.

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996 sustainable building of houses is also part of the fiscal Regulation for Green Projects (i.e. the stimulation of environment-friendly investments). The extension of that financial regulation resulted in a new product: Green Mortgages. The conditions that have to be met to be qualified for a Green Mortgage are briefly outlined

  16. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  17. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  18. Investing in a green future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Christa

    2018-01-01

    The growing green bond market reflects the financial sector's awakening to climate risk. New research examining the US municipal bond market suggests a positive green bond premium in recent years, driven by differences in credit quality. As climate-risk disclosure becomes more widespread, investors may show willingness to pay green premiums.

  19. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  20. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  1. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  3. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via...... a number of LEED and BREEAM cases the buildings which flow from corporate environmental responsibility. A number of office and university buildings are examined from three main perspectives- the architect, client and user. One key finding is that architectural innovation has been driven by ecological...

  4. The green protest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing public interest in the 'green' and the 'coloured' made the politicians alert. The ecological movement and the public initiatives show their effects. What 'utopists', 'crazy people' think about large technical development gains public importance. The uneasiness about a social development which was directed only by increasing spending power and permanent expansion, begins to articulate itself. Values such as solidarity and community, considerateness for fellow men and environment which had been eliminated in the past, are regaining their meaning. From the point of view of this steadily increasing movement, the phenomenon of the 'green parties' is investigated. In this context, the persons involved give their opinions, as well as representatives of the established parties, thus giving this volume the character of a documentation on an important trend in today's events. (orig.) [de

  5. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  6. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  7. of Brilliant Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seyrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hydrogel nanocomposites, based on κ-carrageenan polysaccharide, were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAM and maleic anhydride (MAH as comonomers in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and ammonium persulfate (APS,former as a crosslinking agent and the latter as an initiator. The hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD patterns, and their thermal stability was investigated by TGA thermal analysis. The hydrogel nanocomposites were evaluated using gel content measurements and swelling rate in distilled water and in saline solutions. The carbon nanotube content was examined in relation to its effect on the properties of nanocomposites. The results showed that with increasing carbon nanotube content, the rate of water absorbency and equilibrium swelling in distilled water decreased whereas the water absorbency in the saline solutions increased. Water retention capacity was also studied and the results indicated that the inclusion of carbon nanotube increased water retention under heating condition. Furthermore, the experimental conditions of adsorption kinetics and dynamics for the removal of cationic dye, Brilliant Green (BG, were studied in the range of 6-8 for pH, 10-60 min for time (t, and 10-300 mg/L for initial concentration (C0 of the dye. The optimum conditions obtained for adsorption of Brilliant Green dye were pH 7, t= 50 min and C0= 10 mg/L. Also, the results indicated that more than 98% of the maximum adsorption capacity toward Brilliant Green dye was achieved within the initial 10 min. The experimental tests showed that the hydrogels could be used as fast–responsive and high capacity sorbents in Brilliant Green removal processes from industrial waste water.

  8. Green dentistry: The future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensudar Rathakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.

  9. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  10. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  11. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  12. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  13. Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, A L; Schmitt, T C; Heinze, T M; Cerniglia, C E

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal microfloras from human, rat, mouse, and monkey fecal samples and 14 pure cultures of anaerobic bacteria representative of those found in the human gastrointestinal tract metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green to leucomalachite green. The reduction of malachite green to the leuco derivative suggests that intestinal microflora could play an important role in the metabolic activation of the triphenylmethane dye to a potential carcinogen.

  14. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  15. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  16. Green roofs and the LEED green building rating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, R. [Sustainable Solutions Inc., Wagoner, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The sustainable building industry is becoming increasingly aware of the host of public and private benefits that green roofs can provide in built environments. In dense urban environments, green roofs function to reduce stormwater runoff, urban heat island effects, and particulate matter (PM) pollution. The emerging green roof industry is now poised to support the efforts of green building networks in North America. This paper discussed the general benefits of green roofs, and their recognition within the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. A case study of Mountain Equipment Co-op's Winnipeg site was presented. The building's green roof was directly responsible for earning 5 credits and contributing to the achievement of an additional 2 credits under the LEEDS certification process. Credits were earned for reduced site disturbance; landscape design to reduce heat islands; and water efficiency. The green roof at the site provided the vast majority of the building's cooling needs through an evaporative cooling trough. A photovoltaic pump was used to feed the building's irrigation system, as well as to pump ground water through cooling valances. It was concluded that the rise of sustainable building practices and the LEED Green Building Rating System will revolutionize the way new buildings are constructed.

  17. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  18. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  19. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...

  20. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  1. Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed

  2. Campaign Country Going Green?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    justification. This paper finally discusses the reason for this greening of government initiated Danish energy saving campaigns, which is seen as an indirect result of the 1987 UN report, Our Common Future. The 1988 general election in Denmark led to the formation of a new center-right government coalition...... economics and not least a significant portion of patriotism. Environmental justification was almost entirely absent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. This changed only from 1989 onwards, as government initiatives to curb the ever rising consumption of energy commenced an extensive use of environmental...

  3. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  4. Green Tourism Marketing Model1

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Green Tourism Marketing Model research as efforts to develop environmentally friendly tourism destination, the synergy of government, business and community participation become the driving force of tourism product development with highly competitive. In the long term, this research aims to provide the marketing concept of green tourism as economic development efforts and strengthen the environment (eco-growth) through the development of green tourism marketing models. The ...

  5. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  6. Indução de fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja em resposta a derivados de folhas de pitangueira Induction of phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean in response to the derivatives of leaf surinan cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A demanda mundial por alimentos isentos de agrotóxicos tem impulsionado a pesquisa para a busca de métodos alternativos ao controle de patógenos em plantas. A ativação dos mecanismos de defesa com o uso de indutores vem demonstrando ser uma alternativa viável e promissora. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais tem demonstrado capacidade para induzir a produção de fitoalexinas, como um mecanismo de defesa em plantas tratadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o potencial da planta Eugenia uniflora L. (pitangueira em induzir fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja (Glycine max. Os derivados de extrato alcoólico, infusão, maceração e decocção, obtidos de folhas de pitangueira, foram usados nas concentrações de 0,1; 1; 10 e 40%, além de óleo essencial. Água foi utilizada como controle e quitosana (1% como indutor de referência. Os preparados de pitangueira apresentaram capacidade de indução das fitoalexinas gliceolinas em cotilédones de soja, respondendo ao aumento das concentrações dos preparados. O óleo essencial apresentou destacável efeito na indução de fitoalexinas, sendo superior aos demais preparados. Quitosana induziu fitoalexinas em cotilédones de soja e pode ser utilizado em estudos similares como um indutor de referência.The worldwide demand for food without pesticides has stimulated the research on alternative methods to control pathogens in plants. The activation of defense mechanisms by inductors seems a viable and promising alternative. The use of medicinal plants extracts has demonstrated capacity to induce the production of phytoalexins, as a mechanism of defense in treated plants. The objective of this research was to verify the potential of Eugenia uniflora L. (surinan cherry to induce phytoalexins in cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max. The derivatives alcoholic extract, infusion, maceration and decoction, obtained of surinan cherry were used in the concentrations of 0.1; 1; 10 and 40%, beyond

  7. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  8. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  9. Product management in green markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čajka Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the concept of green product management. To create a significantly greener economy, there will need to be a range of new and greener products and technologies. Today we are faced with a growth in more innovative "clean technology" solutions. Successful development of new green products requires high levels of communication and integration, good information, early consideration of green issues, support from top management, and benchmarking. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools (product, price, place and promotion that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target green market, is the matter of the primary importance to the management.

  10. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  11. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  12. Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta and the Enolase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen E. W. Polle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae.

  13. Can Growth Be Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  14. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  16. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  17. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M. Chini; James F. Canning; Kelsey L. Schreiber; Joshua M. Peschel; Ashlynn S. Stillwell

    2017-01-01

    Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative...

  18. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee). The teleconference meetings are... Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  19. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  20. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  1. Green grabbing debate and Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Razafy, Fara Lala; Wurtzebach, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    and capitalise natural assets. First, to provide some context on the green grabbing debate, we discuss the trade-offs between conservation and development objectives. In addition, we refer briefly to the broader land grabbing debate of which green grabbing is a sub-component. Second, we question the theoretical...

  2. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  3. Summary of Green Building Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-08-01

    In early 2002, the National Association of Home Builders completed a census of residential green building programs across the United States to assess differences and similarities among programs. This report catalogs different ways that builders participate in residential green building programs.

  4. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  5. Being Green: Managing Chemical Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael Evan; Warncke, Esbern; Moseholm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The definitive, practical, go-to resource guide on helping all charities become more "green" Nonprofit Guide to Going Green is your comprehensive learning tool to guide nonprofits and NGOs towards becoming greener. A desktop reference for any charitable organization to become greener, this essent...

  6. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  7. Water for greening the economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ] for such an overview). The focus here falls on a discussion aimed to improve alignment between water resource management and the principles of a green economy. Previous chapters have made it clear that a green economy requires a holistic approach towards policy...

  8. Sound absorption with green materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  9. World green electricity, sustaining investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the green production to the world production of electricity reached 20.2% in 2011, it means a slight increase in respect to the figure of 2010: 19.8%. Green electricity is the second source of electricity behind fossil energy (67.9%) but before nuclear power (11.7%). The decrease in nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident has automatically benefited green electricity. The figures show the importance of China, China is now the first electricity producer in the world before US and also passed US for the production of green electricity. At the world scale the production of green electricity can break down into: hydro energy (80.5%), wind energy (10.3%), biomass (6.2%), geothermal energy (1.6%) and solar energy (1.4%). The crisis has slowed down the investment in renewable energies in Europe. (A.C.)

  10. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports......Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...

  11. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2014-01-01

    Typical problems in maritime logistics include, among others, optimal ship speed, ship routing and scheduling, fleet deployment, fleet size and mix, weather routing, intermodal network design, modal split, transshipment, queuing at ports, terminal management, berth allocation, and total supply...... chain management. The traditional analysis of these problems has been in terms of cost- benefit and other optimization criteria from the point of view of the logistics provider, carrier, shipper, or other end-user. Such traditional analysis by and large either ignores environmental issues, or considers...... them of secondary importance. Green maritime logistics tries to bring the environmental dimension into the problem, and specifically the dimension of emissions reduction, by analyzing various trade-offs and exploring ‘win-win’ solutions. This talk takes a look at the trade-offs that are at stake...

  12. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  13. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  14. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  15. Green chemistry at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  16. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  17. Going Green: The Business Case for Greening your Energy Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, Greg

    2007-07-01

    We are all familiar with the challenges facing the energy industry: supply security, climate change, emerging cleaner technologies, retail competition, staffing, and the quest for growth. This paper demonstrates how a proactive environmentally considered ('green') corporate approach addresses these issues and unlocks four tangible areas of value addition for energy companies. Based on over a decade of experience by the author in this emerging field, this paper provides some golden rules for companies considering the green approach and showcases an Australian market leading energy company who is unlocking green value. (auth)

  18. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  19. Green materials for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable development is an integrity of multidiscipline concept combining ecological, social and economic aspects to construct a liveable human living system. The sustainable development can be support through the development of green materials. Green materials offers a unique characteristic and properties including abundant in nature, less toxic, economically affordable and versatility in term of physical and chemical properties. Green materials can be applied for a numerous field in science and technology applications including for energy, building, construction and infrastructures, materials science and engineering applications and pollution management and technology. For instance, green materials can be developed as a source for energy production. Green materials including biomass-based source can be developed as a source for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Biomass-based materials also can be transformed into advanced functionalized materials for advanced bio-applications such as the transformation of chitin into chitosan which further used for biomedicine, biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Recently, cellulose-based material and lignocellulose-based materials as a source for the developing functional materials attracted the potential prospect for biomaterials, reinforcing materials and nanotechnology. Furthermore, the development of pigment materials has gaining interest by using the green materials as a source due to their unique properties. Eventually, Indonesia as a large country with a large biodiversity can enhance the development of green material to strengthen our nation competitiveness and develop the materials technology for the future.

  20. Defining and certifying green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Studies have shown that as electric utilities restructure from monopolistic utilities to competitive open access retailers, there is an increasing demand by individual and institutional customers for green power. In the United States, 17 electricity suppliers have offered customers the opportunity to buy energy generated from renewable sources such as photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and biomass. Twenty other utilities are conducting market research in preparation for offering a similar program. It was suggested that in order to help the customers make their choice based on accurate information, generating facilities should be obligated to provide credible information about the environmental performance of electricity supply through standardized environmental profile labels. A list of agreed upon environmental indicators and performance levels must be established so that the 'environmental friendliness' of different generating facilities can be measured. One of the problems in tackling this issue is that there is disagreement about what constitutes green power. Opinions range from wind and solar generation being the only two forms of green power, to including even natural gas and nuclear energy (i.e. under the right conditions). The two programs that are used for the certification of green power in Canada and the United States are Canada's Environmental Choice Program and California's Green-e Renewable Electricity Branding Program. This report describes the two programs and summarizes the results of interviews conducted on the definition and certification of green power. 15 refs

  1. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels and Cockle Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGreen mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animal protein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study was conducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samples of cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. The target gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant of virulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTG CCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescence signals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeria monocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminated by Listeria welshimeri.

  2. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Green's functions in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Economou, Eleftherios N

    2006-01-01

    The main part of this book is devoted to the simplest kind of Green's functions, namely the solutions of linear differential equations with a -function source. It is shown that these familiar Green's functions are a powerful tool for obtaining relatively simple and general solutions of basic problems such as scattering and bound-level information. The bound-level treatment gives a clear physical understanding of "difficult" questions such as superconductivity, the Kondo effect, and, to a lesser degree, disorder-induced localization. The more advanced subject of many-body Green's functions is presented in the last part of the book.

  4. Green Energy - Fiction and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberg, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Green Energy'' has been popularized to refer to energy sources that do not depend on fossil fuels. The oldest truly ``green'' energy source is wood fuel derived by photosynthesis for thermal comfort in the cold season. Thermal energy from the combustion of wood for personal heating in our 41 million fireplaces has greatly declined, due to an ``Anti-fireplace Hoax'' (1) that fireplaces are ``energy counterproductive.'' Physicists have a special obligation to address the problem that our major true source of ``Green Energy'' is widely misrepresented and neglected. 1. L. Cranberg, The Physics Teacher, Letter, January,l989

  5. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  6. Green Jobs in Tennessee: Economic Impact of Green Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Arik

    2011-01-01

    The term green jobs has been widely used to describe jobs in businesses that are particularly related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or environmental sustainability. The Business and Economic Research Center has partnered with the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development to estimate the economic impact of six ground-breaking green investments in Tennessee: Hemlock Semiconductor, Wacker Chemie AG, Volkswagen, Nissan Leaf and Storage Battery Manufacturing, Tennessee Sola...

  7. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Elena M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  8. Progress report on Green Deals 2013; Voortgangsrapportage Green Deals 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    In the Dutch governmental coalition agreement the Green Deal approach was announced in the autumn of 2010. The focus of the Green Deals is for people and companies to develop sustainable initiatives that contribute to economic growth. The Green Deal approach started with the theme energy, but has been extended with the themes biobased economy, climate, resources, buildings, food, mobility, water and biological diversity. This progress report provides an overview of the deals that this bottom-up approach has yielded. The report also provides information on the progress of the deals and the interim results of the approach and the individual deals. Also attention is paid to how the 146 Green Deals score on innovation and entrepreneurship [Dutch] In het regeerakkoord van het kabinet is in het najaar van 2010 de Green Deal-aanpak aangekondigd. Centraal in de aanpak staat dat mensen en bedrijven zoveel mogelijk ruimte krijgen voor eigen duurzame initiatieven die bijdragen aan economische groei. De aanpak is gestart vanuit het thema energie, maar beslaat inmiddels ook de thema's biobased economy, klimaat, grondstoffen, bouw, voedsel, mobiliteit, water en biodiversiteit. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de deals die deze bottom-up aanpak heeft opgeleverd. De rapportage informeert bovendien over de voortgang van de deals en over de tussentijdse resultaten van zowel de aanpak als de afzonderlijke deals. Ook wordt gekeken hoe de 146 Green Deals scoren op innovatief vermogen en ondernemerschap.

  9. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  10. Greening the Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kidd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of South Africa’s environmental law is relatively new. Most of South Africa’s judges received their formal legal educations before promulgation of the major part of our environmental law and almost certainly before environmental law was taught at universities. In recent years, there have been increasing instances of cases involving environmental matters coming to the courts. How are judges performing in these cases? It would appear that the judges’ performance is rather 'chequered' in environmental cases, which suggests that the judiciary needs to become more attuned to environmental law. I call this process, for purposes of this note, ‘greening the judiciary’. What I mean by this is not that judges must decide all environmental cases in a way that favours the environment, but that they must correctly consider, interpret and apply the relevant environmental law, and give environmental considerations appropriate deliberation. This note aims to identify, in admittedly somewhat general terms, the current state of environmental decision-making by judges and to suggest what needs to happen for such decisions to be improved.

  11. Renewing our green spaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN’s poplars were planted 50 years ago to soak up the surplus water in the ground beneath the Laboratory’s sites. Now that they have reached the end of their life-cycle, some of the poplars are in danger of falling or losing their dead branches. On Saturday, 17 April, as part of the campaign launched in February at Prévessin, work will start on replacing the poplars on central areas of the Meyrin site.   Replanting plan for the Cedars and kindergarten carparks. In July 2009, CERN was awarded an environmental label for its protection of rare flower species and the natural landscaping approach it has taken at its Meyrin site. The Laboratory has a very strict environmental policy: for years those in charge of CERN's green areas have given priority to natural management methods and have avoided the use of pesticides. In addition, patches of land are left unmowed in spring, allowing the local flora—especially the orchids—to grow naturally. Since l...

  12. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels (Perna viridis and Cockle Shell (Anadara granosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animalprotein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study wasconducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samplesof cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. Thetarget gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant ofvirulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTGCCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescencesignals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeriamonocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminatedby Listeria welshimeri.

  13. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanping; Yu Jingsheng; Sun Hongqiang; Hao Pu; Cai Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  14. Green Building and School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  15. Green Power Partnership Eligible Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Many different types of organizations are eligible to become Partners.

  16. Greening America's Capitals - Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report on the technical assistance project to help Austin, TX, develop a vision for the South Central Waterfront that incorporates green infrastructure to manage stormwater runoff, makes streets safer, and spurs investment.

  17. The Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prey preference of 3rd instar green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), between western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and lettuce aphids, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae...

  18. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  19. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    of the performance of a green corridor in terms of pre-specified Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The thesis builds on previous own work under the EUfinanced SuperGreen project and applies the new methodology on the GreCOR corridor extending from Oslo to Rotterdam. The scope of the two other objectives relates...... the rationale for a performance monitoring scheme has been established, the thesis critically reviews the SuperGreen methodology which consists of: (i) decomposing the corridor into transport chains, (ii) selecting a sample of typical chains, (iii) assessing these chains through a set of KPIs, and (iv......) aggregating the chain-level KPIs to corridor-level ones using proper weights. Unlike SuperGreen that suggests a study-based approach for constructing the corridor sample, the thesis proposes founding the selection of typical chains on the outcome of specialised transport models. The periodic collection...

  20. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  1. Remote sensing: A green illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Kamel; François, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    An analysis reveals that satellite-observed increases in canopy greenness during dry seasons, which were previously interpreted as positive responses of Amazon forests to more sunlight, are in fact an optical artefact. See Letter p.221

  2. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova; Sergey Nikolaevich Kirillov

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations...

  3. GREEN MARKETING AND GLOBAL SCENARIOS‎

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Jessy George; R. Jith

    2017-01-01

    Green Marketing must satisfy two objectives Improved Environmental Quality and Customer Satisfaction. Although no consumer product has a zero impact on the environment, in business, the terms "green product" and "environmental product" are used commonly to describe those that strive to protect or enhance the natural environment by conserving energy and/or resources and reducing or eliminating use of toxic agents, pollution, and waste. The present study has made an attempt to describe why the ...

  4. Green attitude and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Ingrid; Soretz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interdependence between green attitude and equilibrium development of environmental quality in an endogenous growth model. Individuals take only part of their impact on pollution into account, hence there is a negative externality of capital accumulation on environmental quality. Increasing wealth or increasing pollution enhance green attitude and reduce the externality, because individuals care more about the environment if their income is higher or if pollution is more obviou...

  5. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksit Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing “greener” construction without making significant changes in the urban environment.

  6. Green Cloud on the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mufajjul

    This paper proposes a Green Cloud model for mobile Cloud computing. The proposed model leverage on the current trend of IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and SaaS (Software as a Service), and look at new paradigm called "Network as a Service" (NaaS). The Green Cloud model proposes various Telco's revenue generating streams and services with the CaaS (Cloud as a Service) for the near future.

  7. THE MEDIATION EFFECTS OF GREEN PERCEIVED CONSUMER SKEPTICISM AND GREEN PERCEIVED RISK IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREENWASHING AND GREEN TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    LEBLEBİCİ KOÇER, Leyla; DELİCE, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out on the consumers in Kayseri and explores the influenceof greenwashing on green trust and discusses the mediation roles of green perceivedskepticism and green perceived risk. 430 consumers were participate in the research.Structural equation modelling was applied to test the research hypothesis. Thisstudy found that greenwashing has a negative association with green trust. In addition,it found that greenwashing is positively associated with green perceived consumersk...

  8. Managing consumer disengagement through green advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, E-Jian

    2017-01-01

    A discord is apparent between consumers’ concerns and their actual green behaviour – a surfacing issue that has obstructed effective green messages by advertisers. Four distinct consumer disengagement issues, including consumer backlash, environmental exhaustion, motivational challenges and social pressures were identified. This thesis explored cultural discourses surrounding green marketing and proposes green advertising strategies that address consumer disengagement. Using the Grounded Theo...

  9. Graham Greene: The Films of His Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gene D.

    This book makes a comparative study of the prose fiction of Graham Greene and the films made from that fiction. Special attention is focused upon the "cinematic" style of Greene's prose, the effect of Greene's screenwriting on his novels, and the characteristics of Greene's filmscripts. The book is divided into considerations of Greene…

  10. Green ergonomics: definition and scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.

  11. Consumer perceptions of green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Parker, P.; Scott, D.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between consumer perceptions of the environmental impact of different energy sources and their willingness to pay a premium for green electricity was examined using the ANOVA analysis of variance and the chi-square test procedures. Since green power producers can include several energy resources in their offerings, it is important to understand the preferences of their customers. A survey sent to 480 residents in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario showed that when asked about purchasing nuclear, large scale hydropower or natural gas out of a choice of 11 energy sources, there was a wide discrepancy between those who stated a willingness to pay a large premium for green power and those who stated a willingness to pay only a small, or no, premium for green power. It was determined that these 3 energy resources were not popular among the most environmentally inclined portion of the consumer market. It was noted however that willingness to pay should be interpreted with caution because peoples' stated intentions to pay a premium for green power do not necessarily translate into action once they have the opportunity to buy power from renewable energy sources. However, marketing strategies could be used to improve the uptake of green power by consumers. The study suggests that landfill gas, is probably preferred to large-scale hydro. It was also suggested that the relative position of biomass, natural gas, garbage and nuclear power should be examined more closely. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  12. GREEN CHEMISTRY: NEW CHEMICAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Tykhomirova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with the principles and guidelines of “Green chemistry” in comparison with the philosophy of nanotechnology. Modern philosophy and methodology of science research focus is on the process of the growth of scientific knowledge. Modern chemistry is complex, hierarchical, multilevel and multidimensional system. Philosophy of nanotechnology relies heavily on the value of scientism and the idea of domination of man over nature , there is an apology of human intervention in nature. “Green chemistry” is called “new thinking”of chemistry, philosophy of modern chemical research. The chemicals and processes in accordance with the principles of “Green chemistry” are considered not only in terms of production of substances and materials with desired properties, but also taking into account the consequences for the environment. In the “Green chemistry” created image of the “ideal customer” – he uses a minimum number of products understands the need to preserve the environment. Ideological landmark “Green chemistry” – co-evolution of man and nature, preservation of the biosphere. It emphasized the need to implement the ideology of “Green chemistry” in the training of future specialists.

  13. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  14. Re-evaluating the green versus red signal in eukaryotes with secondary plastid of red algal origin

    KAUST Repository

    Burki, Fabien; Flegontov, Pavel; Oborní k, Miroslav; Cihlá ř, Jaromí r; Pain, Arnab; Lukeš, Julius; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    genomes by reanalyzing the recently published EST dataset for Chromera velia, an interesting test case of a photosynthetic alga closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Previously, 513 genes were reported to originate from red and green algae in a 1

  15. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials

  16. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  17. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  18. Green power marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, S. [Selectpower Inc., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Selectpower Inc. is an unregulated affiliate of Guelph Hydro and was formed to market green energy alternatives. Details of their Selectwind program were reviewed in this presentation. The program is available to both individuals and organizations. Customers sign a 3 or 5 year agreement to purchase monthly blocks of wind energy at a premium of $6.53 per month, which is billed on their Hydro bill. Details of the program's business strategy and branding policy were presented. The program markets itself by using full page colour newspaper ads, direct mailing and making forms available at Selectpower retail stores, mall kiosks and community events. In addition, Selectwind leaders are profiled in Enernews, and also have a quarterly newsletter. An example of an order form was provided, as well as an outline of Selectwind educational materials and details of their quality assurance procedures, EcoLogo certification and guarantees. Fifty percent of customers currently buy more than 100 kWh per month, and several customers buy 100 per cent equivalent of their electricity use as Selectwind. Minimum Selectwind purchase is 1200 kWh per year with a 3 year contract. Approximately 100 MWh are purchased every month, and 3,607,494 kWh have been sold for the life of the contracts. Selectwind's combined emissions reduction commitments are 3,206 tonnes of CO{sub 2}. It was observed that 45,000 Ontario customer using wind energy represented 6.2 MW of installed capacity. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Green Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Patrick Barry [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  20. Frugal Innovation and Green Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2015-01-01

    The literature on ‘green business models’ is rapidly developing these years. This paper suggests that much existing work on green business models lacks a deeper theoretical understanding of eco-innovation and the green economy. The paper forwards an evolutionary economic perspective on green...... business models. This perspective departs in important ways from other approaches to green business models the implications of which are sought clarified and discussed in the paper. The paper argues for the need to link up green business model innovation to aggregate green economic change. The paper posits...... that the greening of the economy has reached such a stage of maturity where a generic ‘green business model’ is apparent. The paper points to eight characteristics of eco-innovation on the basis of which key changes to the business model are identified and schematised for the different stages of the green economic...

  1. The skeptical green consumer revisited: testing the relationship between green consumerism and skepticism toward advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthes, J.; Wonneberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the widely believed notion of the skeptical green consumer, in other words, that green consumers tend to distrust green advertising. Study 1, a survey of U.S. consumers, found no positive relationship between green consumerism and general ad skepticism. However, green

  2. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balde, K.; Boelens, A.; Brinksma, E.; Edens, B.; Hiethaar, S.; Klein, P.; Schenau, S.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  3. ADSORPTION MALACHITE GREEN ON NATURAL ZEOLITE

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Ariyanto

    2012-01-01

    A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for reducing of malachite green from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of malachite green in single system on natural zeolite. The adsorption studies indicate that malachite green in single component system follows the second-order kinetics and the adsorption is diffusion process with two stages for malachite green. Malachite green adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model.

  4. ADSORPTION MALACHITE GREEN ON NATURAL ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Ariyanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A natural zeolite was employed as adsorbent for reducing of malachite green from aqueous solution. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of malachite green in single system on natural zeolite. The adsorption studies indicate that malachite green in single component system follows the second-order kinetics and the adsorption is diffusion process with two stages for malachite green. Malachite green adsorption isotherm follows the Langmuir model.

  5. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár István

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. Results A de novo assembly of 1,334,609 next-generation pyrosequencing reads form the Showa strain of the B race of B. braunii yielded a transcriptomic database of 46,422 contigs with an average length of 756 bp. Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of pathways that produce terpenoid liquid hydrocarbons from primary metabolites, and pathways that divert photosynthetic carbon into tetraterpenoid carotenoids, diterpenoids, and the prenyl chains of meroterpenoid quinones and chlorophyll. Inventories of machine-assembled contigs are also presented for reconstructed pathways for the biosynthesis of competing storage compounds including triacylglycerol and starch. Regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and the extracellular localization of the hydrocarbon oils by active transport and possibly autophagy are also investigated. Conclusions The construction of an annotated transcriptomic database, publicly available in a web-based data depository and annotation tool, provides a foundation for metabolic pathway and network reconstruction, and facilitates further omics studies in the absence of a genome

  6. Progress report on Green Deals 2012; Voortgangsrapportage Green Deals 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    In the Dutch governmental coalition agreement the Green Deal approach was announced in the autumn of 2010. The focus of the Green Deals is for people and companies to develop sustainable initiatives that contribute to economic growth. This progress report provides an overview of the deals that this bottom-up approach has yielded. The report also provides information on the progress of the deals and the interim results of the approach and the individual deals. Also attention is paid to how the 131 Green Deals score on innovation and entrepreneurship [Dutch] In het regeerakkoord van het kabinet is in het najaar van 2010 de Green Deal-aanpak aangekondigd. Centraal in de aanpak staat dat mensen en bedrijven zoveel mogelijk ruimte krijgen voor eigen duurzame initiatieven die bijdragen aan economische groei. Deze voortgangsrapportage geeft een overzicht van de deals die deze bottom-up aanpak heeft opgeleverd. De rapportage informeert bovendien over de voortgang van de deals en over de tussentijdse resultaten van zowel de aanpak als de afzonderlijke deals. Ook wordt gekeken hoe de 131 Green Deals scoren op innovatief vermogen en ondernemerschap.

  7. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-02-15

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Green Mines green energy : establishing productive land on mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisch, B.; Zinck, J.; Vigneault, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Green Mines green energy research project was initiated by the CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories of Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the initiative was to demonstrate that organic residuals could be used to remediate mine tailings and establish agriculturally productive land where energy crops such as corn, canola, soy, switchgrass and other species could be grown and harvested specifically as feedstock for the production of green fuels. This paper discussed the scope and progress to date of the Green Mines green energy project. This included discussion about a column leaching study and about effluent treatability and toxicity. Neutralization test results and the results of field trials were presented. The paper concluded with a discussion of next steps. An advisory committee has been established to review annual progress and establish research directions. Overall, preliminary results from the column study suggest that sulphate reduction at the tailings-biosolids interface is occurring, although steady state has not yet been reached after more than one year of testing. 1 tab., 3 figs

  9. Complex distribution of EFL and EF-1α proteins in the green algal lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EFL (or elongation factor-like is a member of the translation superfamily of GTPase proteins. It is restricted to eukaryotes, where it is found in a punctate distribution that is almost mutually exclusive with elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α. EF-1α is a core translation factor previously thought to be essential in eukaryotes, so its relationship to EFL has prompted the suggestion that EFL has spread by horizontal or lateral gene transfer (HGT or LGT and replaced EF-1α multiple times. Among green algae, trebouxiophyceans and chlorophyceans have EFL, but the ulvophycean Acetabularia and the sister group to green algae, land plants, have EF-1α. This distribution singles out green algae as a particularly promising group to understand the origin of EFL and the effects of its presence on EF-1α. Results We have sampled all major lineages of green algae for both EFL and EF-1α. EFL is unexpectedly broad in its distribution, being found in all green algal lineages (chlorophyceans, trebouxiophyceans, ulvophyceans, prasinophyceans, and mesostigmatophyceans, except charophyceans and the genus Acetabularia. The presence of EFL in the genus Mesostigma and EF-1α in Acetabularia are of particular interest, since the opposite is true of all their closest relatives. The phylogeny of EFL is poorly resolved, but the Acetabularia EF-1α is clearly related to homologues from land plants and charophyceans, demonstrating that EF-1α was present in the common ancestor of the green lineage. Conclusion The distribution of EFL and EF-1α in the green lineage is not consistent with the phylogeny of the organisms, indicating a complex history of both genes. Overall, we suggest that after the introduction of EFL (in the ancestor of green algae or earlier, both genes co-existed in green algal genomes for some time before one or the other was lost on multiple occasions.

  10. Over-expression of KdSOC1 gene affected plantlet morphogenesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Li; Chen, Jinhua; Liu, Chenglan; Zeng, Huiming; Wang, Huafang

    2017-07-17

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis. Over-expression (OE) of the KdSOC1 gene resulted in asymmetric plantlet distribution, a reduced number of plantlets, thicker leaves, and thicker vascular fibers. Higher KdPIN1 gene expression and auxin content were found in OE plant compared to those of wild-type plant leaves, which indicated possible KdSOC1 gene role in affecting auxin distribution and accumulation. KdSOC1 gene OE in DR5-GUS Arabidopsis reporting lines resulted in an abnormal auxin response pattern during different stages of somatic embryogenesis. In summary, the KdSOC1 gene OE might alter auxin distribution and accumulation along leaf margin to initiate plantlet formation and distribution, which is crucial for plasticity during plantlet formation under various environmental conditions.

  11. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  12. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  13. The stem and leaf super green mutant induced by 60Co γ-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yubo; Liang Naiting; Buhaliqiem; Zhang Yinbao

    2003-01-01

    Super green gene mutant was developed from population of M 2 generation after the dry seeds of rice Huazhiwu from Japan with good quality and resistance to cold had been irradiated with 50 Gy 60 Co γ-ray. The leaf, sheath, panicle axis and petiole of mutant was characterized by deeply green, and did not turn yellow after maturing date. The chlorophyll content in straw is 2.2 times higher than that in common straw. The results of raising livestock showed that horse, donkey and sheep had evident selectivity to the green straw

  14. 78 FR 56703 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming... Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee) and the schedule for a series of conference..., Designated Federal Officer, [[Page 56704

  15. Green IT in Practice How One Company is Approaching the Greening of Its IT

    CERN Document Server

    Hird, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Green IT in Practice, Second edition provides guidance on how to implement a Green IT programme. It will help you to formulate a Green IT policy, curb demand for data storage capacity, and lower the electricity consumption of the datacentre.

  16. Green power: electricity's blue box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of green power is taking hold, and the speaker briefly outlined the various options available at the moment, such as low impact hydro, wind, solar, and biomass. The electrical generation mix will be affected as a result of the provision of alternate power sources of energy to the community. It is possible for members of the community to make a well-informed choice as the eco-logo is the official certification of green products and power. Wind turbine interference with bird migration represents one of the main concerns attributed to wind power along with the generation of noise. The speaker indicated that the turbines are mostly located away from migration routes and that they turn very slowly, therefore not likely to cause a noise pollution problem for the public. The higher cost associated with green power causes a problem when compared with the cost or more traditional energy generation methods. Until they become more competitive, green power alternatives only fill a niche market. Ontario Power Generation is determined to assist the community with a move toward green energy in the future, especially given its position as an industry leader. refs., figs

  17. Greening the global water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  18. Green functions of vortex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)

  19. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  20. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice.......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...

  1. Managing Green Business Model Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sommer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Environmental sustainability creates both tremendous business opportunities and formidable threats to established companies across virtually all industry sectors. Yet many companies tackle the issue in a superficial or passive way through increased environmental reporting, the use of “greenspeak” in their corporate communication activities or isolated efforts to create green products or reduce pollution. In contrast, there are a small but increasing number of firms that employ a holistic approach to sustainability and consider fundamental changes to their existing business models. By ignoring the opportunities of Green Business Model Transformations, companies exclude themselves from a large variety of potential means to create economic value. In addition to ordinary product and process innovations, they can change “the rules of the game” within an industry towards environmental sustainability. This can facilitate the commercialisation of new green products that would not be competitive otherwise targ...

  2. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangqu; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila larvae innately show light avoidance behavior. Compared with robust blue-light avoidance, larvae exhibit relatively weaker green-light responses. In our previous screening for genes involved in larval light avoidance, compared with control w(1118) larvae, larvae with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (Ggt-1) knockdown or Ggt-1 mutation were found to exhibit higher percentage of green-light avoidance which was mediated by Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) photoreceptors. However, their responses to blue light did not change significantly. By adjusting the expression level of Ggt-1 in different tissues, we found that Ggt-1 in malpighian tubules was both necessary and sufficient for green-light avoidance. Our results showed that glutamate levels were lower in Ggt-1 null mutants compared with controls. Feeding Ggt-1 null mutants glutamate can normalize green-light avoidance, indicating that high glutamate concentrations suppressed larval green-light avoidance. However, rather than directly, glutamate affected green-light avoidance indirectly through GABA, the level of which was also lower in Ggt-1 mutants compared with controls. Mutants in glutamate decarboxylase 1, which encodes GABA synthase, and knockdown lines of the GABAA receptor, both exhibit elevated levels of green-light avoidance. Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of green and red kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Yun Ji; Kim, Sun Ju; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Sang Un

    2018-02-15

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes. HPLC analysis revealed 14 glucosinolates, 20 anthocyanins, 3 phenylpropanoids, and 6 carotenoids in the kale seedlings that were examined. Red kale contained more glucosinolates, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids than green kale, whereas the carotenoid contents were much higher in green kale than in red kale. Ultimately, our data will be a valuable resource for future research on kale bio-engineering and will provide basic information to define gene-to-metabolite networks in kale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Green roofs : a watertight perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honza, D. [Honza Group Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)]|[Barrett Co., Millington, NJ (United States)

    2005-07-01

    While there is a growing acceptance of the ecological benefits of green roofs, many roofing contractors view green roofs with suspicion. The roofing industry is a high-volume, low-margin cost-driven industry which promotes a minimum standard commodity mentality. Roofing and waterproofing is the largest source of claims against architects and engineers. This paper suggested that architectural firms and engineering firms can reduce many issues associated with roofing problems by investigating and understanding materials, demands of projects, and preparing thorough specifications. Long-term exposure to the sun's rays will impact the chemical make-up of the roofing material, and water can break down the surface molecular structure of the membrane. Daily, yearly and event-related temperature variations can subject membranes to thermal induced stresses. Many roofs leak as a result of abuse during construction. Understanding and anticipating the performance problems of membranes can give green roof designers the ability to address limitations through good design. The membrane for a green roof should have superior abuse resistance; elastic properties, and resistance to long-term wet or saturated environments. Flashings for green roofs must exceed minimum standards. Membranes should be tested for watertightness before components are installed using electronic field vector mapping. Overburden should be installed after the membrane installation is proven to be watertight. It was concluded that higher design standards are required for green roofs, as many traditional roof membranes fail prematurely. A review of widely used membranes in the roofing and waterproofing industry included modified bitumen; built-up roofing; cured synthetic rubber sheets; thermalplastic membranes; self-adhering modified bitumen; and rubberized asphalt. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Growing a green economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingqing; Xu, He; Ji, Yijun

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of economy, resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for Chinese sustainable development. Green development is a mode of well environmental and high-quality economic development. It is necessary for China to implement green development. In this review, it discusses the green development problems in China, the international experience and connotation of green development are summarized and identified further. Based on the connotation and experience of green economy development, it puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions for Chinese green development finally.

  6. Green's Theorem for Sign Data

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Sign data are the signs of signal added to noise. It is well known that a constant signal can be recovered from sign data. In this paper, we show that an integral over variant signal can be recovered from an integral over sign data based on the variant signal. We refer to this as a generalized sign data average. We use this result to derive a Green's theorem for sign data. Green's theorem is important to various seismic processing methods, including seismic migration. Results in this paper ge...

  7. The making of green knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    of such "green knowledge". The general argument is that, in the future, new types of interaction and new spaces for communication will need to be developed if green knowledge is not to be incorporated into the dominant culture or reduced to ineffective forms of protest.......The paper discusses some of the contributions of environmental activism to the development of knowledge. The paper contrasts some of the main forms of knowledge-making that have emerged among activists and raises a number of questions both about the political and cognitive implications...

  8. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  9. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  10. Phytochrome control of gene expression in radish seedlings. 111. Evidence for a rapid control of the ribulose 1. 5 biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene expression by red light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourcroy, P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of red and far-red light on the level of the mRNA encoding the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose, 1.5 bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO; EC 4.1.1.39) from radish cotyledons was investigated. Northern blot analysis of RNA with a cDNA probe showed that both long (12-36h) far-red irradiation and short (1-5 min) red irradiation brings about an increase in SSU mRNA concentraton which was prevented by a subsequent far-red light exposure. Far-red light was effective in reversing the red light effect provided that it was given soon after (<10 min) the red light pulse. The red light mediated increase in SSU mRNA level did not occur in presence of ..cap alpha..-amanitin. Our results suggest that phytochrome control of SSU gene expression is exerted at the transcriptional level. 34 refs.

  11. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  12. Green Fire and Religious Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2000-01-01

    Spirituality, even within traditional religious practices, can inspire environmentally aware lifestyles. To help this "green fire" burn well, experiential educators should acknowledge religious beliefs and practices and avoid perpetuating the modern spiritual-secular rift. A "critical experientialism" is needed when it comes to…

  13. Co-Creating Green Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Citizen involvement plays an important role in many governmental and municipal attempts towards green transition, reflecting a departure from a deficit model of public communication towards participatory ambitions of engaging citizens. Recently, the notion of co-creation or co-production has gained...

  14. Welcome to The Green Village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create the Green Village: an innovative, lively, interactive and challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet,

  15. Green Accounts of Christianshavn (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Peder; Pedersen, Bjørn; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The project was to develope a Green Account of 1998. It is based on public data, the questionnaries filled out by 300 residents and some interviewes.The final account of '98 included 10 subjects which follows up on the '97 account. Besides that it presents two new subjects - the marked...

  16. Green Application for Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Most space vehicle auxiliary power units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel that requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants (less toxic) that could enable their use in APUs. The Swedish government, in concert with the Swedish Space Corporation, has developed a propellant based on ammonium dinitramide (LMP-103S) that was flown on the Prisma spacecraft in 2010. The United States Air Force (USAF) has been developing a propellant based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (AFM315E) that is scheduled to fly on the Green Propellant Infusion Mission in the spring of 2016 to demonstrate apogee and reaction control thrusters. However, no one else in the Agency is currently pursuing use of green propellants for application to the APUs. Per the TA-01 Launch Propulsion Roadmap, the Space Technology Mission Directorate had identified the need to have a green propellant APU by 2015. This is our motivation for continuing activities.

  17. What Makes Green Schools Better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Green energy represents a way to empower students by demonstrating creative problem-solving with an eye on protecting precious resources, both capital and natural. Many school districts have already taken the initiative during the past five years to implement energy projects, whether for the educational or economic opportunities, or both.…

  18. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  19. Green Grows The Bottom Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKGODFREY

    2004-01-01

    In promoting sustainable business practices in China, business leaders from the EU and Chinese companies have much to share but not that much in common. The EU is funding China's largest environmental program but, worried about the cost factor, some Chinese businesses areproving reluctant about going green.

  20. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.