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Sample records for green bay-fox river

  1. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0374] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... from the regulation governing the operation of the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River...

  2. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  3. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  4. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  5. Spatiotemporal variations in the abundance and composition of bulk and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in seasonally hypoxia-influenced Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVilbiss, Stephen E; Zhou, Zhengzhen; Klump, J Val; Guo, Laodong

    2016-09-15

    Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA, is the largest freshwater estuary in the Laurentian Great Lakes and receives disproportional terrestrial inputs as a result of a high watershed to bay surface area ratio. While seasonal hypoxia and the formation of "dead zones" in Green Bay have received increasing attention, there are no systematic studies on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its linkage to the development of hypoxia. During summer 2014, bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with PARAFAC analysis were used to quantify the abundance, composition and source of DOM and their spatiotemporal variations in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 202 to 571μM-C (average=361±73μM-C) in June and from 279 to 610μM-C (average=349±64μM-C) in August. In both months, absorption coefficient at 254nm (a254) was strongly correlated to bulk DOC and was most abundant in the Fox River, attesting a dominant terrestrial input. Non-chromophoric DOC comprised, on average, ~32% of bulk DOC in June with higher terrestrial DOM and ~47% in August with higher aquagenic DOM, indicating that autochthonous and more degraded DOM is of lower optical activity. PARAFAC modeling on EEM data resulted in four major fluorescent DOM components, including two terrestrial humic-like, one aquagenic humic-like, and one protein-like component. Variations in the abundance of DOM components further supported changes in DOM sources. Mixing behavior of DOM components also indicated that while bulk DOM behaved quasi-conservatively, significant compositional changes occurred during transport from the Fox River to the open bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  7. 33 CFR 117.1087 - Fox River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fox River. 117.1087 Section 117.1087 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Wisconsin § 117.1087 Fox River. (a) The draws of the Canadian...

  8. 76 FR 31851 - Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0417] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Put-in-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock Pier; South Bass Island, Put-in-Bay, OH AGENCY.... Add Sec. 165.T09-0417 as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0417 Safety Zone; Put-In-Bay Fireworks, Fox's the Dock...

  9. 76 FR 13312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Oshkosh, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... National Railway Bridge across the Fox River at Mile 55.72 at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After careful... On December 8, 2010, we published an NPRM entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Fox River...

  10. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  11. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  12. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Olds, Hayley T.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  13. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  14. A Satellite Imagery Approach to Monitor Turbidity and Total Suspended Sediments in Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, B.; Hamidi, S.; Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Ekhtari, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fox River is a major source of land-based pollutants, nutrients, and sediment that flows into the southern Green Bay (GB). GB supplies one-third of the total nutrient loading to Lake Michigan. This can play a significant role in the biological functioning of the Bay and development of managerial scenarios. To name a few, it can degrade the quality of the aquatic life, add to the costs for treatment processes, and reduce coastal quality. Water quality evaluation is a time consuming and costly process. Spaceborne imagery data provides a cheap and valuable source of information as an alternative for field monitoring of the water resources. Sediment is an optically active variable; hence; remote sensing techniques can be utilized to estimate Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) and Turbidity (TU) of water. In this study, we developed relationships between remote sensing imagery data with daily in situ measurements of TSS and TU in the summers of 2011 to 2014. Surface reflectance (SR) values obtained from Band 1 of MYD09GQ dataset-a level 2 product of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This band covers SR between 620 and 670nm, in which, the wavelength is sensitive to mineral suspended matters most. After elimination of days with cloud contamination, 118 pairs of data remained for analysis. Several possible functions were tested and exponential function was the best estimator of the SR-TSS and SR-TU relationships with R2 values of 0.8269 and 0.8688, respectively. We then used 2014 data to validate the proposed functions. The model was able to estimate TSS and TU with NRMSE values of 0.36 and 0.30. It indicates that the model can be well-applied to predict TSS and TU within a reasonable margin of error. Then, equations were used to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of sediment in GB. Area of the plume ranges between 12 to 180 km2 while 50% of the time the area of the turbid plume is more than 106 km2. Expectedly, the concentration of sediment is much higher

  15. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  16. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  17. PCBs, liver lesions, and biomarker responses in adult walleye (Stizostedium vitreum vitreum) collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G.; Anderson, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Lipton, Joshua; Teh, Swee J.; Hinton, David E.; Zelikoff, Judith T.; Dikkeboom, Audrey L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Holey, Mark; Denslow, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Adult walleye were collected from several locations in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin (the assessment area) and two relatively uncontaminated reference locations (Lake Winnebago and Patten Lake, Wisconsin) between July and October in 1996 and 1997. Whole body and liver samples collected in 1996 were analyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners, and liver histological lesions. Follow-up sampling in 1997 included examination of liver histopathology, PCBs in liver samples, measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, immunological evaluation of kidney and blood samples, measurement of plasma vitellogenin, and examination of tissues for parasites as well as bacterial and viral infections. Mean PCB concentrations in whole body and liver samples were elevated in assessment area walleye (4.6 to 8.6 and 3.6 to 6.4 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) compared to PCB concentrations in reference areas (0.04 mg/kg in walleye fillets from Lake Winnebago). A significant (p blood monocyte counts were 40% lower than those of reference area fish. The data did not show any clear distinctions in the prevalence of disease between reference and assessment area walleye. EROD activity was similar in assessment area and reference area walleye. Plasma vitellogenin was elevated in female walleye from eastern Green Bay, but was not detected in male fish from this location. The results of this investigation demonstrate significant elevation in hepatic preneoplastic lesions and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in assessment area walleye exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. These histopathological lesions are consistent with long-term exposure to tumor promoters such as PCBs, although quantitative association between tumors and PCBs was not observed at the level of the individual fish. Additional research would be needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis.

  18. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  19. Red fox sightings in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cignini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study preliminary data on the presence of Red fox in Rome (an area of 360 km² within the Rome ringroad. G.R.A. since 1980 are presented. The data were mapped on a UTM 1 sq. km. grid. Data were analysed and correlated, for each City district, with the prevalent environment (green, built-up, river-side areas and with the density of inhabitants.

  20. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  1. 77 FR 21864 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Lafayette Street Bridge at mile 6.78, all over the Saginaw River at Bay City, MI. The previous regulation... Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI, in the Federal Register (76 FR 76637). We received one...

  2. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors

  3. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Feasibility of green mussel, Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kar Soon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve aquaculture is an important source of affordable animal protein for coastal community. The success and sustainability of this industry is highly influenced by the suitability of the environment in which it is carried out. Present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of green mussel (Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay. The site suitability for green mussel farming was evaluated based on biophysical parameters and food availability. The in situ environmental parameters, phytoplankton abundance and composition were collected from 10 sampling stations on monthly interval from May 2014 to April 2015. The results showed that the environmental parameters and food availability in most of the sampling stations were suitable for green mussel. However, the presence of phytoplankton taxa (Chaetoceraceae which are unfavorable by green mussel in most of the stations located at the bay pocket make those areas less recommended for green mussel farming. In contrast, stations located on the mouth of the bay exhibited high site suitability rating points and hence are highly recommended for cultivation of green mussel.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Green Bay, WI Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 936 km2 around the city of Green Bay, surrounding towns, tribal lands and rural areas in...

  6. 76 FR 76637 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... at mile 5.60, and the Lafayette Street Bridge at mile 6.78, all over the Saginaw River at Bay City... the Great Lakes, requested that the existing drawbridge regulation for Saginaw River be reviewed and...

  7. 78 FR 13476 - Modification of the Port Limits of Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the townships of Ashwaubenon, Allouez, Preble and Howard and the city of De Pere, all in the State of... port limits in the docket as ``Attachment A: Green Bay (Current).'' CBP proposed to amend the port... limits is included in the docket as ``Attachment B: Green Bay (Proposed).'' Interested parties were given...

  8. Contaminant exposure of birds nesting in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Franson, J Christian; Jones, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were reported in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings collected from lower Green Bay (WI, USA) in 1994 and 1995 and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs collected in 1991. Comparable samples collected in 2010 and 2011 indicated that concentrations of PCBs were 35%, 62%, 70%, and 88% lower than in the early 1990s in tree swallow eggs, tree swallow nestlings, double-crested cormorant eggs, and black-crowned night-heron eggs, respectively; concentrations of DDE were 47%, 43%, 51%, and 80% lower, respectively. These declines are consistent with regional contaminant trends in other species. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in herring gull (Larus argentatus) than in black-crowned night-heron eggs collected from Green Bay in 2010; PCB concentrations in double-crested cormorant and tree swallow eggs were intermediate. The estimated toxicity of the PCB mixture in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow was the equal to or greater than toxicity in the 3 piscivorous bird species. A multivariate analysis indicated that the composition percentage of lower-numbered PCB congeners was greater in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow than in eggs of the 3 piscivorous species nesting in Green Bay. Dioxin and furan concentrations and the toxicity of these chemicals were also higher in tree swallows than these other waterbird species nesting in Green Bay. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce fireworks display. The safety zone established by this proposed rule is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display.

  10. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  11. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    stream_size 12553 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt stream_source_info CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859.... Stratification below the mixed layer also affects the chemical and bi o logical pro c esses in the Bay. It is worth noting here that because the low salinity layer in the BOB prevents vertical mi x ing, the Bay is not a source of CO 2 to the atmo s- phere...

  12. Benthic biogeochemical cycling, nutrient stoichiometry, and carbon and nitrogen mass balances in a eutrophic freshwater bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.V.; Fitzgerald, S.A.; Waplesa, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Green Bay, while representing only ,7% of the surface area and ??1.4% of the volume of Lake Michigan, contains one-third of the watershed of the lake, and receives approximately one-third of the total nutrient loading to the Lake Michigan basin, largely from the Fox River at the southern end of the bay. With a history of eutrophic conditions dating back nearly a century, the southern portion of the bay behaves as an efficient nutrient and sediment trap, sequestering much of the annual carbon and nitrogen input within sediments accumulating at up to 1 cm per year. Depositional fluxes of organic matter varied from ??0.1 mol C m-2 yr-1 to >10 mol C m-2 yr-1 and were both fairly uniform in stoichiometric composition and relatively labile. Estimates of benthic recycling derived from pore-water concentration gradients, whole-sediment incubation experiments, and deposition-burial models of early diagenesis yielded an estimated 40% of the carbon and 50% of the nitrogen recycled back into the overlying water. Remineralization was relatively rapid with ??50% of the carbon remineralized within <15 yr of deposition, and a mean residence time for metabolizable carbon and nitrogen in the sediments of 20 yr. On average, organic carbon regeneration occurred as 75% CO2, 15% CH4, and 10% dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the southern bay were based upon direct measurements of inputs and burial and upon estimates of export and production derived stoichiometrically from a coupled phosphorus budget. Loadings of organic carbon from rivers were ??3.7 mol m-2 yr-1, 80% in the form of DOC and 20% as particulate organic carbon. These inputs were lost through export to northern Green Bay and Lake Michigan (39%), through sediment burial (26%), and net CO2 release to the atmosphere (35%). Total carbon input, including new production, was 4.54 mol m-2 C yr-1, equivalent to ??10% of the gross annual primary production. Nitrogen budget terms were less well quantified

  13. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 155 block groups in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  14. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  15. 77 FR 14689 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Berwick Bay (Atchafalaya River), Morgan City, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Operation Regulation; Berwick Bay (Atchafalaya River), Morgan City, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Fe (BNSF) Railway Company vertical lift span bridge across Berwick Bay, mile 0.4, (Atchafalaya River, mile 17.5) at Morgan City, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform scheduled...

  16. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Geology; Bricker, O P [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). Water Resources Div.; Olsen, C R [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1989-10-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr{sup -1} in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author).

  17. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr -1 in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author)

  18. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  19. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  20. Effects of Green River Project on Cassava Farmers Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the effects of Green River project on cassava farmers' production in Ogba/Egbema/ Ndoni LGA of Rivers State. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select the locations of Green River project, cooperative societies and respondents. Using structured questionnaire, a field ...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 155 block groups in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The US EPA's...

  2. 78 FR 21839 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0041] RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Green River, Small-house, KY and Black River, Jonesboro, LA... drawbridge operation regulation for the drawbridges across Green River, mile 79.6, Small- house, KY and Black...

  3. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shichun; Xu Weihai; Zhang Ruijie; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. - Highlights: → Some antibiotics were ubiquitous with high concentration in the Bohai bay, North China. → The antibiotics were mainly from the six rivers discharge around the Bay. → Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture activities around the Bay. → Aquaculture was suggested to be an important antibiotics source in the Bay. - River discharge and aquaculture were suggested to be important sources for antibiotics occurred in the coastal water of the Bohai Bay, North China.

  5. Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Fienen, M.N.; Kennedy, J.L.; Buchwald, C.A.; Greenwood, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fox River is a 199-mile-long tributary to the Illinois River within the Mississippi River Basin in the states of Wisconsin and Illinois. For the purposes of this study the Upper Fox River Basin is defined as the topographic basin that extends from the upstream boundary of the Fox River Basin to a large wetland complex in south-central Waukesha County called the Vernon Marsh. The objectives for the study are to (1) develop a baseline study of groundwater conditions and groundwater/surface-water interactions in the shallow aquifer system of the Upper Fox River Basin, (2) develop a tool for evaluating possible alternative water-supply options for communities in Waukesha County, and (3) contribute to the methodology of groundwater-flow modeling by applying the recently published U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-NWT computer code, (a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005 intended for solving difficulties involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation) to overcome computational problems connected with fine-scaled simulation of shallow aquifer systems by means of thin model layers. To simulate groundwater conditions, a MODFLOW grid is constructed with thin layers and small cell dimensions (125 feet per side). This nonlinear unconfined problem incorporates the streamflow/lake (SFR/LAK) packages to represent groundwater/surface-water interactions, which yields an unstable solution sensitive to initial conditions when solved using the Picard-based preconditioned-gradient (PCG2) solver. A particular problem is the presence of many isolated wet water-table cells over dry cells, causing the simulated water table to assume unrealistically high values. Attempts to work around the problem by converting to confined conditions or converting active to inactive cells introduce unacceptable bias. Application of MODFLOW-NWT overcomes numerical problem by smoothing the transition from wet to dry cells and keeps all cells active. The simulation is

  6. 77 FR 42640 - Safety Zone; Can-Am Festival Fireworks, Black River Bay, Sackets Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Can-Am Festival Fireworks, Black River Bay, Sackets Harbor, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... Black River Bay during the Can-Am Festival Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Can-Am Festival Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from 9:15 p.m. until 10:45 p.m. on...

  7. Study of environmental pollution by heavy metals in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River by analysis of critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; Malm, O.; Lima, N.R.W.; Azcue, J.M.

    The heavy metal pollution in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River is studied by analysis of critical parameters. This ones are employed in environmental impact determination of nuclear installations. Three critic metals (Cr, Zn, Cd) and four (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr) ones are lauched by the industrial park of Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba Vale respectively. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  10. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  11. Mobile Bay river plume mixing in the inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, S. M.; Book, J. W.; Warner, S. J.; Moum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The microtidal region (0.5 m spring tides) of the inner shelf outside Mobile Bay presented a complex circulation pattern driven by the pulsed river discharge and winds. Currents, salinity, temperature, and turbulence profiles were measured for up to three weeks in April 2016 at six moorings outside Mobile Bay. Currents varied between locations and with depth. During neap and spring tides the currents were reliably >0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and toward deeper waters, concurrent with the strongest stratification. The possible flow drivers considered include tides, winds, inertial oscillations, waves, and stratification. Turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation were calculated with multiple methods using data from bottom-mounted, upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers sampling at 1 Hz, and using data from line-moored chi-pod turbulent temperature microstructure instruments sampling at 100 Hz. This work explores different forcing mechanisms involved in modulating the circulation and turbulence in a multi-layered pulsed-river inner shelf region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes

  13. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: Fatty acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Ittekkot, V.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R

    ) 55-71 55 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam \\[RA\\] River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids T. Reemtsma a, V. Ittekkot a, M. Bartsch a and R.R. Nair b alnstitut fiir Biogeochemie und Meereschemie..., R.R., 1993. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids. Chem. Geol., 103: 55-71. Total particulate matter flux and organic carbon and fatty acid fluxes associated with settling particles collected during...

  14. 78 FR 54571 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA... Fifth Coast Guard District. This regulation applies only to the Hampton Bay Days Festival, which... Purpose Hampton Bay Days is sponsoring the three days Hampton Bay Days Festival, which includes a...

  15. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in Marudu Bay, Northeast Malaysian Borneo, three years after a massive mortality event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afizah Mohd Taib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Density, recruitment and growth performance of Asian green mussel (Perna viridis in a particular coastal marine environment can be affected by many factors, including environmental change, pollution, disease outbreak and massive mortality event. The present study was conducted to determine the density, recruitment and growth performance of farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay, three years after a mass mortality event. The study was carried out for 12 months between April 2013 and March 2014. The length frequency data of 1,308 individuals of green mussel were analyzed using the latest version of the FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assessment Tools (FiSAT II. The result showed that the green mussel recruitment in Marudu Bay occurs throughout the year with two major peaks i.e. February and July which coincided with the monsoon seasons. The asymptotic length (L∞, growth coefficient (K and growth performance index (φ’ of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay are relatively high at 113.4 mm, 1.7 year-1 and 4.34, respectively. However, despite good culture location, the settlement density of green mussel in the bay was low. We suspected that the low settlement density could be influenced by the ecological effects due to the long term suspension of the culture substrates and the physiochemical properties of the water in Marudu Bay. Nevertheless, chlorophyll-á measurement alone was not able to justify if food scarcity has resulted in high mortality of the farmed Asian green mussel in Marudu Bay.

  17. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  19. Remedial action at the Green River uranium mill tailings site, Green River, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The inactive Green River uranium mill tailings site is one mile southeast of Green River, Utah. The existing tailings pile is within the floodplain boundaries of the 100-year and 500-year flood events. The 48-acre designated site contains eight acres of tailings, the mill yard and ore storage area, four main buildings, a water tower, and several small buildings. Dispersion of the tailings has contaminated an additional 24 acres surrounding the designated site. Elevated concentrations of molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha activity exceed background levels and the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits in the groundwater in the unconsolidated alluvium and in the shallow shales and limestones beneath the alluvium at the mill tailings site. The contamination is localized beneath, and slightly downgradient of, the tailings pile. The proposed action is to relocate the tailings and associated contaminated materials to an area 600 feet south of the existing tailings pile where they would be consolidated into one, below-grade disposal cell. A radon/infiltration barrier would be constructed to cover the stabilized pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to ensure the long-term stability of the stabilized pile. 88 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  20. Modeling the Role of Zebra Mussels in the Proliferation of Blue-green Algae in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under model assumptions from Saginaw Bay 1991, selective rejection of blue-green algae by zebra mussels appears to be a necessary factor in the enhancement of blue-green algae production in the presence of zebra mussels. Enhancement also appears to depend on the increased sedime...

  1. Analysis and dating of Sediments in Montevideo Bay and Silver river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Suarez Antola, R.; Cabral, W.

    1999-01-01

    The present work includes generalities on the River of the Silver, antecedents of studies carried out during the years 1992-1997, in the issuing sub aquatic of Tip Carts, studies about the contamination of silts carried out during the years 1993-1996, studies preliminary of the contamination of silts in the Bay,results obtain,treatment of the data and enrichment factors. In the description of the project it is looked for to obtain reliable data on the state of contamination for heavy metals sedimentation ,velocity and age of the silts of the Bay of Montevideo and the River of the Silver, describe geologic aspects in the area involved in the study, the sampling of silts is planned having present the purpose of the same one that is to say to take samples that represent the characteristics real of silts in the sampling area, X Ray Fluorescence dispersive Energy are used in the analysis of samples, for finish, results and discussion are presented

  2. 78 FR 31454 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... that governs the highway bridge (Troy Green Island) across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy... the regulations for the 112th Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been...

  3. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Lehrter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and used to calculate monthly and annual estuarine time-series of chlorophyll a (Chla, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and total suspended sediments (TSS. Monthly MERIS Chla varied from 2.0 mg m−3 in the lower region of the bay to 17.2 mg m−3 in the upper bay. MERIS CDOM and TSS exhibited similar patterns with ranges of 0.51–2.67 (m−1 and 0.11–8.9 (g m−3. Variations in the MERIS-derived monthly and annual Chla, CDOM, and TSS time-series were significantly related to monthly and annual river discharge and loads of nitrogen, organic carbon, and suspended sediments from the Escambia and Yellow rivers. Multiple regression models based on river loads (independent variables and MERIS Chla, CDOM, or TSS (dependent variables explained significant fractions of the variability (up to 62% at monthly and annual scales. The most significant independent variables in the regressions were river nitrogen loads, which were associated with increased MERIS Chla, CDOM, and TSS concentrations, and river suspended sediment loads, which were associated with decreased concentrations. In contrast, MERIS water quality variations were not significantly related to river total phosphorus loads. The spatially synoptic, nine-year satellite record expanded upon the spatial extent of past field studies to reveal previously unseen system-wide responses to river discharge and loading variation. The results indicated that variations in Pensacola Bay Chla

  4. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  5. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... operation of the highway bridge across the Hudson River, mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York... Street Bridge, mile 155.4, between Troy and Cohoes which has been converted to a fixed bridge. It is...

  6. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.

  7. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  8. Phytoplankton Communities in Green Bay, Lake Michigan after Invasion by Dreissenid Mussels: Increased Dominance by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T. De Stasio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels. Responses to mussel invasions have included increased water clarity, and decreased chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance. Although not all systems have responded similarly, in general, mussels have changed nutrient dynamics and physical habitat conditions. Therefore examination of different impacts can help us further understand mechanisms that underlie ecosystem responses to biological invasions. To aid our understanding of ecosystem impacts, we sampled established locations along a well-studied trophic gradient in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, after the 1993 zebra mussel invasion. A strong trophic gradient remained during the period sampled after the mussel invasion (2000–2012. However, mean summer chlorophyll increased and other measures of phytoplankton biomass (microscope and electronic cell counting did not change significantly. Multivariate analyses of phytoplankton community structure demonstrate a significant community shift after the invasion. Cyanobacteria increased in dominance, with Microcystis becoming the major summer taxon in lower Green Bay. Diatom diversity and abundance also increased and Chlorophyta became rare. Phytoplankton responses along the trophic gradient of Green Bay to zebra mussel invasion highlight the importance of mussel effects on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton diversity and function.

  9. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  10. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  11. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. Services included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations , the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance (Option I); improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash (Option II); and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements (Option III). All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  12. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  13. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  14. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights

  15. Collection and analysis of remotely sensed data from the Rhode River Estuary Watershed. [ecological parameters of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    NASA chose the watershed of Rhode River, a small sub-estuary of the Bay, as a representative test area for intensive studies of remote sensing, the results of which could be extrapolated to other estuarine watersheds around the Bay. A broad program of ecological research was already underway within the watershed, conducted by the Smithsonian Institution's Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies (CBCES) and cooperating universities. This research program offered a unique opportunity to explore potential applications for remote sensing techniques. This led to a joint NASA-CBCES project with two basic objectives: to evaluate remote sensing data for the interpretation of ecological parameters, and to provide essential data for ongoing research at the CBCES. A third objective, dependent upon realization of the first two, was to extrapolate photointerpretive expertise gained at the Rhode River watershed to other portions of the Chesapeake Bay.

  16. Polar constituents isolated from Green River oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The mass spectrometric, ir absorption, and NMR data were interpreted for 22 compounds obtained from a polar fraction of Green River shale. The major constituents analyzed are believed to be of the following compositional types: C/sub n/H/sub 2n/O (cyclohexanols and chain isoprenoid ketones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-10/O (tetralones and indanones), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-7/N (tetrahydroquinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-11/N(quinolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-1/NO (alkoxypyrrolines), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-5/NO/sub 2/ (maleimides), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-8/ (tetralins), C/sub n/H/sub 2n-12/ (naphthalenes) and C/sub n/H/sub 2n-14/ (benzylbenzenes). This work expands the present information about nitrogen, oxygen and aromatic constituents indigenous to Green River shale.

  17. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.……

  18. Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  19. Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takako; Yoshimura, Masashi; Onoyama, Keiichi; Oku, Yuzaburo; Nonaka, Nariaki; Katakura, Ken

    2014-08-06

    Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations. The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection. Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model. Our

  20. Processesof Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Adam S; Cooper, David J

    2006-06-01

    Significant ecological, hydrologic, and geomorphic changes have occurred during the 20th century along many large floodplain rivers in the American Southwest. Native Populus forests have declined, while the exotic Eurasian shrub, Tamarix, has proliferated and now dominates most floodplain ecosystems. Photographs from late 19th and early 20th centuries illustrate wide river channels with largely bare in-channel landforms and shrubby higher channel margin floodplains. However, by the mid-20th century, floodplains supporting dense Tamarix stands had expanded, and river channels had narrowed. Along the lower Green River in eastern Utah, the causal mechanism of channel and floodplain changes remains ambiguous due to the confounding effects of climatically driven reductions in flood magnitude, river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam, and Tamarix invasion. This study addressed whether Tamarix establishment and spread followed climate- or dam-induced reductions in annual peak flows or whether Tamarix was potentially a driver of floodplain changes. We aged 235 Tamarix and 57 Populus individuals, determined the hydrologic and geomorphic processes that controlled recruitment, identified the spatial relationships of germination sites within floodplain stratigraphic transects, and mapped woody riparian vegetation cohorts along three segments of the lower Green River. The oldest Tamarix established along several sampling reaches in 1938, and 1.50-2.25 m of alluvium has accreted above their germination surfaces. Nearly 90% of the Tamarix and Populus samples established during flood years that exceeded the 2.5-year recurrence interval. Recruitment was most common when large floods were followed by years with smaller peak flows. The majority of Tamarix establishment and Green River channel narrowing occurred long before river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam. Tamarix initially colonized bare instream sand deposits (e.g., islands and bars), and most channel and floodplain changes

  1. Star River, A Champion of High-end Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq.meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with more than 2000 mu.

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  3. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  4. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2008-0333] Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of...) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, (215...

  5. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  6. Summary of sediment data from the Yampa river and upper Green river basins, Colorado and Utah, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John G.; Anders, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Upper Colorado River Basin have been extensively developed for water supply, irrigation, and power generation through water storage in upstream reservoirs during spring runoff and subsequent releases during the remainder of the year. The net effect of water-resource development has been to substantially modify the predevelopment annual hydrograph as well as the timing and amount of sediment delivery from the upper Green River and the Yampa River Basins tributaries to the main-stem reaches where endangered native fish populations have been observed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to identify sediment source reaches in the Green River main stem and the lower Yampa and Little Snake Rivers and to identify sediment-transport relations that would be useful in assessing the potential effects of hydrograph modification by reservoir operation on sedimentation at identified razorback spawning bars in the Green River. The need for additional data collection is evaluated at each sampling site. Sediment loads were calculated at five key areas within the watershed by using instantaneous measurements of streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, and bedload. Sediment loads were computed at each site for two modes of transport (suspended load and bedload), as well as for the total-sediment load (suspended load plus bedload) where both modes were sampled. Sediment loads also were calculated for sediment particle-size range (silt-and-clay, and sand-and-gravel sizes) if laboratory size analysis had been performed on the sample, and by hydrograph season. Sediment-transport curves were developed for each type of sediment load by a least-squares regression of logarithmic-transformed data. Transport equations for suspended load and total load had coefficients of determination of at least 0.72 at all of the sampling sites except Little Snake River near

  7. Oldest new genus of Myrmeleontidae (Neuroptera) from the Eocene Green River Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-10-20

    Epignopholeon sophiae gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Green River Formation (Colorado, U.S.A.). It represents the oldest confident record of the family. The new genus is remarkable in that tergite 7 of the female is much shorter than its long sternite 7. The preserved wing venation shows that the genus belongs to the subfamily Myrmeleontinae, and most probably to the tribe Gnopholeontini. The discovery of this species is consistent with estimations of relatively dry and warm conditions during deposition of the upper Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation.

  8. Optical ages indicate the southwestern margin of the Green Bay Lobe in Wisconsin, USA, was at its maximum extent until about 18,500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, J.W.; Hanson, P.R.; Rawling, J.E.; Young, A.R.; Carson, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Samples for optical dating were collected to estimate the time of sediment deposition in small ice-marginal lakes in the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin. These lakes formed high in the Baraboo Hills when drainage was blocked by the Green Bay Lobe when it was at or very near its maximum extent. Therefore, these optical ages provide control for the timing of the thinning and recession of the Green Bay Lobe from its maximum position. Sediment that accumulated in four small ice-marginal lakes was sampled and dated. Difficulties with field sampling and estimating dose rates made the interpretation of optical ages derived from samples from two of the lake basins problematic. Samples from the other two lake basins-South Bluff and Feltz basins-responded well during laboratory analysis and showed reasonably good agreement between the multiple ages produced at each site. These ages averaged 18.2. ka (n= 6) and 18.6. ka (n= 6), respectively. The optical ages from these two lake basins where we could carefully select sediment samples provide firm evidence that the Green Bay Lobe stood at or very near its maximum extent until about 18.5. ka.The persistence of ice-marginal lakes in these basins high in the Baraboo Hills indicates that the ice of the Green Bay Lobe had not experienced significant thinning near its margin prior to about 18.5. ka. These ages are the first to directly constrain the timing of the maximum extent of the Green Bay Lobe and the onset of deglaciation in the area for which the Wisconsin Glaciation was named. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Examination of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware Bay and River in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Bean, Thomas G; McGowan, Peter C; Callahan, Carl R; Erickson, Richard A; Hale, Robert C

    2018-05-22

    A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s. Several alternative brominated flame retardants were rarely detected, with only TBPH [bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate)] present in 5 of 27 samples at <5 ng/g wet weight. No relation was found between p,p'-DDE, total PCBs or total PBDEs in eggs with egg hatching, eggs lost from nests, nestling loss, fledging and nest success. Osprey eggshell thickness recovered to pre-DDT era values, and productivity was adequate to sustain a stable population. Prey fish contaminant concentrations were generally less than those in osprey eggs, with detection frequencies and concentrations greatest in white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware River compared to the Bay. Biomagnification factors from fish to eggs for p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were generally similar to findings from several Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Overall, findings suggest that there have been improvements in Delaware Estuary waterbird habitat compared to the second half of the 20th century. This trend is in part associated with mitigation of some anthropogenic contaminant threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary of the Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Green River site, Utah. The services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 123 thousand tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The three alternative actions presented are dike stabilization, fencing, on- and off-site decontamination and maintenance; improvements in the stabilization cover and diking plus cleanup of the site and Browns Wash, and realignment of Browns Wash; and addition of stabilization cover to a total of 2 ft, realignment of Browns Wash and placement of additional riprap, on-site cleanup and drainage improvements. All options include remedial action at off-site structures. Cost estimates for the three options range from $700,000 to $926,000

  11. Green sturgeon distribution in the Pacific Ocean estimated from modeled oceanographic features and migration behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, David D; Lindley, Steven T; Wells, Brian K; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41-51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36-37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information.

  12. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  13. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  14. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  15. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Green Bay Quadrangle, Wisconsin. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of Green Bay Quadrangle in Wisconsin are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuth contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data

  16. Groundwater-surface water relations in the Fox River watershed: insights from exploratory studies in Illinois and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.

  17. Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy

  18. 78 FR 33049 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Green River/Tusher Diversion Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ..., Salt Lake City, Utah 84138-1100, or via email at bronson.smart@ut.usda.gov . Information may also be... publicly available at any time during the EIS process. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Bronson Smart... held on November 15, 2012 at Green River City Hall in Green River, Utah. Through additional...

  19. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  20. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  1. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  2. Informed Forces for Environmental Quality, Conference Proceedings (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    To increase understanding of the dimensions of man's impact on his environment and the key issues involved in improving that environment through education and action was the goal of the environmental quality conference held at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, on March 28-29, 1968. Contained in this document are the conference…

  3. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  4. Development of canine herpesvirus based antifertility vaccines for foxes using bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, Tanja; Hardy, Christopher M; French, Nigel; Wright, John D; Nagaraja, Nitin; Reubel, Gerhard H

    2006-02-13

    Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology, a canine herpesvirus (CHV)-based recombinant vaccine vector was produced for the development of an antifertility vaccine for foxes. Infectious viruses were recovered following transfection of canid cells with a BAC plasmid carrying the complete CHV genome. In vitro growth characteristics of BAC-derived viruses were similar to that of wildtype (wt)-CHV. Two recombinant antigens, fox zona pellucida protein subunit 3 (fZPC) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as control antigen, were inserted into thymidine kinase (TK) locus of the CHV genome and shown to be efficiently expressed in vitro. Inoculation of foxes with transgenic CHVs induced CHV specific antibodies, but was innocuous and failed to elicit transgene-specific antibody responses. Infectious virus or viral DNA was not detected in mucosal secretions or tissues of vaccinated foxes. The CHV-BAC system proved to be a quick and reliable method to manipulate the CHV genome. It will help to readily apply changes in the vector design in order to improve virus replication in vivo.

  5. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  6. The potential influence of environmental pollution on amphibian development and decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Globally, amphibians are reportedly declining. Environmental pollution has been hypothesized to be associated with declines. Because of their aquatic development and permeable eggs, skin and gills, amphibians, like fishes, may be particularly susceptible to poor water quality or waterborne pollutants. This dissertation addresses effects of global pollutants such as pesticides, acid rain and associated metal toxicity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development, behavior, and physiology of amphibian early life stages. This report contains only chapter six and conclusions. Chapter 6 reports on a field experiment in which green frogs from two clutches were exposed from egg to 107 days of age to water and sediments in enclosures along a PCB and metal contamination gradient in the Fox River and wetlands near Green Bay, Wisconsin. Green frogs showed lower hatching success and survival at sites with higher contaminant levels compared to cleaner wetland sites along Green Bay. Hatching success in the green frog was most significantly negatively correlated with sediment PCB levels. It can be concluded that environmental pollution and toxicants in aquatic environments can cause problems for amphibian early development. Sometimes the effects are subtle, and sometimes they are dramatic. In general, amphibian early life stages seem particularly sensitive to environmentally-realistic levels of low pH and metals, but appear more tolerant of TCDD and PCBs.

  7. 2012 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, Kirk E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, Leroy J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Cory C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2012 at eight priority floodplain wetlands along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river's main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  8. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  9. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  10. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Lehrter; John C. Lehrter; Chengfeng Le

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011) in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging ...

  11. Short Term Sediment Exchange Between Marshes and Bays Using Beryllium-7 as a Tracer, Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Modern delta models focus on the availability and exchange of coarse sediment as one of the major factors of deltaic growth or decay. Fine-grained sediment exchange within a river's delta is relatively poorly understood, as is the impact that this exchange has on land building and land loss. To better understand the dynamics of fine grain sediment exchange between river mouth, adjacent bays, and marshland, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, LA, were collected and analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope that serves as a marker for recently deposited sediment. Time-series push cores were collected every two months at ten sites, five located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay and five located along adjacent marshes, from May 2015 to May 2016. All sites fall within 11 to 28 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, along a gradient extending towards the open ocean. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine bimonthly sedimentation rates over the course twelve months. Sediment deposition on the bay floor and marsh surface were then compared to Atchafalaya River discharge, wind speed and direction, and wave action. Preliminary results indicate patterns of initial fluvial sediment transfer from river to bay floor, then bay floor to marsh surface, with decreasing fluvial influence towards the open ocean. Sediment transport from bay to marsh appears to be coupled with meteorological forcing that induces bay-floor sediment resuspension and the flooding of marsh surfaces. This indirect mechanism of fluvial sediment supply to wetland surfaces may extend the region of influence for sediment delivery from man-made river-sediment diversions.

  12. A green roof grant program for Washington DC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) began its green roof demonstration project with $300,000 in funding provided by the DC Water and Sewer Authority. This paper reviewed the history of the project, its goals and early findings. The main objective was to demonstrate the technical, policy and economic feasibility of installing green roofs on commercial buildings in Washington DC and to promote green roofs as a means to manage storm water and improve water quality through the reduction of excessive runoff. The CBF has issued grants for the installation of 7 green roofs varying in size, design, location, and use. The projects included both new and existing structures designed to improve storm-water management in an urban area with significant pollution stress on the adjacent rivers. This paper provided technical, cost, and performance evaluations of each roof. A public outreach segment provided information to decision-makers to encourage more widespread replication of green roof technology throughout the metropolitan area. Much of the District of Columbia is served by a combined sewer system that becomes overloaded and discharges raw sewage into adjacent rivers during even moderately heavy rains. An average of 75 overflow events each year result in 1.5 billion gallons discharged into the Anacostia River. The installation of green roofs on buildings in the combined sewer area would retain storm water during these heavy rains and reduce the amount of overflow discharges. Apartments, as well as commercial and government buildings with mostly flat roofs are the most likely candidates for green roofs. The demonstration roofs are intended to become models, which all building owners could use as a guide for future plans for construction or re-construction to expand green roof coverage in Washington DC. It was emphasized that although such large-scale replication will take time and financial investments, it is achievable given enough political will and commercial awareness of

  13. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  14. Fluvial fluxes from the Magdalena River into Cartagena Bay, Caribbean Colombia: Trends, future scenarios, and connections with upstream human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Escobar, Rogger; Tosic, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Fluxes of continental runoff and sediments as well as downstream deposition of eroded soils have severely altered the structure and function of fluvial and deltaic-estuarine ecosystems. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers important amounts of water and sediments into Cartagena Bay, a major estuarine system in northern Colombia. Until now, trends in fluvial fluxes into the bay, as well as the relationship between these tendencies in fluvial inputs and associated upstream changes in the Magdalena catchment, have not been studied. Here we explore the interannual trends of water discharge and sediment load flowing from the Magdalena River-Canal del Dique system into Cartagena Bay during the last three decades, forecast future scenarios of fluxes into the bay, and discuss possible connections between observed trends in fluvial inputs and trends in human intervention in the Magdalena River basin. Significant upward trends in annual runoff and sediment load during the mid-1980s, 1990s, and post-2000 are observed in the Magdalena and in the Canal del Dique flowing into Cartagena Bay. During the last decade, Magdalena streamflow and sediment load experienced increases of 24% and 33%, respectively, compared to the pre-2000 year period. Meanwhile, the Canal del Dique witnessed increases in water discharge and sediment load of 28% and 48%, respectively. During 26 y of monitoring, the Canal del Dique has discharged 177 Mt of sediment to the coastal zone, of which 52 Mt was discharged into Cartagena Bay. Currently, the Canal drains 6.5% and transports 5.1% of the Magdalena water discharge and sediment load. By 2020, water discharge and sediment flux from the Canal del Dique flowing to the coastal zone will witness increments of 164% and 260%, respectively. Consequently, sediment fluxes into Cartagena Bay will witness increments as high as 8.2 Mt y- 1 or 317%. Further analyses of upstream sediment load series for 21

  15. Spawning habitat unsuitability: an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rutherford, Edward S.; Blouin, Marc A.; Sederberg, Bryan J.; Elliott, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was one of the most important native prey fishes in Lake Michigan and in the other four Laurentian Great Lakes. Most of the cisco spawning in Lake Michigan was believed to have occurred in Green Bay. The cisco population in Lake Michigan collapsed during the 1950s, and the collapse was attributed in part to habitat degradation within Green Bay. Winter water quality surveys of lower Green Bay during the 1950s and 1960s indicated that the bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was less than 2 mg/L throughout much of the lower bay, and most cisco eggs would not successfully hatch at such low DO concentrations. To determine present-day spawning habitat suitability in lower Green Bay, we compared cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay with survival at a reference site (St. Marys River, Michigan–Ontario) during 2009. We also conducted winter water quality surveys in lower Green Bay and the St. Marys River during 2009 and 2010. Cisco egg survival in lower Green Bay averaged 65.3%, which was remarkably similar to and not significantly different from the mean at the St. Marys River site (64.0%). Moreover, the lowest bottom DO concentrations recorded during the winter surveys were 11.2 mg/L in lower Green Bay and 12.7 mg/L in the St. Marys River. These relatively high DO concentrations would not be expected to have any negative effect on cisco egg survival. We conclude that winter water quality conditions in lower Green Bay were suitable for successful hatching of cisco eggs and that water quality during the egg incubation period did not represent an impediment to cisco rehabilitation in Lake Michigan. Our approach to determining spawning habitat suitability for coregonids would be applicable to other aquatic systems.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  17. 2000 Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Coix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  18. Snowmelt runoff in the Green River basin derived from MODIS snow extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. S.; Hall, D. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Green River represents a vital water supply for southwestern Wyoming, northern Colorado, eastern Utah, and the Lower Colorado River Compact states (Arizona, Nevada, and California). Rapid development in the southwestern United States combined with the recent drought has greatly stressed the water supply of the Colorado River system, and concurrently increased the interest in long-term variations in stream flow. Modeling of snowmelt runoff represents a means to predict flows and reservoir storage, which is useful for water resource planning. An investigation is made into the accuracy of the Snowmelt Runoff Model of Martinec and Rango, driven by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow maps for predicting stream flow within the Green River basin. While the moderate resolution of the MODIS snow maps limits the spatial detail that can be captured, the daily coverage is an important advantage of the MODIS imagery. The daily MODIS snow extent is measured using the most recent clear observation for each 500-meter pixel. Auxiliary data used include temperature and precipitation time series from the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) and Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) networks as well as from National Weather Service records. Also from the SNOTEL network, snow-water equivalence data are obtained to calibrate the conversion between snow extent and runoff potential.

  19. Fox Chase Network: Fox Chase Cancer Center's community hospital affiliation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higman, S A; McKay, F J; Engstrom, P F; O'Grady, M A; Young, R C

    2000-01-01

    Fox Chase Cancer Center developed a format for affiliation with community providers in 1986. Fox Chase Network was formed to establish hospital-based community cancer centers to increase access to patients involved in clinical research. Under this program, the Fox Chase Network now contributes 500 patients per year to prevention and clinical research studies. As relationships with community providers form, patient referrals have increased at Fox Chase Cancer Center and for each Fox Chase Network member. A dedicated staff is required to operate the central office on a day-to-day basis as well as at each affiliate. We have found this to be a critical element in each program's success. New challenges in the cancer business-increasing volumes with declining revenue-have caused us to reconfigure the services offered to affiliates, while maintaining true to our mission: to reduce the burden of human cancer.

  20. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira; Chuluunbaatar, Gantigmaa; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Davaasuren, Anu; Sumiya, Battulga; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ki, Toshiaki; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Davaajav, Abmed; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito

    2013-11-01

    The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

  1. 76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... vehicular traffic congestion would not develop on downtown Sturgeon Bay streets due to unscheduled bridge... schedules during the peak tourist and navigation seasons to provide for the efficient movement of vehicular... between Lake Michigan and Green Bay. The area experiences a significant increase in vehicular and vessel...

  2. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05–25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%–89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire

  3. Trends in Accretion Rates of Riverine Sediments in a Distal Bay and Wetlands Using 7-Beryllium as a Tracer: Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, J.; Xu, K.

    2017-12-01

    To combat land loss along the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana has launched a historic campaign to sustain and regrow coastal lands using, in part, sediment diversions. Previous research has focused primarily on sand sized sediment load, which is usually deposited proximal to a river's delta or a diversion's outlet. Fine sediments constitute the majority of sediment load in the Mississippi, but are under-studied with respect to dispersal processes, particularly in terms of sediment supply to distal deltaic bays and wetlands. The Atchafalaya River and associated wetlands serve as prime study areas for this purpose. Bimonthly time-series push cores were collected from May 2015 to May 2016 along ten sites within Fourleague Bay, Louisiana. Fourleague Bay has remained stable against the deteriorative effects of relative sea level rise, standing out along Louisiana's declining coastline. Of the ten field sites, five are located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay, while the other five are located in adjacent marshes. All sites fall within 10 to 30 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, extending south towards the Gulf of Mexico. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine daily mass accretion rate (MAR) over twelve months. Average MAR values for the bay and the marshes are compared with Atchafalaya River discharge, wind data, and atmospheric pressure through the year of sampling. Peak marsh MAR, 0.88 ± 0.20 kg m-2 d-1, occurs just after historically high river discharge. Peak bay MAR, 1.2 ± 0.67 kg m-2 d-1, occurs during seasonal low river discharge and calm winds. Average bay and marsh MARs have a moderate to strong, negative correlation when compared. Results indicate sediment bypass of the bay floor during periods of moderate to high river discharge, entering the marshes directly when inundation occurs and enhanced by the passage

  4. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  5. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  6. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  7. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  8. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector) and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, MARCIA DE MELO; SANCHEZ, BRAZ A.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied source...

  9. Application of digital mapping technology to the display of hydrologic information; a proof-of-concept test in the Fox-Wolf River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.K.; Baten, L.G.; Allord, G.J.; Robinove, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Fox-Wolf River basin in east-central Wisconsin was selected to test concepts for a water-resources information system using digital mapping technology. This basin of 16,800 sq km is typical of many areas in the country. Fifty digital data sets were included in the Fox-Wolf information system. Many data sets were digitized from 1:500,000 scale maps and overlays. Some thematic data were acquired from WATSTORE and other digital data files. All data were geometrically transformed into a Lambert Conformal Conic map projection and converted to a raster format with a 1-km resolution. The result of this preliminary processing was a group of spatially registered, digital data sets in map form. Parameter evaluation, areal stratification, data merging, and data integration were used to achieve the processing objectives and to obtain analysis results for the Fox-Wolf basin. Parameter evaluation includes the visual interpretation of single data sets and digital processing to obtain new derived data sets. In the areal stratification stage, masks were used to extract from one data set all features that are within a selected area on another data set. Most processing results were obtained by data merging. Merging is the combination of two or more data sets into a composite product, in which the contribution of each original data set is apparent and can be extracted from the composite. One processing result was also obtained by data integration. Integration is the combination of two or more data sets into a single new product, from which the original data cannot be separated or calculated. (USGS)

  10. Potential climate change impacts on a tropical estuary: Hilo Bay, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, J.; LaPinta, J.; Marusek, J.; Pascoe, K.; Pugh, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hilo Bay is a tropical estuarine ecosystem on the northeast (windward) coast of Hawai`i Island that is potentially vulnerable to climate change effects mediated through elevated water temperatures and/or changing rainfall patterns that impact river and groundwater fluxes. Here, we document trends in water temperature, river flow and phytoplankton dynamics in Hilo Bay. Hilo Bay is fed by two major rivers, Wailuku and Honoli`i, both of which have shown long term declines in output over their 85 and 38 year monitoring periods (USGS), respectively. Time series of groundwater inputs to Hilo Bay do not exist, but the average estimated rate rivals that of average river inputs. Daily average Hilo Bay water temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.35 degrees C per year (p Hilo Bay water quality buoy began in 2010, with the warmest temperatures on record recorded Sept 2015. Salinity did not show a trend over this same time period. Phytoplankton showed a pronounced seasonal cycle in Hilo Bay with a long term average of 3.7 mg m-3 and dominance by diatoms that exploit the co-availability of silica and nitrate in this environment. On shorter time scales of days to Hilo Bay salinity, temperature and phytoplankton biomass. Coincidental atmospheric warming, SST warming in the adjacent North Pacific ocean, and declining river flows will likely work together to result in elevated SST in Hilo Bay if observed trends continue. The El Nino event that started this year is expected to exacerbate this warming through reduce river flow and warmer regional SST.

  11. Aquatic vegetation were photographed from aircraft from Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts (NODC Accession 0000411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were taken of the aquatic vegetation of Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts. Photographs were scanned and...

  12. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  13. Red fox takeover of arctic fox breeding den : an observation from Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodnikova, Anna; Ims, Rolf Anker; Sokolov, Alexander; Skogstad, Gunhild; Sokolov, Vasily; Shtro, Victor; Fuglei, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report from the first direct observation of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) intrusion on an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) breeding den from the southern Arctic tundra of Yamal Peninsula, Russia in 2007. At the same time, as a current range retraction of the original inhabitant of the circumpolar tundra zone the arctic fox is going on, the red fox is expanding their range from the south into arctic habitats. Thus, within large parts of the northern tundra areas the two species are sympatric w...

  14. [Nutrients Input Characteristics of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River During the "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-xue; Ma, Ying-qun; Qin, Yan-wen; Zou, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Overall 20 surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Wangyu River and the Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu) to clarify the pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus during 2 sample stages of "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River" in August and December of 2013 respectively. The results showed that the mass concentrations of NO2- -N, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TN in the Gonghu Bay were lower than those of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. However, there was higher level of DON content in the Gonghu Bay than that of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3- -N was the major N species in the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. TP contents in samples collected from the Yangtze River displayed a constant trend compared with the Wangyu River. However, the percentages of various P species were different with each other during the 2 water transfer processes. Mass concentrations of DON and TP in surface water in August were higher than those in December and the contents of NO3- -N and TDP were lower in August than those in December. In general, NO3- -N and TPP were the main N and P species in Wangyu River from the Yangtze River. NO3- -N, PO4(3-) -P and TPP were the main N and P species in Gonghu Bay from Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes.

  15. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  16. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl

    2015-07-14

    In cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, groundwater levels in wells located in the northern Green River Basin in Wyoming, an area of ongoing energy development, were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2010 to 2014. The wells were completed in the uppermost aquifers of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, which is a complex regional aquifer system that provides water to most wells in the area. Except for near perennial streams, groundwater-level altitudes in most aquifers generally decreased with increasing depth, indicating a general downward potential for groundwater movement in the study area. Drilled depth of the wells was observed as a useful indicator of depth to groundwater such that deeper wells typically had a greater depth to groundwater. Comparison of a subset of wells included in this study that had historical groundwater levels that were measured during the 1960s and 1970s and again between 2012 and 2014 indicated that, overall, most of the wells showed a net decline in groundwater levels.

  17. Subsoil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to rivers draining into Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Jon; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Timothy; Borombovits, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The Laura-Normanby River (catchment area: 24,350 km(2)), which drains into Princess Charlotte Bay, has been identified in previous studies as the third largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. These catchment scale modelling studies also identified surface soil erosion as supplying >80% of the sediment. Here we use activity concentrations of the fallout radionuclides (137)Cs and (210)Pbex to test the hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine (river systems draining into Princess Charlotte Bay. Our results contradict these previous studies, and are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of fine sediment in this catchment. The hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to Princess Charlotte Bay is rejected. River sediment samples were collected using both time-integrated samplers and sediment drape deposits. We show that there is no detectable difference in (137)Cs and (210)Pbex activity concentrations between samples collected using these two methods. Two methods were also used to collect samples to characterise (137)Cs and (210)Pbex concentrations in sediment derived from surface soil erosion; sampling of surface-wash deposits and deployment of surface runoff traps that collected samples during rain events. While there was no difference in the (137)Cs activity concentrations for samples collected using these two methods, (210)Pbex activity concentrations were significantly higher in the samples collected using the runoff traps. The higher (210)Pbex concentrations are shown to be correlated with loss-on-ignition (r(2) = 0.79) and therefore are likely to be related to higher organic concentrations in the runoff trap samples. As a result of these differences we use a three end member mixing model (channel/gully, hillslope surface-wash and hillslope runoff traps) to determine the relative contribution from surface soil erosion. Probability

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus transport between Fourleague Bay, LA, and the Gulf of Mexico: The role of winter cold fronts and Atchafalaya River discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B.C.; Day, J.W.; Justic, D.; Twilley, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient fluxes were measured between Fourleague Bay, a shallow Louisiana estuary, and the Gulf of Mexico every 3 h between February 1 and April 30, 1994 to determine how high velocity winds associated with cold fronts and peak Atchafalaya River discharge influenced transport. Net water fluxes were ebb-dominated throughout the study because of wind forcing and high volumes of water entering the northern Bay from the Atchafalaya River. Flushing time of the Bay averaged winds with approximately 56% of the volume of the Bay exported to the Gulf in 1 day during the strongest flushing event. Higher nitrate + nitrite (NO2+ NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were indicative of Atchafalaya River input and fluxes were greater when influenced by high velocity northerly winds associated with frontal passage. Net exports of NO2 + NO3, TN, and TP were 43.5, 98.5, and 13.6 g s-1, respectively, for the 89-day study. An average of 10.6 g s-1 of ammonium (NH4) was exported to the Gulf over the study; however, concentrations were lower when associated with riverine influence and wind-driven exports suggesting the importance of biological processes. Phosphate (PO4) fluxes were nearly balanced over the study with fairly stable concentrations indicating a well-buffered system. The results indicate that the high energy subsidy provided by natural pulsing events such as atmospheric cold fronts and seasonal river discharge are efficient mechanisms of nutrient delivery to adjacent wetlands and nearshore coastal ecosystems and are important in maintaining coastal sustainability. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral interactions of penned red and arctic foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, D.R.; Graves, H.B.; Sargeant, A.B.; Storm, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Expansion of the geographical distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) into the far north tundra region may lead to competition between arctic (Alopex lagopus) and red foxes for space and resources. Behavioral interactions between red and arctic foxes were evaluated during 9 trials conducted in a 4.05-ha enclosure near Woodworth, North Dakota. Each trial consisted of introducing a male-female pair of arctic foxes into the enclosure and allowing them to acclimate for approximately a week before releasing a female red fox into the enclosure, followed by her mate a few days later. In 8 of 9 trials, red foxes were dominant over arctic foxes during encounters. Activity of the arctic foxes decreased upon addition of red foxes. Arctic foxes tried unsuccessfully to defend preferred den, resting, and feeding areas. Even though the outcome of competition between red and arctic foxes in the Arctic is uncertain, the more aggressive red fox can dominate arctic foxes in direct competition for den sites and other limited resources.

  20. Radioactive contamination of filamentous green algae in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, E.; Sztanyik, L.B.; Vanicsek, L.

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Hungarian nuclear power program, river water monitoring techniques should be developed. From among algae of various species of river Danube the localized and well-propagating filamentous green algae (Cladophora sp.; Vaucheria sp.) were investigated. The activity concentration of gamma-radiating nuclides absorbed by algae was determined with a Canberra 8100 type Ge(Li)-spectrometer. This apparatus facilitated radioactivity measurements on wet samples or samples subjected to simple physical preparation. The metabolic character and accumulative abilities of filamentous green algae showed that they are suitable indicators of radionuclide contamination of the water ecosystem. 131 I nuclide at min. 72.5 mBq/g to max. 5440.0 mBq/g, and other fission products from 55 mBq/g to 929 mBq/g were observed. (author)

  1. Radioactive contamination of filamentous green algae in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, E.; Sztanyik, L.B.; Vanicsek, L. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Hungarian nuclear power program, river water monitoring techniques should be developed. From among algae of various species of river Danube the localized and well-propagating filamentous green algae (Cladophora sp.; Vaucheria sp.) were investigated. The activity concentration of gamma-radiating nuclides absorbed by algae was determined with a Canberra 8100 type Ge(Li)-spectrometer. This apparatus facilitated radioactivity measurements on wet samples or samples subjected to simple physical preparation. The metabolic character and accumulative abilities of filamentous green algae showed that they are suitable indicators of radionuclide contamination of the water ecosystem. /sup 131/I nuclide at min. 72.5 mBq/g to max. 5440.0 mBq/g, and other fission products from 55 mBq/g to 929 mBq/g were observed.

  2. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  3. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  4. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  5. Movements and habitat use locations of manatees within Kings Bay Florida during the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge winter season (November 15–March 31)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.

    2018-04-06

    Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.

  6. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Day, Daniel D.; Burket, S. Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W.; Haddad, Samuel P.; Bowerman, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2–3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk.

  7. FOOD OF THE SILVER FOX VULPES CHAMA The silver fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    habits as follows: "The South African Silver Fox is nocturnal, occasionally crepuscular, and goes about singly or in ... stigma attached to virtually any "fox" or "jackal" in southern Africa as killers offarm animals. Thus many ... of data for the species justifies pUblication of the results, while further work continues. MATERIAL AND ...

  8. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  9. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  10. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  11. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  12. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Evaluation of fox tail millet (Setaria italica forage quality in different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Izadi Yazdanabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the quantitative factors in fox tail millet (Setaria italica L. under three stages of growth, an experiment was conducted in Birjand during spring and summer of 2010. The preliminary objective was evaluation of fox tail physiological characteristics on animals that feed them. Planting of Foxtail millet was performed according to local practices and endemic acknowledge. Sampling was carried out at Vegetative, flowering and seeding stages, then samples transported to laboratory of animal nutrition. After Drying of sampling, dry matter, dry matter digestibility, crude protein, metabolically energy, Acid Detergent Fiber and Nitrogen Detergent Fiber, Ash and some mineral nutrients were measured. The results showed significant differences in measured characteristics in various phonological stages. Forage quality was higher in flowering and seeding stages than in vegetative stage. Dry matter digestibility and metabolically energy were high and NDF and ADF were less in vegetative stage. Because fox tail millet is leafy and palatable by animal at this stage, it’s optimum yield is important. Ability to produce Green fodder by this plant and the possibility of cultivation in different regions and its ability to produce forage for livestocks, its planting is recommended.

  14. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of estuarial seawater and river water of Bailanghe in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaofeng; Xu, Suning; Wang, Ruijiu; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhiyi; Mei, Junjun; Ding, Zhilei; Yang, Peijie; Yu, Liangju; Lv, Tieying; Bai, Gang; Kang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In the study of seawater intrusion, seawater is usually taken as an end-member that mixes with other source(s). However, compared to standard seawater, the coastal seawater particularly that near the estuary, can be strongly influenced by the rivers into the sea and by coastal human activities. Their composition can be thus continuously changed and redistributed with space and time. Therefore, before investigating seawater intrusion in a certain area, it is essentially important to determine the features of the estuarine seawater (e.g. the mixture percentage between standard seawater and river water). In this study, we aimed to gain a clear situation of the seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, Southern Bohai, China. The issue aforementioned was investigated by comparing the stable isotopic and hydrochemical composition of the marine and river water collected in this area. Samples investigated include 5 surface water samples collected at the downstream of the Bailanghe and 7 seawater samples near the estuary of Laizhou Bay. Inert tracers (δD, δ18O, Cl, Br) and reaction tracers (Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Ca, NO3) are particularly analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1) All the river water samples fall below the Global Meteoric Water Line in the δD - δ18O diagram, reflecting evaporation of the upstream reservoir water. The seawater samples fall on the mixing line of standard seawater and the river water in the stable isotopic diagram. 2) The Cl-δ18O diagram indicates widespread dissolution of evaporate into the river, while high concentration of Ca and HCO3-, as well as the SO42- - Cl relation of the river water samples reflect the dissolution of CO2 , carbonate and sulfate in the atmosphere and on the ground. 3) The Br/Cl ratios of seawater samples are closed to the marine ratios. This together with the plots of major ions vs. Cl suggest that the seawater samples are originated from the mixture of standard seawater and river water. Therefore, when referring to the

  15. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  16. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  17. Y-Chromosome Markers for the Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Halie M; Stutchman, Jeremy T; Bastounes, Estelle R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Trut, Lyudmila N; Sacks, Benjamin N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2017-09-01

    The de novo assembly of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) genome has facilitated the development of genomic tools for the species. Efforts to identify the population history of red foxes in North America have previously been limited by a lack of information about the red fox Y-chromosome sequence. However, a megabase of red fox Y-chromosome sequence was recently identified over 2 scaffolds in the reference genome. Here, these scaffolds were scanned for repeated motifs, revealing 194 likely microsatellites. Twenty-three of these loci were selected for primer development and, after testing, produced a panel of 11 novel markers that were analyzed alongside 2 markers previously developed for the red fox from dog Y-chromosome sequence. The markers were genotyped in 76 male red foxes from 4 populations: 7 foxes from Newfoundland (eastern Canada), 12 from Maryland (eastern United States), and 9 from the island of Great Britain, as well as 48 foxes of known North American origin maintained on an experimental farm in Novosibirsk, Russia. The full marker panel revealed 22 haplotypes among these red foxes, whereas the 2 previously known markers alone would have identified only 10 haplotypes. The haplotypes from the 4 populations clustered primarily by continent, but unidirectional gene flow from Great Britain and farm populations may influence haplotype diversity in the Maryland population. The development of new markers has increased the resolution at which red fox Y-chromosome diversity can be analyzed and provides insight into the contribution of males to red fox population diversity and patterns of phylogeography. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Colloid dynamics and transport of major elements through a boreal river - brackish bay mixing zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ö.; Widerlund, A.; Andersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    km in the spring.. During the dynamic springflood conditions studied, small 238U–234Th disequilibria, low sediment trap fluxes, laboratory mixing experiments, as well as results from an independent two-box, two-dimensional mixing model combine to suggest that no significant removal of Fe, Si......A range of biogeochemical methodologies were applied to investigate how aggregation processes affected the phase distribution and mixing of Fe, Si, and organic carbon between the Kalix River and the Bothnic Bay, northernmost Baltic Sea salinityF3; the low-salinity zone LSZ. was stretching over 60...... similar to that of neighboring Russian Arctic rivers, is hypothesized to result from a comparatively high organic-to-detrital matter characteristic of the aggregates. While first principles would indeed suggest that decreasing electrostatic repulsion during mixing lead to aggregation, a low specific...

  19. Application of stable isotopes to the assessment of pollution loading from various sources in the Pampanga River system into the Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on the Pampanga River Basin as prototype for the other watersheds of Manila Bay. The pollution of the Bay is associated to loading from agriculture, industry and services sectors but with no direct evidence, hence the origins of pollution have to be identified for area-based resource management actions. The multiple stable isotopes were used and applied in identifying and tracing through spectral signature the origin of nutrient loading

  20. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km2) glaciated Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Previous work has shown that the late Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated from the three main passages of the bay between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago and was accompanied by a marine transgression during which ice and sea were in contact. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level fell to at least -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,500 years ago. During lowered sea level, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich mud from the river was deposited rapidly in remnant, glacially scoured depressions in the lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow (???20 m water depth) bedrock sill across the bay mouth. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the bay system and received only small amounts of locally derived fine-grained sediments. During the Holocene transgression that accompanied the eustatic rise of sea level, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, heterogeneous fluvial deposits filled the ancestral valley of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin (energy conditions and the waning influence of the Penobscot River at the head of the bay. In contrast, relatively thick (up to 25 m) silty clays accumulated within a subbottom trough in the western half of the bay head. This deposit apparently developed late in the transgression after sea level had reached -20 m and after the westward transport of fine-grained sediments from the Penobscot River had been established. During and since the late Holocene transgression of sea level, waves and currents have eroded, reworked, and

  1. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  2. Are flying-foxes coming to town? Urbanisation of the spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Tait

    Full Text Available Urbanisation of wildlife populations is a process with significant conservation and management implications. While urban areas can provide habitat for wildlife, some urbanised species eventually come into conflict with humans. Understanding the process and drivers of wildlife urbanisation is fundamental to developing effective management responses to this phenomenon. In Australia, flying-foxes (Pteropodidae are a common feature of urban environments, sometimes roosting in groups of tens of thousands of individuals. Flying-foxes appear to be becoming increasingly urbanised and are coming into increased contact and conflict with humans. Flying-fox management is now a highly contentious issue. In this study we used monitoring data collected over a 15 year period (1998-2012 to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of association of spectacled flying-fox (Pteropus conspicillatus roost sites (camps with urban areas. We asked whether spectacled flying-foxes are becoming more urbanised and test the hypothesis that such changes are associated with anthropogenic changes to landscape structure. Our results indicate that spectacled flying-foxes were more likely to roost near humans than might be expected by chance, that over the period of the study the proportion of the flying-foxes in urban-associated camps increased, as did the number of urban camps. Increased urbanisation of spectacled flying-foxes was not related to changes in landscape structure or to the encroachment of urban areas on camps. Overall, camps tended to be found in areas that were more fragmented, closer to human habitation and with more urban land cover than the surrounding landscape. This suggests that urbanisation is a behavioural response rather than driven by habitat loss.

  3. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, M.; Russell, R.; Zillman, D.

    1982-04-01

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area

  4. 2014 Reassessment of Floodplain Wetland Connections in the Middle Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Walston, L. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, C. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the results of floodplain wetland connection surveys conducted in 2014 at six priority floodplain wetland sites along the middle Green River between Jensen and Ouray, Utah. Surveys were conducted at levee breaches and within channels leading from the breaches to the wetlands (referred to here as connection channels) to characterize the flows needed to connect the river’s main channel with the floodplain wetlands.

  5. Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, M. M.; Krishnaswami, S.; somayajulu, B. L. K.; Moore, W. S.

    1990-05-01

    The most comprehensive data set on uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the major river systems of the world, is reported here. The dissolved 238U concentration in these river waters ranges between 0.44 and 8.32 μ/1, and it exhibits a positive correlation with major cations (Na + K + Mg + Ca). The 238U /∑Cations ratio in waters is very similar to that measured in the suspended sediments, indicating congruent weathering of uranium and major cations. The regional variations observed in the [ 234U /238U ] activity ratio are consistent with the lithology of the drainage basins. The lowland tributaries (Chambal, Betwa, Ken, and Son), draining through the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Deccan Traps and the Vindhyan-Bundelkhand Plateau, have [ 234U /238U ] ratio in the range 1.16 to 1.84. This range is significantly higher than the near equilibrium ratio (~1.05) observed in the highland rivers which drain through sedimentary terrains. The dissolved 226Ra concentration ranges between 0.03 and 0.22 dpm/1. The striking feature of the radium isotopes data is the distinct difference in the 228Ra and 226Ra abundances between the highland and lowland rivers. The lowland waters are enriched in 228Ra while the highland waters contain more 226Ra. This difference mainly results from the differences in their weathering regimes. The discharge-weighted mean concentration of dissolved 238U in the Ganga (at Patna) and in the Brahmaputra (at Goalpara) are 1.81 and 0.63 μ/1, respectively. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system constitutes the major source of dissolved uranium to the Bay of Bengal. These rivers transport annually about 1000 tons of uranium to their estuaries, about 10% of the estimated global supply of dissolved uranium to the oceans via rivers. The transport of uranium by these rivers far exceeds that of the Amazon, although their water discharge is only about 20% of that of the Amazon. The high intensity of weathering of uranium in

  6. Seasonal dynamics of atmospheric and river inputs of black carbon, and impacts on biogeochemical cycles in Halong Bay, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of black carbon (BC, a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass, are high in the Asia-Pacific region, yet input pathways and rates to the ocean are not well constrained. Atmospheric and riverine inputs of BC in Halong Bay (Vietnam, a hotspot of atmospheric BC, were studied at monthly intervals during one year. Climate in Halong Bay is governed by the monsoon regime, characterized by a northeast winter monsoon (dry season and southeast summer monsoon (wet season. During the dry season, atmospheric BC concentrations averaged twice those observed during the wet season. In the sea surface microlayer (SML and underlying water (ULW, concentrations of particulate BC (PBC averaged 539 and 11 μmol C L–1, respectively. Dissolved BC (DBC concentrations averaged 2.6 μmol C L–1 in both the SML and ULW. Seasonal variations indicated that PBC concentration in the SML was controlled by atmospheric deposition during the dry season, while riverine inputs controlled both PBC and DBC concentrations in ULW during the wet season. Spatiotemporal variations of PBC and DBC during the wet season suggest that river runoff was efficient in transporting PBC that had accumulated on land during the dry season, and in mobilizing and transporting DBC to the ocean. The annual river flux of PBC was about 3.8 times higher than that of DBC. The monsoon regime controls BC input to Halong Bay by favoring dry deposition of BC originating from the north during the dry season, and wet deposition and river runoff during the wet season. High PBC concentrations seem to enhance the transfer of organic carbon from dissolved to particulate phase by adsorbing dissolved organic carbon and stimulating aggregation. Such processes may impact the availability and biogeochemical cycling of other dissolved substances, including nutrients, for the coastal marine ecosystem.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of FoxE from Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2, an FeII oxidoreductase involved in photoferrotrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Saraiva, I. H.; Coelho, R.; Newman, D. K.; Louro, R. O.; Frazão, C.

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of the R. ferrooxidans SW2 iron oxidoreductase FoxE were obtained and the phase problem was solved by Fe SAD at 2.44 Å resolution. FoxE is a protein encoded by the foxEYZ operon of Rhodobacter ferrooxidans SW2 that is involved in Fe II -based anoxygenic photosynthesis (‘photoferrotrophy’). It is thought to reside in the periplasm, where it stimulates light-dependent Fe II oxidation. It contains 259 residues, including two haem c-binding motifs. As no three-dimensional model is available and there is no structure with a similar sequence, crystals of FoxE were produced. They diffracted to 2.44 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Fe edge. The phase problem was solved by SAD using SHELXC/D/E and the experimental maps confirmed the presence of two haems per molecule

  8. Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tribute Gift Send an Ecard Team Fox Donation Employer Matching Gifts Planned Giving Other Ways to Give ... Fox Trial Finder Italy | Fox Shop | FAQs | Careers | Leadership & Staff | Contact Us | Español Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram ...

  9. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  11. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  12. Metagenomic evidence for reciprocal particle exchange between the mainstem estuary and lateral bay sediments of the lower Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya W Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lateral bays of the lower Columbia River estuary are areas of enhanced water retention that influence net ecosystem metabolism through activities of their diverse microbial communities. Metagenomic characterization of sediment microbiota from three disparate sites in two brackish lateral bays (Baker and Youngs produced approximately 100 Gbp of DNA sequence data analyzed subsequently for predicted SSU rRNA and peptide-coding genes. The metagenomes were dominated by Bacteria. A large component of Eukaryota was present in Youngs Bay samples, i.e. the inner bay sediment was enriched with the invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, known for high ammonia production. The metagenome was also highly enriched with an archaeal ammonia oxidizer closely related to Nitrosoarchaeum limnia. Combined analysis of sequences and continuous, high-resolution time series of biogeochemical data from fixed and mobile platforms revealed the importance of large-scale reciprocal particle exchanges between the mainstem estuarine water column and lateral bay sediments. Deposition of marine diatom particles in sediments near Youngs Bay mouth was associated with a dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes (58% of total Bacteria and corresponding genes involved in phytoplankton polysaccharide degradation. The Baker Bay sediment metagenome contained abundant Archaea, including diverse methanogens, as well as functional genes for methylotrophy and taxonomic markers for syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that active methane cycling occurs at this location. Our previous work showed enrichments of similar anaerobic taxa in particulate matter of the mainstem estuarine water column. In total, our results identify the lateral bays as both sources and sinks of biogenic particles significantly impacting microbial community composition and biogeochemical activities in the estuary.

  13. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  14. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  15. Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Red Fox, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Hénault, Sylvie; Tambosco, Jennifer; Richomme, Céline; Réveillaud, Édouard; Gares, Hélène; Moyen, Jean-Louis; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2018-06-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.

  16. Syntheses and Thermal Behaviors of Rb(FOX-7)·H2O and Cs(FOX-7)·H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jinan; Xu, Kangzhen; Wang, Min; Ren, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongshun; Song, Jirong; Zhao, Fengqi

    2010-01-01

    Two new energetic organic alkali metal salts, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene rubidium salt [Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O] and 1,1- diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene cesium salt [Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O], were synthesized by reacting of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) and rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in alkali methanol aqueous solution, respectively. The thermal behaviors of Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O and Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O were studied with DSC and TG methods. The critical temperatures of thermal explosion of the two compounds are 216.22 and 223.73 .deg. C, respectively. Specific heat capacities of the two compounds were determined with a micro-DSC method, and the molar heat capacities are 217.46 and 199.47 J mol -1 K -1 at 298.15 K, respectively. The adiabatic times-to-explosion were also calculated to be a certain value of 5.81 - 6.36 s for Rb(FOX-7)·H 2 O, and 9.92 - 10.54 s for Cs(FOX-7)·H 2 O. After FOX-7 becoming alkali metal salts, thermal decomposition temperatures of the compounds heighten with the rise of element period, but thermal decomposition processes become intense

  17. Predator removal enhances waterbird restoration in Chesapeake Bay (Maryland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R. Michael; McGowan, Peter C.; Reese, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This report represents an update to an earlier report(Erwin et al. 2007a) on wildlife restoration on the largest dredge material island project in the United States underway in Talbot County, Maryland (Figure 1) in the mid–Chesapeake Bay region, referred to as the Paul Sarbanes Ecosystem Restoration Project at Poplar Island (www.nab.usace.army.mil/projects/Maryland/PoplarIsland/documents.html). An important component of this largescale restoration effort focused on water birds, as many of these species have undergone significant declines in the Chesapeake region over the past 30 years (Erwin et al. 2007b). The priority waterbird species include common terns (Sterna hirundo), least terns (S. antillarum), snowy egrets (Egretta thula), and ospreys (Pandion haliaetus). Although significant numbers of common terns (more than 800 pairs in 2003), least terns (62 pairs in 2003), snowy egrets (50 or more pairs by 2005), and ospreys (7 to 10 pairs) have nested on Poplar Island since early 2000, tern productivity especially had been strongly limited by a combination of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) predation. Fox trapping began in 2004, and four were removed that year; no more evidence of fox presence was found in 2005 or subsequently. The owls proved to be more problematic.

  18. Fine-scale habitat preference of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) within three spawning locations in the Sacramento River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Megan T.; Thomas, Michael J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Hearn, Alexander R.; Battleson, Ryan D.; Chapman, Eric D.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Minear, J. Tobey; Mora, Ethan A.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Pagel, Matthew D.; Klimley, A. Peter

    2018-01-01

    Vast sections of the Sacramento River have been listed as critical habitat by the National Marine Fisheries Service for green sturgeon spawning (Acipenser medirostris), yet spawning is known to occur at only a few specific locations. This study reveals the range of physical habitat variables selected by adult green sturgeon during their spawning period. We integrated fine-scale fish positions, physical habitat characteristics, discharge, bathymetry, and simulated velocity and depth using a 2-dimensional hydraulic model (FaSTMECH). The objective was to create habitat suitability curves for depth, velocity, and substrate type within three known spawning locations over two years. An overall cumulative habitat suitability score was calculated that averaged the depth, velocity, and substrate scores over all fish, sites, and years. A weighted usable area (WUA) index was calculated throughout the sampling periods for each of the three sites. Cumulative results indicate that the microhabitat characteristics most preferred by green sturgeon in these three spawning locations were velocities between 1.0-1.1 m/s, depths of 8-9 m, and gravel and sand substrate. This study provides guidance for those who may in the future want to increase spawning habitat for green sturgeon within the Sacramento River.

  19. Comparing Avocado, Swamp Bay, and Camphortree as Hosts of Raffaelea lauricola Using a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-Labeled Strain of the Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A S; Ploetz, R C; Rollins, J A

    2017-01-01

    Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus, causes laurel wilt in members of the Lauraceae plant family. North American species in the family, such as avocado (Persea americana) and swamp bay (P. palustris), are particularly susceptible to laurel wilt, whereas the Asian camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora) is relatively tolerant. To determine whether susceptibility is related to pathogen colonization, a green fluorescent protein-labeled strain of R. lauricola was generated and used to inoculate avocado, swamp bay, and camphortree. Trees were harvested 3, 10, and 30 days after inoculation (DAI), and disease severity was rated on a 1-to-10 scale. By 30 DAI, avocado and swamp bay developed significantly more severe disease than camphortree (mean severities of 6.8 and 5.5 versus 1.6, P < 0.003). The extent of xylem colonization was recorded as the percentage of lumena that were colonized by the pathogen. More xylem was colonized in avocado than camphortree (0.9% versus 0.1%, P < 0.03) but colonization in swamp bay (0.4%) did not differ significantly from either host. Although there were significant correlations between xylem colonization and laurel wilt severity in avocado (r = 0.74), swamp bay (r = 0.82), and camphortree (r = 0.87), even severely affected trees of all species were scarcely colonized by the pathogen.

  20. Characterization of the current biological communities within the Nanticoke River in the vicinity of the Vienna SES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, C.F.; Brindley, A.; Kazyak, P.F.

    1991-07-01

    Pursuant to a utility's intent to file for permission to build a generating station along the Nanticoke River, Maryland, a field program was conducted to update characterizations of major aquatic biota of the river in proximity to the existing power plant and a potential intake/discharge location. This characterization sampled five stations on the Nanticoke River, spanning 14 miles from Chapter Point to Riverton, between July 1988 and October 1989. During the study period, the juvenile and adult fish community was dominated by white perch, Atlantic menhaden, bay anchovy, hogchoker, and spot. Spring ichthyoplankton was composed of white perch, striped bass, yellow perch, and alosids, while summer ichthyoplankton was dominated by naked gobies and bay anchovy. Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Bosmina longirostris dominated zooplankton samples. The phytoplankton community was composed primarily of diatoms, green algae, and monads. Polychaetes and crustaceans were the dominant macrobenthic taxa, with molluscs contributing to total abundance primarily during spring recruitment. The final report presents the results of fish, ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic surveys conducted between July 1988 and October 1989 in the middle portion of the Nanticoke River, Maryland. During the dry conditions of 1988, aquatic communities were dominated by estuarine species, while the lower saline environment of 1989 resulted in the presence of more freshwater species

  1. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  2. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  3. GeoTIFF of 5x5 m Relative Reflectivity for Salt River Bay, St. Croix, 2011, UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 5x5 meter resolution bathymetric surface for an area surrounding the mouth of Salt River Bay (SARI)St....

  4. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  5. Neuronal IFN-beta-induced PI3K/Akt-FoxA1 signalling is essential for generation of FoxA1(+)Treg cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawei; Marin, Andrea; Ejlerskov, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Neurons reprogramme encephalitogenic T cells (Tenc) to regulatory T cells (Tregs), either FoxP3(+)Tregs or FoxA1(+)Tregs. We reported previously that neuronal ability to generate FoxA1(+)Tregs was central to preventing neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mice...... lacking interferon (IFN)-β were defective in generating FoxA1(+)Tregs in the brain. Here we show that lack of neuronal IFNβ signalling is associated with the absence of programme death ligand-1 (PDL1), which prevents their ability to reprogramme Tenc cells to FoxA1(+)Tregs. Passive transfer-EAE via IFNβ......-competent Tenc cells to mice lacking IFNβ and active induced-EAE in mice lacking its receptor, IFNAR, in the brain (Nes(Cre):Ifnar(fl/fl)) result in defective FoxA1(+)Tregs generation and aggravated neuroinflammation. IFNβ activates neuronal PI3K/Akt signalling and Akt binds to transcription factor FoxA1...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Estimated Percent Green Space Along Walkable Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates green space along walkable roads. Green space within 25 meters of the road centerline is included and the percentage is based on...

  7. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana L.; Luff, Jennifer; Wang, Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    We used viral metagenomics to identify a novel parvovirus in tissues of a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Nearly full genome characterization and phylogenetic analyses showed this parvovirus (provisionally named gray fox amdovirus) to be distantly related to Aleutian mink disease virus, representing the second viral species in the Amdovirus genus. PMID:22000359

  8. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SITE SELECTION OF GREEN MUSSEL, Perna viridis, MARICULTURE IN LADA BAY, PANDEGLANG, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel is one of important species cultured in Lada Bay, Pandeglang. To provide a necessary guidance regarding green mussel mariculture development, finding suitable site is an important step. This study was conducted to identify suitable site for green mussel mariculture development using geographic information system (GIS based models. Seven important parameters were grouped into two submodels, namely environmental (water temperature, salinity, suspended solid, dissolve oxygen, and bathymetry and infrastructural (distance to settlement and pond aquaculture. A constraint data was used to exclude the area from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to develop green mussel mariculture, including area of floating net fishing activity and area near electricity station. Analyses of factors and constraints indicated that about 31% of potential area with bottom depth less than 25 m had the most suitable area. This area was shown to have an ideal condition for green mussel mariculture in this study region. This study shows that GIS model is a powerful tool for site selection decision making. The tool can be a valuable tool in solving problems in local, regional, and/or continent areas.

  9. Shaggy Lame Fox Syndrome in Pribilof Island Arctic Foxes ( Alopex lagopus pribilofensis), Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, T R; White, P A

    2017-03-01

    A previously unrecognized condition is described in wild free-ranging Pribilof arctic foxes ( Alopex lagopus pribilofensis) from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA. This condition is called shaggy lame fox syndrome (SLFS) denoting the primary clinical signs first observed. Criteria used to suspect SLFS on gross examination included emaciation, failure to shed winter pelage and moderate to severe polyarthritis. Criteria used to confirm SLFS histologically included polyarthritis (characterized by lymphoplasmacytic synovitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, periosteal bony proliferation, and periarticular lymphoplasmacytic vasculitis) and systemic leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Other histological lesions often found included renal cortical infarcts, myocarditis with myocardial infarcts, lymphoplasmacytic meningitis, lymphoplasmacytic cuffing of meningeal and a few cerebral vessels, and cavitating infarcts of the brainstem and thalamus. The cause of SLFS is not known at this time; however, the gross and histological lesions suggest that the cause of SLFS may be a bacterial polyarthritis with a secondary immune-mediated vasculitis. These lesions are consistent with changes described with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in domestic dogs; E. rhusiopathiae was identified from the synovial membrane of a swollen stifle joint and the kidney from one fox using real-time polymerase chain reaction and with culture from a fox that had gross and histological lesions of SLFS. Therefore, E. rhusiopathiae is a possible etiological agent for SLFS.

  10. SCP4 Promotes gluconeogenesis through Fox01/3a dephosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is ne...

  11. Subsoil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to rivers draining into Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olley, Jon; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Timothy; Borombovits, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Laura–Normanby River (catchment area: 24,350 km 2 ), which drains into Princess Charlotte Bay, has been identified in previous studies as the third largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. These catchment scale modelling studies also identified surface soil erosion as supplying >80% of the sediment. Here we use activity concentrations of the fallout radionuclides 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex to test the hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex activity concentrations between samples collected using these two methods. Two methods were also used to collect samples to characterise 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations in sediment derived from surface soil erosion; sampling of surface-wash deposits and deployment of surface runoff traps that collected samples during rain events. While there was no difference in the 137 Cs activity concentrations for samples collected using these two methods, 210 Pb ex activity concentrations were significantly higher in the samples collected using the runoff traps. The higher 210 Pb ex concentrations are shown to be correlated with loss-on-ignition (r 2 = 0.79) and therefore are likely to be related to higher organic concentrations in the runoff trap samples. As a result of these differences we use a three end member mixing model (channel/gully, hillslope surface-wash and hillslope runoff traps) to determine the relative contribution from surface soil erosion. Probability distributions for 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations were determined for each of the end members, with these distributions then used to estimate the surface soil contribution to each of the collected river sediment samples. The mean estimate of contribution of surface derived sediment for all river samples (n = 70) is 16 ± 2%. This study reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action and adds to the body of evidence

  12. Examining Land Cover and Greenness Dynamics in Hangzhou Bay in 1985–2016 Using Landsat Time-Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqiu Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land cover changes significantly influence vegetation greenness in different regions. Dense Landsat time series stacks provide unique opportunity to analyze land cover change and vegetation greenness trends at finer spatial scale. In the past three decades, large reclamation activities have greatly changed land cover and vegetation growth of coastal areas. However, rarely has research investigated these frequently changed coastal areas. In this study, Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series (1984–2016 data and the Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend algorithm were used to detect the intensity and dates of abrupt changes in a typical coastal area—Hangzhou Bay, China. The prior and posterior land cover categories of each change were classified using phenology information through a Random Forest model. The impacts of land cover change on vegetation greenness trends of the inland and reclaimed areas were analyzed through distinguishing gradual and abrupt changes. The results showed that the intensity and date of land cover change were detected successfully with overall accuracies of 88.7% and 86.1%, respectively. The continuous land cover dynamics were retrieved accurately with an overall accuracy of 91.0% for ten land cover classifications. Coastal reclamation did not alleviate local cropland occupation, but prompted the vegetation greenness of the reclaimed area. Most of the inland area showed a browning trend. The main contributors to the greenness and browning trends were also quantified. These findings will help the natural resource management community generate better understanding of coastal reclamation and make better management decisions.

  13. Hillslope failure and paraglacial reworking of sediments in response to glacier retreat, Fox Valley, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Samuel T.; Fuller, Ian C.; Anderson, Brian; Tate, Rosie

    2017-04-01

    Climate and glacier fluctuations influence sediment supply to glacier forelands, which in turn influences down-valley hazards to infrastructure and tourism within glacier forelands. At Fox Glacier, one of New Zealand's most iconic and popular glaciers, rapid retreat has initiated a range of hillslope and valley floor responses, that present a cascade of hazards and changes that need to be carefully managed. Fox Glacier has retreated many kilometres historically, with 2.6 km of retreat since the mid-20th century, and a phase of rapid retreat of 50-340 m per year since 2009. To study the system response to past and ongoing glacial retreat at the Fox valley, morphological changes are being observed using time-lapse photography and the annual collection of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthophoto mosaics. The DEMs are being produced using Structure from Motion photogrammetry from UAV/RPAS and helicopter platforms, and are being used, along with manual ground surveying, to produce ground surface change models (DoDs; DEMs of Difference) and sediment budgets for the valley. Results from time-lapse photography and DoDs show that glacial retreat has initiated destabilisation and (mostly chronic) mass movement of surficial glacial sediments on the valley slopes near the glacier terminus. Alluvial fans farther down valley are actively growing, reworking glacial and landslide sediments from tributary catchments. These paraglacial sediments being delivered to the proglacial river from the glacier terminus and alluvial fans are driving aggradation of the valley floor of decimetres to metres per year and maintaining a highly dynamic braid plain. Valley floor changes also include the melting of buried dead ice, which are causing localised subsidence at the carpark and one of the alluvial fans. The unstable slopes and active debris fans, aggrading and highly active river channel, ground subsidence, add to the spectacle but also the hazards of the Fox valley

  14. Lithogenic sources, composition and intra-annual variability of suspended particulate matter supplied from rivers to the Northern Galician Rias (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, Patricia; Prego, Ricardo; Filgueiras, Ana Virginia; Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Vázquez, Miguel Angel; Caetano, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Scarce research about small European rivers from non-human impacted areas to determine their natural background state has been undertaken. During the annual hydrological cycle of 2008-9 the patterns of particulate supply (SPM, POC, PON, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) from the rivers Sor, Mera Landro, Lourido and Landoi to the Northern Galician Rias (SW Bay of Biscay) were tackled. No differences in the composition of the SPM were detected for the studied rivers regarding Al, Fe and POC but the relative percentage of particulate trace elements (PTE) discriminate the rivers. So, Cr, Co and Ni in the Lourido, and Landoi rivers, and Cu in the Mera River, are controlled by watershed minerals of Ortegal Geological Complex while for the rest rivers PTE are by granitic and Ollo de Sapo bedrock watershed. Therefore, the imprint of PTE in the parental rocks of the river basins is reflected on the coastal sediments of the Rias. The main process controlling the dynamics and variations of chemical elements in the particulate form is the river discharge. This fact exemplifies that these rivers presents a natural behavior not being highly influenced by anthropogenic activities.

  15. Regional Hydrology of the Green River-Moab Area, Northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with...

  16. Hazard assessment of inorganics to three endangered fish in the Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with three life stages of Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gila elegans) in a reconstituted water quality simulating the middle part of the Green River of Utah. Tests were conducted with boron, lithium, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The overall rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages combined from most to least toxic was vanadium = zinc > selenite > lithium = uranium > selenate > boron. There was no difference between the three species in their sensitivity to the seven inorganics based on a rank-order evaluation at the species level. Colorado squawfish were 2-5 times more sensitive to selenate and selenite at the swimup life stage than older stages, whereas razorback suckers displayed equal sensitivity among life stages. Bonytail exhibited equal sensitivity to selenite, but were five times more sensitive to selenate at the swimup life stage than the older stages. Comparison of 96-hr LC50 values with a limited number of environmental water concentrations in Ashley Creek, Utah, which receives irrigation drainwater, revealed moderate hazard ratios for boron, selenate, selenite, and zinc, low hazard ratios for uranium and vanadium, but unknown ratios for lithium. These inorganic contaminants in drainwaters may adversely affect endangered fish in the Green River.

  17. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  18. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, VA, 2002-2004 (NODC Accession 0090253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia in GIS...

  19. The forkhead transcription factor FoxY regulates Nanos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia L; Wessel, Gary M

    2012-10-01

    FoxY is a member of the forkhead transcription factor family that appeared enriched in the presumptive germ line of sea urchins (Ransick et al. Dev Biol 2002;246:132). Here, we test the hypothesis that FoxY is involved in germ line determination in this animal. We found two splice forms of FoxY that share the same DNA-binding domain, but vary in the carboxy-terminal trans-activation/repression domain. Both forms of the FoxY protein are present in the egg and in the early embryo, and their mRNAs accumulate to their highest levels in the small micromeres and adjacent non-skeletogenic mesoderm. Knockdown of FoxY resulted in a dramatic decrease in Nanos mRNA and protein levels as well as a loss of coelomic pouches in 2-week-old larvae. Our results indicate that FoxY positively regulates Nanos at the transcriptional level and is essential for reproductive potential in this organism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Rate of Loaded Sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Becira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines was conducted to determine and compare the rate of loaded sediments of and among six sites in Honda Bay and during two seasons, and to discuss sedimentation rate in relation to selected environmental parameters commencing on April 2003 to November 2003.Results showed that the Babuyan River significantly contributed to the amounts of sediments being loaded to Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City of which the amount of sediments loaded between the two sampling season and among the six sampling events had no significant difference. Sediment's color and texture affirmed the land-based activities in Babuyan and Mauyon watersheds, which eventually carried into the Bay during storm weather condition.The amount of trapped sediments in all stations is probably affected by the river's discharge capacity and the river's water velocity, although the duration sediment traps were mounted could also affect the measurement of sedimentation rate.

  1. Expression analysis of the speech-related genes FoxP1 and FoxP2 and their relation to singing behavior in two songbird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Heston, Jonathan B.; Burkett, Zachary D.; White, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and songbirds are among the rare animal groups that exhibit socially learned vocalizations: speech and song, respectively. These vocal-learning capacities share a reliance on audition and cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, as well as neurogenetic mechanisms. Notably, the transcription factors Forkhead box proteins 1 and 2 (FoxP1, FoxP2) exhibit similar expression patterns in the cortex and basal ganglia of humans and the zebra finch species of songbird, among other brain regions. Mutations in either gene are associated with language disorders in humans. Experimental knock-down of FoxP2 in the basal ganglia song control region Area X during song development leads to imprecise copying of tutor songs. Moreover, FoxP2 levels decrease naturally within Area X when zebra finches sing. Here, we examined neural expression patterns of FoxP1 and FoxP2 mRNA in adult Bengalese finches, a songbird species whose songs exhibit greater sequence complexity and increased reliance on audition for maintaining their quality. We found that FoxP1 and FoxP2 expression in Bengalese finches is similar to that in zebra finches, including strong mRNA signals for both factors in multiple song control nuclei and enhancement of FoxP1 in these regions relative to surrounding brain tissue. As with zebra finches, when Bengalese finches sing, FoxP2 is behaviorally downregulated within basal ganglia Area X over a similar time course, and expression negatively correlates with the amount of singing. This study confirms that in multiple songbird species, FoxP1 expression highlights song control regions, and regulation of FoxP2 is associated with motor control of song. PMID:24006346

  2. Members of FOX family could be drug targets of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Li, Wan; Zhao, Ying; Kang, De; Fu, Weiqi; Zheng, Xiangjin; Pang, Xiaocong; Du, Guanhua

    2018-01-01

    FOX families play important roles in biological processes, including metabolism, development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and longevity. Here we are focusing on roles of FOX members in cancers, FOX members and drug resistance, FOX members and stem cells. Finally, FOX members as drug targets of cancer treatment were discussed. Future perspectives of FOXC1 research were described in the end. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fox-7 for Insensitive Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    cavitation , and therefore nucleation, to occur at each frequency. As well as producing ultrasound at different frequencies, the method of delivery of...processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology to improve booster formulations, and results from these...7 booster formulations. Also included are particle processing techniques using ultrasound , designed to optimise FOX-7 crystal size and morphology

  4. Comparison of selected immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostro, K.; Woloszyn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the work was to compare selected nonspecific immunological parameters in silver and polar foxes. It was found that out of three mitogens (Con A, La and PWM) only Con A stimulated the strongest lymphocyte proliferation in both species of foxes. Mean stimulation indices and the absolute values of incorporated thymidine were significantly higher in polar foxes. The average percentages of phagocytes and the fatal indices of neutrophils were comparable in both species of foxes, while the mean value of the phagocyte index was much higher in the silver fox. However, in polar foxes a higher concentration of lysozyme in the blood serum was found. The differences in the parameters may influence the susceptibility of these foxes to some infections already at the level of nonspecific primary response. (author)

  5. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  6. Genetic characteristics of red foxes In northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A Green; Benjamin N Sacks; Leonard J Erickson; Keith B Aubry

    2017-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes macroura), once common in the Blue Mountains ecoregion of northeastern Oregon, was considered rare in eastern Oregon by the 1930s and thought to be extirpated by the 1960s, when putatively new Red Fox populations began to appear. Although the new foxes were long presumed to be nonnative (originating from...

  7. Examination of D. immitis presence in foxes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Pavle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease that usually affects dogs, but it can occur in other carnivore species. Since the disease appears endemically in dogs in some parts of Serbia, the aim of our investigation was to determine whether dirofilariosis exists in wild animals. The study included a total of 150 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 30 hunted foxes per region of South Banat, Raska, Rasina, Morava and Zlatibor were examined. After the corpses of foxes were autopsied, the heart and blood vessels were examined macroscopically for the evidence of adult forms of D. immitis. The presence of the agent was found in four foxes from the territory of three municipalities of South Banat: Kovin, Alibunar and Opovo, representing 13.33% of the total number of examined foxes in this region. None of the 120 autopsied foxes from four districts of central Serbia was found to have dirofilaria. The results obtained in investigation lead to conclusion that dirofilariosis exists as a parasitic disease in red foxes in South Banat.

  8. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1982-12-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7800 square kilometers or about 25% of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges have been identified

  9. Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Michael J. Fox: Spurring Research on Parkinson's Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Michael J. Fox and his wife, actress Tracy Pollan, founded the ...

  10. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project's second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards

  13. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-02 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0161822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0161822 contains navigational and physical data collected at Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3), a fixed station in the Columbia...

  15. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  16. Historical sediment budget and present-day catchment-shoreline coupling at Twofold Bay, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Oliver, T.; Hudson, J.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Considering projected impacts of sea-level rise in the 21st century on sandy shorelines, an understanding of long-term sediment budget for individual beaches or coastal compartments supports assessments of shoreline stability. We examined a low-lying coastal beach-ridge barrier in Twofold Bay using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating , airborne LiDAR, sedimentological analysis and seismic data to assess changes in rates of sediment supply to this shoreline through time. Calculations of barrier volume, Twofold Bay bay-floor sediment volume and estimates of sediment delivery from a proximal river system provide a broad-scale assessment of past-sediment budget. Between ca. 7500 years ago and 1500 years ago, sources of sediment for shoreline progradation at Boydtown were bay-floor sediments either inherited or moved into the embayment during late-stage transgression. Progradation rate between ca. 7500-1500 years ago was 0.16 m/yr with subaerial barrier volume accumulating at 0.46 m3/m/yr. Between ca. 1500 years and present day, the Towamba River to the south has delivered additional sediment to the Boydtown shoreline more than doubling shoreline progradation rate to 0.65 m/yr and subaerial barrier accumulation has risen to 1.83 m3/m/yr. The delivery of fluvial sediment from the Towamba River was restricted to the past ca. 1500 years as prior to this, estuary infilling prevented floods delivering sediments to the bay. This recent historical coupling of river sand supply and shoreline progradation rate implies that anthropogenic modifications to the Towamba River catchment such as river damming, or climatic changes reducing rainfall or runoff, would negatively impact the Boydtown Beach shoreline. Conversely increased rainfall or deforestation may increase sediment discharge due to upstream erosion. The Boydtown shoreline within Twofold Bay may be able to maintain its current position in the coming century if fluvial sediment delivery continues. The fact that

  17. What does the fox say? Monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the environment using wild red foxes as an indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Sølverød Mo

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the occurrence of AMR in wild red foxes in relation to human population densities. Samples from wild red foxes (n = 528 included in the Norwegian monitoring programme on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food, feed and animals were included. All samples were divided into three different groups based on population density in the municipality where the foxes were hunted. Of the 528 samples included, 108 (20.5%, 328 (62.1% and 92 (17.4% originated from areas with low, medium and high population density, respectively. A single faecal swab was collected from each fox. All samples were plated out on a selective medium for Enterobacteriaceae for culturing followed by inclusion and susceptibility testing of one randomly selected Escherichia coli to assess the overall occurrence of AMR in the Gram-negative bacterial population. Furthermore, the samples were subjected to selective screening for detection of E. coli displaying resistance towards extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. In addition, a subset of samples (n = 387 were subjected to selective culturing to detect E. coli resistant to carbapenems and colistin, and enterococci resistant to vancomycin. Of these, 98 (25.3%, 200 (51.7% and 89 (23.0% originated from areas with low, medium and high population density, respectively. Overall, the occurrence of AMR in indicator E. coli from wild red foxes originating from areas with different human population densities in Norway was low to moderate (8.8%. The total occurrence of AMR was significantly higher; χ2 (1,N = 336 = 6.53, p = 0.01 in areas with high population density compared to areas with medium population density. Similarly, the occurrence of fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli isolated using selective detection methods was low in areas with low population density and more common in areas with medium or high population density. In conclusion, we found indications that

  18. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pokrovsky

    Full Text Available Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  19. Accelerated FoxP2 evolution in echolocating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor implicated in the development and neural control of orofacial coordination, particularly with respect to vocalisation. Observations that orthologues show almost no variation across vertebrates yet differ by two amino acids between humans and chimpanzees have led to speculation that recent evolutionary changes might relate to the emergence of language. Echolocating bats face especially challenging sensorimotor demands, using vocal signals for orientation and often for prey capture. To determine whether mutations in the FoxP2 gene could be associated with echolocation, we sequenced FoxP2 from echolocating and non-echolocating bats as well as a range of other mammal species. We found that contrary to previous reports, FoxP2 is not highly conserved across all nonhuman mammals but is extremely diverse in echolocating bats. We detected divergent selection (a change in selective pressure at FoxP2 between bats with contrasting sonar systems, suggesting the intriguing possibility of a role for FoxP2 in the evolution and development of echolocation. We speculate that observed accelerated evolution of FoxP2 in bats supports a previously proposed function in sensorimotor coordination.

  20. FoxO6 Integrates Insulin Signaling With Gluconeogenesis in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Perdomo, German; Zhang, Ting; Slusher, Sandra; Lee, Sojin; Phillips, Brett E.; Fan, Yong; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gramignoli, Roberto; Strom, Stephen; Ringquist, Steven; Dong, H. Henry

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. This effect stems from inept insulin suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we studied the ability of forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) to mediate insulin action on hepatic gluconeogenesis and its contribution to glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We characterized FoxO6 in glucose metabolism in cultured hepatocytes and in rodent models of dietary obesity, insulin resistance, or insulin-deficient diabetes. We determined the effect of FoxO6 on hepatic gluconeogenesis in genetically modified mice with FoxO6 gain- versus loss-of-function and in diabetic db/db mice with selective FoxO6 ablation in the liver. RESULTS FoxO6 integrates insulin signaling to hepatic gluconeogenesis. In mice, elevated FoxO6 activity in the liver augments gluconeogenesis, raising fasting blood glucose levels, and hepatic FoxO6 depletion suppresses gluconeogenesis, resulting in fasting hypoglycemia. FoxO6 stimulates gluconeogenesis, which is counteracted by insulin. Insulin inhibits FoxO6 activity via a distinct mechanism by inducing its phosphorylation and disabling its transcriptional activity, without altering its subcellular distribution in hepatocytes. FoxO6 becomes deregulated in the insulin-resistant liver, accounting for its unbridled activity in promoting gluconeogenesis and correlating with the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. These metabolic abnormalities, along with fasting hyperglycemia, are reversible by selective inhibition of hepatic FoxO6 activity in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Our data uncover a FoxO6-dependent pathway by which the liver orchestrates insulin regulation of gluconeogenesis, providing the proof-of-concept that selective FoxO6 inhibition is beneficial for curbing excessive hepatic glucose production and improving glycemic control in diabetes. PMID:21940782

  1. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Anna; Cederlund, Ella; Palmberg, Carina; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Gaunitz, Stefan; Nordling, Kerstin; Ågren, Erik; Ihse, Elisabet; Westermark, Gunilla T; Tjernberg, Lars; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Wind effect on salt transport variability in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K. K.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits large spatial variability in sea surface salinity (SSS) pattern caused by its unique hydrological, meteorological and oceanographical characteristics. This SSS variability is largely controlled by the seasonally reversing monsoon winds and the associated currents. Further, the BoB receives substantial freshwater inputs through excess precipitation over evaporation and river discharge. Rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Irawwady discharge annually a freshwater volume in range between 1.5 x 1012 and 1.83 x 1013 m3 into the bay. A major volume of this freshwater input to the bay occurs during the southwest monsoon (June-September) period. In the present study, a relative role of winds in the SSS variability in the bay is investigated by using an eddy-resolving three dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical model. The model is configured with realistic bathymetry, coastline of study region and forced with daily climatology of atmospheric variables. River discharges from the major rivers are distributed in the model grid points representing their respective geographic locations. Salt transport estimate from the model simulation for realistic case are compared with the standard reference datasets. Further, different experiments were carried out with idealized surface wind forcing representing the normal, low, high, and very high wind speed conditions in the bay while retaining the realistic daily varying directions for all the cases. The experimental simulations exhibit distinct dispersal patterns of the freshwater plume and SSS in different experiments in response to the idealized winds. Comparison of the meridional and zonal surface salt transport estimated for each experiment showed strong seasonality with varying magnitude in the bay with a maximum spatial and temporal variability in the western and northern parts of the BoB.

  3. Changes in the distribution of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in urban areas in Great Britain: findings and limitations of a media-driven nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Scott

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major forms of habitat alteration occurring at the present time. Although this is typically deleterious to biodiversity, some species flourish within these human-modified landscapes, potentially leading to negative and/or positive interactions between people and wildlife. Hence, up-to-date assessment of urban wildlife populations is important for developing appropriate management strategies. Surveying urban wildlife is limited by land partition and private ownership, rendering many common survey techniques difficult. Garnering public involvement is one solution, but this method is constrained by the inherent biases of non-standardised survey effort associated with voluntary participation. We used a television-led media approach to solicit national participation in an online sightings survey to investigate changes in the distribution of urban foxes in Great Britain and to explore relationships between urban features and fox occurrence and sightings density. Our results show that media-based approaches can generate a large national database on the current distribution of a recognisable species. Fox distribution in England and Wales has changed markedly within the last 25 years, with sightings submitted from 91% of urban areas previously predicted to support few or no foxes. Data were highly skewed with 90% of urban areas having <30 fox sightings per 1000 people km(-2. The extent of total urban area was the only variable with a significant impact on both fox occurrence and sightings density in urban areas; longitude and percentage of public green urban space were respectively, significantly positively and negatively associated with sightings density only. Latitude, and distance to nearest neighbouring conurbation had no impact on either occurrence or sightings density. Given the limitations associated with this method, further investigations are needed to determine the association between sightings density and actual fox

  4. The geochemistry of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments from Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Lawrence A.; Latimer, James S.; Ellis, John T.; Quinn, James G.

    1992-05-01

    A geochemical study of coprostanol (5β-Cholestan-3β-ol) was undertaken, to examine the transport and fate of a compound of moderate polarity and reactivity in the marine environment, and also because of the interest in coprostanol for use as a sewage tracer. During 1985-86, 20 sites in Narragansett Bay, including the major point sources and rivers discharging into the bay estuary, were sampled at four different times. In addition, surface sediments from 26 stations in the bay were collected. The large number and diversity of samples allowed for an assessment of major inputs of sewage into the bay as well as the recent fate of sewage-derived particles in surface sediments. Results from the study revealed that 50% of the total particulate coprostanol entering the bay was discharged into the Providence River, primarily due to inputs from the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) at Fields Point, as well as input from the Pawtuxet and Blackstone Rivers. In the lower bay, the Newport WWTF was the largest single source of coprostanol (37% of the total particulate coprostanol) to the bay. Effluent concentrations of coprostanol from secondary WWTFs were consistently lower than those of primary treatment facilities, demonstrating the usefulness of corporstanol as an indicator of treatment plant efficiency. The distribution of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments showed a gradient of decreasing concentration downbay. When coprostanol concentrations in surface sediments were normalized to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, elevated levels were seen only in the Providence River, with a more or less even distribution throughout the rest of the bay. Results also suggest that coprostanol degrades more rapidly in the water column compared to the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), however, it is relatively stable once it is buried in the sediments. Coprostanol concentrations in waters (0·02-0·22

  5. Mapping of HABs Contaminated In Green Shells (Perna viridis) in Semarang Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'in, Churun; Suryanti, Suryanti; Haeruddin, Haeruddin

    2018-02-01

    The existence of Harmful Algae Blooms (HABs) can adversely affect the water like a mass death of fish and oxygen depletion. Some types of HABs can be contaminated with seafood and contain biotoxins that are detrimental to the health of humans who consume them. Green mussels (Perna viridis) has the properties of filter feeders so vulnerable to contamination HABs. This research was conducted to produce spatially thematic maps contaminated HABs in P. viridis so providing information about risk prediction P. viridis when consumed by humans. Sampling was done purposively in three (3) stations that represent the Bay Semarang namely western boundary waters (Kendal), middle (Semarang) and the eastern boundary (Demak). Sampling done two (2) times, namely East season (June -July) and the second transitional season (September) 2016. Analysis of HABs done either in water or body tissues of P. viridis through the analysis of food habit. The results shows that P. viridis genus positive contaminated HABs phytoplankton Tricodesmium and Ceratium. Spatial distribution and abundance of Tricodesmium genus Fitoplankton is wider and taller than the HABs Phytoplankton genus Ceratium. Group HABs are found in the tissues of P. viridis no potential as biotoxin that does not cause adverse health risks.

  6. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weibin; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Gaotian; Renqing, Pengcuo; Xie, Fei; Li, Tiaoying; Wang, Zhenghuan; Wang, Xiaoming

    2012-10-01

    There are three Echinococcus species, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) have been determined to be the main wild definitive host of E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus, but little information is available on the prevalence of these two parasites in Tibetan foxes. Consequently, the copro-prevalence of these parasites in foxes from the eastern Tibetan plateau was evaluated in this study. For each copro-DNA sample extracted from fox feces, a 133-bp segment of EgG1 Hae III was used to screen for infection with E. granulosus. Multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to target an 874-bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene to distinguish E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Among 184 fecal samples, 120 were from Tibetan foxes and six from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Of the fecal samples from Tibetan foxes, 74 (giving a copro-prevalence of 62%) showed the presence of Echinococcus spp.: 23 (19%) were found to contain E. multilocularis, 32 (27%) E. shiquicus, and 19 (16%) showed mixed infection with both E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus. Two fecal samples from red foxes were found to be infected with E. multilocularis. No fox feces were found to be infected with E. granulosus. Tests on zinc finger protein genes and a 105-bp fragment of the Sry gene found no significant difference in the prevalence of the two parasites between sexes. The efficiency of our multiplex nested PCR methods were compared with previous polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods and some problems associated with the copro-PCR were discussed.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the Fox (Forkhead) gene family in the Bilateria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Francoise; Yu, Jr Kai; Liberles, David A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Shimeld, Sebastian M.

    2003-01-01

    The Forkhead or Fox gene family encodes putative transcription factors. There are at least four Fox genes in yeast, 16 in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and 42 in humans. Recently, vertebrate Fox genes have been classified into 17 groups named FoxA to FoxQ. Here, we extend this analysis to invertebrates, using available sequences from D. melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae (Ag), Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce), the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis (Ci) and amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae (Bf), from which we also cloned several Fox genes. Phylogenetic analyses lend support to the previous overall subclassification of vertebrate genes, but suggest that four subclasses (FoxJ, L, N and Q) could be further subdivided to reflect their relationships to invertebrate genes. We were unable to identify orthologs of Fox subclasses E, H, I, J, M and Q1 in D. melanogaster, A. gambiae or C. elegans, suggesting either considerable loss in ecdysozoans or the evolution of these subclasses in the deuterostome lineage. Our analyses suggest that the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes had a minimum complement of 14 Fox genes.

  8. A Multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between dog and red fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, M; Reichert, W; Mattern, R

    2011-11-01

    Foxes are frequently the cause of car accidents in Baden-Württemberg (BW, Germany). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is in close relation to the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the silver fox which is a coat colour variant of the red fox. As insurance claims that involve accidents with animals require authentication, we analyzed frequency distribution and allele sizes in two canine microsatellite loci in 26 dogs (different breeds) and 19 red foxes of the region of BW, Germany. Moreover, sequencing analysis was performed. Red foxes exhibited only 1 allele at each microsatellite locus, whereas in dog 7 alleles at the CPH4 locus and 6 alleles at the CPH12 locus were detected. Sequences of PCR products from the two species revealed several differences between dogs and foxes. We established a sequenced allelic ladder and give population data from dogs and red foxes from the region of BW, Germany. Using microsatellite polymorphisms is efficient in differentiating between dogs and foxes in forensic casework. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... 1625-AA00 Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay; New York, NY ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These...

  10. Colored dissolved organic matter in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Hu, C.; Conmy, R.N.; Muller-Karger, F.; Swarzenski, P.

    2007-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorophyll and total suspended solids in Tampa Bay and its adjacent rivers were examined in June and October of 2004. Except in Old Tampa Bay (OTB), the spatial distribution of CDOM showed a conservative relationship with salinity in June, 2004 (aCDOM(400) = − 0.19 × salinity + 6.78, R2 = 0.98, n = 17, salinity range = 1.1–32.5) with little variations in absorption spectral slope and fluorescence efficiency. This indicates that CDOM distribution was dominated by mixing. In October, 2004, CDOM distribution was nonconservative with an average absorption coefficient (aCDOM(400), ∼ 7.76 m-1) about seven times higher than that in June (∼ 1.11 m-1). The nonconservative behavior was caused largely by CDOM removal at intermediate salinities (e.g., aCDOM(400) removal > 15% at salinity ∼ 13.0), which likely resulted from photobleaching due to stronger stratification. The spatial and seasonal distributions of CDOM in Tampa Bay showed that the two largest rivers, the Alafia River (AR) and Hillsborough River (HR) were dominant CDOM sources to most of the bay. In OTB, however, CDOM showed distinctive differences: lower absorption coefficient, higher absorption spectral slopes, and lower ratios of CDOM absorption to DOC and higher fluorescence efficiency. These differences may have stemmed from (1) changes in CDOM composition by more intensive photobleaching due to the longer residence time of water mass in OTB; (2) other sources of CDOM than the HR/AR inputs, such as local creeks, streams, groundwater, and/or bottom re-suspension. Average CDOM absorption in Tampa Bay at 443 nm, aCDOM(443), was about five times higher in June and about ten times higher in October than phytoplankton pigment absorption, aph(443), indicating that blue light attenuation in the water column was dominated by CDOM rather than by phytoplankton absorption throughout the

  11. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...... differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle...

  12. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  13. Éloge to Robert Fox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Nicolaidis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Alexandre Koyré Medal awarded since 1968 to prominent historians of science was awarded to Robert Fox, leading historian of European science of the period from the 18th to the beginnings of the 20th century. The Medal was presented to Robert Fox during the 7th International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, Prague, 23 September 2016, and the Éloge describes his career and work.

  14. Cs-137 in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) on Svalbard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwynn, Justin P.; Fuglei, Eva; Dowdall, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study presents 137 Cs muscle activity concentrations in Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Svalbard over a period of several years and discusses the transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes through likely predator-prey relationships. Mean 137 Cs activity concentrations and 137 Cs T ag values (per trapping season) ranged from 0.51 ± 2.76 to 1.32 ± 2.89 Bq/kg (w.w.) and 5.1 x 10 -4 to 1.3 x 10 -3 m 2 /kg, respectively. Mean concentration ratios of 137 Cs in Arctic foxes compared to probable prey ranged from 1.0 to 7.9. On Svalbard, transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes is likely to occur via both marine and terrestrial food chains. The relative contribution of marine and terrestrial food sources to the diet of Arctic foxes may vary by location and by season and may lead to either an increase or decrease in the trophic transfer of 137 Cs to Arctic foxes compared to transfer resulting from terrestrial only diets

  15. FoxO and stress responses in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bridge

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changing environmental conditions, the mechanisms underlying stress responses in diverse organisms are of increasing interest. In vertebrates, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, FoxO transcription factors mediate cellular responses to stress, including oxidative stress and dietary restriction. Although FoxO genes have been identified in early-arising animal lineages including sponges and cnidarians, little is known about their roles in these organisms.We have examined the regulation of FoxO activity in members of the well-studied cnidarian genus Hydra. We find that Hydra FoxO is expressed at high levels in cells of the interstitial lineage, a cell lineage that includes multipotent stem cells that give rise to neurons, stinging cells, secretory cells and gametes. Using transgenic Hydra that express a FoxO-GFP fusion protein in cells of the interstitial lineage, we have determined that heat shock causes localization of the fusion protein to the nucleus. Our results also provide evidence that, as in bilaterian animals, Hydra FoxO activity is regulated by both Akt and JNK kinases.These findings imply that basic mechanisms of FoxO regulation arose before the evolution of bilaterians and raise the possibility that FoxO is involved in stress responses of other cnidarian species, including corals.

  16. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  17. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i1.4 Adoption of Green River Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    Adoption of Green River Project Fish Farming Technologies by Farmers in Niger. Delta Region of ... Majority of the respondents adopted fish farm management ... is a decision of full use of an innovation as the best course of action available. ... It is also important to develop sustainable financing option, use well trained and.

  18. Acetylation curtails nucleosome binding, not stable nucleosome remodeling, by FoxO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, M.; Liu, F.; Cirillo, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional activity of FoxO factors is controlled through the actions of multiple growth factors signaling through protein kinase B, whereby phosphorylation of FoxO factors inhibits FoxO-mediated transactivation by promoting nuclear export. Phosphorylation of FoxO factors is enhanced by p300-mediated acetylation, which decreases their affinity for DNA. The negative effect of acetylation on FoxO DNA binding, together with nuclear FoxO mobility, is eliminated by over-expression of the de-acetylase Sirt1, suggesting that acetylation mobilizes FoxO factors in chromatin for inducible gene expression. Here, we show that acetylation significantly curtails the affinity of FoxO1 for its binding sites in nucleosomal DNA but has no effect on either stable nucleosome binding or remodeling by this factor. We suggest that, while acetylation provides a first, essential step toward mobilizing FoxO factors for inducible gene repression, additional mechanisms exist for overcoming their inherent capacity to stably bind and remodel nuclear chromatin.

  19. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  20. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  1. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  2. Study of heavy metal concentration and partitioning in the Estrela River: implications for the pollution in Guanabara Bay - SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. A. Rangel; José A. Baptista Neto; Estefan M. Fonseca; John McAlister; Bernard J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the geochemical analysis of ten sediment samples collected along the fluvial system of the Estrela River, which flows into the northern portion of Guanabara Bay, shows the presence of anthropogenic impacts in this area. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni obtained were slightly higher, when compared with values found innatural environments. The particle size and organic matter content in most of the analyzed stations showed featuresnot conducive to the accumulation ...

  3. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included

  4. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, William F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Agricultural Chemical Concentrations and Loads in Rivers Draining the Central Valley, California, to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Before and During an Extended Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drought or near drought conditions have occurred in California since 2012. Although some parts of the State received near normal precipitation in water year 2016, other locations were still below average. Extended drought can impact aquatic organisms in a variety of ways because of decreased flows and elevated water temperature. However, lower precipitation and availability of irrigation water may limit subsequent runoff, resulting in reduced concentrations and loads of certain environmental toxicants, such as pesticides and ammonia, thereby limiting their toxic effects. In this study, funded by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Program, the occurrence of 227 pesticides and degradation products, and nutrients was assessed before and during this current drought in the two largest rivers draining to the San Francisco Bay: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The watersheds of both rivers include substantial agricultural and urban land use. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and ammonia were detected throughout the study (2010 to 2016) and models of daily concentration using the seasonal wave model (rloadest) were formulated to assess the amount of time that concentrations may have exceeded benchmark levels known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Frequently detected pesticides included the fungicide azoxystrobin, herbicides or their degradation products such as diuron, glyphosate, and metolachlor, and insecticides such as imidacloprid. Compounds that are transported primarily by surface runoff generally showed decreasing concentrations as the drought progressed, especially in the San Joaquin River. Compounds mainly transported by groundwater, as indicated by seasonal concentration profiles, had more stable concentrations in the rivers. Mass loads to the Bay all decreased, as expected, because of the lower river discharge. When compared to aquatic-life benchmarks, modeled concentrations indicated that individual compounds were not contributing to

  6. Correlates of vulnerability in Chiricahua fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret S. Pasch; John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Chiricahua fox squirrels (Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae) are endemic to the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. A paucity of natural history information and uncertain conservation status served as impetus for us to initiate a descriptive ecological study of the species. We examined reproductive and population ecology of Chiricahua fox...

  7. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  8. Potential effects of elevated base flow and midsummer spike flow experiments on riparian vegetation along the Green River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program has requested experimental flow releases from Flaming Gorge Dam for (1) elevated summer base flows to promote larval endangered Colorado pikeminnow, and (2) midsummer spike flows to disadvantage spawning invasive smallmouth bass. This white paper explores the effects of these proposed flow modifications on riparian vegetation and sediment deposition downstream along the Green River. Although modest in magnitude, the elevated base flows and possible associated reductions in magnitude or duration of peak flows would exacerbate a long-term trend of flow stabilization on the Green River that is already leading to proliferation of vegetation including invasive tamarisk along the channel and associated sediment deposition, channel narrowing and channel simplification. Midsummer spike flows could promote establishment of late-flowering plants like tamarisk. Because channel narrowing and simplification threaten persistence and quality of backwater and side channel features needed by endangered fish, the proposed flow modifications could lead to degradation of fish habitat. Channel narrowing and vegetation encroachment could be countered by increases in peak flows or reductions in base flows in some years and by prescription of rapid flow declines following midsummer spike flows. These strategies for reducing vegetation encroachment would need to be balanced with flow

  9. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  10. Multielement determination in river-water of Sepetiba Bay tributaries (Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.M.; Castro, C.R.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Rio de Janeiro State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraque, Ita, Sao Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  11. Predation on seabirds by red foxes at Shaiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two Red Foxes (Vulpes fulva) that invaded Shaiak Island before the 1976 nesting season had a marked impact on the nesting success of five of seven species of seabirds breeding on the island that year. Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Common Murres (Uria aalge), that nest in areas accessible to foxes, did not raise any young to fledging. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were only slightly more successful; 13 (4.3%) of 300 pairs raised one or more young to fledging. Evidence suggested that 21 (35.6%) of 62 pairs of Tufted Puffins (Lunda cirrhata) lost eggs or chicks to foxes, and foxes killed at least 13 (8.3%) of 156 adult puffins on ten sample plots. Conversely, Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), which nested primarily on cliffs inaccessible to foxes, lost very few nests. There was no apparent change in general nest site selections by seabirds the following year, when foxes were no longer present. Any avoidance by birds of areas vulnerable to fox predation would probably be discernible only after several years of continuous predation.

  12. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  13. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    During the months of July and August of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 3 0 x 1 0 and one (1) 4 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles of the Alaska North Slope. These include the Barrow, Wainwright, Meade River, Teshekpuk, Harrison Bay, Beechey Point, Point Lay, Utukok River, Lookout Ridge, Ikpikpuk River, Umiat, and Sagavanirktok quadrangles. This report discusses the results obtained over the Harrison Bay map area

  14. Theoretical study on the mechanism of the reaction of FOX-7 with OH and NO2 radicals: bimolecular reactions with low barrier during the decomposition of FOX-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-12-01

    The decomposition of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) attracts great interests, while the studies on bimolecular reactions during the decomposition of FOX-7 are scarce. This study for the first time investigated the bimolecular reactions of OH and NO2 radicals, which are pyrolysis products of ammonium perchlorate (an efficient oxidant usually used in solid propellant), with FOX-7 by computational chemistry methods. The molecular geometries and energies were calculated using the (U)B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) method. The rate constants of the reactions were calculated by canonical variational transition state theory. We found three mechanisms (H-abstraction, OH addition to C and N atom) for the reaction of OH + FOX-7 and two mechanisms (O abstraction and H abstraction) for the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7. OH radical can abstract H atom or add to C atom of FOX-7 with barriers near to zero, which means OH radical can effectively degrade FOX-7. The O abstraction channel of the reaction of NO2 + FOX-7 results in the formation of NO3 radical, which has never been detected experimentally during the decomposition of FOX-7.

  15. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  16. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  17. Nutrition and behavior of fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Janet L; Hanna, Sherilyn J; Asa, Cheryl S; Bauman, Karen L

    2009-05-01

    Fennec foxes make popular pets because of their small size, minimal odor, and highly social behaviors. They are kept in zoos for conservation and educational programs. The exotic animal practitioner is most likely to be presented with fennec foxes that are overweight because of inappropriate diets or excessive feeding. Clients attempting to hand-rear fennec foxes need advice about formula selection, amounts to feed, protocols for keeping pups warm, and weaning. This article provides information on social behavior, reproduction, and parental behavior, nutrition, and hand-rearing.

  18. Echinococcus multilocularis found in 2 foxes in Southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    The news about these findings were released this morning [10 Jul 2013]. However, later today we detected another positive fox, from the same area, which is not mentioned in the press release (The press release, in Danish, can be found at http://www.vet.dtu.dk/Nyheder/Nyhed?id=%7bDC4E4263- 505A-4554......-BD23-BB1C85C34327%7d). Since September 2011 we have surveyed _E. multilocularis_ in wild carnivores. A total of 856 carnivores have been studied so far: 692 foxes, 150 raccoon dogs, 11 badgers, 3 raccoons, and one wolf. Of these, 7 foxes were positive, all of them originating from the same area...... in southern Denmark -- the Hojer region near the German border. At present, 32 foxes have been analyzed from this area (local prevalence: 7/32 = 21.9 percent; national prevalence: 7/692 = 1.0 percent). The 3 new findings were from foxes shot between December 2012 and February 2013 and revealed worm burdens...

  19. Qualitative Assessment and Management of Microplastics in Asian Green Mussels (Perna viridis Cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Phillipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ryan Argamino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (> 5 mm have gained popularity in research and the public eye in recent years. This is due to the fact that they contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs which pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Bivalves, which are filter feeders, are considered to be good indicators of marine pollution. In this preliminary study, Asian green mussel (Perna viridis, an example of edible bivalve, cultured in Bacoor Bay, Cavite, Philippines was subjected to qualitative analysis to determine the presence of microplastics. Through microscopic analysis, microplastics were found present in the acid-digested mussel soft tissue. A management program is suggested for policy makers and stakeholders to reduce the negative impact of microplastic pollution to both humans and the marine environment.

  20. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E.; Nilsson, Maria A.; Janke, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated...

  1. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  2. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E.; Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  4. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  5. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  6. Single crystal spectrometer FOX at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Single crystal spectrometer FOX installed at H1 thermal neutron line on KENS has been renewed recently for the measurement of very weak scattering. We have installed a multidetector system of 36 linearly placed 3 He detectors with collimators instead of former four-circle diffractometer and scintillator detectors. Though the system is quite simple, a large two-dimensional reciprocal space is observed effectively with high S/N rate on new FOX. (author)

  7. SCP4 Promotes Gluconeogenesis Through FoxO1/3a Dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Zhengmao; Chen, Xi; Hu, Zhaoyong; Tong, Qiang; Chang, Jiang; Feng, Xin-Hua; Lin, Xia

    2018-01-01

    FoxO1 and FoxO3a (collectively FoxO1/3a) proteins regulate a wide array of cellular processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis. Phosphorylation of FoxO1/3a is a key event that determines its subcellular location and transcriptional activity. During glucose synthesis, the activity of FoxO1/3a is negatively regulated by Akt-mediated phosphorylation, which leads to the cytoplasmic retention of FoxO1/3a. However, the nuclear phosphatase that directly regulates FoxO1/3a remains to be identified. In this study, we discovered a nuclear phosphatase, SCP4/CTDSPL2 (SCP4), that dephosphorylated FoxO1/3a and promoted FoxO1/3a transcription activity. We found that SCP4 enhanced the transcription of FoxO1/3a target genes encoding PEPCK1 and G6PC, key enzymes in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ectopic expression of SCP4 increased, while knockdown of SCP4 inhibited, glucose production. Moreover, we demonstrated that gene ablation of SCP4 led to hypoglycemia in neonatal mice. Consistent with the positive role of SCP4 in gluconeogenesis, expression of SCP4 was regulated under pathophysiological conditions. SCP4 expression was induced by glucose deprivation in vitro and in vivo and was elevated in obese mice caused by genetic (A vy ) and dietary (high-fat) changes. Thus, our findings provided experimental evidence that SCP4 regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis and could serve as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of diet-induced glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. FoxM1 is a general target for proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppoor G Bhat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome inhibitors are currently in the clinic or in clinical trials, but the mechanism of their anticancer activity is not completely understood. The oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 is one of the most overexpressed genes in human tumors, while its expression is usually halted in normal non-proliferating cells. Previously, we established that thiazole antibiotics Siomycin A and thiostrepton inhibit FoxM1 and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Here, we report that Siomycin A and thiostrepton stabilize the expression of a variety of proteins, such as p21, Mcl-1, p53 and hdm-2 and also act as proteasome inhibitors in vitro. More importantly, we also found that well-known proteasome inhibitors such as MG115, MG132 and bortezomib inhibit FoxM1 transcriptional activity and FoxM1 expression. In addition, overexpression of FoxM1 specifically protects against bortezomib-, but not doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that negative regulation of FoxM1 by proteasome inhibitors is a general feature of these drugs and it may contribute to their anticancer properties.

  9. Analysis and dating of Sediments in Montevideo Bay and Silver river; Analisis y Datacion de Sedimentos de la Bahia de Montevideo y el Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odino, R; Suarez Antola, R; Cabral, W [Ministere of Industry Energy and Mining, National Direction of Nuclear Technology, Montevideo(Uruguay); and others

    1999-07-01

    The present work includes generalities on the River of the Silver, antecedents of studies carried out during the years 1992-1997, in the issuing sub aquatic of Tip Carts, studies about the contamination of silts carried out during the years 1993-1996, studies preliminary of the contamination of silts in the Bay,results obtain,treatment of the data and enrichment factors. In the description of the project it is looked for to obtain reliable data on the state of contamination for heavy metals sedimentation ,velocity and age of the silts of the Bay of Montevideo and the River of the Silver, describe geologic aspects in the area involved in the study, the sampling of silts is planned having present the purpose of the same one that is to say to take samples that represent the characteristics real of silts in the sampling area, X Ray Fluorescence dispersive Energy are used in the analysis of samples, for finish, results and discussion are presented.

  10. Landscape genetics of the nonnative red fox of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Brazeal, Jennifer L; Lewis, Jeffrey C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics. Both markers indicated high population structuring consistent with origins from multiple introductions and low subsequent gene flow. Landscape-genetic modeling indicated that population connectivity was especially low among coastal sampling sites surrounded by mountainous wildlands but somewhat higher through topographically flat, urban and agricultural landscapes. The genetic composition of populations tended to be stable for multiple generations, indicating a degree of demographic resilience to predator removal programs. However, in two sites where intensive predator control reduced fox abundance, we observed increases in immigration, suggesting potential for recolonization to counter eradication attempts. These findings, along with continued genetic monitoring, can help guide localized management of foxes by identifying points of introductions and routes of spread and evaluating the relative importance of reproduction and immigration in maintaining populations. More generally, the study illustrates the utility of a landscape-genetic approach for understanding invasion dynamics and metapopulation structure of one of the world's most destructive invasive mammals, the red fox.

  11. Proposed ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents the US DOE water resources protection strategy for the Green River, Utah mill tailings disposal site. The modifications in the original plan are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. All aspects are discussed in this report

  12. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  13. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  14. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2015-08-07

    The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated and analyzed for signatures of positive selection. In addition, the data allowed for a phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimate between the two fox species. The de novo assembly of reads resulted in more than 160,000 contigs/transcripts per individual. Approximately 17,000 homologous genes were identified using human and the non-redundant databases. Positive selection analyses revealed several genes involved in various metabolic and molecular processes such as energy metabolism, cardiac gene regulation, apoptosis and blood coagulation to be under positive selection in foxes. Branch site tests identified four genes to be under positive selection in the Arctic fox transcriptome, two of which are fat metabolism genes. In the red fox transcriptome eight genes are under positive selection, including molecular process genes, notably genes involved in ATP metabolism. Analysis of the three transcriptomes and five Sanger re-sequenced genes in additional individuals identified a lower genetic variability within Arctic foxes compared to red foxes, which is consistent with distribution range differences and demographic responses to past climatic fluctuations. A phylogenomic analysis estimated that the Arctic and red fox lineages diverged about three million years ago. Transcriptome data are an economic way to generate genomic resources for evolutionary studies. Despite not representing an entire genome, this transcriptome analysis identified numerous genes that are relevant to arctic

  15. Eucoleus boehmi infection in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; di Cesare, Angela; Lepri, Elvio; Cassini, Rudi; Zanet, Stefania; Deni, Dario; Chiari, Mario; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2014-12-15

    In the last decade an increase of the number of red foxes in anthropized habitats across European countries, including Italy, has been observed. This pones implications in terms of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals; in fact, there are evidences of the role of foxes as reservoirs and amplifiers of a broad spectrum of parasites infecting pets. The present study evaluated the prevalence of Eucoleus boehmi, an emerging extra-intestinal nematodes of the Capillariinae subfamily, in red foxes. The nasal passages and sinuses of 179 red foxes culled from several areas of northern and central Italy were inspected and the mucosal surfaces were scrapped and examined for adult nematodes and eggs, microscopically and genetically identified. Overall 55 foxes (30.7%) were found to be infected with E. boehmi, i.e. 27 on inspection of the nasal passages and sinuses and 28 on mucosal flush and scraping. The occurrence of E. boehmi was significantly (p fox body condition (mean: 7.8 specimens). These results show that E. boehmi is highly prevalent in the red fox populations of certain areas of Italy. Epidemiological implications are discussed, with a special focus on the role that this wild canid may have in the increasing transmission of nasal eucoleosis to domestic dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced particle fluxes in Bay of Bengal inducEd. by injection of freshwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Bartsch, M.; Manganini, S.J.; Desai, B.N.

    deployed three sediment-trap moorings (two traps in each mooring) in the northern, central and southern parts of the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The Bay of Bengal is suitable for such a study, because some of the world's largest rivers supply pulses...

  17. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  18. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA DE MELO FARIA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied sources is gradually concentrated towards the estuary. In the Guanabara Bay, kaolinite accumulates near river mouths, while micaceous clay minerals are converted into mixed layers in the estuary. Analyses of heavy metal contents reveal higher levels of Zn and Cu in sediments of the bay than in river sediments. Profiles along rivers indicate a downstream decrease of heavy metals, whereas in the bay geochemical trends display greater variations. In general river mouth sediments present the lowest concentrations. At the north and east of Paquetá Island anomalous areas with the highest heavy metal contents occur. Cu tends to concentrate in A correlação dos sedimentos recentes da Baía de Guanabara com as suas principais áreas-fontes foi realizada a partir de análises geoquímicas e de argilominerais em amostras de fundo coletadas ao longo dos rios Macacu e Caceribu e na baía. Os argilominerais indicam uma distribuição seletiva intimamente associada às características do relevo e aos ambientes deposicionais. Os argilominerais micáceos são predominantes na região do alto curso próximos à área-fonte primária, enquanto que a caulinita, proveniente da decomposição de diversos minerais, se concentra gradativamente em direção ao estuário. Na Baía de Guanabara observa-se um acúmulo de caulinita na região de foz dos rios, ao passo que os argilominerais micáceos são convertidos em interestratificados e depositados no fundo da baía. As análises geoqu

  19. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  20. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  1. Screening for infection of Trichinella in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 6141 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for infection with Trichinella. The foxes were killed in Denmark during the hunting season 1995-1996 and 1997-1998; 3133 and 3008, respectively, Foxes included in the investigation came from throughout the country with the exception of the island...... of Bornholm. The right foreleg from each fox was submitted for investigation. The legs were stored at -20 degrees C for 3-10 months prior to examination. Following thawing, muscle tissue (10 g) from each leg was examined by trichinoscopy and by a pepsin-HCl digestion technique. In 1995-1996, three foxes were...... found positive corresponding to a prevalence of 0.001. Each of the infected foxes harboured an extremely low infection, i.e, about one larva per 10 g muscle tissue. It was not possible to obtain sufficient larval material for species identification, All three foxes were shot in the vicinity of a small...

  2. Tracing the fox family tree: the North American red fox has a diverse ancestry forged during successive ice ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Wells; Keith Aubry

    2011-01-01

    The red fox is one of the most widespread and adaptable mammals on Earth. In the American West, however, there are populations of native red foxes that occur only in alpine and subalpine habitats, which may be at risk from human-caused and natural pressures. One potential threat is global climate change, which is likely to reduce both the amount and connectivity of...

  3. Relative contributions of external forcing factors to circulation and hydrographic properties in a micro-tidal bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokjin; Kasai, Akihide

    2017-11-01

    The dominant external forcing factors influencing estuarine circulation differ among coastal environments. A three-dimensional regional circulation model was developed to estimate external influence indices and relative contributions of external forcing factors such as external oceanic forcing, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge to circulation and hydrographic properties in Tango Bay, Japan. Model results show that in Tango Bay, where the Tsushima Warm Current passes offshore of the bay, under conditions of strong seasonal winds and river discharge, the water temperature and salinity are strongly influenced by surface heat flux and river discharge in the surface layer, respectively, while in the middle and bottom layers both are mainly controlled by open boundary conditions. The estuarine circulation is comparably influenced by all external forcing factors, the strong current, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge. However, the influence degree of each forcing factor varies with temporal variations in external forcing factors as: the influence of open boundary conditions is higher in spring and early summer when the stronger current passes offshore of the bay, that of surface heat flux reflects the absolute value of surface heat flux, that of wind stress is higher in late fall and winter due to strong seasonal winds, and that of river discharge is higher in early spring due to snow-melting and summer and early fall due to flood events.

  4. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  5. FoxA1 binding to the MMTV LTR modulates chromatin structure and transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Belikov, Sergey; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Wrange, Oerjan

    2005-01-01

    Novel binding sites for the forkhead transcription factor family member Forkhead box A (FoxA), previously referred to as Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 (HNF3), were found within the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR). The effect of FoxA1 on MMTV LTR chromatin structure, and expression was evaluated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mutagenesis of either of the two main FoxA binding sites showed that the distal site, -232/-221, conferred FoxA1-dependent partial inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) driven MMTV transcription. The proximal FoxA binding segment consisted of two individual FoxA sites at -57/-46 and -45/-34, respectively, that mediated an increased basal MMTV transcription. FoxA1 binding altered the chromatin structure of both the inactive- and the hormone-activated MMTV LTR. Hydroxyl radical foot printing revealed FoxA1-mediated changes in the nucleosome arrangement. Micrococcal nuclease digestion showed the hormone-dependent sub-nucleosome complex, containing ∼120 bp of DNA, to be expanded by FoxA1 binding to the proximal segment into a larger complex containing ∼200 bp. The potential function of the FoxA1-mediated expression of the MMTV provirus for maintenance of expression in different tissues is discussed

  6. Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Cornwall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, V R

    1996-11-02

    A post mortem examination on a young fox which had been observed to be clinically ill revealed a severe infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum. A further 11 foxes were examined and four were infected with the parasite; three of these also had advanced lesions of sarcoptic mange. The cases all occurred outside the previously defined focus of endemic infection for dogs in Cornwall and they appear to be the first recorded cases of A vasorum in foxes in the United Kingdom.

  7. Distribution and risk assessment of trace metals in sediments from Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Mao, Lingchen; Jia, Yubao; Gu, Zhujun; Shi, Weiling; Chen, Ling; Ye, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River estuary (YRE) and Hangzhou Bay (HZB) is of environmental significance because of the negative impact from industrial activities and rapid development of aquaculture on the south bank of HZB (SHZB) in recent years. This study investigated the distribution and risk assessments of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, and Cd) accumulated in surface sediments by sampling in YRE, outer and south HZB. Copper and Zn concentration (avg. 35.4 and 98.7 mg kg -1 , respectively) in surface sediments were generally higher than the background suggesting a widespread of Cu and Zn in the coastal area of Yangtze River Delta. High concentrations of Cu (~ 42 mg kg -1 ), Zn (~ 111 mg kg -1 ), Cd (~ 0.27 mg kg -1 ), and Hg (~ 0.047 mg kg -1 ) were found in inner estuary of YRE and decreased offshore as a result of terrestrial input and dilution effect of total metal contents by "cleaner" sediments from the adjacent sea. In outer HZB, accumulation of terrestrial derived metal has taken place near the Zhoushan Islands. Increase in sediment metal concentration from the west (inner) to the east (outer) of SHZB gave rise to the input of fine-grained sediments contaminated with metals from outer bay. According the results from geoaccumulation index, nearly 75% of samples from YRE were moderately polluted (1.0 < I geo  < 2.0) by Cd. Cadmium and Hg contributed for 80~90% to the potential ecological risk index in the YRE and HZB, with ~ 72% sites in HZB under moderate risk (150 ≤ RI < 300) especially near Zhoushan Islands.

  8. The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW, the consumed green water (CGW, and the utilizable green water (UGW. The results show that (1 the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2 according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3 in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas.

  9. Diet patterns of island foxes on San Nicolas Island relative to feral cat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Kelly, Erica C.; Ferrara, Francesca J.; Drost, Charles A.; Westall, Tory L.; Hudgens, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are a species of conservation concern that occur on six of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. We analysed island fox diet on San Nicolas Island during 2006–12 to assess the influence of the removal of feral cats (Felis catus) on the food use by foxes. Our objective was to determine whether fox diet patterns shifted in response to the cat removal conducted during 2009–10, thus indicating that cats were competing with foxes for food items. We also examined the influence of annual precipitation patterns and fox abundance on fox diet. On the basis of an analysis of 1975 fox scats, use of vertebrate prey – deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), birds, and lizards – increased significantly during and after the complete removal of cats (n = 66) from the island. Deer mouse abundance increased markedly during and after cat removal and use of mice by foxes was significantly related to mouse abundance. The increase in mice and shift in item use by the foxes was consistent with a reduction in exploitative competition associated with the cat removal. However, fox abundance declined markedly coincident with the removal of cats and deer mouse abundance was negatively related to fox numbers. Also, annual precipitation increased markedly during and after cat removal and deer mouse abundance closely tracked precipitation. Thus, our results indicate that other confounding factors, particularly precipitation, may have had a greater influence on fox diet patterns.

  10. Probing the Mechanism of Inactivation of the FOX-4 Cephamycinase by Avibactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukaga, Michiyoshi; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Hoshino, Tyuji; Lefurgy, Scott T; Bethel, Christopher R; Barnes, Melissa D; Zeiser, Elise T; Johnson, J Kristie; Bonomo, Robert A

    2018-05-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam is a "second-generation" β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination that is effective against Enterobacteriaceae expressing class A extended-spectrum β-lactamases, class A carbapenemases, and/or class C cephalosporinases. Knowledge of the interactions of avibactam, a diazabicyclooctane with different β-lactamases, is required to anticipate future resistance threats. FOX family β-lactamases possess unique hydrolytic properties with a broadened substrate profile to include cephamycins, partly as a result of an isoleucine at position 346, instead of the conserved asparagine found in most AmpCs. Interestingly, a single amino acid substitution at N346 in the Citrobacter AmpC is implicated in resistance to the aztreonam-avibactam combination. In order to understand how diverse active-site topologies affect avibactam inhibition, we tested a panel of clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates producing bla FOX using ceftazidime-avibactam, determined the biochemical parameters for inhibition using the FOX-4 variant, and probed the atomic structure of avibactam with FOX-4. Avibactam restored susceptibility to ceftazidime for most isolates producing bla FOX ; two isolates, one expressing bla FOX-4 and the other producing bla FOX-5 , displayed an MIC of 16 μg/ml for the combination. FOX-4 possessed a k 2 / K value of 1,800 ± 100 M -1 · s -1 and an off rate ( k off ) of 0.0013 ± 0.0003 s -1 Mass spectrometry showed that the FOX-4-avibactam complex did not undergo chemical modification for 24 h. Analysis of the crystal structure of FOX-4 with avibactam at a 1.5-Å resolution revealed a unique characteristic of this AmpC β-lactamase. Unlike in the Pseudomonas -derived cephalosporinase 1 (PDC-1)-avibactam crystal structure, interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) between avibactam and position I346 in FOX-4 are not evident. Furthermore, another residue is not observed to be close enough to compensate for the loss of these critical hydrogen

  11. Lattice Three-Species Models of the Spatial Spread of Rabies among FOXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoussef, A.; Boccara, N.; Chakib, H.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.

    Lattice models describing the spatial spread of rabies among foxes are studied. In these models, the fox population is divided into three-species: susceptible (S), infected or incubating (I), and infectious or rabid (R). They are based on the fact that susceptible and incubating foxes are territorial while rabid foxes have lost their sense of direction and move erratically. Two different models are investigated: a one-dimensional coupled-map lattice model, and a two-dimensional automata network model. Both models take into account the short-range character of the infection process and the diffusive motion of rabid foxes. Numerical simulations show how the spatial distribution of rabies, and the speed of propagation of the epizootic front depend upon the carrying capacity of the environment and diffusion of rabid foxes out of their territory.

  12. [Effect of Elodea nuttallii-immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria on Nitrogen Removal Mechanism in an Inflow River, Gonghu Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-yang; Li, Zheng-kui; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Qian

    2016-04-15

    Undisturbed sediment cores and surface water from Qinshui River in Gonghu Bay were collected to carry out a simulation experiment in our laboratory. The remediation effect of Elodea nuttallii-Immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria (INCB) was applied in the polluted inflow river. The denitrification rate, ANAMMOX rate and nitrogen microorganism diversity were measured by ¹⁵N isotope pairing technology and high-throughput sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA. The TN, NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N concentrations were reduced by 72.03%, 46.67% and 76.65% in the treatment with addition of Elodea nuttallii and INCB in our laboratory experiment. Meanwhile, denitrification bacteria and ANAMMOX bacteria had synergistic effect with each other. The denitrification and ANAMMOX rates were increased by 165 µmol (m² · h)⁻¹ and 269.7 µmol · (m² · h)⁻¹, respectively. The diversities of denitrification and ANAMMOX bacteria also increased in our experiment. From the level of major phylum, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobbacteria and Bacteroidetes all increased significantly. The results showed that the Elodea nuttallii-INCB assemblage technology could increase the bio-diversity of nitrogen cycling bacteria and promote the ability of nitrogen removal in Qinshui River.

  13. FoxA1 as a lineage-specific oncogene in luminal type breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Ito, Emi; Azuma, Sakura; Honma, Reiko; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mika; Imai, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 is thought to be involved in mammary tumorigenesis. However, the precise role of FoxA1 in breast cancer development is controversial. We examined expression of FoxA1 in 35 human breast cancer cell lines and compared it with that of ErbB2, a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. We found that FoxA1 is expressed at high levels in all ErbB2-positive cell lines and a subset of ErbB2-negative cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 by RNA interference significantly suppressed proliferation of ErbB2-negative and FoxA1-positive breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 also enhanced the toxic effect of Herceptin on ErbB2-positive cell lines through induction of apoptosis. Taken together with previous data that FoxA1 is a marker of luminal cells in mammary gland, our present results suggest that FoxA1 plays an important role as a lineage-specific oncogene in proliferation of cancer cells derived from mammary luminal cells

  14. FoxO6 and PGC-1? form a regulatory loop in myogenic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Shih?Ying; Huang, Wei?Chieh; Su, Ching?Wen; Lee, Kuan?Wei; Chi, Hsiang?Cheng; Lin, Cheng?Tao; Chen, Szu-Tah; Huang, Kai?Min; Tsai, Mu?Shiun; Yu, Hui?Peng; Chen, Shen?Liang

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors of the FoxO (forkhead box O) family regulate a wide range of cellular physiological processes, including metabolic adaptation and myogenic differentiation. The transcriptional activity of most FoxO members is inhibitory to myogenic differentiation and overexpression of FoxO1 inhibits the development of oxidative type?I fibres in?vivo. In this study, we found that FoxO6, the last discovered FoxO family member, is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues but with higher e...

  15. Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment: Hanalei Bay, Kauai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.; Bothner, Michael H.; Presto, M.K.; Draut, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic measurements and sediment samples were collected during the summer of 2006 as part of a multi-year study of coastal circulation and the fate of terrigenous sediment on coral reefs in Hanalei Bay, Kauai. The goal of this study was to better understand sediment dynamics in a coral reef-lined embayment where winds, ocean surface waves, and river floods are important processes. During a summer period that was marked by two wave events and one river flood, we documented significant differences in sediment trap collection rates and the composition, grain size, and magnitude of sediment transported in the bay. Sediment trap collection rates were well correlated with combined wave-current near-bed shear stresses during the non-flood periods but were not correlated during the flood. The flood's delivery of fine-grained sediment to the bay initially caused high turbidity and sediment collection rates off the river mouth but the plume dispersed relatively quickly. Over the next month, the flood deposit was reworked by mild waves and currents and the fine-grained terrestrial sediment was advected around the bay and collected in sediment traps away from the river mouth, long after the turbid surface plume was gone. The reworked flood deposits, due to their longer duration of influence and proximity to the seabed, appear to pose a greater long-term impact to benthic coral reef communities than the flood plumes themselves. The results presented here display how spatial and temporal differences in hydrodynamic processes, which result from variations in reef morphology and orientation, cause substantial variations in the deposition, residence time, resuspension, and advection of both reef-derived and fluvial sediment over relatively short spatial scales in a coral reef embayment.

  16. Hydrologic alteration affects aquatic plant assemblages in an arid-land river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Mark; Hestmark, Bennett; Barkworth, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of long-term flow alteration on primary-producer assemblages. In 1962, Flaming Gorge Dam was constructed on the Green River. The Yampa River has remained an unregulated hydrologically variable river that joins the Green River 100 km downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam. In the 1960s before dam construction only sparse occurrences of two macroalgae, Cladophora and Chara, and no submerged vascular plants were recorded in the Green and Yampa rivers. In 2009–2010, aquatic plants were abundant and widespread in the Green River from the dam downstream to the confluence with the Yampa River. The assemblage consisted of six vascular species, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum sibiricum, Nasturtium officinale,Potamogeton crispus, Potamogeton pectinatus, and Ranunculus aquatilis, the macroalgae Chara and Cladophora, and the bryophyte, Amblystegium riparium. In the Green River downstream from the Yampa River, and in the Yampa River, only sparse patches of Chara and Cladophora growing in the splash zone on boulders were collected. We attribute the observed changes in the Green River to an increase in water transparency and a reduction in suspended and bed-load sediment and high flow disturbances. The lack of hydrophyte colonization downstream from the confluence with the Yampa River has implications for understanding tributary amelioration of dam effects and for designing more natural flow-regime schedules downstream from large dams.

  17. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lele; Wang, Honghao; Yang, Kun; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Ruijun; Su, Rui; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Yanhong; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. We found that FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1 , FoxE1 , and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  18. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, which is consistent with previous findings. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detecting system and Western blot analysis were employed to study the relative differentially expressed genes FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 in the body skin of cashmere goat fetuses and adult individuals. Conclusion This study provided new fundamental information for further investigation of the genes related to follicle development and exploration of their roles in hair follicle initiation, growth, and development.

  19. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  20. A rural mail-carrier index of North Dakota red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S.H.; Sargeant, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    Rural mail-carrier sightings of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) during mid-April, -July, and -September of 1969-73 were compared to spring fox family estimates derived by aerial searches of six townships. The mid-April mail-carrier index reflected annual fox density changes on the six townships (correlation coefficient = 0.958) . Random exclusions of individual mail-carrier reports indicated participation could decline 40 percent without affecting index accuracy.

  1. Expression of Fox genes in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eAldea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forkhead box (Fox genes code for transcription factors that play important roles in different biological processes. They are found in a wide variety of organisms and appeared in unicellular eukaryotes. In metazoans, the gene family includes many members that can be subdivided into 24 classes. Cephalochordates are key organisms to understand the functional evolution of gene families in the chordate lineage due to their phylogenetic position as an early divergent chordate, their simple anatomy and genome structure. In the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae, 32 Fox genes were identified, with at least one member for each of the classes that were present in the ancestor of bilaterians. In this work we describe the expression pattern of 13 of these genes during the embryonic development of the Mediterranean amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We found that FoxK and FoxM genes present an ubiquitous expression while all the others show specific expression patterns restricted to diverse embryonic territories. Many of these expression patterns are conserved with vertebrates, suggesting that the main functions of Fox genes in chordates were present in their common ancestor.

  2. A Fork in the Path: Developing Therapeutic Inroads with FoxO Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Maiese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in clinical care for disorders involving any system of the body necessitates novel therapeutic strategies that can focus upon the modulation of cellular proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and longevity. In this respect, members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs that include FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 are increasingly being recognized as exciting prospects for multiple disorders. These transcription factors govern development, proliferation, survival and longevity during multiple cellular environments that can involve oxidative stress. Furthermore, these transcription factors are closely integrated with several novel signal transduction pathways, such as erythropoietin and Wnt proteins, that may influence the ability of FoxOs to act as a “double-edge sword” to sometimes promote cell survival, but at other times lead to cell injury. Here we discuss the fascinating but complex role of FoxOs during cellular injury and oxidative stress, progenitor cell development, fertility, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, cellular metabolism and diabetes, cell longevity, immune surveillance and cancer.

  3. A synthesis of the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) mass balance project: Implications for environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, W.; Endicott, D.; Kreis, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Grosse Ile, MI (United States). Large Lakes Research Station

    1995-12-31

    The questions confronting environmental managers responsible for the Great Lakes are complex and regulatory action (or inaction) have major social, environmental and economical consequences. It has become evident that rational approaches must be found to address the issues, more clearly identify and quantitate problems, locate and quantitate sources of important chemicals, and arrive at optimal remedial programs. A scientifically based management framework has been implemented and prototyped within the Great Lakes community of mangers and scientists referred to as the Mass Balance Approach. The US Environmental Protection Agency, led by the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) in cooperation with Office of Research and Development (ORD) and other state and academic organizations, has completed an intensive study of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) to test the feasibility of using the mass balance approach for managing toxic substances in the Great Lakes. This presentation will provide an overview of the project and the results. Conclusions and recommendations will be reviewed and implications for future policy based, scientific studies will be explored.

  4. Chlorophyll-a Concentrations Affected by Discharge and Climate Conditions in Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X.; Gao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    As the transition zones between river and ocean, estuaries face increasing pressure on their ecosystem health due to changes of freshwater quantity and quality—especially under the impacts of population growth, land use/land cover change, and climate change. Located at the northeast of Houston, Galveston Bay is of particular social economic importance for the State of Texas. Its freshwater inflow primarily arises from two rivers, the San Jacinto and the Trinity. While it is well recognized that Chlorophyll a (chla) concentration—an indicator of ecosystem health—is closely linked to river inflows and other environmental factors, no quantitative relationships have been established. The objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal variations of chla, and to investigate the impacts of freshwater inflow and climatic factors on chla variability—so that prediction models can be developed for chla forecasting to provide scientific support for ecological management (in Galveston Bay). A 10-year validated remote sensing dataset is used in this analysis. The results show that chla has higher concentrations near the shoreline, as compared to the center of the bay. Temporally, chla tends to be higher in wet years than in dry years. Similarly, the seasonal fluctuations of chla are more significant during the wet months (from February to May) than the dry months (especially from August to December). Chla in the bay is primarily determined by discharge from the Trinity River in AMJ (April, May, June) and JAS (July, August, September). However, the driving factor is mainly water temperature in OND (October, November, December). In JFM (January, February, March), almost all of the factors (except discharge from the San Jacinto River) show significant correlation with chla. Based on these analyses, a chla prediction model is developed and tested. This result can provide scientific support for coastal environmental management in Galveston Bay, maintaining the

  5. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  7. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  8. WHEN AND WHY DO HEDGEHOGS AND FOXES DIFFER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2010-01-01

    Philip E. Tetlock's finding that "hedgehog" experts (those with one big theory) are worse predictors than "foxes" (those with multiple, less comprehensive theories) offers fertile ground for future research. Are experts as likely to exhibit hedgehog- or fox-like tendencies in areas that call for explanatory, diagnostic, and skill-based expertise-as they did when Tetlock called on experts to make predictions? Do particular domains of expertise curtail or encourage different styles of expertise? Can we trace these different styles to childhood? Finally, can we nudge hedgehogs to be more like foxes? Current research can only grope at the answers to these questions, but they are essential to gauging the health of expert political judgment.

  9. Radionuclides in sediments from Port Phillip Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Towler, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Sediment cores were collected from two sites in Port Phillip Bay, Australia, in 1994 and 1995. The concentration of 210 Pb and parameters including water content were measured. The sites chosen were near the centre of the bay where fine sediment accumulates, and towards the northern end of the bay closer to the mouth of the Yarra River. The mid-bay sediment had a high water content (about 1.8 g water per g dry sediment) and a supported 210 Pb activity of about 22 mBq per g of dry sediment. The sediments from further north in the bay were more consolidated, with a lower water content (about 0.6 g water per g dry sediment), and had a supported 210 Pb activity of about 6 mBq per g of dry sediment. Unsupported 210 Pb occurred to depths of about 10 cm in the mid-bay sediment and about 20 cm in sediment from further north in the bay. Models incorporating the water and 210 Pb contents of the sediments were used to calculate possible rates of sediment accumulation and mixing. The distribution of other radionuclides was used as an aid in understanding the sediment behaviour in Port Phillip Bay

  10. A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Oskina, Irina N; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Shepeleva, Darya V; Gulievich, Rimma G; Shikhevich, Svetlana G; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2007-03-01

    A meiotic linkage map is essential for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step toward understanding a cryptic genome. Specific strains of silver fox (a variant of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), which segregate behavioral and morphological phenotypes, create a need for such a map. One such strain, selected for docility, exhibits friendly dog-like responses to humans, in contrast to another strain selected for aggression. Development of a fox map is facilitated by the known cytogenetic homologies between the dog and fox, and by the availability of high resolution canine genome maps and sequence data. Furthermore, the high genomic sequence identity between dog and fox allows adaptation of canine microsatellites for genotyping and meiotic mapping in foxes. Using 320 such markers, we have constructed the first meiotic linkage map of the fox genome. The resulting sex-averaged map covers 16 fox autosomes and the X chromosome with an average inter-marker distance of 7.5 cM. The total map length corresponds to 1480.2 cM. From comparison of sex-averaged meiotic linkage maps of the fox and dog genomes, suppression of recombination in pericentromeric regions of the metacentric fox chromosomes was apparent, relative to the corresponding segments of acrocentric dog chromosomes. Alignment of the fox meiotic map against the 7.6x canine genome sequence revealed high conservation of marker order between homologous regions of the two species. The fox meiotic map provides a critical tool for genetic studies in foxes and identification of genetic loci and genes implicated in fox domestication.

  11. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  12. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Cypher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability. Keywords: Channel islands, Endangered species, Food-item selection, Foraging ecology, Island fox, Urocyon littoralis

  13. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  14. Autochthonous Hepatozoon infection in hunting dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; Steinbauer, Vladimír; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David

    2016-11-01

    Blood samples from 21 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 hunting dogs from the same locality in the Czech Republic were examined for presence of Hepatozoon canis/Hepatozoon sp. The dogs were selected based on their close contact with foxes during fox bolting and because they had not traveled into known endemic areas. Using diagnostic PCR amplifying partial 18S rDNA fragment, Hepatozoon DNA was detected in 20 red foxes (95 %) and 4 dogs (50 %). From 8 positive foxes and 2 positive dogs, we obtained nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed very low variability. Buffy coat smears from positive dogs were prepared and examined. No Hepatozoon gamonts were found. This study provides the first report of autochthonous infection of H. canis/Hepatozoon in dogs and foxes from the Czech Republic. Our study indirectly demonstrates cross infection between red foxes and dogs and confirms autochthonous infection of Hepatozoon canis in dogs living in a geographic area well outside the range of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, which is so far the only known vector of H. canis in Europe.

  15. Elemental composition of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Izuru; Iizuka, Keiki; Sugawara, Yoshio; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    The elemental composition (Ca, Sr, Zn and Fe) of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay was analyzed to understand the migratory history using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratio of salmon otoliths was lower (less than 1 x 10 -3 ) in the portion formed in a freshwater environment and higher (approximately 4.8 x 10 -3 ) in a sea water environment. When the fish migrated from sea water into a freshwater environment, the otoliths' Sr/Ca ratios significantly increased. The highest values were found in the fish captured at the lower part of the Kitakami river (about 20 km upriver from the mouth). The values from the fish captured at the upper part of the Kitakami river (about 200 km upriver from the mouth) were also not less than those of the fish captured at Ishinomaki Bay. Abnormally high otolith Sr/Ca ratios for these upriver-migrating fish, when compared to the values from non-migrating salmon inhabiting stable environmental (salinity and temperature) conditions, provided evidence that they were stressed. No significant changes in the otoliths' Zn/Ca ratios were found, while these values were inversely proportional to the Sr/Ca ratios. However, a rapid drop in the Zn/Ca ratio and an increase in the Sr/Ca ratio was observed in some individuals in which higher values for the Fe/Ca were found. These results suggest that these otolith parameters don't exactly reflect the salinity and temperature history in upriver-migrating chum salmon because the physiological mechanism of incorporation of Sr, Zn and Ca within the otolith of those fish is abnormal, though for fish in non-stressful conditions the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios in otoliths are effective indices for predicting the history of environmental conditions experienced by the fish in the past. Regarding the relationship between the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios, and also the Fe/Ca ratio, there is a possibility that they

  16. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  17. Origin and microfossils of the oil shale of the Green River Formation of Colorado and Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, W.H.

    1931-01-01

    The Green River formation of Colorado and Utah is a series of lakebeds of middle Eocene age that occupy two broad, shallow, simple, structural basins, the Piceance Creek basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northwestern Utah. The ancient lakes apparently were shallow and had a large area, compared with depth. The abundance of organisms and the decaying organic matter produced a strongly reducing environment. Mechanical and chemical action, such as the mastication and digestion of the organic material by bottom-living organisms, caused disintegration of the original organic matter. After most of the oil shale was deposited, the lake reverted nearly to the conditions that prevailed during its early stage, when the marlstone and low-grade oil shale of the basal member were formed. Microgranular calcite and dolomite are the predominant mineral constituents of most of the oil shale. The microflora of the Green River formation consist of two forms that have been referred to as bacteria and many fungi spores. Two kinds of organic matter are seen in thin sections of the oil shale; one is massive and structureless and is the matrix of the other, which has definite form and consists of organisms or fragments of organisms. Most structureless organic matter is isotropic (there are two anisotropic varieties) and makes up the greater part of the total organic material.

  18. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkney@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Harshbarger, John C., E-mail: jcharshbarger@verizon.net [Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Karouna-Renier, Natalie K., E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Jenko, Kathryn [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Balk, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.balk@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Skarphe Latin-Small-Letter-Eth insdottir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutter, Michael A., E-mail: mar36@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, 5091 Station Road, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and {sup 32}P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. {sup 32}P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors

  19. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32 P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32 P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. - Highlights: ► We

  20. A behavioral audiogram of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkemper, E Pascal; Topinka, Václav; Burda, Hynek

    2015-02-01

    We determined the absolute hearing sensitivity of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) using an adapted standard psychoacoustic procedure. The animals were tested in a reward-based go/no-go procedure in a semi-anechoic chamber. At 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) (re 20 μPa) red foxes perceive pure tones between 51 Hz and 48 kHz, spanning 9.84 octaves with a single peak sensitivity of -15 dB at 4 kHz. The red foxes' high-frequency cutoff is comparable to that of the domestic dog while the low-frequency cutoff is comparable to that of the domestic cat and the absolute sensitivity is between both species. The maximal absolute sensitivity of the red fox is among the best found to date in any mammal. The procedure used here allows for assessment of animal auditory thresholds using positive reinforcement outside the laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An interesting new genus of Berothinae (Neuroptera: Berothidae) from the early Eocene Green River Formation, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarkin, Vladimir N

    2017-01-30

    Xenoberotha angustialata gen. et sp. nov. (Neuroptera: Berothidae) is described from the early Eocene of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation (U.S.A., Colorado). It is assigned to Berothinae as an oldest known member of the subfamily based on the presence of scale-like setae on the foreleg coxae. Distal crossveins of the fourth (outer) gradate series which are located very close to the wing margin in Xenoberotha gen. nov. is a character state previously unknown in Berothinae.

  2. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  3. 75 FR 31510 - Fox Chase Bancorp, Inc., Hatboro, PA; Approval of Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-43: OTS No. H-4707] Fox Chase Bancorp, Inc., Hatboro, PA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on May 14, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Fox Chase MHC and Fox Chase Bank, Hatboro...

  4. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  5. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  6. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  7. Chemical concentrations in water and suspended sediment, Green River to Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Chapman, Elena A.

    2018-01-05

    From August 2016 to March 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected representative samples of filtered and unfiltered water and suspended sediment (including the colloidal fraction) at USGS streamgage 12113390 (Duwamish River at Golf Course, at Tukwila, Washington) during 13 periods of differing flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including metals, dioxins/furans, semivolatile compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, butyltins, the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and total and dissolved organic carbon. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, water-quality field parameters were measured, and representative water samples were collected and analyzed for river suspended-sediment concentration and particle-size distribution. The results provide new data that can be used to estimate sediment and chemical loads transported by the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway.

  8. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  9. Effects of FoxO1 on podocyte injury in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qingzhu; Ren, Lei; Zhou, Yingni [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Ma, Xiaojun [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wu, Lina [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Qin, Guijun, E-mail: hyqingj@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2015-10-16

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) on podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were served as DM group, while DM rats transfected with blank lentiviral vectors (LV-pSC-GFP) or lentiviral vectors carrying constitutively active FoxO1 (LV-CA-FoxO1) were served as LV-NC group or LV-CA group, respectively. The control group (NG) consisted of uninduced rats that received an injection of diluent buffer. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after transfection, the levels of urine albumin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urine podocalyxin were measured. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure mRNA and protein levels of FoxO1, podocalyxin, nephrin, and desmin in renal cortex. In addition, light and electron microscopy were used to detect structural changes in the glomerulus and podocytes. Results: Compared with the rats in LV-NC and DM groups, LV-CA rats showed a significant increase in FoxO1 mRNA and protein levels and a distinct decrease in urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine (except at the two-week time point) levels (p < 0.05). Podocalyxin and nephrin mRNA and protein levels increased (p < 0.05), whereas desmin mRNA and protein levels decreased (p < 0.05). Pathological changes in glomerulus were also ameliorated in LV-CA group. Conclusions: Upregulating expression of FoxO1 by transduction with recombinant lentivirus ameliorates podocyte injury in diabetic rats. - Highlights: • The structures and functions of podocytes were impaired in STZ-induced diabetic rats. • Constitutively active FoxO1 ameliorates structure injury and preserves function of podocytes in diabetic rats. • FoxO1 may alleviate the pathological changes associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Effects of FoxO1 on podocyte injury in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qingzhu; Ren, Lei; Zhou, Yingni; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Lina; Qin, Guijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) on podocyte injury in rats with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were served as DM group, while DM rats transfected with blank lentiviral vectors (LV-pSC-GFP) or lentiviral vectors carrying constitutively active FoxO1 (LV-CA-FoxO1) were served as LV-NC group or LV-CA group, respectively. The control group (NG) consisted of uninduced rats that received an injection of diluent buffer. At 2, 4, and 8 weeks after transfection, the levels of urine albumin, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urine podocalyxin were measured. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure mRNA and protein levels of FoxO1, podocalyxin, nephrin, and desmin in renal cortex. In addition, light and electron microscopy were used to detect structural changes in the glomerulus and podocytes. Results: Compared with the rats in LV-NC and DM groups, LV-CA rats showed a significant increase in FoxO1 mRNA and protein levels and a distinct decrease in urine albumin, blood urea nitrogen, and serum creatinine (except at the two-week time point) levels (p < 0.05). Podocalyxin and nephrin mRNA and protein levels increased (p < 0.05), whereas desmin mRNA and protein levels decreased (p < 0.05). Pathological changes in glomerulus were also ameliorated in LV-CA group. Conclusions: Upregulating expression of FoxO1 by transduction with recombinant lentivirus ameliorates podocyte injury in diabetic rats. - Highlights: • The structures and functions of podocytes were impaired in STZ-induced diabetic rats. • Constitutively active FoxO1 ameliorates structure injury and preserves function of podocytes in diabetic rats. • FoxO1 may alleviate the pathological changes associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Expression of fox-related genes in the skin follicles of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Han; Xiaoyan Li; Lele Wang; Honghao Wang; Kun Yang; Zhixin Wang; Ruijun Wang; Rui Su; Zhihong Liu; Yanhong Zhao; Yanjun Zhang; Jinquan Li

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the expression of genes in cashmere goats at different periods of their fetal development. Methods Bioinformatics analysis was used to evaluate data obtained by transcriptome sequencing of fetus skin samples collected from Inner Mongolia cashmere goats on days 45, 55, and 65 of fetal age. Results We found that FoxN1, FoxE1, and FoxI3 genes of the Fox gene family were probably involved in the growth and development of the follicle and the formation of hair, wh...

  12. Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkord, Eyad; Abd Al Samid, May; Chaudhary, Belal

    2015-08-21

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players of immune regulation/dysregulation both in physiological and pathophysiological settings. Despite significant advances in understanding Treg function, there is still a pressing need to define reliable and specific markers that can distinguish different Treg subpopulations. Herein we show for the first time that markers of activated Tregs [latency associated peptide (LAP) and glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP, or LRRC32)] are expressed on CD4+FoxP3- T cells expressing Helios (FoxP3-Helios+) in the steady state. Following TCR activation, GARP/LAP are up-regulated on CD4+Helios+ T cells regardless of FoxP3 expression (FoxP3+/-Helios+). We show that CD4+GARP+/-LAP+ Tregs make IL-10 immunosuppressive cytokine but not IFN-γ effector cytokine. Further characterization of FoxP3/Helios subpopulations showed that FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs proliferate in vitro significantly less than FoxP3+Helios- Tregs upon TCR stimulation. Unlike FoxP3+Helios- Tregs, FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs secrete IL-10 but not IFN-γ or IL-2, confirming they are bona fide Tregs with immunosuppressive characteristics. Taken together, Helios, and not FoxP3, is the marker of activated Tregs expressing GARP/LAP, and FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs have more suppressive characteristics, compared with FoxP3+Helios- Tregs. Our work implies that therapeutic modalities for treating autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, allergies and graft rejection should be designed to induce and/or expand FoxP3+Helios+ Tregs, while therapies against cancers or infectious diseases should avoid such expansion/induction.

  13. USP7 Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis Through Modulation of FoxO1 Gene Promoter Occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica A.; Tabata, Mitsuhisa; Rodgers, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic forkhead protein FoxO1 is a key component of systemic glucose homeostasis via its ability to regulate the transcription of rate-limiting enzymes in gluconeogenesis. Important in the regulation of FoxO1 transcriptional activity are the modifying/demodifying enzymes that lead to posttranslational modification. Here, we demonstrate the functional interaction and regulation of FoxO1 by herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7; also known as herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease, HAUSP), a deubiquitinating enzyme. We show that USP7-mediated mono-deubiquitination of FoxO1 results in suppression of FoxO1 transcriptional activity through decreased FoxO1 occupancy on the promoters of gluconeogenic genes. Knockdown of USP7 in primary hepatocytes leads to increased expression of FoxO1-target gluconeogenic genes and elevated glucose production. Consistent with this, USP7 gain-of-function suppresses the fasting/cAMP-induced activation of gluconeogenic genes in hepatocyte cells and in mouse liver, resulting in decreased hepatic glucose production. Notably, we show that the effects of USP7 on hepatic glucose metabolism depend on FoxO1. Together, these results place FoxO1 under the intimate regulation of deubiquitination and glucose metabolic control with important implication in diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24694308

  14. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  15. Different expression of FoxM1 in human benign and malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhonghao; Li, Hongqing; Zhu, Huili; Bai, Chunxue

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to analyze the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) expression in benign and malignant pleural effusion by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR); to explore the role of FoxM1 in formation and progress in malignant pleural effusion, and whether there is significant difference in expression level of FoxM1 between benign and malignant pleural effusion; to seek a gene marker diagnostically useful to identify benign and malignant pleural effusion in diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusion; and to collect expression level data of FoxM1 in 23 malignant pleural effusion samples (17 adenocarcinoma samples, four squamous carcinoma samples and two small cell lung carcinoma samples) and 15 benign pleural effusion samples (11 inflammatory pleural effusions, two transudates, two tuberculous pleural effusions) by RT-PCR. Among all 38 samples, average FoxM1 expression level of benign pleural effusions is (235.09 ± 59.99), while malignant pleural effusions (828.77 ± 109.76). Among 23 malignant samples, average FoxM1 expression level is (529.27 ± 75.85) in samples without cytological diagnostic evidence, while (1,218.12 ± 167.21) in samples with cytological diagnostic evidence. Differences of FoxM1 expression level between benign pleural effusions and malignant ones have statistical significance. There is an area of 0.881 under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, which verifies the accuracy of using FoxM1 expression level as diagnostic index to identify benign and malignant pleural effusions. According to our study, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for FoxM1 expression level at 418.1 were 82.6 and 86.7 %, respectively, while 47.8 and 100 %, respectively, at 768.7. FoxM1 expression level in malignant pleural effusions is significantly higher than in benign ones. This study provides a new approach in clinical diagnosis, with FoxM1 as a specific molecule marker to identify benign and malignant pleural

  16. Food composition and feeding ecology of the Red Fox Vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food composition of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes populations in different habitats in Egypt is ..... The dietary choices of small carnivores such as the Red Fox will depend primarily ... Similarly, feeding on carrion would be most cost effective. The.

  17. Group A Rotavirus Associated with Encephalitis in Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Chiara; Martella, Vito; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Lelli, Davide; Alborali, G Loris; Gibelli, Lucia; Gelmetti, Daniela; Lavazza, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Boniotti, M Beatrice

    2017-09-01

    In 2011, a group A rotavirus was isolated from the brain of a fox with encephalitis and neurologic signs, detected by rabies surveillance in Italy. Intracerebral inoculation of fox brain homogenates into mice was fatal. Genome sequencing revealed a heterologous rotavirus of avian origin, which could provide a model for investigating rotavirus neurovirulence.

  18. Semi-Permeable Paleochannels as Conduits for Submarine Groundwater Discharge to the Coast in Barataria Bay, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, A.; Kolker, A.; Telfeyan, K.; Kim, J.; Johannesson, K. H.; Cable, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have focused on hydrological and geochemical fluxes to the ocean from land to the ocean via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), however few have assessed these contributions of SGD in deltaic settings. The Mississippi River delta is the largest delta in North America, and the magnitude of groundwater that discharges from the river into its delta is relatively unknown. Hydrological budgets indicate that there is a large magnitude of surface water lost in the Mississippi's delta as the river flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Recent evidence in our study indicates that paleochannels, or semi-permeable buried sandy bodies that were former distributaries of the river, allow for water to discharge out of the Mississippi's main channel and into its delta driven by a difference in hydraulic head between the river and the lower lying coastal embayments. Our study uses geophysical data, including sonar and resistivity methods, to detect the location of these paleochannels in Barataria Bay, a coastal bay located in the Mississippi Delta. High resolution CHIRP sonar data shows that these paleochannel features are ubiquitous in the Mississippi Delta, whereas resistivity data indicates that lower salinity water is found during high river flow in bays proximate to the river. Sediment core analysis is also used to characterize the area of study, as well as further understand the regional geology of the Mississippi Delta and estimate values of permeability and hydraulic conductivity of sediments taken from two locations in Barataria Bay. The geophysical and sediment core data will likewise be used to contextualize geochemical data collected in the field, which includes an assessment of major cations and anions, as well as in situ Rn-222 activities, a method that has been proven to be useful as a tracer of groundwater movement. The results may be useful in understanding the potential global magnitude of hydrological and geochemical fluxes of other large rivers with

  19. Sequence comparison of prefrontal cortical brain transcriptome from a tame and an aggressive silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Two strains of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), with markedly different behavioral phenotypes, have been developed by long-term selection for behavior. Foxes from the tame strain exhibit friendly behavior towards humans, paralleling the sociability of canine puppies, whereas foxes from the aggressive strain are defensive and exhibit aggression to humans. To understand the genetic differences underlying these behavioral phenotypes fox-specific genomic resources are needed. Results cDNA from mRNA from pre-frontal cortex of a tame and an aggressive fox was sequenced using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform (> 2.5 million reads & 0.9 Gbase of tame fox sequence; >3.3 million reads & 1.2 Gbase of aggressive fox sequence). Over 80% of the fox reads were assembled into contigs. Mapping fox reads against the fox transcriptome assembly and the dog genome identified over 30,000 high confidence fox-specific SNPs. Fox transcripts for approximately 14,000 genes were identified using SwissProt and the dog RefSeq databases. An at least 2-fold expression difference between the two samples (p fox transcriptome. Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing significantly expanded genomic resources available for the fox, a species without a sequenced genome. In a very cost efficient manner this yielded a large number of fox-specific SNP markers for genetic studies and provided significant insights into the gene expression profile of the fox pre-frontal cortex; expression differences between the two fox samples; and a catalogue of potentially important gene-specific sequence variants. This result demonstrates the utility of this approach for developing genomic resources in species with limited genomic information. PMID:21967120

  20. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  1. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  2. Loss of Interdependent Binding by the FoxO1 and FoxA1/A2 Forkhead Transcription Factors Culminates in Perturbation of Active Chromatin Marks and Binding of Transcriptional Regulators at Insulin-sensitive Genes*

    OpenAIRE

    Yalley, Akua; Schill, Daniel; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Johnson, Nicole; Cirillo, Lisa Ann

    2016-01-01

    FoxO1 binds to insulin response elements located in the promoters of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), activating their expression. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO1 promotes cytoplasmic translocation, inhibiting FoxO1-mediated transactivation. We have previously demonstrated that FoxO1 opens and remodels chromatin assembled from the IGFBP1 promoter via a highly conserved winged helix motif. This finding, which established FoxO1 ...

  3. Nutrient Reduction in Agricultural Green Infrastructure: An Analysis of the Raccoon River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Canning

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has had the undesirable effect of degrading water quality throughout the United States. Nitrate pollution presents a difficult problem for rural and urban communities, and it contributes to the immense Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone. Current U.S. policy prohibits regulation of agricultural runoff because it is a nonpoint source. The Raccoon River Watershed upstream of Des Moines, Iowa, USA has some of the highest nitrate levels in the nation, and the drinking water utility in Des Moines unsuccessfully pursued litigation against drainage districts in the watershed. We propose a cooperative solution between urban residents and upstream rural residents—namely, the installation of agricultural green infrastructure in the form of riparian buffers throughout the watershed enabled by the principles of water quality trading. We compare this distributed, green approach with a centralized, gray approach (i.e., building a new nitrate removal facility at the drinking water utility. Using terrain analysis, we determined that first-order streams are the most fitting location for riparian buffers. We estimate the buffer installation to cost between $155–$185 million; maintenance of the current nitrate removal facility will cost $72 million, while a new facility could cost up to $184 million. Riparian buffer installation offers more indirect, non-quantified benefits than maintaining or building new centralized, gray treatment (e.g., living-wage jobs and in-stream water quality improvement. Our analysis could act as a model for water quality trading and distributed agricultural green infrastructure in other communities facing similar water quality challenges.

  4. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  5. FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation to hypoxia by antagonizing Myc function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Steen; Binderup, Tina; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of metazoan organisms to hypoxia engages a metabolic switch orchestrated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 mediates induction of glycolysis and active repression of mitochondrial respiration that reduces oxygen consumption and inhibits the production of potentially harmful...... tumour tissue in vivo and that FoxO3A short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing xenograft tumours are decreased in size and metabolically changed. Our findings define a novel mechanism by which FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation and stress resistance in hypoxia....... reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that FoxO3A is activated in hypoxia downstream of HIF-1 and mediates the hypoxic repression of a set of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. FoxO3A is required for hypoxic suppression of mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption, and ROS production and promotes...... cell survival in hypoxia. FoxO3A is recruited to the promoters of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes where it directly antagonizes c-Myc function via a mechanism that does not require binding to the consensus FoxO recognition element. Furthermore, we show that FoxO3A is activated in human hypoxic...

  6. [Relationship between FoxO1 Expression and Wound Age during Skin Incised Wound Healing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Ji, X Y; Fan, Y Y; Yu, L S

    2018-02-01

    To investigate FoxO1 expression and its time-dependent changes during the skin incised wound healing. After the establishment of the skin incised wound model in mice, the FoxO1 expression of skin in different time periods was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that FoxO1 was weakly expressed in a few fibroblasts of epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, vessel endothelium and dermis in the control group. The FoxO1 expression was enhanced in the epidermis and skin appendages around the wound during 6-12 h after injury, which could be detected in the infiltrating neutrophils and a small number of monocytes. FoxO1 was mainly expressed in monocytes during 1-3 d after injury, and in neovascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts during 5-10 d. On the 14th day after injury, the FoxO1 expression still could be detected in a few fibroblasts. The Western blotting results showed that the FoxO1 expression quantity of the tissue samples in injury group was higher than in control group. The FoxO1 expression peaked at 12 h and 7 d after injury. FoxO1 is time-dependently expressed in skin wound healing, which can be a useful marker for wound age determination. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  7. Sequence comparison of prefrontal cortical brain transcriptome from a tame and an aggressive silver fox (Vulpes vulpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two strains of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes, with markedly different behavioral phenotypes, have been developed by long-term selection for behavior. Foxes from the tame strain exhibit friendly behavior towards humans, paralleling the sociability of canine puppies, whereas foxes from the aggressive strain are defensive and exhibit aggression to humans. To understand the genetic differences underlying these behavioral phenotypes fox-specific genomic resources are needed. Results cDNA from mRNA from pre-frontal cortex of a tame and an aggressive fox was sequenced using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform (> 2.5 million reads & 0.9 Gbase of tame fox sequence; >3.3 million reads & 1.2 Gbase of aggressive fox sequence. Over 80% of the fox reads were assembled into contigs. Mapping fox reads against the fox transcriptome assembly and the dog genome identified over 30,000 high confidence fox-specific SNPs. Fox transcripts for approximately 14,000 genes were identified using SwissProt and the dog RefSeq databases. An at least 2-fold expression difference between the two samples (p Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing significantly expanded genomic resources available for the fox, a species without a sequenced genome. In a very cost efficient manner this yielded a large number of fox-specific SNP markers for genetic studies and provided significant insights into the gene expression profile of the fox pre-frontal cortex; expression differences between the two fox samples; and a catalogue of potentially important gene-specific sequence variants. This result demonstrates the utility of this approach for developing genomic resources in species with limited genomic information.

  8. A note on the seasonally shifting zone of high primary production in the Bay of Marajó, Pará, Brazil, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Schwassmann

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the hydrological and limnological conditions during the annual regime of high and low river flow, as well as the action of the tides, a series of 18 collecting trips were conducted in monthly and bimonthly intervals across the Bay of Marajó during the years 1983-1985. The Tocantins River provides more than 80% of the inflow into this bay and shows a much greater difference in water volume flow between high and low water season than the Amazon. The annual displacement of brackish water influence is thus more extensive Marajó Bay than in the Amazon estuary. During the dry season of low river discharge (September-December, traces of seawater are found to penetrate up to 90 km upriver in the Guamá River. The high degree of turbidity of inner estuarine waters impedes light penetration and results in the near absence of primary production in spite of ample nutrients. Where these turbid river waters mix with brackish estuarine waters of 2 to 4‰ salinity, flocculation and subsequent sedimentation causes visibility to increase from a few to sometimes 200 cm. The water in this zone assumes a bright green color due to phytoplankton. About 90% of the biomass consists of a polyhalobic diatom species, Coscinodiscus. Concomitant great reductions in silica and other nutrient concentrations are noted. During low river flow (September to December, this high production zone is located in the central part of Marajó Bay, whereas it lies outside of the bay over the continental shelf during high river discharge (February to April.Uma série de 18 travessias, em intervalos mensais ou bimensais, na baía do Marajó nos anos 1983-1985, a fim de medir os parâmetros físico-químicos e coletar plancton, contribuiu para nosso conhecimento das condições hidrocinéticas e limnológicas durante o ciclo anual de vazão alta e baixa dos rios e das marés. Devido à diferença de vazão entre a cheia e a seca no rio Tocantins ser maior que no rio Amazonas

  9. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  11. Thecamoebians: occurrence and distribution in Iguape Bay/BTS – Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ferreira da Cruz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iguape Bay (12º00’ – 13º00’S and 38º30’ – 39º30’ is an estuary located at the mouth of the Paraguaçu River, inside Todos os Santos Bay (BTS, in Bahia, Brazil. It is 30km downstream from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam, which is the second largest dam in Brazil. The water in Iguape Bay is influenced by ocean tides originating from the BTS and the discharge of the Paraguaçu River. The effects of the currents as well as the variation in the outflow from the Pedra do Cavalo Dam have intensified the natural stress of this paralic environment. The main goal of this study was to investigate the distribution of Thecamoeba species present in the bottom sediments of Iguape Bay, in order to produce data that can be used to interpret the processes operating in this ecologically complex environment. The density of the living and dead species of Thecamoeba was determined by the volume of sediment collected, and the diversity index, constancy, evenness and richness of Thecamoeba were calculated. Sedimentological analyses were also performed in order to classify sediment types in the selected profiles.

  12. Angiostrongylus vasorum in Romania: an extensive survey in red foxes, Vulpes vulpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Georgiana; Gherman, Călin M; Ionică, Angela M; Vezendan, Alexandru D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Matei, Ioana A; Daskalaki, Aikaterini A; Marian, Ionuț; Damian, Aurel; Cozma, Vasile; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2017-07-12

    Angiostrongylus vasorum is the causative agent of canine angiostrongylosis, a severe snail-borne disease of dogs. Red foxes are important natural reservoirs of infection, and surveys of foxes provide a more objective picture of the parasite distribution. Our aim was to investigate the possibility of the presence of A. vasorum in red foxes from the western part of Romania and to analyse the risk factors related to the sex, age and geographic origin of the foxes. Between July 2016 and April 2017, 567 hunted red foxes from 10 counties of western Romania were examined by necropsy for the presence of lungworms. Overall, the infection with A. vasorum has been found in 24 red foxes (4.2%) originating in four counties (Mureș, Hunedoara, Sălaj and Cluj). There was no significant difference between the prevalence in males and females, between juveniles and adults and between counties. This is the first report of autochthonous infections of A. vasorum in Romania, showing a relatively low prevalence and extending eastwards the known distributional range of this parasite in Europe. The presence of autochthonous cases in domestic dogs in Romania remains to be confirmed by further studies.

  13. Relationship of land use to water quality in the Chesapeake Bay region. [water sampling and photomapping river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Both the proportions of the various land use categories present on each watershed and the specific management practices in use in each category affect the quality of runoff waters, and the water quality of the Bay. Several permanent and portable stations on various Maryland Rivers collect volume-integrated water samples. All samples are analyzed for a series of nutrient, particulate, bacterial, herbicide, and heavy metal parameters. Each basin is mapped with respect to land use by the analysis of low-elevation aerial photos. Analyses are verified and adjusted by ground truth surveys. Data are processed and stored in the Smithsonian Institution data bank. Land use categories being investigated include forests/old fields, pastureland, row crops, residential areas, upland swamps, and tidal marshes.

  14. Flying-foxes in the Australian urban environment—community attitudes and opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Y. Kung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urban presence of flying-foxes (pteropid bats in eastern Australia has increased in the last 20 years, putatively reflecting broader landscape change. The influx of large numbers often precipitates community angst, typically stemming from concerns about loss of social amenity, economic loss or negative health impacts from recently emerged bat-mediated zoonotic diseases such as Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Local authorities and state wildlife authorities are increasingly asked to approve the dispersal or modification of flying-fox roosts to address expressed concerns, yet the scale of this concern within the community, and the veracity of the basis for concern are often unclear. We conducted an on-line survey to capture community attitudes and opinions on flying-foxes in the urban environment to inform management policy and decision-making. Analysis focused on awareness, concerns, and management options, and primarily compared responses from communities where flying-fox management was and was not topical at the time of the survey. While a majority of respondents indicated a moderate to high level of knowledge of both flying-foxes and Hendra virus, a substantial minority mistakenly believed that flying-foxes pose a direct infection risk to humans, suggesting miscommunication or misinformation, and the need for additional risk communication strategies. Secondly, a minority of community members indicated they were directly impacted by urban roosts, most plausibly those living in close proximity to the roost, suggesting that targeted management options are warranted. Thirdly, neither dispersal nor culling was seen as an appropriate management strategy by the majority of respondents, including those from postcodes where flying-fox management was topical. These findings usefully inform community debate and policy development and demonstrate the value of social analysis in defining the issues and options in this complex human

  15. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  16. Spatial distribution of pollen grains and spores in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cintia F; Vilela, Claudia G; Baptista-Neto, José A; Barth, Ortrud M

    2012-09-01

    Aiming to investigate the deposition of pollen grains and spores in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, 61 surface sediment samples were analyzed. The results showed that the current deposition of palynomorphs in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay represents the regional vegetation of this hydrographic basin. The differential distribution of palynomorphs followed a pattern influenced by bathymetry, tidal currents speed, discharge of numerous rivers, and by human activity. The dominance of representatives of Field Vegetation reflects the changes of the original flora caused by intense human activities in the region. The continued presence and richness of pollen types of rain forest in the samples indicates that their source area might be the vegetation from riparian border of rivers in the western sector of the Bay, where the mangrove vegetation is being preserved. The large amount of damaged palynomorphs may be related to abrasion that occurs during river transport, indicating removal or reworking from their areas of origin.

  17. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  18. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  19. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  20. Reef Fish Surveys for Fagatele Bay, American Samoa, 2007 (NODC Accession 0068717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish surveys were conducted in November 2007 using visual census techniques at Fagatele Bay under the guidance of Dr. Alison Green, the Nature Conservancy. This data...

  1. Study of Circulation in the Tillamook Bay and the Surrounding Wetland Applying Triple-Nested Models Downscaling from Global Ocean to Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the circulation and water quality in the Tillamook Bay, Oregon, a high-resolution estuarine model that covers the shallow bay and the surrounding wetland has been developed. The estuarine circulation at Tillamook Bay is mainly driven by the tides and the river flows and ...

  2. Diversity of Flea (Siphonaptera) Parasites on Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D

    2017-09-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Anoxia-responsive regulation of the FoxO transcription factors in freshwater turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-11-01

    The forkhead class O (FoxO) transcription factors are important regulators of multiple aspects of cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that activation of these transcription factors could play crucial roles in low oxygen survival in the anoxia-tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Two FoxOs, FoxO1 and FoxO3, were examined in turtle tissues in response to 5 and 20h of anoxic submergence using techniques of RT-PCR, western immunoblotting and DNA-binding assays to assess activation. Transcript levels of FoxO-responsive genes were also quantified using RT-PCR. FoxO1 was anoxia-responsive in the liver, with increases in transcript levels, protein levels, nuclear levels and DNA-binding of 1.7-4.8fold in response to anoxia. Levels of phosphorylated FoxO1 also decreased to 57% of control values in response to 5h of anoxia, indicating activation. FoxO3 was activated in the heart, kidney and liver in response to anoxia, with nuclear levels increasing by 1.5-3.7fold and DNA-binding activity increasing by 1.3-2.9fold. Transcript levels of two FoxO-target genes, p27kip1 and catalase, also rose by 2.4-2.5fold in the turtle liver under anoxia. The results suggest that the FoxO transcription factors are activated in response to anoxia in T. scripta elegans, potentially contributing to the regulation of stress resistance and metabolic depression. This study provides the first demonstration of activation of FoxOs in a natural model for vertebrate anoxia tolerance, further improving understanding of how tissues can survive without oxygen. © 2013.

  4. Influence of urbanization and industrialization on metal enrichment of sediment cores from Shantou Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jiangang; Tao, Ran; Xu, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to investigate geochemical sources and to assess enrichment and pollution of metals in sediments from Shantou Bay, an area experiencing rapid economic development on the Southeastern Coast of China. The results indicated that the concentrations of the majority of metals showed a decrease with depth, with overall maximum values in the top layers, and that different sampling locations in the Bay received slightly different types of inputs. Three major sources were identified by correlation analysis and principal component analysis: river inputs, metropolitan, and port facilities discharge. Calculation of a pollution load index revealed overall low values, but the enrichment factor values for Pb and Cd were typically high for all cores. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and to some extent Cd exceeded the Effects-Range-Low values in the majority of the cases, indicating that there were possible ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Highlights: •Metals had downward decrease with overall maximum value at top layers. •River input, metropolitan and port facilities discharge are identified as major sources. •Pb and Cd are mainly enriched metals. •Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd had potential ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Shantou Bay was polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and showed an increase trend along time. River input, metropolitan and port facilities were identified as their sources based on multi-analysis

  5. Chesapeake Bay fish–osprey (Pandion haliaetus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Rattner, Barnett A.; McGowan, Peter C.; Hale, Robert C.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Erickson, Richard A.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, a large-scale ecotoxicological study was conducted in several Chesapeake Bay (USA) tributaries (Susquehanna River and flats, the Back, Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco Rivers, Anacostia/ middle Potomac, Elizabeth and James Rivers) and Poplar Island as a mid-Bay reference site. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) diet and the transfer of contaminants from fish to osprey eggs were evaluated. The most bioaccumulative compounds (biomagnification factor > 5) included p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and bromodiphenyl ether (BDE) congeners 47, 99, 100, and 154. This analysis suggested that alternative brominated flame retardants and other compounds (methoxytriclosan) are not appreciably biomagnifying. A multivariate analysis of similarity indicated that major differences in patterns among study sites were driven by PCB congeners 105, 128, 156, 170/190, and 189, and PBDE congeners 99 and 209. An integrative redundancy analysis showed that osprey eggs from Baltimore Harbor/Patapsco River and the Elizabeth River had high residues of PCBs and p,p′-DDE, with PBDEs making a substantial contribution to overall halogenated contamination on the Susquehanna and Anacostia/middle Potomac Rivers. The redundancy analysis also suggested a potential relation between PBDE residues in osprey eggs and oxidative DNA damage in nestling blood samples. The results also indicate that there is no longer a discernible relation between halogenated contaminants in osprey eggs and their reproductive success in Chesapeake Bay. Osprey populations are thriving in much of the Chesapeake, with productivity rates exceeding those required to sustain a stable population.

  6. Understanding and analyzing the hydro-sedimentary processes in the Bay of Toulon. Contribution for modelling the dispersion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral research aims to enhance knowledge of the hydro-sedimentary processes in the Bay of Toulon and to represent these processes through a post accidental managing tool, developed to simulate the dispersion of radionuclides. This work is based on a multidisciplinary strategy, using numerical modelling and in situ measurements to study the complex problem of contaminants in the marine environment. Hydrodynamic of the Bay and water mass exchanges through the channel have been studied. Results are highly linked to the atmospheric conditions and the water exchange times of the Little Bay range from two to six days, depending on wind conditions. Recorded data in the Las and Eygoutier Rivers led to the description and the estimation of the catchment yields to the Bay, poorly studied before. With one ton of particulate matter annually discharged by the Las River, the Little Bay seems to be a sedimentation area. In case of accidental release of radionuclides, this area appears to be a trapping zone. (author)

  7. FoxO1 and HNF-4 are involved in regulation of hepatic glucokinase gene expression by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y; Unterman, Terry G; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-11-06

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol.

  8. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1–3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (Pimmobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1–3 (P≤0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  9. Fox Den Disease: An Interesting Case Following Delayed Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Ryan C; Kim, Nicholas; LoGiudice, John A; Ludwig, Kirk

    2015-06-01

    Pyoderma fistulans sinifica, also known as fox den disease, is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory disorder of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This disorder is often mistaken for other inflammatory skin disorders and treated inappropriately. The authors describe the case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the colorectal surgery service with a longstanding diagnosis of perirectal Crohn's disease. Despite aggressive immunosuppression and numerous surgical procedures, the patient continued to have unrelenting purulent drainage from the skin of his buttocks. Following wide excision of the affected skin and subcutaneous tissues by the colorectal surgeon, the plastic surgery team reconstructed the 30 cm x 55 cm wound using a combination of local flaps and skin grafts. The initial pathology report of the excised specimen confirmed the presence of nonspecific abscesses and inflammation. Upon special request by the plastic surgery team, the sample was resectioned with the specific intent of establishing a diagnosis of fox den disease. The additional slides met the criteria for an unequivocal diagnosis of fox den disease. Immunosuppression was discontinued and the patient healed his wounds without complication. Fox den disease is often overlooked because of the obscurity of the disease and the special histological sectioning needed to establish a diagnosis. In this case, the patient was unnecessarily treated with immunosuppressive drugs for more than 3 decades because of a misdiagnosis. With increased awareness of fox den disease, perhaps its pathophysiology can be better elucidated as more patients are appropriately diagnosed and treated.

  10. Configuration and stability of 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitrothylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan Qun [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Wang, Gui Xiang [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The configuration and stability of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene were studied using density functional theory with all-electron double numerical polarized basis sets. The results suggested that graphene had a greater impact on the planarity of FOX-7 molecules than did H-bonding. Under the synergistic effect of graphene and H-bonding, the geometry of H-bonded FOX-7 embedded in graphene was flatter than that of FOX-7 without H-bonds, which facilitated π–π stacking, as well as the stability of FOX-7 in graphene. The conjugated structure of FOX-7 contributed to its stability between layers of graphene. When the conjugated structure in FOX-7 was completely disrupted, the stabilization energy decreased by 48.6%. This theoretical work is useful for gaining new insights into the microscopic interaction of energetic molecules with graphene, and it will provide theoretical guidance for the encapsulation and storage of energetic materials.

  11. Configuration and stability of 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitrothylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan Qun; Wang, Gui Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The configuration and stability of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) embedded in graphene were studied using density functional theory with all-electron double numerical polarized basis sets. The results suggested that graphene had a greater impact on the planarity of FOX-7 molecules than did H-bonding. Under the synergistic effect of graphene and H-bonding, the geometry of H-bonded FOX-7 embedded in graphene was flatter than that of FOX-7 without H-bonds, which facilitated π–π stacking, as well as the stability of FOX-7 in graphene. The conjugated structure of FOX-7 contributed to its stability between layers of graphene. When the conjugated structure in FOX-7 was completely disrupted, the stabilization energy decreased by 48.6%. This theoretical work is useful for gaining new insights into the microscopic interaction of energetic molecules with graphene, and it will provide theoretical guidance for the encapsulation and storage of energetic materials

  12. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  13. Inhibition of FoxO1 acetylation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ induces p21 transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun-Cheol; Kim, Kee-Beom; Kang, Joo-Young; Kim, Se-Ryeon; Jung, Hyeon-Soo; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2014-08-25

    Post-translational modification of forkhead family transcription factor, FoxO1, is an important regulatory mode for its diverse activities. FoxO1 is acetylated by HAT coactivators and its transcriptional activity is decreased via reduced DNA binding affinity. Here, we report that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited p300-mediated FoxO1 acetylation in an INHAT domain-dependent manner. SET/TAF-Iβ interacted with FoxO1 and activated transcription of FoxO1 target gene, p21. Moreover, SET/TAF-Iβ inhibited acetylation of FoxO1 and increased p21 transcription induced by oxidative stress. Our results suggest that SET/TAF-Iβ inhibits FoxO1 acetylation and activates its transcriptional activity toward p21. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  15. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  16. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  17. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  18. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Contribution of chronic petroleum inputs to Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, E S; Quin, J G

    1978-05-01

    Sediment cores from Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound have been analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and compared with a relatively unpolluted sediment core from the Gulf of Maine. The sediments were analyzed for unbound hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with humic substances, and residual hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with the clay mineral or kerogen matrix. Results indicated that in general 90-100% of the hydrocarbons were in the unbound form and could be easily extracted with organic solvents. The petroleum hydrocarbons decreased with depth at all stations. Biogenic hydrocarbons (nC/sub 25/, nC/sub 27/, nC/sub 29/, and nC/sub 31/) made up an increasingly greater percentage of the total with increasing depth. The hydrocarbons in the Narragansett Bay sediments and near surface Rhode Island Sound sediments strongly resembled the hydrocarbons previously reported for the Providence River and upper Narragansett Bay. These petroleum-like hydrocarbons were shown to be largely introduced to the river and bay through chronic inputs from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These hydrocarbons then undergo sedimentation throughout the entire bay and into Rhode Island Sound. Preliminary calculations indicate that over 0.2 million t (tonne) of petroleum hydrocarbons may be transported to the marine environment annually from municipal treatment plants. Most of these hydrocarbons appear to accumulate in estuarine and coastal sediments.

  20. FoxO1 and HNF-4 Are Involved in Regulation of Hepatic Glucokinase Gene Expression by Resveratrol*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham Kumar; Dimova, Elitsa Y.; Unterman, Terry G.; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol derived from grapes, exerts important effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, yet detailed mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. The liver plays a central role in energy homeostasis, and glucokinase (GK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose utilization. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 (sirtuin 1), which promotes deacetylation of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1. Previously, we reported that FoxO1 can suppress and that HNF-4 can stimulate GK expression in the liver. Here, we examined the role of FoxO1 and HNF-4 in mediating resveratrol effects on liver GK expression. Resveratrol suppressed hepatic GK expression in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes, and knocking down FoxO1 with shRNAs disrupted this effect. Reporter gene, gel shift, supershift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that FoxO1 binds to the GK promoter and that the interplay between FoxO1 and HNF-4 within the GK promoter is essential for mediating the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol promotes deacetylation of FoxO1 and enhances its recruitment to the FoxO-binding element. Conversely, resveratrol suppresses recruitment of HNF-4 to its binding site, and knockdown of FoxO1 blocks this effect of resveratrol. Coprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that resveratrol enhances interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4, reduces binding of HNF-4 to its own site, and promotes its recruitment to the FoxO site in a FoxO1-dependent manner. These results provide the first evidence that resveratrol represses GK expression via FoxO1 and that the interaction between FoxO1 and HNF-4 contributes to these effects of resveratrol. PMID:19740748

  1. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has

  2. Regulation of FoxO transcription factors by environmental NO(x). Influence of metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Regulation von FoxO-Transkriptionsfaktoren durch Umweltnoxen. Einfluss von Metallionen und polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Anna

    2009-12-15

    FoxO transcription factors are crucial modulators of various cellular processes, controlling the expression of target genes such as those coding for manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and selenoprotein P (SeP), thereby supporting defense against oxidative stress. Environmental stimuli such as heavy metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) modulate signaling pathways both by interaction with proteins or by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exposure of hepatoma cells to nickel ions at subcytotoxic doses did not translate into modulation of FoxO activity despite an activation of the Ser/Thr-kinase Akt. The cellular response to nickel ions under these conditions is most likely independent of the formation of ROS, since there were no increased levels of glutathione disulfide detectable. FoxO activity was then found to be modulated in response to exposure of cells to PAH or the tryptophan photoproduct FICZ. Both PAH and FICZ caused an increased activity of a FoxO-responsive promoter construct as well as of glucose 6-phosphatase promoter activity. In contrast, the activities of promoters of genes coding for MnSOD or SeP were decreased in response to exposure to the PAH 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC). In line with the promoter effects, 3-MC also decreased steady-state levels of SeP mRNA. The response of the SeP promoter to 3-MC was abrogated by point mutations introduced at the two identified FoxO binding elements of the SeP promoter, implying that interaction of FoxO proteins with these sites is essential for the downregulation of promoter activity. In addition to FoxO activity being modulated by xenobiotics, it was then demonstrated that FoxO expression was also modulated by exposure of cells to PAH or FICZ. FoxO4 mRNA levels were downregulated in hepatoma cells exposed to 3-MC or FICZ. Similarly, insulin treatment caused a downregulation of mRNA levels of FoxO 1a, 3a and 4 in hepatoma cells. (orig.)

  3. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  4. Activity rhythms and distribution of natal dens for red foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenyang, Zhou; Wanhong, Wei; Biggins, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The red fox, Vulpes vulpes, was investigated with snow tracking, radiotracking and directive observation at the Haibei Research Station of Alpine Meadow Ecosystem, Academia Sinica, from March to September 1994. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution and use of natal dens, activity rhythms, and home range sizes for the foxes.

  5. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  6. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  7. Comparative studies on testicular and epididymal morphology, and serum hormone concentrations in foxes and the hybrids during the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T A; Yang, Y H; Peng, Y H; Cong, B; Diao, Y F; Bao, K; Hu, P F; Song, X C; Liu, L L; Yang, Y F; Xing, X M; Yang, F H

    2016-05-01

    The silver fox and the blue fox belong to different genera, and the hybrid males are fully or partially sterile. In the present study, the objective was to evaluate the causes of hybrid male sterility, and therefore analyze the differences in testicular, and epididymal morphology and serum hormone concentrations among silver foxes, blue foxes, and the hybrids during the breeding season. Samples were collected from 20 male silver foxes, 20 male blue foxes, 15 male HSBs (silver fox female × blue fox male hybrids) and 14 male HBSs (blue fox male × silver fox female hybrids), respectively. Seminal evaluation showed large numbers of sperm present in the semen of blue foxes and silver foxes, but no sperm present in the hybrids. Mean testicular volume and the diameter of seminiferous tubules in silver foxes and blue foxes were greater than in the hybrids; and there were many Sertoli cells, spermatogenic cells, and sperm in silver foxes and blue foxes, while spermatogenic cells decreased with no sperm in the hybrids. Mean serum LH and prolactin concentrations in silver foxes and blue foxes were less and testosterone was greater than in the hybrids (P<0.05). The results indicate that germ cell meioses in the hybrids were arrested at the prophase stage of meiosis, and that lesser concentrations of testosterone and greater concentrations of LH and prolactin can inhibit the completion of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suspended-sediment transport from the Green-Duwamish River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington, 2013–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Craig A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.

    2018-02-28

    The Green-Duwamish River transports watershed-derived sediment to the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site near Seattle, Washington. Understanding the amount of sediment transported by the river is essential to the bed sediment cleanup process. Turbidity, discharge, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle-size data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from February 2013 to January 2017 at the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (USGS streamgage 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). This report quantifies the timing and magnitude of suspended-sediment transported in the Duwamish River. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity and SSC and discharge to estimate 15- minute SSC. Suspended-sediment loads were calculated from the computed SSC and time-series discharge data for every 15-minute interval during the study period. The 2014–16 average annual suspended-sediment load computed was 117,246 tons (106,364 metric tons), of which 73.5 percent or (86,191 tons; 78,191 metric tons) was fine particle (less than 0.0625 millimeter in diameter) suspended sediment. The seasonality of this site is apparent when you divide the year into "wet" (October 16– April 15) and "dry" (April 16–October 15) seasons. Most (97 percent) of the annual suspended sediment was transported during the wet season, when brief periods of intense precipitation from storms, large releases from the Howard Hanson Dam, or a combination of both were much more frequent.

  9. Physiological stress and Hendra virus in flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress. Pooled and individual urine samples were non-invasively collected from under roosting flying-foxes at two latitudinally disparate regions in the eastern Australian state of Queensland. Hendra virus detection, and (in individual urine samples sex and species determination were PCR-based. Urinary cortisol measurement used a validated enzyme immunoassay. We found no direct correlation between increased urinary cortisol and Hendra virus excretion, but our findings do suggest a biologically plausible association between low winter temperatures and elevated cortisol levels in P. alecto in the lower latitude Southeast Queensland roosts. We hypothesize an indirect association between low winter temperatures and increased Hendra virus infection and excretion, mediated by the physiological cost of thermoregulation. Our findings and our approach are directly relevant to elaboration of the disease ecology of Nipah virus and other emerging henipaviruses in bats. More broadly, they inform investigation of emerging disease infection dynamics across the wildlife/livestock/human interface.

  10. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  11. Human and riverine impacts on the dynamics of seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Dongseon; Baek, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Ok

    2015-04-01

    We investigated seawater nutrient and carbon parameters in Kwangyang Bay, South Korea, which has been exposed to significant human influences, in each core month of four seasons for between 2010 and 2012. The survey data were analyzed using multivariate statistics analysis (cluster and factor analysis). As a result, we found that the Seomjin River (the fifth largest river in South Korea) and biological activity, including phytoplankton photosynthesis and bacterial decomposition, were the main factors determining the overall water quality of the bay. However, the impacts of these factors varied both spatially and seasonally, because the factors were linked with the geographical environments and seasonal variations in freshwater discharge. In particular, the Seomjin River was primarily responsible for nitrate, silicate, total alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon, and exhibited a significant impact in the summer. During the past 10 years, nutrient loads from the river and industrial complexes to the bay have decreased. The impacts of this decrease are visible in the phosphate concentration, which has fallen to a third of its initial value. We also examined the potential role of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in nitrogen cycling in the study area.

  12. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  13. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation

  14. FOX-2 Dependent Splicing of Ataxin-2 Transcript Is Affected by Ataxin-1 Overexpression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, Franziska; Kaehler, Christian; Isau, Melanie; Hallen, Linda; Lehrach, Hans; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a fundamental posttranscriptional mechanism for controlling gene expression, and splicing defects have been linked to various human disorders. The splicing factor FOX-2 is part of a main protein interaction hub in a network related to human inherited ataxias, however, its impact remains to be elucidated. Here, we focused on the reported interaction between FOX-2 and ataxin-1, the disease-causing protein in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. In this line, we further evaluated this interaction by yeast-2-hybrid analyses and co-immunoprecipitation experiments in mammalian cells. Interestingly, we discovered that FOX-2 localization and splicing activity is affected in the presence of nuclear ataxin-1 inclusions. Moreover, we observed that FOX-2 directly interacts with ataxin-2, a protein modulating spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 pathogenesis. Finally, we provide evidence that splicing of pre-mRNA of ataxin-2 depends on FOX-2 activity, since reduction of FOX-2 levels led to increased skipping of exon 18 in ataxin-2 transcripts. Most striking, we observed that ataxin-1 overexpression has an effect on this splicing event as well. Thus, our results demonstrate that FOX-2 is involved in splicing of ataxin-2 transcripts and that this splicing event is altered by overexpression of ataxin-1. PMID:22666429

  15. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  16. Optical investigations of CDOM-rich coastal waters in Pärnu Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgot Paavel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pärnu Bay in the Eastern Baltic Sea was chosen for studying the spatial-temporal variability of water parameters as an optically complex and semi-enclosed coastal area. The water properties of Pärnu Bay are influenced by the town of Pärnu with its 70 000 inhabitants and by the high inflow from the Pärnu River. The in situ database was collected during the ice-free period of 2006–2007 (11 sampling stations, 10 series of field trips. According to the results, the main factor influencing the light attenuation in the water was coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM which overshadows the relationships between the radiation characteristics and organic/inorganic particles. In April and May, when the freshwater discharge of the Pärnu River was highest, the values of aCDOM(380 were between 4.6 and 31.8 m–1, while in September they varied only within 2.52–10.2 m–1. The concentrations of chlorophyll a (including its metabolite phaeophytin a generally ranged from 4 to 12 mg m–3 but during algal blooms they rapidly increased to 31.8 mg m–3. The temporal and spatial irregularity of suspended matter concentrations was caused by the loading of unpacked peat at the Pärnu River mouth as well as by undulation and ship traffic in Pärnu Bay. MODIS level 1 data with 250 m resolution were used for illustrative comparison of spatial and temporal variations in the water properties in Pärnu Bay and the Gulf of Riga. An attempt to perform the quantitative analysis with the purpose of estimating the concentrations of different optically significant substances separately gave statistically incorrect results.

  17. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  18. Infectivity and temperature tolerance of non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis in experimentally infected red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurníková, Z.; Dubinský, P.; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2004-01-01

    The non-encapsulating Trichinella zimbabwensis was evaluated for infectivity in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the larval distribution and cold tolerance in fox muscle tissue. Six red foxes were experimentally infected with T. zimbabwensis larvae. Five weeks after inoculation, muscle larvae were...... recovered from 9 different muscle types using artificial digestion method. The establishment of infection in all infected red foxes demonstrated the ability of T. zimbabwensis to complete its life cycle in a carnivore mammal host. The larvae recovered from fox muscle tissue were infective to mice, they have...

  19. Red fox, Vulpes vulpes, kills a European beaver, Castor fiber, kit

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Nils B.; Nakken, Petter J.; Rosell, Frank; Espeland, Sigurd

    1996-01-01

    We observed an adult Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) attack, kill and partially consume a 2-month-old female kit European Beaver (Castor fiber) near its lodge in Norway. The inner organs were consumed first. One adult beaver apparently attempted to frighten the fox away by tail-slapping.

  20. Human-induced river runoff overlapping natural climate variability over the last 150 years: Palynological evidence (Bay of Brest, NW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Clément; Penaud, Aurélie; Vidal, Muriel; Klouch, Khadidja; Gregoire, Gwendoline; Ehrhold, Axel; Eynaud, Frédérique; Schmidt, Sabine; Ragueneau, Olivier; Siano, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    For the first time a very high resolution palynological study (mean resolution of 1 to 5 years) was carried out over the last 150 years in a French estuarine environment (Bay of Brest; NW France), allowing direct comparison between the evolution of landscapes, surface water, and human practices on Bay of Brest watersheds, through continental (especially pollen grains) and marine (phytoplanktonic microalgae: cysts of dinoflagellates or dinocysts) microfossils. Thanks to the small size of the watersheds and the close proximity of the depositional environment to the mainland, the Bay of Brest represents an ideal case study for palynological investigations. Palynological data were then compared to published palaeo-genetic analyses conducted on the same core and to various available instrumental data, allowing us to better characterize past environmental variability since the second half of the 19th century in Western Brittany. We provide evidence of some clues of recent eutrophication and/or pollution that affected phytoplankton communities and which appears linked with increased runoff (higher precipitations, higher percentages of riparian forest pollen, decline of salt marsh-type indicators, and higher values of the XRF Ti/Ca signal), mainly explained by the evolution of agricultural practices since 1945 superimposed on the warming climate trend. We assume that the significant relay observed between dinocyst taxa: Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites bentorii around 1965 then followed by Spiniferites membranaceus after 1985, attests to a strong and recent eutrophication of Bay of Brest surface waters induced by high river runoff combined with abnormally elevated air temperatures, especially obvious in the data from 1990. The structure of the dinocyst community has thus been deeply altered, accompanied by an unprecedented increase of Alexandrium minutum toxic form at the same period, as confirmed by the genetic quantification. Despite this recent major

  1. Molecular and histopathological detection of Hepatozoon canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder C E; Eyal, Osnat; Reis, Antónia; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Rodrigues, Paula A; Baneth, Gad

    2014-03-24

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan tick-borne pathogen of dogs and wild canids. Hepatozoon spp. have been reported to infect foxes in different continents and recent studies have mostly used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection and characterization of the infecting species. Surveying red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) may contribute to better understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases, including hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis in domestic dogs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. by means of histopathology and molecular analysis of different tissues in red foxes from different parts of Portugal. Blood and tissues including bone marrow, heart, hind leg muscle, jejunum, kidney, liver, lung, popliteal or axillary lymph nodes, spleen and/or tongue were collected from 91 red foxes from eight districts in northern, central and southern Portugal. Tissues were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a ~650 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and the DNA products were sequenced. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 68 out of 90 foxes (75.6%) from all the sampled areas by PCR and sequencing. Histopathology revealed H. canis meronts similar in shape to those found in dogs in the bone marrow of 11 (23.4%) and in the spleen of two (4.3%) out of 47 foxes (p = 0.007). All the 11 foxes found positive by histopathology were also positive by PCR of bone marrow and/or blood. Positivity by PCR (83.0%) was significantly higher (p Hepatozoon canis was found to be highly prevalent in red fox populations from northern, central and southern Portugal. Detection of the parasite by histopathology was significantly less sensitive than by PCR. Red foxes are a presumptive reservoir of H. canis infection for domestic dogs.

  2. Phenotypically non-suppressive cells predominate among FoxP3-positive cells in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Olav; Karatsaidis, Andreas; Schenck, Karl

    2016-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common T-cell-dominated oral chronic inflammatory disease occurring in periods of remission, quiescence, activity with pronounced inflammation, and acute ulceration. Cell infiltrates in OLP contain varying numbers of CD4 + T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3. FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells are, however, a heterogeneous cell population containing suppressive and non-suppressive cells, and their distribution in infiltrates from OLP is unknown. Biopsies were taken from normal oral mucosa (n = 8) and OLP lesions (n = 19), and a set of in situ methods for the determination of the functional phenotype of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells was applied. Numbers of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells were highest in the atrophic form of the disease, yet low in the ulcerative form. The main FoxP3 + CD4 + T-cell population observed was FoxP3 + CD45RA - CD25 + CD45RO + and CD15s - , a phenotype delineating a non-suppressive subset. Numbers of cells with an actively suppressing phenotype (FoxP3 + CD45RA - CD25 + CD45RO + and CD15s + ) were, however, about twice as high in reticular lesions as compared with the atrophic form. Many FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells expressed T-bet, the hallmark transcription factor for IFN-γ-producing T cells, indicating that they may enhance immune and inflammatory responses rather than suppress them. The absence of actively suppressing FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells may in part explain why OLP is a remarkably persisting condition, in spite of the presence of substantially high numbers of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells. The findings emphasize that it is crucial to examine not only numbers but also functional phenotype of FoxP3 + CD4 + T cells in human tissues. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Disease Risk Perception and Safety Practices: A Survey of Australian Flying Fox Rehabilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with flying foxes pose disease transmission risks to volunteer rehabilitators (carers who treat injured, ill, and orphaned bats. In particular, Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV can be transmitted directly from flying foxes to humans in Australia. Personal protective equipment (PPE and rabies vaccination can be used to protect against lyssavirus infection. During May and June 2014, active Australian flying fox carers participated in an online survey (SOAR: Survey Of Australian flying fox Rehabilitators designed to gather demographic data, assess perceptions of disease risk, and explore safety practices. Responses to open-ended questions were analysed thematically. A logistic regression was performed to assess whether rehabilitators' gender, use of PPE, threat perception, and years of experience predicted variation in their odds of being bitten or scratched. Eligible responses were received from 122 rehabilitators located predominantly on the eastern coast of Australia. Eighty-four percent of respondents were female. Years of experience ranged from <1 to 30 years (median 5 years. Respondents were highly educated. All rehabilitators were vaccinated against rabies and 94% received a rabies titre check at least every two years. Sixty-three percent of carers did not perceive viruses in flying foxes as a potential threat to their health, yet 74% of carers reported using PPE when handling flying foxes. Eighty-three percent of rehabilitators had received a flying fox bite or scratch at some point during their career. Carers provide an important community service by rescuing and rehabilitating flying foxes. While rehabilitators in this study have many excellent safety practices, including a 100% vaccination rate against rabies, there is room for improvement in PPE use. We recommend 1 the establishment of an Australia-wide set of guidelines for safety when caring for bats and 2 that the responsible government agencies in Australia support

  4. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah A.; Sandesara, Pooja B.; Senf, Sarah M.; Judge, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current study, we tested the physiological significance of FoxO activation in the progression of muscle atrophy associated with cachexia. FoxO-DNA binding dependent transcription was blocked in the muscles of mice through injection of a dominant negative (DN) FoxO expression plasmid prior to inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma cells or the induction of sepsis. Expression of DN FoxO inhibited the increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, MuRF1, cathepsin L, and/or Bnip3 and inhibited muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis. Interestingly, during control conditions, expression of DN FoxO decreased myostatin expression, increased MyoD expression and satellite cell proliferation, and induced fiber hypertrophy, which required de novo protein synthesis. Collectively, these data show that FoxO-DNA binding-dependent transcription is necessary for normal muscle fiber atrophy during cancer cachexia and sepsis, and further suggest that basal levels of FoxO play an important role during normal conditions to depress satellite cell activation and limit muscle growth.—Reed, S. A., Sandesara, P. B., Senf, S. F., Judge, A. R. Inhibition of FoxO transcriptional activity prevents muscle fiber atrophy during cachexia and induces hypertrophy. PMID:22102632

  6. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Red Fox (Vuples vuples) and Phylogenetic Analysis with Other Canid Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Sha, Wei-Lai; Zhang, Cheng-De; Chen, Yu-Cai

    2010-04-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome sequence of red fox (Vuples vuples) was determined. It had a total length of 16 723 bp. As in most mammal mitochondrial genome, it contained 13 protein coding genes, two ribosome RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one control region. The base composition was 31.3% A, 26.1% C, 14.8% G and 27.8% T, respectively. The codon usage of red fox, arctic fox, gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote followed the same pattern except for an unusual ATT start codon, which initiates the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene in the red fox. A long tandem repeat rich in AC was found between conserved sequence block 1 and 2 in the control region. In order to confirm the phylogenetic relationships of red fox to other canids, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods using 12 concatenated heavy-strand protein-coding genes. The result indicated that arctic fox was the sister group of red fox and they both belong to the red fox-like clade in family Canidae, while gray wolf, domestic dog and coyote belong to wolf-like clade. The result was in accordance with existing phylogenetic results.

  7. A case report of visceral leishmaniasis in red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 52 red foxes, a single two year old male weighing about 6 kg showed clinical signs including hair loss, impotence, local or general lymphadenopathy, keratitis, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hair shedding, dermal lesions, onychogriposis and cachexia. The studied fox IFA titer was larger or equal to ...

  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Virus in Polar Foxes in Greeenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    Classical rabies virus continues to circulate in polar foxes in Greenland. Within the last 5 years more than 30 animals, mainly polar foxes have been tested positive for rabies. In this study, brain samples from this period were assessed for the presence of rabies viral RNA using molecular...

  9. Physiological adaptations to fasting in an actively wintering canid, the Arctic blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykönen, Teija; Puukka, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Hänninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological adaptations to fasting using the farmed blue fox (Alopex lagopus) as a model for the endangered wild arctic fox. Sixteen blue foxes were fed throughout the winter and 32 blue foxes were fasted for 22 d in Nov-Dec 2002. Half of the fasted blue foxes were food-deprived again for 22 d in Jan-Feb 2003. The farmed blue fox lost weight at a slower rate (0.97-1.02% body mass d(-1)) than observed previously in the arctic fox, possibly due to its higher initial body fat content. The animals experienced occasional fasting-induced hypoglycaemia, but their locomotor activity was not affected. The plasma triacylglycerol and glycerol concentrations were elevated during phase II of fasting indicating stimulated lipolysis, probably induced by the high growth hormone concentrations. The total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, urea, uric acid and total protein levels and the urea:creatinine ratio decreased during fasting. Although the plasma levels of some essential amino acids increased, the blue foxes did not enter phase III of starvation characterized by stimulated proteolysis during either of the 22-d fasting procedures. Instead of excessive protein catabolism, it is liver dysfunction, indicated by the increased plasma bilirubin levels and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, that may limit the duration of fasting in the species.

  10. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  11. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  12. Multi-band algorithms for the estimation of chlorophyll concentration in the Chesapeake Bay

    KAUST Repository

    Gilerson, Alexander

    2015-10-14

    Standard blue-green ratio algorithms do not usually work well in turbid productive waters because of the contamination of the blue and green bands by CDOM absorption and scattering by non-algal particles. One of the alternative approaches is based on the two- or three band ratio algorithms in the red/NIR part of the spectrum, which require 665, 708, 753 nm bands (or similar) and which work well in various waters all over the world. The critical 708 nm band for these algorithms is not available on MODIS and VIIRS sensors, which limits applications of this approach. We report on another approach where a combination of the 745nm band with blue-green-red bands was the basis for the new algorithms. A multi-band algorithm which includes ratios Rrs(488)/Rrs(551)and Rrs(671)/Rrs(745) and two band algorithm based on Rrs671/Rrs745 ratio were developed with the main focus on the Chesapeake Bay (USA) waters. These algorithms were tested on the specially developed synthetic datasets, well representing the main relationships between water parameters in the Bay taken from the NASA NOMAD database and available literature, on the field data collected by our group during a 2013 campaign in the Bay, as well as NASA SeaBASS data from the other group and on matchups between satellite imagery and water parameters measured by the Chesapeake Bay program. Our results demonstrate that the coefficient of determination can be as high as R2 > 0.90 for the new algorithms in comparison with R2 = 0.6 for the standard OC3V algorithm on the same field dataset. Substantial improvement was also achieved by applying a similar approach (inclusion of Rrs(667)/Rrs(753) ratio) for MODIS matchups. Results for VIIRS are not yet conclusive. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  14. Removing foxing stains from old paper at 157 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantopoulou, E.; Samardzija, Z.; Kobe, S.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Using a molecular fluorine laser at 157 nm foxing stains were removed successfully from a 16th century old paper. Laser cleaning of stains and foxing from old paper manuscripts is far more effective at 157 nm in comparison to different wavelengths without leaving any yellowish after-effect on the paper. This is because at 157 nm illumination of old paper, complete bond breaking of all the organic molecules of the paper is taking place. Mass spectroscopy at 157 nm and for moderate laser intensities up to 1 mJ/cm 2 of old paper suffering from foxing indicate organic matter disintegration to small photofragments atomic, diatomic or triatomic, which are flying apart with supersonic speed. In addition high spatial resolution energy dispersive X-ray system (EDXS) analysis over the effected areas indicate the presence of iron, suggesting that biological activity is taking place preferentially in paper areas containing iron

  15. A profile of Keith AA Fox, cardiologist and researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Keith A A; Telfer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Professor Keith AA Fox speaks to Caroline Telfer, Commissioning Editor. Professor Keith AA Fox is the British Heart Foundation and the Duke of Edinburgh Professor of Cardiology at the University of Edinburgh (UK). He is a founding fellow of the European Society of Cardiology and is currently Chair of the Programme of the European Society of Cardiology. In addition, he was President of the British Cardiovascular Society from 2009 to 2012. Professor Fox gave the State-of-the-Art lecture on acute coronary syndromes at the American Heart Association, as well as the 2009 Plenary lecture at the European Society of Cardiology-American College of Cardiology Symposium, the Lord Rayner lecture of the Royal College of Physicians (London, UK) and the Sir Stanley Davidson Lecture of the Royal College (Edinburgh, UK). He was awarded the Silver Medal of the European Society of Cardiology in 2010. Professor Fox's major research interest lies in the mechanisms and manifestations of acute coronary arterial disease; his work extends from underlying biological mechanisms to in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. He is the author of more than 587 scientific papers (H-index Web of Science 73, Citations: 30,261 to March 2013). Professor Fox is chairman of the RITA program, co-chairman of ROCKET-AF and OASIS program, and chair of the GRACE program (the largest multinational study in acute coronary syndromes), and a lead investigator for studies on novel antithrombins, anticoagulants and antiplatelets. He is an International Associate Editor of the European Heart Journal and a member of the editorial boards of a number of journals. His current areas of research include the inhibition of coronary thrombosis and the role of platelets and inflammation in acute coronary syndromes.

  16. A case history of a dynamic resource--the red fox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sanderson, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population trends in midwestern North America since 1800 were examined. During 1801-1900, the red fox expanded its range south to include most of the region, but populations remained low in most areas. During 1901-30, it became scarce or absent in many northern areas but was common in southern areas. During 1931-45, populations in most of the region increased to high levels. From 1946 to 1980 populations remained high and westward range expansions occurred on the northern plains. Three factors appear primarily responsible for major population changes. Habitat conditions improved after settlement, but in many areas population buildup was delayed. Interspecific canid competition, especially from expanding coyote (Canis latrans) populations, held red fox populations at low levels, especially in the west. Excessive harvest for fur contributed to holding populations down in many areas, especially during the early 1900's when pelt values were exceptionally high. Major population increases during the 1930's and early 1940's coincided with declining pelt prices and resulted in widespread implementation of fox bounties. In the 1960's, bounties were gradually discontinued, pelt prices increased, and restrictions on season length and harvest methods were implemented in most states.

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of FoxP3+ cells in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2012-09-01

    To compare the number of FoxP3(+) cells between periapical granulomas (PGs) and radicular cysts (RCs), and to correlate this number with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in these lesions and with epithelial thickness of RCs. Thirty PGs and 30 RCs were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-FoxP3 polyclonal antibody. FoxP3(+) cells were counted under a light microscope (×400 magnification) in five fields and the mean value was calculated for each specimen. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells according to type of lesion (PG vs. RC), intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (grade I/II vs. grade III), and epithelial thickness of RCs (atrophic vs. hyperplastic). FoxP3(+) cells were detected in most PGs (93.3%) and RCs (93.3%). The median number of FoxP3(+) cells was 2.40 in PGs and 1.00 in RCs, with this difference being statistically significant (P=0.005). No significant differences in the number of FoxP3(+) cells were observed in terms of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate (P=0.465) or epithelial thickness of RCs (P=0.737). The present results suggest a greater participation of regulatory T cells in the modulation of the inflammatory response in PGs. In addition, the presence of a less effective regulatory environment in RCs, together with the high levels of inflammatory mediators as reported in the literature, may contribute to the greater growth potential of these lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the FoxL2 proximal promoter and coding sequence from the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Rhen, Turk

    2017-10-01

    Sex is determined by temperature during embryogenesis in snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Previous studies in this species show that dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces ovarian development at temperatures that normally produce males or mixed sex ratios. The feminizing effect of DHT is associated with increased expression of FoxL2, suggesting that androgens regulate transcription of FoxL2. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the proximal promoter (1.6kb) and coding sequence for snapping turtle FoxL2 (tFoxL2) in frame with mCherry to produce a fluorescent reporter. The tFoxL2-mCherry fusion plasmid or mCherry control plasmid were stably transfected into mouse KK1 granulosa cells. These cells were then treated with 0, 1, 10, or 100nM DHT to assess androgen effects on tFoxL2-mCherry expression. In contrast to the main hypothesis, DHT did not alter expression of the tFoxL2-mCherry reporter. However, normal serum increased expression of tFoxL2-mCherry when compared to charcoal-stripped serum, indicating that the cloned region of tFoxL2 contains cis regulatory elements. We also used the tFoxL2-mCherry plasmid as an expression vector to test the hypothesis that DHT and tFoxL2 interact to regulate expression of endogenous genes in granulosa cells. While tFoxL2-mCherry and DHT had independent effects on mouse FoxL2, FshR, GnRHR, and StAR expression, tFoxL2-mCherry potentiated low concentration DHT effects on mouse aromatase expression. Further studies will be required to determine whether synergistic regulation of aromatase by DHT and FoxL2 also occurs in turtle gonads during the sex-determining period, which would explain the feminizing effect of DHT in this species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    The uranium-mill tailings at Green River, Utah, are relatively low in 226 Ra content and concentration (20 Ci and 140 pCi/g, respectively) because the mill was used to upgrade the uranium ore by separating the sand and slime fractions; most of the radium was transported along with the slimes to another mill site. Spread of tailings was observed in all directions, but near-background gamma exposure rates were reached at distances of 40 to 90 m from the edge of the pile. Water erosion of the tailings is evident and, since a significant fraction of the tailings pile lies in Brown's Wash, the potential exists for repetition of the loss of a large quantity of tailings such as occurred during a flood in 1959. In general, the level of surface contamination was low at this site, but some areas in the mill site, which were being used for nonuranium work, have gamma-ray exposure rates up to 143 μR/hr

  20. Trends in Surface-Water Nitrate-N Concentrations and Loads from Predominantly-Forested Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, K. N.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality monitoring data from streams and rivers provide the "gold standard" by which progress toward achieving real reductions in nutrient loadings to Chesapeake Bay must ultimately be assessed. The most recent trend results posted at the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) website reveal that a substantial percentage of tributaries are now showing long-term declines in flow-adjusted concentrations of nutrients and sediments: 22 sites showed statistically significant (p pollution controls for improved wastewater treatment plants and practices to reduce nutrients on farms and suburban lands, have reduced concentrations of nitrogen." But could this conclusion be pre-mature? I recently undertook a comparable analysis of long-term nitrate-N trends for a different group of watersheds (all located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed with long data records); this group includes nine watersheds that are predominantly (i.e., >75%) forested, plus five other Potomac River subwatersheds added for comparison. Based on comparable data and analytical methods to those used by CBP partners and USGS, 13 of the 14 sites-including both Potomac River stations (Chain Bridge at Washington DC and Hancock, Maryland)-showed statistically significant decreasing linear trends in annual flow-weighted nitrate-N concentration. Only one station-the heavily agricultural Upper Monocacy River-did not show a statistically significant (p RIM station could be entirely explained by commensurate improvements at the upstream (Hancock) station; in fact, no trend in nitrate-N concentration associated with the eastern portion of the basin was found (after subtracting out the influence of the upstream portion). Additional research is needed to understand why nitrogen retention by forested lands may be increasing and thus helping restore water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The results also have obvious implications for meeting local water quality goals as well as the basin-wide goal of the

  1. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  2. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  3. Data Validation Package - June 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Groundwater samples were collected during the 2015 sampling event from point-of-compliance (POC) wells 0171, 0173, 0176, 0179, 0181, and 0813 to monitor the disposition of contaminants in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation. Groundwater samples also were collected from alluvium monitoring wells 0188, 0189, 0192, 0194, and 0707, and basal sandstone monitoring wells 0182, 0184, 0185, and 0588 as a best management practice. Surface locations 0846 and 0847 were sampled to monitor for degradation of water quality in the backwater area of Brown’s Wash and in the Green River immediately downstream of Brown’s Wash. The Green River location 0801 is upstream from the site and is sampled to determine background-threshold values (BTVs). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Water levels were measured at each sampled well. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. All six POC wells are completed in the middle sandstone unit of the Cedar Mountain Formation and are monitored to measure contaminant concentrations for comparison to proposed alternate concentration limits (ACLs), as provided in Table 1. Contaminant concentrations in the POC wells remain below their respective ACLs.

  4. Nodal-dependent mesendoderm specification requires the combinatorial activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Slagle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA-binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals.

  5. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon black (CB) is an efficient optical sensitizer compatible with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7). • A CB doped insensitive explosive FOX-7 can be ignited by a low-power diode laser. • Laser ignitibility of the optically sensitized FOX-7 is mainly affected by laser power among the other parameters. • Inhomogeneities in the explosive affect laser ignition reliability. - Abstract: An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study

  6. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes at an Outdoor Piggery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets. We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”, it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows, and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most vulnerable, especially when they are born out in the paddock, but older piglets were also lost. A significant ( p = 0.001 effect of individual sow identification on the weaning rate, but no effect of sow age (parity, suggests that individual sow behavior towards predators influences predation risk for litters. We tracked the movement of piglet carcasses by foxes, and confirmed that foxes make use of patches of native vegetation for cover, although there was no effect of paddock, distance to vegetation, or position on the farm on weaning rate. Trials with non-toxic baits reveal high levels

  7. Novel Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon agents infecting the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aliny P; Souza, Tayse D; Marcili, Arlei; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated infection by vector-borne agents in 58 crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous L.) that were road-killed in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Spleen, lung, or blood samples collected from the foxes were tested in the laboratory by a battery of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia; and protozoa of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, and Leishmania. Of the targeted organisms, evidence of infection in the foxes was detected for Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon organisms only. Overall, six (10.3%) foxes were infected by an ehrlichial agent closely related to an ehrlichial agent recently detected in free-ranging Jaguars [(Panthera onca (L.)] in central-western Brazil, and to Ehrlichia ruminantium. For Hepatozoon, 28 (48.3%) foxes were infected by an agent closely related to Hepatozoon sp. Curupira 2 and H. americanum; and one (1.7%) fox was infected by an organism closely related to reptile-associated Hepatozoon agents. Finally, 11 (19.0%) foxes were found infested by Amblyomma cajennense (F.) nymphs, which were all PCR negative for the range of vector-borne agents cited above. Because the haplotypes found in free-ranging foxes are genetically closely related to pathogens of great veterinary importance, namely E. ruminantium and H. americanum, it is highly desirable to know if these novel organisms have any important role as agents of diseases in domestic animals and wildlife in Brazil.

  8. Pearsonema (syn Capillaria plica associated cystitis in a Fennoscandian arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osterman-Lind Eva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bladderworm Pearsonema (syn Capillaria plica affects domestic dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. A high prevalence in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes has been reported in many European countries. P. plica inhabits the lower urinary tract and is considered to be of low pathogenic significance in dogs mostly causing asymptomatic infections. However, a higher level of pathogenicity has been reported in foxes. A severe cystitis associated with numerous bladderworms was found in a captive arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus originating from the endangered Fennoscandian arctic fox population. To our knowledge this is the first description of P. plica infection in an arctic fox.

  9. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  10. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Gingele, Franz Xaver; Leipe, Thomas; Brehme, Isa

    2006-04-01

    Ninety-two surface sediment samples were collected in Guanabara Bay, one of the most prominent urban bays in SE Brazil, to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metals, organic carbon and particle size were examined in all samples. Large spatial variations of heavy metals and particle size were observed. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found in the muddy sediments from the north western region of the bay near the main outlets of the most polluted rivers, municipal waste drainage systems and one of the major oil refineries. Another anomalous concentration of metals was found adjacent to Rio de Janeiro Harbour. The heavy metal concentrations decrease to the northeast, due to intact rivers and the mangrove systems in this area, and to the south where the sand fraction and open-marine processes dominate. The geochemical normalization of metal data to Li or Al has also demonstrated that the anthropogenic input of heavy metals have altered the natural sediment heavy metal distribution.

  11. Amigos de Fox, breve historia de un "partido" efímero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tejeda Ávila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amigos de Fox fue más allá de la cuestión del financiamiento, conformó una red de ciudadanos con el propósito explícito de llevar a la Presidencia de la República a un candidato surgido de las filas de la oposición y "sacar al PRI de Los Pinos". Los artífices del concepto Amigos de Fox fueron un grupo de empresarios que se conocieron cuando trabajaban en Coca-Cola. A partir de estrategias de mercadotecnia y publicidad impulsaron una movilización ciudadana que tuvo éxito en el ámbito de la campaña presidencial del año 2000: su candidato ganó en las urnas. Amigos de Fox creó una estructura paralela al PAN que se comportó como un partido, expresando nuevas formas de participación electoral; primero impuso a Vicente Fox como el candidato oficial del PAN y después lo llevó a la Presidencia.

  12. Monitoring winter flow conditions on the Ivishak River, Alaska : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Sagavanirktok River, a braided river on the Alaska North Slope, flows adjacent to the trans-Alaska pipeline for approximately 100 miles south of Prudhoe Bay. During an unprecedented flooding event in mid-May 2015, the pipeline was exposed in an a...

  13. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  14. Land Manager Perspectives on Conflict Mitigation Strategies for Urban Flying-Fox Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Currey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, there has been a notable increase in the presence of flying-foxes (Pteropodidae in urban areas in Australia. Flying-foxes congregate during the day in camps which at times may contain many thousands of individuals. The associated noise, smell, mess and concerns about disease transmission can result in significant conflict with local communities. Managers of flying-fox camps use a range of management approaches to mitigate tensions, but the success or otherwise of these has been largely undocumented. Land managers were surveyed to determine the relative cost and perceived effectiveness of mitigation strategies using semi-structured interviews and an online questionnaire. We found that five actions were commonly used to manage flying-foxes: (1 stakeholder education, (2 the creation of buffers between camps and adjacent residents via vegetation removal or (3 the creation of buffers via deterrents, (4 dispersal of flying-foxes via disturbance, and (5 dispersal of flying-foxes via vegetation removal. Perceptions of effectiveness varied considerably among managers. Overall, the creation of buffers via vegetation removal was considered the most effective action, and stakeholder education was perceived to be the least effective. Dispersal via disturbance was also considered effective at reducing complaints and improving amenity, but not particularly effective overall likely due to the often short-term relief provided to residents before camps were recolonised. It was evident that the actions taken by managers and their perceived effectiveness were influenced by the attitudes of the community. This highlights the importance of considering the human dimensions of human-wildlife conflict in mitigation strategies.

  15. Preliminary analysis of the study of a Nuclear Energy Center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The planning phase for the study of a conceptualized Regional Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Green River, Utah to serve a four state area is discussed and an outline of the proposed study is presented. It is assumed that the more technical issues of a NEC have already been studied in detail for generic sites and that this study will address the site specific impacts of a NEC at a representative site. The emphasis will be on the institutional, legal, political, sociological, economic and environmental impacts of a NEC. An assessment is made of the willingness and ability of related public and private entities to participate in the study. These include local, state and regional government agencies, colleges and universities, research organizations, private firms and consultants, and relevant federal agencies in Utah and the region.

  16. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Gui-Fen; Chen, Shi-Yao; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng; Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing; Song, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. ► Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. ► Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. ► Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. ► FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

  17. Diets of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in continuous and fragmented prairie in Northwestern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, J.F.; Ballard, W.B.; Wallace, M.C.; Gipson, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) has declined dramatically since the 1800s, and suggested causes of this decline are habitat fragmentation and transformation due to agricultural expansion. However, impacts of fragmentation and human-altered habitats on swift foxes still are not well understood. To better understand what effects these factors have on diets of swift foxes, scats were collected in northwestern Texas at two study sites, one of continuous native prairie and one representing fragmented native prairie interspersed with agricultural and fields in the Conservation Reserve Program. Leporids, a potential food source, were surveyed seasonally on both sites. Diets of swift foxes differed between sites; insects were consumed more on continuous prairie, whereas mammals, birds, and crops were consumed more on fragmented prairie. Size of populations of leporids were 2-3 times higher on fragmented prairie, and swift foxes responded by consuming more leporids on fragmented (11.1% frequency occurrence) than continuous (3.8%) prairie. Dietary diversity was greater on fragmented prairie during both years of the study. Differences in diets between sites suggested that the swift fox is an adaptable and opportunistic feeder, able to exploit a variety of food resources, probably in relation to availability of food. We suggest that compared to continuous native prairie, fragmented prairie can offer swift foxes a more diverse prey base, at least within the mosaic of native prairie, agricultural, and fields that are in the Conservation Reserve Program.

  18. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  19. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  20. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; De Fouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  1. Foraging ecology and spatial behavior of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in a wet grassland ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Katrine; Sunde, Peter; Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann

    2014-01-01

    We investigated diet composition, habitat selection and spatial behaviour of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in relation to the availability of wader nests in a coastal polder area in southwest Denmark. The predatory role of the red fox in wet grassland ecosystems has profound implications...... for conservation status of declining populations of grassland breeding waders. However, few studies have focussed on the foraging ecology and behaviour of the red fox in these landscapes. Faecal analyses revealed that fox diet consisted of birds (43 % of prey remains / 32 % of biomass), rodents (39 % / 21...... %), sheep (mainly as carrion, 14 % / 41 %) and lagomorphs (4 % / 7 %). Charadriiformes (including waders) comprised 3–12 % of prey remains throughout the year. Telemetry data and spotlight counts indicated that foxes did not select areas with high densities of breeding waders, suggesting that foxes did...

  2. Neglected intravascular pathogens, Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneval, Martina; Miterpáková, Martina; Hurníková, Zuzana; Blaňarová, Lucia; Víchová, Bronislava

    2017-08-30

    Wild animals, especially canids, are important reservoirs of vector-borne pathogens, that are transmitted by the ticks and other bloodsucking arthropods. In total, 300 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), shot by the hunters in eastern and northern Slovakia, were screened for the presence of vector-borne pathogens by PCR-based methods Blood samples were obtained from nine red foxes and tissue samples originated from 291 animals (the liver tissue samples from 49 foxes and spleen samples from 242 red foxes). Babesia vulpes and haemotropic Mycoplasma species were identified by amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene fragments, respectively. Overall, the presence of these pathogens was recorded in 12.3% of screened DNA samples. Altogether 9.7% (29/300) of investigated foxes carried DNA of Babesia spp. In total, 12 out of 29 Babesia spp. PCR - positive amplicons were further sequenced and identified as B. vulpes (41.4%; 12/29), remaining 17 samples are referred as Babesia sp. (58.6%; 17/29). Overall prevalence of B. vulpes reached 4.0% (n=300). Thirteen (4.3%) samples tested positive for distinct Mycoplasma species. To the best of our knowledge, this study brings the first information on B. vulpes infection in red foxes in Slovakia, and the first data on the prevalence and diversity of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in European red fox population. Moreover, co-infections with B. vulpes and Mycoplasma spp. were confirmed in 1.7% of tested DNA samples. The relatively high rates of blood pathogen' prevalence and species diversity in wild foxes indicate the role of the fox population in the maintenance of the parasites in sylvatic cycles and strengthen the assumption that foxes play an important role in spreading of infectious microorganisms within and outside the natural foci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from different bioclimatological regions in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Nansen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Nine species of gastrointestinal helminths were recovered from 254 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) from 8 different localities in Greenland. Prevalences of infection with the helminth species differed from area to area: Toxascaris leonina (3968%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0-14%), Mesocestoides...... of Greenland. In general, the composition of the helminth fauna of arctic foxes in Greenland showed distinct differences geographically. Thus, the diversity of helminth species in foxes caught in the northern districts of Greenland seems lower than in the southern districts; only nematode species with direct...... life cycles were represented equally in all parts of the country. The diversity of the surrounding fauna, and thereby the food items available for the foxes, seems to determine the spectrum of helminth species. Helminths requiring rodents as intermediate hosts were absent on the west coast, even...

  4. The Green Bay cesarean section study. III. Falling cesarean birth rates without a formal curtailment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmire, H F; DeMott, R K

    1994-06-01

    We observed decreases in cesarean birth rates at two Green Bay hospitals after the 1990 publication of our first cesarean section study. The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of those decreases and to see whether any outcome changes occurred with lower rates. An additional objective was to determine the perceptions of the 10 physicians regarding the determinants of cesarean birth rates. We compared recent cesarean birth rates (1990 to 1992) to former rates (1986 to 1988) for 10 of the 11 physicians analyzed in our previous studies. Newborn outcomes were analyzed to determine whether variations occur in comparing low to high cesarean rate physician groups. The total, primary, and repeat cesarean birth rates declined from 13.3% to 10.2%, 8.6% to 6.8%, and 4.7% to 3.4%, respectively, between 1986 to 1988 and 1990 to 1992. Variations in cesarean rates occurred among physicians and groups of physicians. Higher cesarean rates did not result in better perinatal outcome. Literature reports, residency training, continuing medical education attendance, and liability risks were the major determinants of cesarean birth as perceived by the 10 physicians in the study. The least important determinant, rated fifteenth of 15, was the national cesarean birth rate.

  5. Molecular detection of Theileria annae and Hepatozoon canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezdek, Danko; Vojta, Lea; Curković, Snjezana; Lipej, Zoran; Mihaljević, Zeljko; Cvetnić, Zeljko; Beck, Relja

    2010-09-20

    An epizootiological field study on tick-borne protozoan infections in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was carried out in different parts of Croatia. Spleen samples of 191 carcasses of red foxes killed in sanitary hunting, were examined for the presence of hematozoa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent sequencing. The investigation revealed four species of hematozoa in 57 foxes (30%), namely Theileria annae, Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon canis. T. annae was found in 10 foxes (5%), Theileria sp. 3182/05 in a single animal (1%), H. canis in 44 (23%) and Hepatozoon sp. was detected in two foxes (1%). T. annae and H. canis were distributed through all the studied regions, while Theileria sp. 3182/05 and Hepatozoon sp. were restricted to the Zagreb and Zagorje, and Istria regions, respectively. Detection of T. annae in all regions of Croatia indicates the presence of the natural cycle of the parasite and raises the possibility of other vectors other than the proposed Ixodes hexagonus.

  6. Expression of full-length and splice forms of FoxP3 in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L R; Woetmann, A; Madsen, H O

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the presence of full-length and alternative splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4 cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure...... the amount of FoxP3 mRNA full-length and splice forms. CD4-positive T cells were isolated from peripheral blood from 50 RA patients by immunomagnetic separation, and the FoxP3 mRNA expression was compared with the results from 10 healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed an increased expression of full......-length FoxP3 mRNA in RA patients when compared to healthy controls, as well as an increase in CD25 mRNA expression, but no corresponding increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The presence of an alternative splice form of FoxP3 lacking exon 2 was confirmed in both RA patients and healthy controls...

  7. Genetic variability within the Polish population of red fox (Vulpes vulpes – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Zatoń-Dobrowolska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Red fox (Vulpes vulpes represents family Canidae and is a very common predator in Poland. Foxes are present throughout all the country in a different geographical regions and habitats. The analyzed dataset consisted of 130 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes. There were 24 microsatellite sequences studied. The observed (HO and expected (HS heterozygosities were comparable within respective loci. The low genetic diversity of the population was found.

  8. Sensibility Study of St Andrew Bay Rapid Response System for Naval Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauly, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    .... For the physical part, time constraint may limit to using the barotropic mode. But because rain can be significant in St Andrew Bay system, Florida, fresh water, even when rivers lack, is a prevailing salinity regulator through ground seepage...

  9. Recent research on the hydrodynamics of the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and north San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Monismith, S.G.; Stacey, M.T.; Oltmann, R.N.; Lacy, J.R.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of recent findings from hydrodynamic research on circulation and mixing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) (Figure 1) and North San Francisco Bay (North Bay) (Figure 2). For the purposes of this article, North Bay includes San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay. The findings presented are those gained from field studies carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP), and Stanford University beginning about 1993. The premise behind these studies was that a basic understanding of circulation and mixing patterns in the Bay and Delta is an essential part of understanding how biota and water quality are affected by natural hydrologic variability, water appropriation, and development activities. Data collected for the field studies described in this article have significantly improved our understanding of Bay and Delta hydrodynamics. Measured flows ,in the Delta have provided valuable information on how water moves through the Delta's network of channels and how export pumping affects flows. Studies of the shallows and shallow-channel exchange processes conducted in Honker Bay have shown that the water residence time in Honker Bay is much shorter than previously reported (on the order of hours to several tidal cycles instead ofweeks). Suisun Bay studies have provided data on hydrodynamic transport and accumulation mechanisms that operate primarily in the channels. The Suisun Bay studies have caused us to revise our understanding of residual circulation in the channels of North Bay and of "entrapment" mechanisms in the low salinity zone. Finally, detailed tidal and residual (tidally averaged) time-scale studies of the mechanisms that control gravitational circulation in the estuary show that density-driven transport in the channels is governed by turbulence time-scale (seconds) interactions between the mean flow and stratification. The hydrodynamic research

  10. Satellite DNA Sequences in Canidae and Their Chromosome Distribution in Dog and Red Fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Fröhlich, Jan; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridisation in the red fox and dog showed signals of the red fox satellite probe in canine and vulpine autosomal centromeres, on VVUY, B chromosomes, and in the distal parts of VVU9q and VVU10p which were shown to contain nucleolus organiser regions. The CFA satellite probe stained autosomal centromeres only in the dog. The CFA satellite-like DNA did not show any significant sequence similarity with the satellite DNA of any species analysed and was localised to the centromeres of 9 canine chromosome pairs. No significant heterochromatin block was detected on the B chromosomes of the red fox. Our results show extensive heterogeneity of satellite sequences among Canidae and prove close evolutionary relationships between the red and arctic fox. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Invading parasites cause a structural shift in red fox dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Forchhammer, M C; Asferg, T

    2000-01-01

    The influence of parasites on host life histories and populations is pronounced. Among several diseases affecting animal populations throughout the world, sarcoptic mange has influenced many carnivore populations dramatically and during the latest epizootic in Fennoscandia reduced the abundance of red fox by over 70%. While the numerical responses of red fox populations, their prey and their competitors as well as clinical implications are well known, knowledge of how sarcoptic mange affects ...

  12. Effects-based monitoring in the lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary Areas of Concern using caged Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Great Lakes there is an increased focus on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and their potential effects on aquatic organisms, including adverse reproductive effects. To further characterize the utility of caged fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) for effects-b...

  13. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M.; Piganelli, Jon D.; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H. Henry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. PMID:25944898

  14. Phytoplankton distribution and their relationship to environmental variables in Sanya Bay, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanying Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton quantification was conducted in Sanya Bay from January 2005 to February 2006. A submersible in situ spectrofluorometer, which permits the differentiation of four algal groups (green algae, diatoms and dinoflagellates, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria was used. Seasonal variation of total chlorophyll a concentration showed that high value appeared in summer and low concentration occurred in spring. Diatoms and dinoflagellates group was the predominant phytoplankton all year in the Bay. The stable stratification of phytoplankton vertical distribution came into being in July. During the stratification event, the total chlorophyll a concentration of deep layer was much higher than the surface; cyanobacteria and cryptophyta groups decreased and almost disappeared, however, the concentration of green algae and diatoms and dinoflagellates groups increased. In deep layer, the concentration of diatoms and dinoflagellates group increased sharply, which was about eight times more than that in the surface layer. The vertical profiles character of phytoplankton showed that from inshore stations to outer bay the stratification of phytoplankton vertical distribution gradually strengthened. Dissolved inorganic nutrient especially phosphate and inorganic nitrogen and cold-water upwelling were the main regulating factor for phytoplankton distribution.

  15. Linking Alzheimer's disease to insulin resistance: the FoxO response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulos, K N; Klotz, L-O; Korsten, P; Bornstein, S R; Barthel, A

    2010-11-01

    Oxidative stress is an important determinant not only in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in insulin resistance (InsRes) and diabetic complications. Forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in both insulin action and the cellular response to oxidative stress, thereby providing a potential integrative link between AD and InsRes. For example, the expression of intra- and extracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as manganese-superoxide dismutase and selenoprotein P, is regulated by FoxO proteins, as is the expression of important hepatic enzymes of gluconeogenesis. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD and InsRes and discuss the function of FoxO proteins in these processes. Both InsRes and oxidative stress may promote the transcriptional activity of FoxO proteins, resulting in hyperglycaemia and a further increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The consecutive activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases and inhibition of Wingless (Wnt) signalling may result in the formation of β-amyloid plaques and τ protein phosphorylation. Wnt inhibition may also result in a sustained activation of FoxO proteins with induction of apoptosis and neuronal loss, thereby completing a vicious circle from oxidative stress, InsRes and hyperglycaemia back to the formation of ROS and consecutive neurodegeneration. In view of their central function in this model, FoxO proteins may provide a potential molecular target for the treatment of both InsRes and AD.

  16. Platinum coat color in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is caused by a mutation in an autosomal copy of KIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Kozysa, A; Kharlamova, A V; Gulevich, R G; Perelman, P L; Fong, H W F; Vladimirova, A V; Oskina, I N; Trut, L N; Kukekova, A V

    2015-04-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) demonstrates a variety of coat colors including platinum, a common phenotype maintained in farm-bred fox populations. Foxes heterozygous for the platinum allele have a light silver coat and extensive white spotting, whereas homozygosity is embryonic lethal. Two KIT transcripts were identified in skin cDNA from platinum foxes. The long transcript was identical to the KIT transcript of silver foxes, whereas the short transcript, which lacks exon 17, was specific to platinum. The KIT gene has several copies in the fox genome: an autosomal copy on chromosome 2 and additional copies on the B chromosomes. To identify the platinum-specific KIT sequence, the genomes of one platinum and one silver fox were sequenced. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified at the first nucleotide of KIT intron 17 in the platinum fox. In platinum foxes, the A allele of the SNP disrupts the donor splice site and causes exon 17, which is part of a segment that encodes a conserved tyrosine kinase domain, to be skipped. Complete cosegregation of the A allele with the platinum phenotype was confirmed by linkage mapping (LOD 25.59). All genotyped farm-bred platinum foxes from Russia and the US were heterozygous for the SNP (A/G), whereas foxes with different coat colors were homozygous for the G allele. Identification of the platinum mutation suggests that other fox white-spotting phenotypes, which are allelic to platinum, would also be caused by mutations in the KIT gene. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4–C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300–16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900–29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. -- Highlights: • High perfluorohexanoic acid concentration was detected in the Samondogawa River. • The mass flow rate of PFCs in this river section was 3900–29,000 kg/y. • Perfluorohexanoic acid was the dominant compound at all seawater sampling sites. • Perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay. -- Discharge of perfluorohexanoic acid from the Samondogawa River may have affected Osaka Bay

  18. Spatial spreading of Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) across nation borders in Western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, Muriel; Giessen, Joke van der; Brochier, Bernard; Losson, Bernard; Jordaens, Kurt; Verhagen, Ron; Lezenne Coulander, Cor de; Teunis, Peter F M

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Red foxes was studied in Belgium and a neighbouring region in The Netherlands. A total number of 1202 foxes were analysed (1018 in Belgium and 184 in The Netherlands) of which 179 were infected with E. multilocularis (164 in Belgium

  19. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  20. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  1. Understanding Aggregation and Estimating Seasonal Abundance of Chrysaora quinquecirrha Medusae from a Fixed-station Time Series in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J.; Hood, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Although jellyfish exert strong control over marine plankton dynamics (Richardson et al. 2009, Robison et al. 2014) and negatively impact human commercial and recreational activities (Purcell et al. 2007, Purcell 2012), jellyfish biomass is not well quantified due primarily to sampling difficulties with plankton nets or fisheries trawls (Haddock 2004). As a result, some of the longest records of jellyfish are visual shore-based surveys, such as the fixed-station time series of Chrysaora quinquecirrha that began in 1960 in the Patuxent River in Chesapeake Bay, USA (Cargo and King 1990). Time series counts from fixed-station surveys capture two signals: 1) demographic change at timescales on the order of reproductive processes and 2) spatial patchiness at shorter timescales as different parcels of water move in and out of the survey area by tidal and estuarine advection and turbulent mixing (Lee and McAlice 1979). In this study, our goal was to separate these two signals using a 4-year time series of C. quinquecirrha medusa counts from a fixed-station in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay. Idealized modeling of tidal and estuarine advection was used to conceptualize the sampling scheme. Change point and time series analysis was used to detect demographic changes. Indices of aggregation (Negative Binomial coefficient, Taylor's Power Law coefficient, and Morisita's Index) were calculated to describe the spatial patchiness of the medusae. Abundance estimates revealed a bloom cycle that differed in duration and magnitude for each of the study years. Indices of aggregation indicated that medusae were aggregated and that patches grew in the number of individuals, and likely in size, as abundance increased. Further inference from the conceptual modeling suggested that medusae patch structure was generally homogenous over the tidal extent. This study highlights the benefits of using fixed-station shore-based surveys for understanding the biology and ecology of jellyfish.

  2. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  3. Estimation and Simulation of Inter-station Green's Functions in the Beppu-Bay Area, Oita Prefecture, Southwest Japan: the Effect of Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, T.; Yoshimi, M.; Komatsu, M.; Takenaka, H.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous long-term observations of ambient noise (microseisms) were performed from August 2014 to February 2017 in the Beppu-Bay area, Oita prefecture, to investigate S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary basin (Hayashida et al., 2015SSJ; Yoshimi and Hayashida, 2017WCEE). The observation array consists of 12 broadband stations with an average spacing of 12 km. We applied the seismic interferometry technique to the ambient noise data and derived nine-component ambient noise cross-correlation functions (Z-R, Z-T, Z-Z, R-R, R-T, R-Z, T-R, T-T, and T-Z components) between 66 pairs of stations (distance of 6.4 km to 65.2 km). We assumed the stacked cross-correlation functions as "observed Green's functions" between two stations and estimated group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in the frequency between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz (Hayashida et al., 2017AGU-JpGU). Theoretical Green's functions for all stations pairs were also calculated using the finite difference method (HOT-FDM, Nakamura et al., 2012BSSA), with an existing three-dimensional basin structure model (J-SHIS V2) with land and seafloor topography and a seawater layer (Okunaka et al., 2016JpGU) and a newly constructed basin structure model of the target area (Yoshimi et al., 2017AGU). The comparisons between observed and simulated Green's functions generally show good agreements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 0.5 Hz. On the other hand, both observed and simulated Green's functions for some station pairs whose traverse lines run across the deeper part of the sedimentary basin (> 2000 m) show prominent later phases that might be generated and propagated inside the basin. This indicates that the understanding of the phase generation and propagation processes can be a key factor to validate the basin structure model and we investigated the characteristics of the later phases, such as its particle motions and arrival times, using observed and simulated Green's functions in detail. Acknowledgements

  4. Pulses of movement across the sea ice: population connectivity and temporal genetic structure in the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Karin; Carmichael, Lindsey; Fuglei, Eva; Eide, Nina E; Hersteinsson, Pall; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Lemmings are involved in several important functions in the Arctic ecosystem. The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) can be divided into two discrete ecotypes: "lemming foxes" and "coastal foxes". Crashes in lemming abundance can result in pulses of "lemming fox" movement across the Arctic sea ice and immigration into coastal habitats in search for food. These pulses can influence the genetic structure of the receiving population. We have tested the impact of immigration on the genetic structure of the "coastal fox" population in Svalbard by recording microsatellite variation in seven loci for 162 Arctic foxes sampled during the summer and winter over a 5-year period. Genetic heterogeneity and temporal genetic shifts, as inferred by STRUCTURE simulations and deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, respectively, were recorded. Maximum likelihood estimates of movement as well as STRUCTURE simulations suggested that both immigration and genetic mixture are higher in Svalbard than in the neighbouring "lemming fox" populations. The STRUCTURE simulations and AMOVA revealed there are differences in genetic composition of the population between summer and winter seasons, indicating that immigrants are not present in the reproductive portion of the Svalbard population. Based on these results, we conclude that Arctic fox population structure varies with time and is influenced by immigration from neighbouring populations. The lemming cycle is likely an important factor shaping Arctic fox movement across sea ice and the subsequent population genetic structure, but is also likely to influence local adaptation to the coastal habitat and the prevalence of diseases.

  5. Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans isolated from a free-roaming red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sting, Reinhard; Ketterer-Pintur, Sandra; Contzen, Matthias; Mauder, Norman; Süss-Dombrowski, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium (C.) ulcerans could be isolated from the spleen of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that had been found dead in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Pathohistological examination suggested that the fox had died of distemper, as was confirmed by PCR. The isolate was identified biochemically, by MALDI-TOF MS, FT-IR and by partial 16S rRNA, rpoB and tox gene sequencing. Using the Elek test the C. ulcerans isolate demonstrated diphtheria toxin production. FT-IR and sequencing data obtained from the C. ulcerans isolate from the red fox showed higher similarity to isolates from humans than to those from wild game.

  6. Insights into Korean red fox (Vulpes vulpes) based on mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variation in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Bang-Hwan; Kryukov, Alexey P; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Byoung-Yoon; Kwak, Myounghai

    2012-11-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the most widely distributed terrestrial carnivore in the world, occurring throughout most of North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa. In South Korea, however, this species has been drastically reduced due to habitat loss and poaching. Consequently, it is classified as an endangered species in Korea. As a first step of a planned red fox restoration project, preserved red fox museum specimens were used to determine the genetic status of red foxes that had previously inhabited South Korea against red foxes from neighboring countries. Total eighty three mtDNA cytochrome b sequences, including 22 newly obtained East Asian red fox sequences and worldwide red fox sequences from NCBI, were clustered into three clades (i.e., I, II, and III) based on haplotype network and neighbor-joining trees. The mean genetic distance between clades was 2.0%. Clade III contained South Korean and other East Asian samples in addition to Eurasian and North Pacific individuals. In clade III, South Korean individuals were separated into two lineages of Eurasian and North Pacific groups, showing unclear phylogeographic structuring and admixture. This suggests that South Korean red fox populations may have been composed of individuals from these two different genetic lineages.

  7. A comparative study on the heavy metals distribution in sediment profiles from Ribeira and Sepetiba Bays, RJ - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Franciane; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    A set of sediment cores was sampled at Sepetiba bay and Ribeira bay, in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sedimentation rates were determined by geochronological evaluation of sediments by Pb-210. In Ribeira Bay, the sedimentation rate increases from the sampling point RB1 (0.15 cm y -1 ), in the inner part of the bay, towards the sampling point RB4, close to its entrance (0.34 cm y -1 ). For Sepetiba Bay, two well-defined sedimentation rates were observed, a lower value of 0.3 cm y -1 for the period before the 1960s, and a more recent rate of 0.75 cm y -1 . These measurements are consistent to the construction of the Santa Cecilia impoundment in 1955, which brings water from the Paraiba do Sul Basin into the Guandu River, increasing the river flow from 20 m 3 s -1 to 160 m 3 s -1 . The metal concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. It could be seen that the reliability of Ribeira bay as a reference database for metal concentrations in the neighboring Sepetiba Bay is valid for a specific set of elements, such as K, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ga, Rb and Sr, but not for V, Cr and Cd. Applying to the mean elemental concentration, of the upper contaminated 45 cm sediment layer, and to the elemental concentration of the deepest analysed sediment layer a normalization to iron, a double ratio was calculated and it was concluded that the Sepetiba Bay sediments are, particularly, contaminated with Cr, may be, from a leather tanning plant existing in this region and Cd and Zn from the former Inga Metais. The overall results can be used to confirm the reliability of the utilization of Ribeira bay as a reference database to the evaluation of metal pollution profile of Sepetiba bay, by an intercomparison methodology. (author)

  8. Fox-2 protein regulates the alternative splicing of scleroderma-associated lysyl hydroxylase 2 messenger RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puneet; Yeowell, Heather N

    2010-04-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a complex connective tissue disorder characterized by hardening and thickening of the skin. One hallmark of scleroderma is excessive accumulation of collagen accompanied by increased levels of pyridinoline collagen crosslinks derived from hydroxylysine residues in the collagen telopeptide domains. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), an important alternatively spliced enzyme in collagen biosynthesis, acts as a collagen telopeptide hydroxylase. Changes in the pattern of LH2 alternative splicing, favoring increased inclusion of the alternatively spliced LH2 exon 13A, thereby increasing the levels of the long transcript of LH2 (LH2[long]), are linked to scleroderma disease. This study was undertaken to examine the role played by RNA binding protein Fox-2 in regulating exon 13A inclusion, which leads to the generation of scleroderma-associated LH2(long) messenger RNA (mRNA). Phylogenetic sequence analysis of introns flanking exon 13A was performed. A tetracycline-inducible system in T-Rex 293 cells was used to induce Fox-2 protein, and endogenous LH2(long) mRNA was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. An LH2 minigene was designed, validated, and used in Fox-2 overexpression and mutagenesis experiments. Knockdown of Fox-2 was performed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from SSc patients. Overexpression of Fox-2 enhanced the inclusion of exon 13A and increased the generation of LH2(long) mRNA, whereas knockdown of Fox-2 decreased LH2(long) transcripts. Mutational analysis of an LH2 minigene demonstrated that 2 of the 4 Fox binding motifs flanking LH2 exon 13A are required for inclusion of exon 13A. In early passage fibroblasts derived from patients with scleroderma, the knockdown of Fox-2 protein significantly decreased the endogenous levels of LH2(long) mRNA. Our findings indicate that Fox-2 plays an integral role in the regulation of LH2 splicing. Knockdown of Fox-2 and other methods to decrease

  9. Forkhead Box O6 (FoxO6) Depletion Attenuates Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Protects against Fat-induced Glucose Disorder in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabuig-Navarro, Virtu; Yamauchi, Jun; Lee, Sojin; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yun-Zi; Sadlek, Kelsey; Coudriet, Gina M; Piganelli, Jon D; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Miller, Rita; Lowe, Mark; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Dong, H Henry

    2015-06-19

    Excessive endogenous glucose production contributes to fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. FoxO6 is a distinct member of the FoxO subfamily. To elucidate the role of FoxO6 in hepatic gluconeogenesis and assess its contribution to the pathogenesis of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes, we generated FoxO6 knock-out (FoxO6-KO) mice followed by determining the effect of FoxO6 loss-of-function on hepatic gluconeogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. FoxO6 depletion attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowered fasting glycemia in FoxO6-KO mice. FoxO6-deficient primary hepatocytes were associated with reduced capacities to produce glucose in response to glucagon. When fed a high fat diet, FoxO6-KO mice exhibited significantly enhanced glucose tolerance and reduced blood glucose levels accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. These effects correlated with attenuated hepatic gluconeogenesis in FoxO6-KO mice. In contrast, wild-type littermates developed fat-induced glucose intolerance with a concomitant induction of fasting hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, FoxO6-KO mice displayed significantly diminished macrophage infiltration into liver and adipose tissues, correlating with the reduction of macrophage expression of C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), a factor that is critical for regulating macrophage recruitment in peripheral tissues. Our data indicate that FoxO6 depletion protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by attenuating hepatic gluconeogenesis and curbing macrophage infiltration in liver and adipose tissues in mice. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Nijsse, Rolf; Mulder, Jaap; Cremers, Herman; Dam, Cecile; Takumi, Katsuhisa; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-04-03

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is host to a community of zoonotic and other helminth species. Tracking their community structure and dynamics over decades is one way to monitor the long term risk of parasitic infectious diseases relevant to public and veterinary health. We identified 17 helminth species from 136 foxes by mucosal scraping, centrifugal sedimentation/flotation and the washing and sieving technique. We applied rarefaction analysis to our samples and compared the resulting curve to the helminth community reported in literature 35 years ago. Fox helminth species significantly increased in number in the last 35 years (p-value <0.025). Toxascaris leonina, Mesocestoides litteratus, Trichuris vulpis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are four new veterinary-relevant species. The zoonotic fox tapeworm (E. multilocularis) was found outside the previously described endemic regions in the Netherlands. Helminth fauna in Dutch red foxes increased in biodiversity over the last three decades.

  11. Mangrove root communities in Jobos Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, P.M.

    1975-01-01

    Based on the presence and absence of species, at least two major types of mangrove root communities exist in Jobos Bay. One community, occurring mainly along the Aguirre Ship Channel, is composed of species characteristic of coastal waters. Another occurring in Jobos Bay and in mangrove channels in the vinicity of Mar Negro Lagoon is characterized by embayment species. Water mass is the best single parameter which correlates with the different communities. In general, subtidal species are more susceptible to elevated temperatures than intertidal species and consequently will be the first affected. Because most of the predators and competitors are subtidal, the predation and competition which limit populations may be cut back. The effect will first be seen in increased populations of barnacles, because they are severely limited by predation and competition but are physiologically quite tolerant. The intertidal species should flourish (on a relative basis) and their vertical distributions should be extended downward. These effects are only primary. Many species which would do best in thermally altered situations are colonizing or fugitive species. It is unknown whether such an assemblage could persist with continued recruitment and growth of new individuals. The dominance of these colonizing or fugitive species may be only temporary, however, because blue-green algae are tolerant of elevated temperatures and have a negative effect on barnacle recruitment and growth. Consequently, blue-green algae may eventually dominate thermally affected mangrove roots

  12. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  13. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...

  15. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  16. Seasonal Variation of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, Using Combined Landsat and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Joshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coastal bays, such as Barataria Bay, are important transition zones between the terrigenous and marine environments that are also optically complex due to elevated amounts of particulate and dissolved constituents. Monthly field data collected over a period of 15 months in 2010 and 2011 in Barataria Bay were used to develop an empirical band ratio algorithm for the Landsat-5 TM that showed a good correlation with the Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM absorption coefficient at 355 nm (ag355 (R2 = 0.74. Landsat-derived CDOM maps generally captured the major details of CDOM distribution and seasonal influences, suggesting the potential use of Landsat imagery to monitor biogeochemistry in coastal water environments. An investigation of the seasonal variation in ag355 conducted using Landsat-derived ag355 as well as field data suggested the strong influence of seasonality in the different regions of the bay with the marine end members (lower bay experiencing generally low but highly variable ag355 and the freshwater end members (upper bay experiencing high ag355 with low variability. Barataria Bay experienced a significant increase in ag355 during the freshwater release at the Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion (DPFD following the Deep Water Horizon oil spill in 2010 and following the Mississippi River (MR flood conditions in 2011, resulting in a weak linkage to salinity in comparison to the other seasons. Tree based statistical analysis showed the influence of high river flow conditions, high- and low-pressure systems that appeared to control ag355 by ~28%, 29% and 43% of the time duration over the study period at the marine end member just outside the bay. An analysis of CDOM variability in 2010 revealed the strong influence of the MR in controlling CDOM abundance in the lower bay during the high flow conditions, while strong winds associated with cold fronts significantly increase CDOM abundance in the upper bay, thus revealing the important

  17. The extent of tidal influence in the Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Thepaut; John Shelton; Susan Libes; Paul Conrads; Robert Sheehan

    2016-01-01

    The Waccamaw River Basin is located in the coastal plain and meanders from North Carolina to South Carolina. This tidal black-water river flows parallel to the coast past the cities of Conway and Georgetown, terminating in Winyah Bay. The river is hydrologically connected to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIW) and experiences semi-diurnal tides with a range ...

  18. FoxO3A promotes metabolic adaptation to hypoxia by antagonizing Myc function

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kim Steen; Binderup, Tina; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Therkelsen, Ib; Borup, Rehannah; Nilsson, Elise; Multhaupt, Hinke; Bouchard, Caroline; Quistorff, Bjørn; Kjær, Andreas; Landberg, Göran; Staller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes FoxO3A as required for hypoxic suppression of mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption, and ROS production. Mechanistically, FoxO3A is shown to promote hypoxic cell survival by directly antagonizing c-Myc at nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes.

  19. Long-term study of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in Norwegian red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) indicating host/parasite adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Bornstein, Set; Handeland, Kjell

    2008-10-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population, in Norway, was naïve to Sarcoptes scabiei prior to the late 1970s when this parasite was first recorded and a still ongoing epidemic started. During the course of this protracted epidemic some degree of host/parasite adaptation, with the occurrence of healthy antibody positive foxes, might be expected. In the present study the prevalence of sarcoptic mange and serologically identified S. scabiei exposure was investigated in 363 Norwegian red foxes, shot by hunters during two different study periods (1994-1995 and 2002-2005). The sarcoptic mange diagnosis was based upon the presence of clearly visible lesions in the skin of the cadaver with confirmatory demonstration of S. scabiei. The serodiagnosis was based on an indirect-ELISA. There was a significant decrease in prevalence of both mange cases and seropositive animals from the first to the second study period. Whilst the mange prevalence fell more than threefold, from 30.0% to 6.6%, the seroprevalence dropped less dramatically from 53.3% to 19.1%. The smaller decrease in seroprevalence compared to mange cases reflected a significantly higher ratio of seropositive-mange negative versus seropositive-mange positive foxes, during the second study period, 40:18, compared to the first, 14:18. These findings indicate that the red fox population is adapting to live with the parasite and that low-grade or sub-clinical infections, and even recoveries, occur amongst exposed foxes. Mange positive foxes had significantly poorer body condition than those without sarcoptic mange. No significant difference in body condition was seen between seropositive-mange negative versus seronegative-mange negative foxes. The ELISA sensitivity was found to be 95% and proved a useful tool for investigating the exposure to S. scabiei in wild foxes. This study is believed to be the first pointing to a long-term Sarcoptes/fox adaptation, combining long-term prevalence studies of clinical sarcoptic mange

  20. A Novel FOXE1 Mutation (R73S) in Bamforth–Lazarus Syndrome Causing Increased Thyroidal Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Aurore; Hamza, Rasha T.; Kariyawasam, Dulanjalee; Guillot, Loïc; Teissier, Raphaël; Tron, Elodie; Castanet, Mireille; Dupuy, Corinne; El Kholy, Mohamed; Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the FOXE1 gene have been reported in several patients with partial or complete Bamforth–Lazarus syndrome: congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with thyroid dysgenesis (usually athyreosis), cleft palate, spiky hair, with or without choanal atresia, and bifid epiglottis. Here, our objective was to evaluate potential functional consequences of a FOXE1 mutation in a patient with a similar clinical phenotype. Methods: FOXE1 was sequenced in eight patients with thyroid dysgenesis and cleft palate. Transient transfection was performed in HEK293 cells using the thyroglobulin (TG) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) promoters in luciferase reporter plasmids to assess the functional impact of the FOXE1 mutations. Primary human thyrocytes transfected with wild type and mutant FOXE1 served to assess the impact of the mutation on endogenous TG and TPO expression. Results: We identified and characterized the function of a new homozygous FOXE1 missense mutation (p.R73S) in a boy with a typical phenotype (athyreosis, cleft palate, and partial choanal atresia). This new mutation located within the forkhead domain was inherited from the heterozygous healthy consanguineous parents. In vitro functional studies in HEK293 cells showed that this mutant gene enhanced the activity of the TG and TPO gene promoters (1.5-fold and 1.7-fold respectively vs. wild type FOXE1; p<0.05), unlike the five mutations previously reported in Bamforth–Lazarus syndrome. The gain-of-function effect of the FOXE1-p.R73S mutant gene was confirmed by an increase in endogenous TG production in primary human thyrocytes. Conclusion: We identified a new homozygous FOXE1 mutation responsible for enhanced expression of the TG and TPO genes in a boy whose phenotype is similar to that reported previously in patients with loss-of-function FOXE1 mutations. This finding further delineates the role for FOXE1 in both thyroid and palate development, and shows that enhanced gene

  1. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Richard N.; Burnett, William C.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Santos, Isaac R.; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ( 228 Ra and 226 Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ( 40 K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  2. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  3. Effects of Caenorhabditis elegans sgk-1 mutations on lifespan, stress resistance, and DAF-16/FoxO regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Albert Tzong-Yang; Guo, Chunfang; Dumas, Kathleen J; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Hu, Patrick J

    2013-10-01

    The AGC family serine-threonine kinases Akt and Sgk are similar in primary amino acid sequence and in vitro substrate specificity, and both kinases are thought to directly phosphorylate and inhibit FoxO transcription factors. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, it is well established that AKT-1 controls dauer arrest and lifespan by regulating the subcellular localization of the FoxO transcription factor DAF-16. SGK-1 is thought to act similarly to AKT-1 in lifespan control by phosphorylating and inhibiting the nuclear translocation of DAF-16/FoxO. Using sgk-1 null and gain-of-function mutants, we now provide multiple lines of evidence indicating that AKT-1 and SGK-1 influence C. elegans lifespan, stress resistance, and DAF-16/FoxO activity in fundamentally different ways. Whereas AKT-1 shortens lifespan, SGK-1 promotes longevity in a DAF-16-/FoxO-dependent manner. In contrast to AKT-1, which reduces resistance to multiple stresses, SGK-1 promotes resistance to oxidative stress and ultraviolet radiation but inhibits thermotolerance. Analysis of several DAF-16/FoxO target genes that are repressed by AKT-1 reveals that SGK-1 represses a subset of these genes while having little influence on the expression of others. Accordingly, unlike AKT-1, which promotes the cytoplasmic sequestration of DAF-16/FoxO, SGK-1 does not influence DAF-16/FoxO subcellular localization. Thus, in spite of their similar in vitro substrate specificities, Akt and Sgk influence longevity, stress resistance, and FoxO activity through distinct mechanisms in vivo. Our findings highlight the need for a re-evaluation of current paradigms of FoxO regulation by Sgk. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Isolation and culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Bao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Coat colour is a phenotypic marker of fur animal species, which was determined by the pigment generated from melanocytes. In this study, we developed and validated a method for isolation, purification and passage culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus. Skin biopsies were harvested from the dorsal region of adult foxes and enzyme digestion by Dispase II. The primary culture of melanocytes from arctic fox skin was obtained by using keratinocyte serum-free medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract with/without phorbol- 12-myristate-13-acetate, and by carrying out a medium change strategy. After serial passages, it yielded pure population of melanocytes, which become efficient tools for investigating the function of colour genes and unraveling the process of melanin synthesis.

  5. Tracking riverborne sediment and contaminants in Commencement Bay, Washington, using geochemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2017-09-29

    Large rivers carry terrestrial sediment, contaminants, and other materials to the coastal zone where they can affect marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems. This U.S. Geological Survey study combined river and marine sediment geochemistry and organic contaminant analyses to identify riverborne sediment and associated contaminants at shoreline sites in Commencement Bay, Puget Sound, Washington, that could be used by adult forage fish and other marine organisms. Geochemical signatures distinguished the fine fraction (contaminants were measured in surface sediment did not have measurable 7Be activities in that layer, so their contaminant assemblages were attributed to sources from previous years. Concentrations of organic contaminants (the most common of which were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and fecal sterols) were higher in the contaminants in marine rather than river sediment, indicates that riverborne sediment-bound contaminants are retained in shallow marine habitats of Commencement Bay. The retention of earlier inputs complicates efforts to identify recent inputs and sources. Understanding modern sources and fates of riverborne sediment and contaminants and their potential ecological impacts will therefore require a suite of targeted geochemical studies in such marine depositional environments.

  6. Trends in anecdotal fox sightings in Tasmania accounted for by psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Clive A; Clark, Malcolm; Obendorf, David; Hall, Graham P; Soares, Inês; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-12-01

    There has been little evaluation of anecdotal sightings as a means to confirm new incursions of invasive species. This paper explores the potential for equivocal information communicated by the media to account for patterns of anecdotal reports. In 2001, it was widely reported that red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) had been deliberately released in the island state of Tasmania (Australia), although this claim was later revealed to be baseless. Regardless, by 2013 a total of 3153 anecdotal fox sightings had been reported by members of the public, which implied their distribution was wide. For each month in 2001-2003, we defined a monthly media index (MMI) of fox-related media coverage, an index of their relative seasonal abundance (abundance), and a factor denoting claims of fox evidence (claimed evidence) regardless of its evidentiary quality. We fitted a generalized linear model with Poisson error for monthly totals of anecdotal sightings with factors of year and claimed evidence and covariates of MMI, abundance, and hours of darkness. The collective effect of psychological factors (MMI, claimed evidence, and year) relative to biophysical factors (photoperiod and abundance) was highly significant (χ 2 = 122.1, df = 6, p fox media from 2001 to 2010 was strongly associated with the yearly tally of anecdotal sightings (p = 0.018). The odds ratio of sightings ranked as reliable by the fox eradication program in any year decreased exponentially at a rate of 0.00643 as the total number of sightings increased (p < 0.0001) and was indicative of an observer-expectancy bias. Our results suggest anecdotal sightings are highly susceptible to cognitive biases and when used to qualify and quantify species presence can contribute to flawed risk assessments. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Antibodies to Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Spanish Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lledó, Lourdes; Serrano, José Luis; Isabel Gegúndez, María; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We examined 314 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Soria, Spain, for Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia slovaca, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Immunofluorescence assays showed 1.9% had antibodies to R. typhi, 6.7% had antibodies to R. slovaca, and 8.3% had antibodies to B. burgdorferi. Serostatus was not correlated with sex or age. Because red foxes can be infected by Rickettsiae and B. burgdorferi, presence of red foxes may be and indicator for the presence of these pathogens.

  8. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Newsome, Alan E; Newsome, Thomas M; Dickman, Christopher R

    2017-01-01

    Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time, especially in areas where

  9. Mesopredator Management: Effects of Red Fox Control on the Abundance, Diet and Use of Space by Feral Cats.

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    Robyn Molsher

    Full Text Available Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo, has been extirpated by humans. We predicted that the larger fox would dominate the cat in encounters, and used a fox-removal experiment to assess whether foxes affect cat abundance, diet, home-range and habitat use. Our results provide little indication that intraguild predation occurred or that cats responded numerically to the fox removal, but suggest that the fox affects some aspects of cat resource use. In particular, where foxes were removed cats increased their consumption of invertebrates and carrion, decreased their home range size and foraged more in open habitats. Fox control takes place over large areas of Australia to protect threatened native species and agricultural interests. Our results suggest that fox control programmes could lead to changes in the way that cats interact with co-occurring prey, and that some prey may become more vulnerable to cat predation in open habitats after foxes have been removed. Moreover, with intensive and more sustained fox control it is possible that cats could respond numerically and alter their behaviour in different ways to those documented herein. Such outcomes need to be considered when estimating the indirect impacts of fox control. We conclude that novel approaches are urgently required to control invasive mesopredators at the same time

  10. High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia

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    Lalošević Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory capillariid nematode Eucoleus aerophilus (Creplin, 1839 infects wild and domestic carnivores and, occasionally, humans. Thus far, a dozen of human infections have been published in the literature but it cannot be ruled out that lung capillariosis is underdiagnosed in human medicine. Also, the apparent spreading of E. aerophilus in different geographic areas spurs new studies on the epidemiology of this nematode. After the recognition of the first human case of E. aerophilus infection in Serbia, there is a significant merit in enhancing knowledge on the distribution of the nematode. In the present work the infection rate of pulmonary capillariosis was investigated in 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the northern part of Serbia by autopsy. The estimated infection rate with Eucoleus aerophilus was 84%. In contrast, by copromicroscopic examination only 38% of foxes were positive. In addition, 10 foxes were investigated for the closely related species in nasal cavity, Eucoleus boehmi, and nine were positive. Our study demonstrates one of the highest infection rates of pulmonary capillariosis in foxes over the world.

  11. Organochlorine residues in sediments from selected tributaries to Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajet, C.M.; Varca, L.M.; Navarro, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment borne pesticides are the major route of transport of pesticides in the marine environment and benthic dwellers, filter feeders and the flora/fauna closely associated with the sediments could greatly be affected. This paper focuses on the monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in sediments collected from the mouth of rivers draining to Manila Bay and relate to the contribution of inland activities to the overall pollution of the Bay. Sediments from 14-25 tributaries were collected in 1996 to 1998 and analyzed for the pre