WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater production capacity

  1. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  2. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  3. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  4. Benefits from retrieval practice are greater for students with lower working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pooja K; Finley, Jason R; Rose, Nathan S; Roediger, Henry L

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effects of retrieval practice for students who varied in working memory capacity as a function of the lag between study of material and its initial test, whether or not feedback was given after the test, and the retention interval of the final test. We sought to determine whether a blend of these conditions exists that maximises benefits from retrieval practice for lower and higher working memory capacity students. College students learned general knowledge facts and then restudied the facts or were tested on them (with or without feedback) at lags of 0-9 intervening items. Final cued recall performance was better for tested items than for restudied items after both 10 minutes and 2 days, particularly for longer study-test lags. Furthermore, on the 2-day delayed test the benefits from retrieval practice with feedback were significantly greater for students with lower working memory capacity than for students with higher working memory capacity (r = -.42). Retrieval practice may be an especially effective learning strategy for lower ability students.

  5. Measuring excess capital capacity in agricultural production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhengfei, G.; Kumbhakar, S.C.; Myers, R.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept "excess capital capacity" and employ a stochastic input requirement frontier to measure excess capital capacity in agricultural production. We also propose a two-step estimation method that allows endogenous regressors in stochastic frontier models. The first step uses

  6. Managing the Newsvendor Modeled Product System with Random Capacity and Capacity-Dependent Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a newsvendor modeled product system, where the firm provides products to the market. The supply capacity of the product is random, so the firm receives either the amount of order quantity or the realized capacity, whichever is smaller. The market price is capacity dependent. We consider two types of production cost structures: the procurement case and the in-house production case. The firm pays for the received quantity in the former case and for the ordered quantity in the latter case. We obtain the optimal order quantities for both cases. Comparing with the traditional newsvendor model, we find that the optimal order quantity in both the procurement case and the in-house production case are no greater than that in the traditional newsvendor model with a fixed selling price. We also find that the optimal order quantity for the procurement case is greater than that for the in-house production case. Numerical study is conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal solution versus the distribution of the random capacity/demand.

  7. Commandants' Managerial Capacity and Workers Productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the commandant's managerial capacity as if relates to workers productivity with a view to determining whether their calling to the education terrain has been justified and to correct certain areas in need of improvement in the Nigeria Police Education set up. In doing this, the study took ...

  8. Pdvsa plans to hike productive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Venezuela's state oil company plans to jump its productive capacity by 117,000 b/d to 2.92 million b/d this year. Petroleos de Venezuela also projects sizable increases for oil and gas reserves and plans record spending in 1992. Meantime, Pdvsa is sounding a warning again about the Venezuelan government's excessive tax take amid debate within the company about spending priorities

  9. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė; Irena Zabielavičienė

    2012-01-01

    Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their conce...

  10. Measures for Increasing of Company’s Production Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesta Žikevičiūtė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Production capacity improvements are poorly explored areas of economic literature and the existing methods are difficult to apply. For this reason, the organization has only a superficial analysis of capacity, but after all this time, each production company had to improve the production capacity for the market economy and the most economical use of production factors.This article explores the company’s production capacity for better use of tools. It also presents the capacity of their concept, establishment, evaluates the factors leading to their production capacity, for developing efficiency measures and model presentation.Article in Lithuanian

  11. Rural Livelihoods, Climate Change and Micro-Level Adaptive Capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is one of the fastest developing regions in the world, experiencing significant economic, environmental and social transformations. There is an increasing demand for policy relevant and decision support information at micro level. This PhD research contributes...... and Laos, two of the poorest countries in the GMS. Structured household surveys and participatory focus group discussions were the primary data collection methods. The findings provide new, additional and much needed quantitative information in the region, and several policy implications for rural...

  12. Methods and measures of enhancing production capacity of uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yuhui

    2013-01-01

    Limited by resource conditions and mining conditions, the production capacity of uranium mines is generally small. The main factors to affect the production capacity determination of uranium mines are analyzed, the ways and measures to enhance the production capacity of uranium mines are explored from the innovations of technology and management mode. (author)

  13. Capacity for absorption of water-soluble secondary metabolites greater in birds than in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Bakken, Bradley Hartman; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are pervasive in animal foods and potentially influence feeding behavior, interspecies interactions, and the distribution and abundance of animals. Some of the major classes of naturally occurring SMs in plants include many water-soluble compounds in the molecular size range that could cross the intestinal epithelium via the paracellular space by diffusion or solvent drag. There are differences among species in paracellular permeability. Using Middle Eastern rodent and avian consumers of fruits containing SMs, we tested the hypothesis that avian species would have significantly higher paracellular permeability than rodent species. Permeability in intact animals was assessed using standard pharmacological methodology to measure absorption of two radiolabeled, inert, neutral water-soluble probes that do not interact with intestinal nutrient transporters, L-arabinose (M(r) = 150.1 Da) and lactulose (M(r) = 342.3 Da). We also measured absorption of labeled 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3OMD-glucose; M(r) = 194.2 Da), which is a nonmetabolized analogue of D-glucose that is passively absorbed through the paracellular space but also transported across the enterocyte membranes. Most glucose was absorbed by all species, but arabinose fractional absorption (f) was nearly three times higher in birds (1.03±0.17, n = 15 in two species) compared to rodents (0.37±0.06, n = 10 in two species) (Pbirds of arabinose exceeded those of 3OMD-glucose. Our findings are in agreement with previous work showing that the paracellular pathway is more prominent in birds relative to nonflying mammals, and suggests that birds may be challenged by greater absorption of water-soluble, dietary SMs. The increased expression of the paracellular pathway in birds hints at a tradeoff: the free energy birds gain by absorbing water-soluble nutrients passively may be offset by the metabolic demands placed on them to eliminate concomitantly absorbed SMs.

  14. Capacity and production planning with carbon emission constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Song, Shuang; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds a two-stage, stochastic model to study capacity expansion problem in logistics under cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. The optimal capacity expansion and production decisions are obtained, and the effects of carbon emission regulations on capacity expansion are studied....... Through analytical study and a real case numerical analysis, we find that the carbon tax exhibits different impacts on optimal capacity expansion decisions in low tax rate and high tax rate, and the volatility of capacity investment cost has a larger impact on optimal capacity expansion than...... that of production cost....

  15. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  16. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  17. Stress enhances fear by forming new synapses with greater capacity for long-term potentiation in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvrathan, Aparna; Bennur, Sharath; Ghosh, Supriya; Tomar, Anupratap; Anilkumar, Shobha; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-01-05

    Prolonged and severe stress leads to cognitive deficits, but facilitates emotional behaviour. Little is known about the synaptic basis for this contrast. Here, we report that in rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress, long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated synaptic responses are enhanced in principal neurons of the lateral amygdala, a brain area involved in fear memory formation. This is accompanied by electrophysiological and morphological changes consistent with the formation of 'silent synapses', containing only NMDARs. In parallel, chronic stress also reduces synaptic inhibition. Together, these synaptic changes would enable amygdalar neurons to undergo further experience-dependent modifications, leading to stronger fear memories. Consistent with this prediction, stressed animals exhibit enhanced conditioned fear. Hence, stress may leave its mark in the amygdala by generating new synapses with greater capacity for plasticity, thereby creating an ideal neuronal substrate for affective disorders. These findings also highlight the unique features of stress-induced plasticity in the amygdala that are strikingly different from the stress-induced impairment of structure and function in the hippocampus.

  18. Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

  19. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  20. The productive cellulase binding capacity of cellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina

    2017-03-01

    Cellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for renewable biofuel production; however, the mechanisms of the heterogeneous cellulose saccharification reaction are still unsolved. As cellulases need to bind isolated molecules of cellulose at the surface of insoluble cellulose fibrils or larger aggregated cellulose structures in order to hydrolyze glycosidic bonds, the "accessibility of cellulose to cellulases" is considered to be a reaction limiting property of cellulose. We have defined the accessibility of cellulose to cellulases as the productive binding capacity of cellulose, that is, the concentration of productive binding sites on cellulose that are accessible for binding and hydrolysis by cellulases. Productive cellulase binding to cellulose results in hydrolysis and can be quantified by measuring hydrolysis rates. In this study, we measured the productive Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TrCel7A) binding capacity of five cellulosic substrates from different sources and processing histories. Swollen filter paper and bacterial cellulose had higher productive binding capacities of ∼6 µmol/g while filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, and algal cellulose had lower productive binding capacities of ∼3 µmol/g. Swelling and regenerating filter paper using phosphoric acid increased the initial accessibility of the reducing ends to TrCel7A from 4 to 6 µmol/g. Moreover, this increase in initial productive binding capacity accounted in large part for the difference in the overall digestibility between filter paper and swollen filter paper. We further demonstrated that an understanding of how the productive binding capacity declines over the course of the hydrolysis reaction has the potential to predict overall saccharification time courses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 533-542. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  2. It Systems Supporting the Management of Production Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Elżbieta

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the problem of manufacturing process flexibility in view of a company's material and information flow stream management. The author of the article has described the functions of a production process control system and presented the characteristics of production capacity intensive and extensive reserves. The MRP II/ERP, MES and APS class IT tools supporting the process of production planning, organization and control have also been discussed.

  3. IT SYSTEMS SUPPORTING THE MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta MILEWSKA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problem of manufacturing process flexibility in view of a company’s material and information flow stream management. The author of the article has described the functions of a production process control system and presented the characteristics of production capacity intensive and extensive reserves. The MRP II/ERP, MES and APS class IT tools supporting the process of production planning, organization and control have also been discussed.

  4. IT SYSTEMS SUPPORTING THE MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta MILEWSKA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of manufacturing process flexibility in view of a company’s material and information flow stream management. The author of the article has described the functions of a production process control system and presented the characteristics of production capacity intensive and extensive reserves. The MRP II/ERP, MES and APS class IT tools supporting the process of production planning, organization and control have also been discussed.

  5. What does optimization theory actually predict about crown profiles of photosynthetic capacity when models incorporate greater realism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Cescatti, Alessandro; Farquhar, Graham D

    2013-08-01

    Measured profiles of photosynthetic capacity in plant crowns typically do not match those of average irradiance: the ratio of capacity to irradiance decreases as irradiance increases. This differs from optimal profiles inferred from simple models. To determine whether this could be explained by omission of physiological or physical details from such models, we performed a series of thought experiments using a new model that included more realism than previous models. We used ray-tracing to simulate irradiance for 8000 leaves in a horizontally uniform canopy. For a subsample of 500 leaves, we simultaneously optimized both nitrogen allocation (among pools representing carboxylation, electron transport and light capture) and stomatal conductance using a transdermally explicit photosynthesis model. Few model features caused the capacity/irradiance ratio to vary systematically with irradiance. However, when leaf absorptance varied as needed to optimize distribution of light-capture N, the capacity/irradiance ratio increased up through the crown - that is, opposite to the observed pattern. This tendency was counteracted by constraints on stomatal or mesophyll conductance, which caused chloroplastic CO(2) concentration to decline systematically with increasing irradiance. Our results suggest that height-related constraints on stomatal conductance can help to reconcile observations with the hypothesis that photosynthetic N is allocated optimally. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  7. High-temperature ethanol production using thermotolerant yeast newly isolated from Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Techaparin

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of high-potential thermotolerant yeasts is a key factor for successful ethanol production at high temperatures. Two hundred and thirty-four yeast isolates from Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS countries, i.e., Thailand, The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR and Vietnam were obtained. Five thermotolerant yeasts, designated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KKU-VN8, KKU-VN20, and KKU-VN27, Pichia kudriavzevii KKU-TH33 and P. kudriavzevii KKU-TH43, demonstrated high temperature and ethanol tolerance levels up to 45 °C and 13% (v/v, respectively. All five strains produced higher ethanol concentrations and exhibited greater productivities and yields than the industrial strain S. cerevisiae TISTR5606 during high-temperature fermentation at 40 °C and 43 °C. S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 demonstrated the best performance for ethanol production from glucose at 37 °C with an ethanol concentration of 72.69 g/L, a productivity of 1.59 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 86.27%. The optimal conditions for ethanol production of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ at 40 °C were achieved using the Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained during fermentation was 89.32 g/L, with a productivity of 2.48 g/L/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 96.32%. Thus, the newly isolated thermotolerant S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 exhibits a great potential for commercial-scale ethanol production in the future.

  8. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 m...

  9. Expanding OPEC production capacity: some legal and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There is general consensus that the global demand for oil will increase in the medium-to-long term. It is predicted that much of this additional demand will be for OPEC oil. Therefore, it will become necessary to expand OPEC production capacity to meet this perceived increase. In recent years, many OPEC countries have launched far-reaching and, in some cases, radical plans to expand their production capacity. However, given the various investment and political constraints faced by the 13 OPEC Members, each country differs markedly in its ability to boost production capacity sufficiently to meet self-imposed targets. In this paper, we examine the importance to the oil market of recent oil supply trends and possible future attempts to build OPEC production capacity, focussing in particular on the legal and environmental issues involved. A review is provided of the legal mechanisms currently evolving in OPEC Countries to encourage investment in their oil industries. In addition, we outline the impact of the environmental movement of OPEC's expansion programmes. (author)

  10. Criterion III: Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. Evans; R. A. Washmgton-Allen; R. D. Child; J. E. Mitchell; B. R. Bobowskl; R. V. Loper; B. H. Allen-Diaz; D. W. Thompson; G. R. Welling; T. B. Reuwsaat

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of rangeland productive capacity is one of five criteria established by the Sustainable Rangelands Roundtable (SRR) to monitor and assess rangeland sustainable management. Within this criterion, six indicators were developed through the Delphi Process and the expert opinions of academicians, rangeland scientists, rangeland management agency personnel, non-...

  11. Nigeria's oil production and the need for increased producing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoroji, C. E. I.

    1998-01-01

    After 40 years of commercial oil production, Nigeria's crude oil production is moving through difficult times. This transition period has been made more difficult because of recurring international economic recession, lack-luster crude prices, and slow oil demand growth and Government funding problems etc. Crude oil remains the most important export revenue earner in Nigeria, and more efforts are required to encourage higher output levels to support more foreign exchange generation. Nigeria's crude oil production at present stands at 2.2 million barrels per day (mbpd). This study, covers the period 1998-2005, during which oil production is forecast to grow to about 2.85 mbpd while potential for new discoveries could raise production to more than 3.0 mbpd. These projected rates could depend to a large extent on the rate and size of new discoveries. However, Nigeria's crude oil potential is being constrained by both lack of infrastructure and inadequate investment. The massive investment needed to raise the country's productive capacity will require foreign capital, yet the current fiscal environment leaves much to be desired. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of Nigeria's past, present and future oil production. To meet the projected production capacity very early in the next millennium, current estimates put the overall potential investment needed for an accelerated capacity-expansion drive in order to ensure that there is adequate cushion of crude potential at $19.7 billion during the next seven years. Furthermore, not more than $12.0 billion of this requirement can be generated from Nigeria's government cash flow

  12. On the optimal production capacity for influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslid, Rikard; Herzing, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyzes the profit maximizing capacity choice of a monopolistic vaccine producer facing the uncertain event of a pandemic in a homogenous population of forward-looking individuals. For any capacity level, the monopolist solves the intertemporal price discrimination problem within the dynamic setting generated by the standard mathematical epidemiological model of infectious diseases. Even though consumers are assumed to be identical, the monopolist will be able to exploit the ex post heterogeneity between infected and susceptible individuals by raising the price of vaccine in response to the increasing hazard rate. The monopolist thus bases its investment decision on the expected profits from the optimal price path given the infection dynamics. It is shown that the monopolist will always choose to invest in a lower production capacity than the social planner. Through numerical simulation, it is demonstrated how the loss to society of having a monopoly producer decreases with the speed of infection transmission. Moreover, it is illustrated how the monopolist's optimal vaccination rate increases as its discount rate rises for cost parameters based on Swedish data. However, the effect of the firm discount rate on its investment decision is sensitive to assumptions regarding the cost of production capacity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  14. Increased Capacity for Work and Productivity After Breast Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Isaias Vieira; Garcia, Edgard da Silva; Sobrinho, Rebecca Neponucena; Pinto, Natália Lana Larcher; Juliano, Yara; Veiga-Filho, Joel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Veiga, Daniela Francescato

    2017-01-01

    Breast hypertrophy is a prevalent condition among women worldwide, which can affect different aspects of their quality of life. The physical and emotional impact of breast hypertrophy may harm daily activities, including work. To assess the impact of reduction mammaplasty on the ability to work and productivity of women with breast hypertrophy. A total of 60 patients with breast hypertrophy, already scheduled for breast reduction, aged 18 to 60 years and who had formal or autonomous employment were prospectively enrolled. The Brazilian versions of two validated tools, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment - General Health (WPAI-GH) and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) were self-administered at the preoperative evaluation and six months following surgery. The median age was 33 years, median body mass index was 24 kg/m 2 , and the median total weight of resected breast tissue was 617.5 g. According to the Brazilian classification of occupation, most patients (53%) had technical, scientific, artistic and similar occupations. There was a significant improvement in work capacity and productivity six months after the reduction mammaplasty, denoted by a decrease in presenteeism, absenteeism, and WLQ Productivity Loss Score (Wilcoxon analysis of variance: P work capacity and productivity of Brazilian women with breast hypertrophy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Building an urban 'renaissance': fragmented services and the production of inequality in Greater Downtown Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Brian; Smit, Edske

    2016-01-01

    Downtown Detroit has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years which is in stark contrast to the economic and social situation in much of the rest of the city. This renaissance has been taking place despite the city's ability to provide good municipal services such as streetlights, security, public space and transport. This article focuses on how four areas which constitute part of Greater Downtown Detroit have relied on different combinations of actors to create and provide the services and amenities deemed necessary for capital investment and middle-class consumption. Each area has its own initiatives and actors who implement them, further fragmenting the city between its core and periphery. Renewed public spaces, private police forces and resident initiatives in middle-class neighborhoods have been created to serve specific needs of the small areas they serve. Rather than being unique, Detroit is an extreme example of fragmented and polarized urbanism which is part and parcel of contemporary cities. We argue that rather than passively reflecting existing socio-spatial divides, these private initiatives in Greater Downtown Detroit actively contribute to the production of sociospatial inequalities across the city.

  16. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from

  17. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  18. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Jia 11, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Rozelle, Scott [Freeman Spogli Institute of International Studies, Stanford University, East Encina Hall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Sombilla, Mercy A. [Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, College, Laguna 4031 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  19. Biofuels and the Greater Mekong Subregion: Assessing the impact on prices, production and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Jikun; Qiu, Huanguang; Rozelle, Scott; Sombilla, Mercy A.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to many other countries, all nations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) have planned or are planning to develop strong national biofuel programs. The overall goal of this paper is to better understand the impacts of global and regional biofuels on agriculture and the rest of the economy, with a specific focus on the GMS. Based on a modified multi-country, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model, this study reveals that global biofuel development will significantly increase agricultural prices and production and change trade in agricultural commodities in the GMS and the rest of world. While biofuel in the GMS will have little impacts on global prices, it will have significant effects on domestic agricultural production, land use, trade, and food security. The results also show that the extent of impacts from biofuel is highly dependent on international oil prices and the degree of substitution between biofuel and gasoline. The findings of this study have important policy implications for the GMS countries and the rest of world. (author)

  20. Greater endurance capacity and improved dyspnoea with acute oxygen supplementation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients without resting hypoxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Gillies, Rebecca; Pouniotis, Dodie; Hill, Catherine J; Goh, Nicole S L; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although its benefits have not been proven. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in IPF. Eleven participants with IPF received either oxygen, at an FiO 2 of 0.50, or compressed air for 1 h at rest and during a cycle endurance test at 85% of peak work rate. Blood samples collected at rest and during exercise were analysed for markers of oxidative stress, skeletal muscle metabolism and cytokines. The protocol was repeated a week later with the alternate intervention. Compared with air, oxygen did not adversely affect biomarker concentrations at rest and significantly improved endurance time (mean difference = 99 ± 81s, P = 0.002), dyspnoea (-1 ± 1 U, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (BP; -11 ± 11 mm Hg, P = 0.006), nadir oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO 2 ; 8 ± 6%, P = 0.001), SpO 2 at 2-min (7 ± 6%, P = 0.003) and 5-min isotimes (5 ± 3, P < 0.001) and peak exercise xanthine concentrations (-42 ± 73 µmol/L, P = 0.03). Air significantly increased IL-10 (5 ± 5 pg/mL, P = 0.04) at 2-min isotime. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs), IL-6, TNF-α, creatine kinase, lactate, heart rate and fatigue did not differ between the two interventions at any time point. In patients with IPF, breathing oxygen at FiO 2 of 0.50 at rest seems safe. During exercise, oxygen improves exercise tolerance, alleviates exercise-induced hypoxaemia and reduces dyspnoea. A potential relationship between oxygen administration and improved skeletal muscle metabolism should be explored in future studies. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz; Sombilla, Mercedita A.; Cueno, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to generate

  2. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Sub-region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Urooj S.; Ahmed, Mahfuz [Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines); Sombilla, Mercedita A. [Southeast Asian Center for Graduate Studies and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), Consulting Services Department, 4031 College, Laguna (Philippines); Cueno, Sarah L. [Agricultural Economist and Regional Program Coordinator Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program Working Group on Agriculture, Southeast Asia Department, Asian Development Bank, 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 (Philippines)

    2009-11-15

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to economic growth. Five crops have been selected to be further developed and use for biofuel production in the GMS, namely sugarcane, cassava, oil palm, sweet sorghum and Jathropa curcas. The expanded use of sugarcane, cassava, and oil palm for biofuel production can cause problems in the food sector. The other two crops, sweet sorghum and J. curcas, are non-food crops but could still compete with the food crops in terms of resource use for production. In all cases, the GMS needs to formulate a sustainable strategy for the biofuel development that will not compete with the food sector but will rather help achieve energy security, promote rural development and protect the environment. Except for People's Republic of China (PRC) and Thailand that already have fairly developed biofuel sub-sector, the other GMS countries are either poised to start (Lao PDR and Cambodia) or ready to enhance existing initiatives on biofuel production (Myanmar and Vietnam), with support from their respective governments. Biofuel development in these countries has to be strongly integrated with smallholder producers in order to have an impact on improving livelihood. At this initial stage, the sub-sector does not need to compete on a price basis but should rather aim to put up small-scale biofuel processing plants in remote rural areas that can offer an alternative to high-priced diesel and kerosene for local electricity grids serving homes and small enterprises. The social and economic multiplier effects are expected to be high when farmers that produce the energy crops also produce the biofuels to

  3. Absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle: a system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Guo, Feng; Guo, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    While past research has recognized the importance of the dynamic nature of absorptive capacity, there is limited knowledge on how to generate a fair and comprehensive analytical framework. Based on interviews with 24 Chinese firms, this study develops a system-dynamics model that incorporates an important feedback loop among absorptive capacity, technological innovation, and product life cycle (PLC). The simulation results reveal that (1) PLC affects the dynamic process of absorptive capacity; (2) the absorptive capacity of a firm peaks in the growth stage of PLC, and (3) the market demand at different PLC stages is the main driving force in firms' technological innovations. This study also explores a sensitivity simulation using the variables of (1) time spent in founding an external knowledge network, (2) research and development period, and (3) knowledge diversity. The sensitivity simulation results show that the changes of these three variables have a greater impact on absorptive capacity and technological innovation during growth and maturity stages than in the introduction and declining stages of PLC. We provide suggestions on how firms can adjust management policies to improve their absorptive capacity and technological innovation performance during different PLC stages.

  4. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Satoshi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP, its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ, and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. Methods The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-, superoxide anion (O2·--, and hydroxyl radical (HO·- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive probe 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF. Results The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or vitamin C. Conclusion On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

  5. Comparison of bee products based on assays of antioxidant capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoshimi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-02-26

    Bee products (including propolis, royal jelly, and bee pollen) are popular, traditional health foods. We compared antioxidant effects among water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis (WEP or EEP), its main constituents, water-soluble royal jelly (RJ), and an ethanol extract of bee pollen. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-, superoxide anion (O2.-)-, and hydroxyl radical (HO.)- scavenging capacities of bee products were measured using antioxidant capacity assays that employed the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA) or aminophenyl fluorescein (APF). The rank order of antioxidant potencies was as follows: WEP > EEP > pollen, but neither RJ nor 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) had any effects. Concerning the main constituents of WEP, the rank order of antioxidant effects was: caffeic acid > artepillin C > drupanin, but neither baccharin nor coumaric acid had any effects. The scavenging effects of caffeic acid were as powerful as those of trolox, but stronger than those of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or vitamin C. On the basis of the present assays, propolis is the most powerful antioxidant of all the bee product examined, and its effect may be partly due to the various caffeic acids it contains. Pollen, too, exhibited strong antioxidant effects.

  6. The economic implications of greater global trade in livestock and livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, J; Upton, M

    1999-08-01

    The Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established the World Trade Organization to supervise the reduction of barriers to, and liberalisation of, world trade. The application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures will be standardised to avoid use for protectionist purposes by countries or regional trade blocks. Harmonisation of animal disease control measures within regional blocks is essential if benefits to freer trade are to occur, but this harmonisation must be balanced against potential disease risks and costs associated with disease outbreaks. World trade in livestock products is concentrated among developed countries, although developing countries are responsible for approximately a third of poultry meat imports and exports. Despite liberalisation, the share of global trade by developing countries is unlikely to increase greatly in the short term. The benefits of trade and of freer trade are emphasised. Examples are given of the impacts of trade barriers on developing countries and of the harmonisation of European Union animal health standards. Economic implications for the future of greater global trade are assessed.

  7. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  8. Capacity-coupled multidischarge for atmospheric plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mase, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Tamiya; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We propose a method of plasma production by capacity-coupled multidischarge (CCMD) at atmospheric pressure. The discharge gaps in the CCMD consist of a common electrode and a number of compact electrodes (CCE) which are directly coupled with small capacitors for quenching the discharge. A simple CCE structure is provided by a cylindrical capacitor, the inner conductor of which is used as a gap electrode. A short pulse discharge is observed to appear homogeneously at each CCE. A charge transfer for the single-pulsed discharge is 10-100 times as large as that of the conventional dielectric barrier discharge. A high efficiency of ozone production has been confirmed in the CCMD using O 2 gas. A device configuration of the CCMD is quite flexible with respect to its geometrical shape and size. The CCMD could be used to produce plasmas for various kinds of industrial applications at atmospheric pressure

  9. The impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kutáč

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important and the most problematic in-house sources of financing of metallurgical companies are profit and depreciations. In the event that the aggregate value of the economic result and depreciations goes over to negative values, then this kind of in-house financing ceases to increase Cash Flow of the company but, on the contrary, it will cause its reduction. It means that this type of financing is to some extent uncertain, particularly in times of crisis, when there are noticeable fluctuations in sales volumes, leading to a significant influence of the volume of production on the amount of profit. The article discusses the impact of production capacity utilization on metallurgical companies financing.

  10. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  11. Weaknesses and capacities affecting the Prehospital emergency care for victims of road traffic incidents in the greater Kampala metropolitan area: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Raza, Owais

    2017-10-03

    Pre-hospital emergency care is a vital and integral component of health systems particularly in the resource constrained countries like Uganda. It can help to minimize deaths, injuries, morbidities, disabilities and trauma caused by the road traffic incidents (RTIs). This study identifies the weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTIs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in the GKMA using a three-part structured questionnaire. Data related to the demographics, nature of RTIs and victims' pre-hospital experience and existing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) were collected from victims and EMS specialists in 3 hospitals and 5 EMS institutions respectively. Data was descriptively analyzed, and after the principal component analysis was employed to identify the most influential weaknesses and capacities affecting the pre-hospital emergency care for the victims of RTI in the GKMA. From 459 RTI victims (74.7% males and 25.3% females) and 23 EMS specialists (91.3% males and 8.7% females) who participated in the study between May and June 2016, 4 and 5 key weaknesses and capacities respectively were identified to affect the pre-hospital emergency care for RTI victims in the GKMA. Although some strengths exist like ambulance facilitation, EMS structuring, coordination and others), the key weaknesses affecting the pre-hospital care for victims were noted to relate to absence of predefined EMS systems particularly in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole. They were identified to involve poor quality first aid treatment; insufficient skills/training of the first responders; inadequate EMS resources; and avoidable delays to respond and transport RTI victims to medical facilities. Though some strengths exist, the weaknesses affecting prehospital care for RTI victims primarily emanate from the absence of predefined and well-organized EMS systems in the GKMA and Uganda as a whole.

  12. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... with production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries.......In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs...... and processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection...

  13. Perfusion seed cultures improve biopharmaceutical fed-batch production capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Lu, Jiuyi; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Yuan, Hang; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric productivity and product quality are two key performance indicators for any biopharmaceutical cell culture process. In this work, we showed proof-of-concept for improving both through the use of alternating tangential flow perfusion seed cultures coupled with high-seed fed-batch production cultures. First, we optimized the perfusion N-1 stage, the seed train bioreactor stage immediately prior to the production bioreactor stage, to minimize the consumption of perfusion media for one CHO cell line and then successfully applied the optimized perfusion process to a different CHO cell line. Exponential growth was observed throughout the N-1 duration, reaching >40 × 10(6) vc/mL at the end of the perfusion N-1 stage. The cultures were subsequently split into high-seed (10 × 10(6) vc/mL) fed-batch production cultures. This strategy significantly shortened the culture duration. The high-seed fed-batch production processes for cell lines A and B reached 5 g/L titer in 12 days, while their respective low-seed processes reached the same titer in 17 days. The shortened production culture duration potentially generates a 30% increase in manufacturing capacity while yielding comparable product quality. When perfusion N-1 and high-seed fed-batch production were applied to cell line C, higher levels of the active protein were obtained, compared to the low-seed process. This, combined with correspondingly lower levels of the inactive species, can enhance the overall process yield for the active species. Using three different CHO cell lines, we showed that perfusion seed cultures can optimize capacity utilization and improve process efficiency by increasing volumetric productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS IN THE ECONOMIC AND GEOGRAPHIC AREAS OF THE AZERBAIJAN PART OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Jafarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to study the political, economic and environmental aspects of food security, which is an important component of national security; to study the issues of the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products, as well as the environmental safety of livestock products.Methods. Determination of the dynamics of livestock production on the basis of the comparative statistical analysis, the study of animal breeding territorial organization through a systematic approach.Results. The region has favorable conditions for the production of ecologically clean agricultural products, using environmentally friendly feed. We should develop manufacturing industries to meet international standards and provide the population with healthy food.Conclusion. We revealed the ecological safety of livestock products in the economic and geographic regions of the Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus.

  15. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states, 1982--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity and project this capacity for 1992 and 1993, based upon historical production data through 1991. Productive capacity is the volume of gas that can be produced from a well, reservoir, or field during a given period of time against a certain wellhead back-pressure under actual reservoir conditions excluding restrictions imposed by pipeline capacity, contracts, or regulatory bodies. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate, although in the 1970's the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (both interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980's, lower demand together with increased drilling led to a large surplus of natural gas capacity. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices dropped, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, this surplus decline, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. This study indicates that monthly productive capacity will drop sharply during the 1992-1993 period. In the low gas price, low drilling case, gas productive capacity and estimated production demand will be roughly equal in December 1993. In base and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1993 in the lower 48 States. Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations. Beyond 1993, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply

  17. Questions cloud outlook for oil production capacity growth in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1994-01-01

    Future expansion of crude oil production capacity in the Middle East is anything but certain-at least with crude prices at recent levels. There is little doubt that the world will need more production capacity than now exists unless petroleum consumption sags. And there is even less doubt about where prospects are best for production capacity growth. The paper discusses the normal surplus, growing demand, financial conditions, and political stability

  18. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  19. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  20. Greater mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A; Schanler, Richard J; Lee, Martin L; Rechtman, David J

    2014-01-01

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (pmilk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants.

  1. Evidence for greater production of colonic short-chain fatty acids in overweight than lean humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat-Rozenbloom, S; Fernandes, J; Gloor, G B; Wolever, T M S

    2014-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by colonic microbiota from dietary carbohydrates and proteins that reach the colon. It has been suggested that SCFA may promote obesity via increased colonic energy availability. Recent studies suggest obese humans have higher faecal SCFA than lean, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to increased SCFA production or reduced absorption. To compare rectal SCFA absorption, dietary intake and faecal microbial profile in lean (LN) versus overweight and obese (OWO) individuals. Eleven LN and eleven OWO individuals completed a 3-day diet record, provided a fresh faecal sample and had SCFA absorption measured using the rectal dialysis bag method. The procedures were repeated after 2 weeks. Age-adjusted faecal SCFA concentration was significantly higher in OWO than LN individuals (81.3±7.4 vs 64.1±10.4 mmol kg(-1), P=0.023). SCFA absorption (24.4±0.8% vs 24.7±1.2%, respectively, P=0.787) and dietary intakes were similar between the groups, except for a higher fat intake in OWO individuals. However, fat intake did not correlate with SCFAs or bacterial abundance. OWO individuals had higher relative Firmicutes abundance (83.1±4.1 vs 69.5±5.8%, respectively, P=0.008) and a higher Firmicutes:Bacteriodetes ratio (P=0.023) than LN individuals. There was a positive correlation between Firmicutes and faecal SCFA within the whole group (r=0.507, P=0.044), with a stronger correlation after adjusting for available carbohydrate (r=0.615, P=0.005). The higher faecal SCFA in OWO individuals is not because of differences in SCFA absorption or diet. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that OWO individuals produce more colonic SCFA than LN individuals because of differences in colonic microbiota. However, further studies are needed to prove this.

  2. THE TECHNIQUE OF DIAGNOSTICS OF THE PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article due to the need for diagnostics of the production capacity of the organization. Formed methodological framework for evaluating the production potential of the organization. Research capacity will also enable the organization to timely respond to current changes. A classification of types of diagnostics of the production capacity of the organization according to the following criteria: timing, goals, content, purpose results. The article discusses the economic and organizational diagnosis of the production capacity of the organization. Economic diagnosis is based on the calculation of indicators of use of resources of the organization. Organizational diagnosis assesses the security of the organization's activities. Diagnosis productive capacity is the basis for improvement of the organization's activities. Defined diagnostics of the production capacity of the organization. Justified the selection stages of the research production potential. The first stage is the preliminary diagnosis. The second stage provides for the rapid diagnosis of production potential. At the third stage it is advisable to perform problem diagnosis. Problem diagnosis consists of economic and organizational diagnosis. Economic diagnosis assesses the state of the elements of the production potential of the organization. Organizational diagnostics analyses provide productive capacity. The fourth stage is represented by the solution of the problems of utilization of production capacity. Each stage is considered, has its content and specific diagnostic methods of production potential. This method allows determining the state of the elements, the efficiency of utilization of production capacity. The estimation of the production potential is based on the application of utility theory. This assessment provides a definition of the criteria and the scale of usefulness. This will allow you to measure the production potential numerically. In the end, it is revealed

  3. Mapping grassland productivity with 250-m eMODIS NDVI and SSURGO database over the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Bliss, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed and described a relationship between satellite-derived growing season averaged Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and annual productivity for grasslands within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) of the United States. We compared growing season averaged NDVI (GSN) with Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database rangeland productivity and flux tower Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) for grassland areas. The GSN was calculated for each of nine years (2000–2008) using the 7-day composite 250-m eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. Strong correlations exist between the nine-year mean GSN (MGSN) and SSURGO annual productivity for grasslands (R2 = 0.74 for approximately 8000 pixels randomly selected from eight homogeneous regions within the GPRB; R2 = 0.96 for the 14 cluster-averaged points). Results also reveal a strong correlation between GSN and flux tower growing season averaged GPP (R2 = 0.71). Finally, we developed an empirical equation to estimate grassland productivity based on the MGSN. Spatially explicit estimates of grassland productivity over the GPRB were generated, which improved the regional consistency of SSURGO grassland productivity data and can help scientists and land managers to better understand the actual biophysical and ecological characteristics of grassland systems in the GPRB. This final estimated grassland production map can also be used as an input for biogeochemical, ecological, and climate change models.

  4. Plasma temperature during methylene blue/light treatment influences virus inactivation capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravemann, U; Handke, W; Sumian, C; Alvarez, I; Reichenberg, S; Müller, T H; Seltsam, A

    2018-02-27

    Photodynamic treatment using methylene blue (MB) and visible light is in routine use for pathogen inactivation of human plasma in different countries. Ambient and product temperature conditions for human plasma during production may vary between production sites. The influence of different temperature conditions on virus inactivation capacity and plasma quality of the THERAFLEX MB-Plasma procedure was investigated in this study. Plasma units equilibrated to 5 ± 2°C, room temperature (22 ± 2°C) or 30 ± 2°C were treated with MB/light and comparatively assessed for the inactivation capacity for three different viruses, concentrations of MB and its photoproducts, activity of various plasma coagulation factors and clotting time. Reduced solubility of the MB pill was observed at 5 ± 2°C. Photocatalytic degradation of MB increased with increasing temperature, and the greatest formation of photoproducts (mainly azure B) occurred at 30 ± 2°C. Inactivation of suid herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and vesicular stomatitis virus was significantly lower at 5 ± 2°C than at higher temperatures. MB/light treatment affected clotting times and the activity of almost all investigated plasma proteins. Factor VIII (-17·7 ± 8·3%, 22 ± 2°C) and fibrinogen (-14·4 ± 16·4%, 22 ± 2°C) showed the highest decreases in activity. Increasing plasma temperatures resulted in greater changes in clotting time and higher losses of plasma coagulation factor activity. Temperature conditions for THERAFLEX MB-Plasma treatment must be carefully controlled to assure uniform quality of pathogen-reduced plasma in routine production. Inactivation of cooled plasma is not recommended. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. New product introduction and capacity investment by incumbents: Effects of size on strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawid, H.; Kopel, M.; Kort, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a duopoly where capacity-constrained firms offer an established product and have the option to offer an additional new and differentiated product. We show that the firm with the smaller capacity on the established market has a higher incentive to innovate and reaches a larger market share

  6. Improvement of meat production capacity in reindeer farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The poster describes the main activities in a joint Swedish-Norwegian research project. The ultimate purpose is to develope tools for individual production control and flock management in domestic reindeer production.

  7. Saldanha Bay, South Africa III: new production and carrying capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that the total annual production of mussels and oysters, respectively, for a 1 000-ha cultivation area is approximately 40 000–53 000 t y–1 (mainly Mytilus galloprovincialis) and 4 600–6 000 t y–1 (Crassotrea gigas). The combined total production figures constitute only 24–31% of the surplus new production.

  8. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 States, 1980 through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity in the lower 48 States from 1980 through 1992 and project this capacity from 1993 through 1995. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate to meet demand. In the 1970's the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (split between interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980's, lower demand, together with increased drilling, led to a large surplus capacity as new productive capacity came on line. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices fell, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, the decline in this surplus, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. These concerns should have been moderated by the gas system's performance during the unusually severe winter weather in March 1993 and January 1994. The declining trend in wellhead productive capacity is expected to be reversed in 1994 if natural gas prices and drilling meet or exceed the base case assumption. This study indicates that in the low, base, and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1995 in the lower 48 States (Figure ES1). Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations such as pipeline capacity. Beyond 1995, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply

  9. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21, TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60, HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23, insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09 and C-reactive protein (CRP (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38 after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  10. Assessment of Production Skill Acquisition and Strategy for Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    The study was a survey research which investigated the production skills possessed by .... like creative thinking, decision making, marketing etc. (Olutoyin ... difficult to get teaching jobs or set up and handle their own businesses which resulted ...

  11. Land Potential Productivity and Population Carrying Capacity of Yan’an City

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The productivity attenuation method is adopted to calculate land potential productivity of counties of Yan’an City and calculate population carrying capacity at current productivity level. Rsults shows that high photosynthetic potential productivity area and high light and temperature potential productivity area are mainly situated in the north, while high climatic potential area and high land potential productivity area are mainly concentrated in the south. From solar radiation, moisture a...

  12. Global exploration and production capacity for platinum-group metals from 1995 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Platinum-group metals (PGMs) are required in a variety of commercial, industrial, and military applications for many existing and emerging technologies, yet the United States is highly dependent on foreign sources of PGMs. Information on global exploration for PGMs since 1995 has been used in this study as a basis for identifying locations where the industry has determined that exploration has provided data sufficient to warrant development of a new mine or expansion of an existing operation or where a significant increase in capacity for PGMs is anticipated by 2015. Discussions include an overview of the industry and the selected sites, factors affecting mineral supply, and circumstances leading to the development of mineral properties with the potential to affect mineral supply. Of the 52 sites or regional operations that were considered in this analysis, 16 sites were producing before 1995, 28 sites commenced production from 1995 through 2010, and 8 sites were expected to begin production from 2011 through 2015 if development plans came to fruition. The United States imports PGMs primarily from Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe to meet increasing demand for these materials in a variety of specialized and high-tech applications. Feed sources of PGMs are changing in South Africa and Russia, which together accounted for about 89 percent of platinum production and 82 percent of palladium production in 2009. A greater amount of South African PGM capacity is likely to come from deeper, higher cost Upper Group Reef seam 2 deposits and deposits in the Eastern Bushveld area. Future Russian PGM capacity is likely to come from ore zones with generally lower PGM content and different platinum-to-palladium ratios than the nickel-rich ore that dominated PGM supply in the 1990s. Because PGM supply from Canada and Russia is derived as a byproduct of copper and nickel mining, the PGM supply from these countries is influenced by economic, environmental, political, and

  13. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  14. Industrial Law and the Productive Capacity of Labour in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Enya Nwocha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Paper has discussed the various employment laws in the country and the inherent defects in them that have impacted negatively on staff productivity. The Paper came against the background of the low productive output of the Nigerian worker that has adversely affected the growth of the national economy and created room for fraud and corruption in the public service as well as the private sector. The Paper has found that aside of defective labour laws, the mentality of Nigerian courts to labour disputes, the negative attitude of Nigerian workers and poor work ethics, and the poor conditions of service in the labour sector all contribute to low output and productivity. Therefore, the Paper has suggested ways that these negative trends can be reversed among them, the amendment of the extant industrial laws and improvement of the working conditions of the Nigerian employee.

  15. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  16. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  17. Serum triiodothyronine levels and inflammatory cytokine production capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B.; Wijsman, Carolien A.; Frölich, Marijke; De Craen, Anton J M; Van Heemst, Diana

    Increasing evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines are at play in lowering peripheral thyroid hormone levels during critical illness. Conversely, thyroid hormones have been suggested to enhance production of inflammatory cytokines. In view of these considerations, we hypothesized a mutual

  18. Regional softwood sawmill processing variables as influenced by productive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. H. Steele; F. G. Wagner; K. E. Skog

    The relationship between annual softwood sawmill production and lumber processing variables was examined using data from Sawmill Improvement Program (SIP) studies of 650 softwood mills. The variables were lumber recovery factor (LRF); headrig and resaw kerf width; total sawing variation, rough green size, and oversizing-undersizing for 4/4 and 8/4 lumber; planer...

  19. Soft wheat and flour products methods review: solvent retention capacity equation correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the results of a significant change to calculations made within AACCI Approved methods 56-10 and 56-11, the Alkaline Water Retention Capacity (AWRC) test and the Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) test. The AACCI Soft Wheat and Flour Products Technical Committee reviewed propos...

  20. Molt salts reactors capacity for wastes incineration and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.; Nuttin, A.

    2005-01-01

    The molten salt reactors present many advantages in the framework of the IV generation systems development for the energy production and/or the wastes incineration. After a recall of the main studies realized on the molten salt reactors, this document presents the new concepts and the identified research axis: the MSRE project and experience, the incinerators concepts, the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  1. Enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity of a nutritionally important cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Usha; Pandey, J

    2008-07-01

    A diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostochopsis lobatus was evaluated for enhanced production of biomass, pigments and antioxidant capacity. N. lobatus showed potentially high antioxidant capacity (46.12 microM AEAC) with significant improvement under immobilized cell cultures (87.05 microM AEAC). When a mixture of P and Fe was supplemented, biomass, pigments, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity increased substantially at pH 7.8. When considered separately, P appeared to be a better supplement than Fe for the production of biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoids. However, for phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, nutritive value and antioxidant capacity, Fe appeared more effective than P. Our study indicates N. lobatus to be a promising bioresource for enhanced production of nutritionally rich biomass, pigments and antioxidants. The study also suggests that P and Fe are potentially effective supplements for scale-up production for commercial application.

  2. Capacity of a quantum memory channel correlated by matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulherkar, Jaideep; Sunitha, V.

    2018-04-01

    We study the capacity of a quantum channel where channel acts like controlled phase gate with the control being provided by a one-dimensional quantum spin chain environment. Due to the correlations in the spin chain, we get a quantum channel with memory. We derive formulas for the quantum capacity of this channel when the spin state is a matrix product state. Particularly, we derive exact formulas for the capacity of the quantum memory channel when the environment state is the ground state of the AKLT model and the Majumdar-Ghosh model. We find that the behavior of the capacity for the range of the parameters is analytic.

  3. Investment in the capacity of production in a simulate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hartmut Kopittke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing with the theory about performance, strategic administration and business games, this study presents an evaluation and innovation approach of the GI-Logística business games. Initially, it is made a presentation of the business games, indicating your characteristic principal, objectives and conduction of the elements for take of decision with focus in the investments in the working production. The second section approaches the administration methodology and evaluation of performance of Balanced Scorecard, with emphasis in the processes of operations. The tool Balanced Scorecard will be described to be used as mark for the updatings in the GI-Logística business games. Finally, they are suggested alterations in the GI-Logística business games, as well as the due alterations in your didactic material of support.

  4. Determining the production capacity of train transportation for overburden removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knahl, G; Szabados, L; Nowotny, A

    1980-02-01

    Details of two computer programs developed at the Institute of Energetics in Leipzig, GDR for use on large BESM-6 computer of the Institute are provided. One is the so-called time funds program concentrating on coal and overburden output, production time requirements and time losses. The other is a simulation program for overburden removal by train. It includes 14 pieces of heavy mining equipment, six industrial consumers and a rail network with 80 connections and 40 trains. The program was used with success in 1979 and will be further developed. Additional utilization is seen in projecting transportation in new surface mines, optimizing rail transport in existing mines for the preparation of annual train transportation plans. (In German)

  5. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  6. Challenges facing the financing of oil production capacity in the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi-Aad, Naji.

    1995-01-01

    The estimates of the required capital for maintaining and expanding oil production capacity in the 'Big Five' producers in the Gulf (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Emirates) are large numbers. In fact, looking at the total cost of raising the Gulf oil production capacity from 18.5 million b/d in 1990 to 26.8 million b/d in the year 2005, the eventual sum is likely to end up at around $192 billion (1990 $) of which about $150 billion will be required as normal investment to maintain current output levels, and a further $42 billion will be necessary to develop new capacities. In short, the Gulf countries will need to spend an average of $12-13 billion per year to maintain current production and to raise some 8.3 million b/d of new capacity by 2005. (author)

  7. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp......The experience gained during production ramp-up leads to an increase of the effective production capacity over time. However, full utilisation of production capacity is not always possible during ramp-up. In such cases, the experience gained and hence the available effective capacity...... are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...

  8. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production and... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  9. Production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Shenyang [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China). Bureau of Electric Power Machinery

    1995-07-01

    This document presents an overview on the production capacity of equipment for medium and large hydroelectric power plant in China. The document approaches general aspects, production capability and testing facilities related to Francis, Kaplan, tubular and impulse hydroelectric generating sets, and the introduction of main manufacturers as well.

  10. Polynomial Time Algorithms For Some Multi-Level Lot-Sizing Problems With Production Capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); D. Romero Morales (Dolores); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a model for a serial supply chain in which production, inventory, and transportation decisions are integrated, in the presence of production capacities and for different transportation cost functions. The model we study is a generalization of the traditional single-item

  11. Assessing refinery capacity and readiness to take Canadian product : is Canadian crude pushing or pulling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesner, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation addressed some of the challenges facing oil sands production in Canada. Refinery products and refining investments were discussed, as was the impact of alternative crude supply on the markets and pricing of oil sands. The oils sands products discussed include various qualities of sweet synthetic crude oil produced via upgraders; virgin and cracked intermediate products from oil sands upgraders; mined or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) produced bitumen blended products; and synthetic heavy crude produced via hydrocracking. Products were listed in terms of ease of production, and a rationale for generic ranking was provided. A chart of 2003 characteristics of non-Canadian imports to the mid-west United States was provided. Various marketing strategies for different oil sands products were discussed, as well as issues concerning logistics. Strategies for the development of a bigger market include producer investment in refining capability; the acquisition of refining assets; investment in refiners' upgrading capability; and securing a long term supply deal. Core and extended markets for Western Canadian oil sands products were reviewed. A chart of North American refining capacity was presented. Details of a refinery with both coking and cracking capacity were examined. An increase in hydro processing capacity and expanded coking capacity, as well as an upgrade of metallurgy were suggested as possible upgrading options. Various refinery configurations were discussed in relation to lower cost feedstocks and clean fuels specifications. Issues concerning crude supply were examined with reference to pricing parity points and declines in traditional crude production. Specific supply issues concerning oil sands production were discussed, including transportation costs; adequate refining capacity; and availability of supply. Various logistic investments were considered. A map of BP's 5 U.S. refineries was presented. A forecast of expected changes in

  12. Health risk assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls contaminations in dairy products from selected farms in Greater Accra Region - Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, D.

    2013-07-01

    The residual concentrations of synthetic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides (OCPs), pyrethroids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese) from selected farms in Greater Accra were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). A total of 50 samples of dairy products (9 cheese, 25 cow milk and 16 yogourt) were analyzed for OCPs, prethroids and PCBs. Of the numerious pesticides evaluated, detectable levels of OCPs (β-HCH, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, p ' p-DDT and methoxchlor); synthetic prethroids (permathrin, allethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and PCBs (18, 28, 52, 101, 153, 138, and 180) were found in all the dairy product samples analysed. Milk samples were found to be the most contaminated with respect to the OCPs and the levels ranged between 0.0001µg/ml and 0.0407µg/ml. ß-HCH was the highest OCP with concentration of 0.0407µg/ml while cyfluthrin was the highest synthetic prethroids recorded in yoghurt sample (0.0318µg/ml). The highest PCB 18 (2,2,5-Trichlorobiphenyl) recorded (0.2668µg/ml) in yoghurt samples. (Data obtained from the field survey regarding safe use of pesticides, toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers indicated that a very high proportion of animal farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 70% of farm workers did not practise safety precaution during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness including nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, dizziness, diarrhoea and headaches in this agricultural community. The presence of pesticide residues in dairy products was of further concern because milk is the main protein diet for infants. The estimated dose for γ-chlordane(8.5x10 5 µ/ml), endrin(0.0114 µg/ml) p ' p ' -DDT(8.5x10 5 µg/ml), DDE(8.5x10 5 µg/ml),heptachlor(2.5x10 5 µg/ml), dieldrin(6.8x10 5 µg/ml) do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present

  13. A Method of Flow-Shop Re-Scheduling Dealing with Variation of Productive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo KURIHARA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We can make optimum scheduling results using various methods that are proposed by many researchers. However, it is very difficult to process the works on time without delaying the schedule. There are two major causes that disturb the planned optimum schedules; they are (1the variation of productive capacity, and (2the variation of products' quantities themselves. In this paper, we deal with the former variation, or productive capacities, at flow-shop works. When production machines in a shop go out of order at flow-shops, we cannot continue to operate the productions and we have to stop the production line. To the contrary, we can continue to operate the shops even if some workers absent themselves. Of course, in this case, the production capacities become lower, because workers need to move from a machine to another to overcome the shortage of workers and some shops cannot be operated because of the worker shortage. We developed a new re-scheduling method based on Branch-and Bound method. We proposed an equation for calculating the lower bound for our Branch-and Bound method in a practical time. Some evaluation experiments are done using practical data of real flow-shop works. We compared our results with those of another simple scheduling method, and we confirmed the total production time of our result is shorter than that of another method by 4%.

  14. Procedures to determine the guaranteed production capacity of a heavy water plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, Marius

    1999-01-01

    The capacity of a heavy water plant is determined by its design and represents a product between the plant production/hour and the running time. The production/hour is calculated for steady state conditions and the running time is estimated by the designer. Actually, the isotopic separation process takes place in unsteady state conditions and the working time is affected by equipment failure or even damages, after which a relaxation time is necessary for isotopic profile recovery along the separation columns. To determine the actual capacity, the designed capacity is corrected by the product of three coefficients: availability, reliability, and relaxation. The knowledge of the above mentioned coefficients allows the determination of the actual plant capacity; this is important also for further improvements of the separation technology and represents research objectives during the whole existence of such a plant in order to maintain it at an international level of competitiveness. The detailed content of the three coefficients and the way they were determined and experimentally verified on an industrial pilot plant for heavy water production by isotopic exchange at two temperatures in H 2 O - H 2 S system, are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Developing a Personnel Capacity Indicator for a high turnover Cartographic Production Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarino, Flávia; Pessôa, Leonardo A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a framework for development of an indicator for human re-sources capacity management in a military organization responsible for nautical chart production. Graphic chart for the results of the model COPPE-COSENZA (Cosenza et al. 2015) is used to properly present the personnel capacity within a high people turnover environment. The specific skills for the nautical charts production allied to the turnover rate require continuous and adequate personnel in-corporation and a capacity building through education and on-the-job training. The adopted approach for the study establishes quantitative values to fulfill quality requirements, and also presents graphically a profile for the human resources on a specific job to facilitate diagnosis and corrective actions.

  16. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included

  17. Production capacity of metallurgical enterprises in modular structure of management accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrzhitskaia E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of constant research in development of management accounting at modern Russian metallurgical works. The required steps of renovation are presented for the modernization of management accounting system in the case of production capacity. The necessary factors with defined values are systematized for modern enterprises. The main ones are those which are regulate the measure of the payload of production capacity. For the purposes of effective management accounting at metallurgical enterprises it is suggested to use the system of controlling parameters which were formulated for the enterprise for production of rolls. Later in the article the necessary changes to the modular structure of management accounting business are described and expanded with new structural element – “Management of production capacity”. The suggested methodical approach will allow the company management to respond quickly to rapidly changing external environment and, as a consequence, to make effective management decisions.

  18. Capacity building improve Malaysia's inspection and monitoring system for aquaculture and fishery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, G.J.M.; Zoontjes, P.W.; Essers, M.L.; Klijnstra, M.; Gerssen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The project aimed to help build a credible inspection and monitoring system that can guarantee safe quality products of Ministry of Health (MoH) and Department of Fisheries (DoF) by upgrading the analytical capacity of the laboratory staff directly involved in the analysis and detection of forbidden

  19. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  20. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains

  1. RDT&E Laboratory Capacity Utilization and Productivity Measurement Methods for Financial Decision-Making within DON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haupt, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... Industry capacity utilization and productivity measurement techniques and models were evaluated for their potential application to the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) RDT&E organization...

  2. Uranium from Coal Ash: Resource Assessment and Outlook on Production Capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Uranium production from coal-ash is technically feasible: in some situations, it could reach commercial development, in such case, fast lead time will be a plus. Technically accessible resources are significant (1.1 to 4.5 MtU). Yet most of those are low grade. Potential reserves don’t exceed 200 ktU (cut-off grade = 200 ppm). • By-product uranium production => constrained production capacities; • Realistic production potential < 700 tU/year; • ~ 1% of current needs. → Coal ash will not be a significant source of uranium for the 21st century – even if production constrains are released (increase in coal consumption

  3. Absorptive Capacity and Innovation: An Overview of International Scientific Production of Last Twenty-Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennys Eduardo Rossetto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to achieve an overview of international scientific production on absorptive and innovation capacities in order to mapping the academic contributions already made between 1990 and 2015 (last 25 years. Bibliometric methods, and social network analysis were used to understand the behavior of 1,693 published articles and analysis of key works cited. Most notably, the growing publication with related topics, in approximate exponential growth, concentration of work into five groups and six cocitação periodic coupling groups, indicating possible fields for publication related to the themes absorptive capacity and innovation. The analysis of the key articles cited identifies the themes and methods used, as well as understand the context of the themes absorptive capacity and innovation.

  4. Transportation and Production Lot-size for Sugarcane under Uncertainty of Machine Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudtachat Kanchala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated transportation and production lot size problems is important effect to total cost of operation system for sugar factories. In this research, we formulate a mathematic model that combines these two problems as two stage stochastic programming model. In the first stage, we determine the lot size of transportation problem and allocate a fixed number of vehicles to transport sugarcane to the mill factory. Moreover, we consider an uncertainty of machine (mill capacities. After machine (mill capacities realized, in the second stage we determine the production lot size and make decision to hold units of sugarcane in front of mills based on discrete random variables of machine (mill capacities. We investigate the model using a small size problem. The results show that the optimal solutions try to choose closest fields and lower holding cost per unit (at fields to transport sugarcane to mill factory. We show the results of comparison of our model and the worst case model (full capacity. The results show that our model provides better efficiency than the results of the worst case model.

  5. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  6. Capacity of US Forests to Maintain Existing Carbon Sequestration will be affected by Changes in Forest Disturbances and to a greater extent, the Economic and Societal Influences on Forest Management and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, L. A.; Running, S. W.; Breshears, D. D.; Dale, V.; Malmsheimer, R. W.; Sampson, N.; Sohngen, B.; Woodall, C. W.

    2012-12-01

    Increasingly the value of US forest carbon dynamics and carbon sequestration is being recognized in discussions of adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Past exploitation of forestlands in the United States for timber, fuelwood, and conversion to agriculture resulted in large swings in forestland area and terrestrial carbon dynamics. The National Climate Assessment explored the implications of current and future stressors, including climate change, to the future of forest carbon dynamics in the United States. While U.S forests and associated harvested wood products sequestered roughly 13 percent of all carbon dioxide emitted in the United States in 2010, the capacity of forests to maintain this amount of carbon sequestration will be affected by the effects of climate change on forest disturbances, tree growth and mortality, changes in species composition, and to a greater extent, the economic and societal influences on forest management and forestland use. Carbon mitigation through forest management includes three strategies: 1) land management to increase forest area (afforestation) and/or avoid deforestation; 2) carbon management in existing forests; and 3) use of wood in place of materials that require more carbon emissions to produce, in place of fossil fuels to produce energy or in wood products for carbon storage. A significant financial incentive facing many private forest owners is the value of their forest lands for conversion to urban or developed uses. In addition, consequences of large scale die-off and wildfire disturbance events from climate change pose major challenges to forestland area and forest management with potential impacts occurring up to regional scales for timber, flooding and erosion risks, other changes in water budgets, and biogeochemical changes including carbon storage. Options for carbon management on existing forests include practices that increase forest growth such as fertilization, irrigation, switch to fast

  7. Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2008-02-01

    The water holding capacity of meat products is a very important quality attribute which has an influence on product yield, which in turn has economic implications, but is also important in terms of eating quality. A number of pre-and post-mortem factors influence the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. During the growth and development of meat animals, genotype and animal diet are important due to their direct influence on muscle characteristics. In the immediate pre-slaughter period, stresses on the animal such as fasting, and different stunning methods are likely to influence meat WHC. In the post-slaughter period chilling, ageing, injecting non-meat ingredients, as well as tumbling have important influences on WHC. Furthermore, cooking and cooling procedures for the final meat products can also affect the WHC of the product, in particular the cooking and the cooling methods, the heating and the cooling rate, the cooking temperature, and the endpoint temperature. This paper provides an overview of recent research on important intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect the WHC of beef, pork, and lamb products, and reveals explanations and solutions to some of the critical problems related to WHC and product quality.

  8. Evaluation of empowerment program to increase production capacity of fishery processing business in Semarang City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.; Roessali, W.; Wijayanti, I.; Anggo, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the empowerment program to increase the production capacity of fishery product processing. Empowerment program was the implementation and utilization of science and technology in the area (IPTEKDA) LIPI Indonesia for Higher Education. Activity carried out in 2016 on fish processing industry “Lumintu Group”. Implementation of activities includes the transfer of technology to increase production capacity, business capital assistance in the form of production equipment, production assistance, and business management. This study uses qualitative, descriptive analysis, data collection with observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The results showed that the total number of active members was 24 people, 50% of the members specially cultivated the smoked fish that is the type of Catfish (Arius thalassinus) and Stingray (Dasyatis sp), while 45.83% of members processed boneless milkfish, and 4,17% produce salted fish. Increased average production scale of 31.82% in smoked fish business, 12.4% in boneless milkfish and 38.89% in salted fish business. Willingness to return capital in the good category, meaning that all members were able to carry out the schedule of relative payback on time. Approximately 83.3% of the group members felt that the program that followed had greatly assisted in increasing the scale of business but hoped to improve skills in terms of processing and marketing.

  9. Multiple energy supply risks, optimal reserves, and optimal domestic production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.; Ferrari, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study starts from the observation that today's Western trading nations are exposed to multiple risks of energy supplies, e.g. simultaneous shortage of oil and electricity supplies. To cope with these risks, oil can be stockpiled as well as domestic capacity for power production built up. Adopting the viewpoint of a policy maker who aims at minimizing the expected cost of security of supply, optimal simultaneous adjustments of oil stocks and electric production capacities to exogenous changes such as economic growth are derived. Against this benchmark, one-dimensional rules such as 'oil reserves for 90 days' turn out to be not only suboptimal but also to foster adjustments that exacerbate suboptimality. 9 refs., 1 tabs

  10. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  11. Urban food crop production capacity and competition with the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J Richardson; L. Monika Moskal

    2016-01-01

    The sourcing of food plays a significant role in assessing the sustainability of a city, but it is unclear how much food a city can produce within its city limits. In this study, we propose a method for estimating the maximum food crop production capacity of a city and demonstrate the method in Seattle, WA USA by taking into account land use, the light environment, and...

  12. Stability measures for rolling schedules with applications to capacity expansion planning, master production scheduling, and lot sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimms, Alf

    1996-01-01

    This contribution discusses the measurement of (in-)stability of finite horizon production planning when done on a rolling horizon basis. As examples we review strategic capacity expansion planning, tactical master production schedulng, and operational capacitated lot sizing.

  13. Research on the Decision Model for Self-Production and Outsourcing Choices under Limited Production Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Y.-T. Chang; C.-Y. Lo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the face of competitive environments with uncertain demands and a trend toward High-Mix, Low-Volume (HMLV) production, self-production or direct outsourcing has troubled decision-makers of enterprise for a long time. In the previous studies, not much has been written about the topic. Approach: Therefore, this study applies the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to investigate the topic through either qualitative or quantitative decision-making factors that influence enterp...

  14. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

  15. Implementation plan for the new production reactor capacity environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposed to site, construct, and operate new production reactor (NPR) capacity intended primarily to produce tritium and secondarily to produce plutonium for the US nuclear weapons program. DOE studies show that this new capacity is needed to ensure reliable maintenance of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. It also is essential that these necessary nuclear materials be produced in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The DOE has determined that this proposed action constitutes a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment; therefore, the DOE will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to assess the potential impacts of the proposed action and reasonable alternatives on the human and natural environment. The EIS will be prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as implemented in regulations promulgated by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). This EIS implementation plan (IP) includes a description of the proposed action, descriptions of alternatives, a summary of EIS assumptions, a list of environmental issues to be considered in the EIS (including those identified during public scoping activities), a list of proposed agency consultations, a schedule for EIS preparation and related activities, and an annotated outline for the EIS. It is the Department's intent that the EIS on the NPR capacity will serve as the programmatic National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of modernization of DOE defense nuclear materials production of tritium and plutonium. The Department is currently developing a NEPA compliance strategy for modernization of the remainder of the nuclear weapons production complex, which will reference the EIS on NPR capacity. 7 refs., 8 tabs

  16. Improving the hydrogen production capacity of Rhodobacter capsulatus by genetically modifying redox balancing pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztuerk, Yavuz [TUEBITAK Research Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Gebze Kocaeli (Turkey); Goekce, Abdulmecit [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Genetics; Guergan, Muazzez; Yuecel, Meral [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    In Rhodobacter capsulatus, balancing the oxidation-reduction potential (redox-balance) is maintained via a number of inter-dependent regulatory mechanisms that enable these organisms to accommodate divergent growth modes. In order to maintain redox homeostasis, this bacterium possesses regulatory mechanisms functioning as electron sinks affecting the oxidation-reduction state of the ubiquinone pool. Under the photoheterotrophic growth conditions with reduced carbon sources, the excess reducing equivalents are primarily consumed via the reduction of CO{sub 2} through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) pathway or by the reduction of protons into hydrogen with the use of dinitrogenase enzyme system. In this study, our aim was to develop strategies to funnel the excess reducing equivalents to nitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production by blocking the carbon-fixation pathway. To realize this purpose, CO{sub 2} fixation was blocked by inactivating the Phosphoribulokinase (PRK) of CBB pathway in wild type (MT1131), uptake-hydrogenase (YO3) and cyt cbb{sub 3} oxidase deficient (YO4) strains. The hydrogen production capacity of newly generated strains deficient in the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway were analyzed and compared with wild type strains. The results indicated that, the hydrogen production efficiency and capacity of R. capsulatus was further improved by directing the excess reducing equivalents to dinitrogenase-dependent hydrogen production. (orig.)

  17. Peak capacity, peak-capacity production rate, and boiling point resolution for temperature-programmed GC with very high programming rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall; Leonard; Sacks

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in column heating technology have made possible very fast linear temperature programming for high-speed gas chromatography. A fused-silica capillary column is contained in a tubular metal jacket, which is resistively heated by a precision power supply. With very rapid column heating, the rate of peak-capacity production is significantly enhanced, but the total peak capacity and the boiling-point resolution (minimum boiling-point difference required for the separation of two nonpolar compounds on a nonpolar column) are reduced relative to more conventional heating rates used with convection-oven instruments. As temperature-programming rates increase, elution temperatures also increase with the result that retention may become insignificant prior to elution. This results in inefficient utilization of the down-stream end of the column and causes a loss in the rate of peak-capacity production. The rate of peak-capacity production is increased by the use of shorter columns and higher carrier gas velocities. With high programming rates (100-600 degrees C/min), column lengths of 6-12 m and average linear carrier gas velocities in the 100-150 cm/s range are satisfactory. In this study, the rate of peak-capacity production, the total peak capacity, and the boiling point resolution are determined for C10-C28 n-alkanes using 6-18 m long columns, 50-200 cm/s average carrier gas velocities, and 60-600 degrees C/min programming rates. It was found that with a 6-meter-long, 0.25-mm i.d. column programmed at a rate of 600 degrees C/min, a maximum peak-capacity production rate of 6.1 peaks/s was obtained. A total peak capacity of about 75 peaks was produced in a 37-s long separation spanning a boiling-point range from n-C10 (174 degrees C) to n-C28 (432 degrees C).

  18. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Aneta; Cimpeanu, Carmen; Predoi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species' influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s) of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method's performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method. PMID:28044094

  19. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  20. EFL Speech Production: Exploring the relationship between working memory capacity and proficiency level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira PREBIANCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and proficiency level in EFL1 speech production. Forty-one participants performed two WMC tests – the Speaking Span Test in L1 and in L2. The statistical analysis indicated both a variation on WMC scores in L2 as a function of proficiency as well as a difference between WMC scores in L1 and in L2. Findings are explained mainly in respect to the interplay between automatic and controlled processes on memory retrieval and on the development of L2 proficiency.

  1. A Production Planning Model for Make-to-Order Foundry Flow Shop with Capacity Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of production in the modern manufacturing enterprise mainly prefers to MTO (Make-to-Order; how to reasonably arrange the production plan has become a very common and urgent problem for enterprises’ managers to improve inner production reformation in the competitive market environment. In this paper, a mathematical model of production planning is proposed to maximize the profit with capacity constraint. Four kinds of cost factors (material cost, process cost, delay cost, and facility occupy cost are considered in the proposed model. Different factors not only result in different profit but also result in different satisfaction degrees of customers. Particularly, the delay cost and facility occupy cost cannot reach the minimum at the same time; the two objectives are interactional. This paper presents a mathematical model based on the actual production process of a foundry flow shop. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA is proposed to solve the biobjective problem of the model. Also, the gene encoding and decoding, the definition of fitness function, and genetic operators have been illustrated. In addition, the proposed algorithm is used to solve the production planning problem of a foundry flow shop in a casting enterprise. And comparisons with other recently published algorithms show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  3. Greater loss of productivity among Japanese workers with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms that persist vs resolve on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Matsuzaki, J; Masaoka, T; Inadomi, J M

    2014-06-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) impairs quality of life; however, the association between GERD and work productivity has not been well investigated in Japan. This study was designed to compare the impact of GERD on productivity between Japanese workers with GERD symptoms that persisted vs resolved on medical therapy. A cross-sectional Web-based survey was conducted in workers. The impact of GERD on work and daily productivity was evaluated using a Web-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD and a GERD symptom severity Questionnaire. Demographic information, clinical history, and satisfaction with GERD medication were also ascertained. A total of 20 000 subjects were invited to the survey. After the exclusion of patients with a history of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy, peptic ulcer, upper GI surgery, and unemployment, 650 participants were included in the analysis. Participants with persistent GERD symptoms reported a significantly greater losses of work productivity (11.4 ± 13.4 h/week), absenteeism (0.7 ± 3.1 h/week), presenteeism (10.7 ± 12.6 h/week), costs (20 100 ± 26 800 JPY/week), and lower daily productivity (71.3% [95% confidence interval, 69.0-73.7]) than those whose symptoms were alleviated with medications. The level of dissatisfaction with GERD medications among participants with persistent GERD symptoms was significantly correlated with loss of work and daily productivity (p < 0.001). GERD places a significant burden on work and daily productivity despite medical therapy. Ineffective GERD therapy is associated with greater productivity loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Production capacity of biomass of the floodpain community of Salix alba L. in southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the production capacity of biomass in the seven-year stand of Salix alba L. The communities originated in the process of primary succession in the area of the middle Nové Mlýny reservoir on a newly established island. Already since the first stages, the communities have been monitored. Results have shown that white willow behaves as an R-strategist with fast growth in youth. Moreover, the growth is supported by optimum environmental conditions (soils richly supplied with nutrients and water, long growing season. Accumulated phytomass amounted 102,7 t.ha−1 at the age of 7 years and the yield reached a mean annual increment of 15 t.ha−1.year−1. Communities of white willow rank among highly productive phytocoenoses capable of fixing considerable amounts of carbon and, at the same time fulfilling the function of habitat corridors.

  5. Scaling up the production capacity of U-Mo powder by HMD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, E.E.; Lopez, M.; Helzel Garcia, L.J.; Echenique, P.; Adelfang, P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery that uranium alloys in metastable gamma phase can be hydrided at low temperatures and pressures have allowed developing the method of commuting bulk materials by milling the hydride to desired size and then dehydriding the powder. This process is called HMD (hydriding-milling-dehydriding) and needs an initial step of hydrogen incorporation to allow the alloy to be hydrided. This four step process has been conveniently set up for the production of U-7Mo powder for its use in nuclear fuels. Low equipment investment and low man power are needed for this achievement. The process is being analyzed in its scaling up for one kilogram batches and a 50 kilogram per year production capacity of U-Mo powder. (author)

  6. The Use of Absorptive Capacity in Improving the New Product Development (NPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, W.; Gerardus, P.; Tji, B. J.; Richard, K.

    2017-01-01

    The term Absorptive Capacity (AC) refers to maximizing the external knowledge transfer into the organization in order to improve its performance. Since its introduction in year 1990, AC has been applied widely in many fields such as: economy, business, KM, HR, intellectual capital, IT, operation management, marketing, etc. Due to its wide application, nevertheless, The AC application in both Indonesian industry and higher education institutions (HEIs) are still rare to find. The Indonesian Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) has encouraged creating effective collaboration model that enables to link the HEIs with the industries in order to improve knowledge creation in improving product development that can be used by the firms. For this reason, the article examines the effective AC model that enables to assist in improving new product development (NPD) process in the polytechnic perspectives.

  7. Effects of spray drying on antioxidant capacity and anthocyanidin content of blueberry by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kar; Ma, Mitzi; Dolan, Kirk D

    2011-09-01

    The effect of spray drying on degradation of nutraceutical components in cull blueberry extract was investigated. Samples collected before and after spray drying were tested for antioxidant capacity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL) ) and total phenolics; and for individual anthocyanidins. In Study 1, four different levels of maltodextrin (blueberry solids to maltodextrin ratios of 5: 95, 10: 90, 30: 70, and 50: 50) were spray dried a pilot-scale spray dryer. There was significantly higher retention of nutraceutical components with increased levels of maltodextrin indicating a protective effect of maltodextrin on the nutraceutical components during spray drying. In Study 2, the air inlet temperature of the spray dryer was kept constant for all runs at 150 °C, with 2 different outlet temperatures of 80 and 90 °C. The degradation of nutraceutical components was not significantly different at the 2 selected outlet temperatures. ORAC(FL) reduction for blueberry samples after spray drying was 66.3% to 69.6%. After spray drying, total phenolics reduction for blueberry was 8.2% to 17.5%. Individual anthocyanidin reduction for blueberry was 50% to 70%. The experimental spray dried powders compared favorably to commercial blueberry powders. Results of the study show that use of blueberry by-products is feasible to make a value-added powder. Results can be used by producers to estimate final nutraceutical content of spray-dried blueberry by-products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Earlier production, more and heavier fruits: The higher the haze, the greater the extra production (interview with Jan Janse and Sonny Moerenhout)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, T.; Janse, J.; Moerenhout, S.

    2012-01-01

    Early cucumbers grown under diffuse glass have a larger yield than those grown under normal glass right from the start of the cultivation. Following a series of trials carried out over the last few years, Jan Janse of Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture concludes: the higher the haze, the greater

  9. Influence of thermal treatment on color, enzyme activities, and antioxidant capacity of innovative pastelike parsley products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andrea; Brinkmann, Maike; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2012-03-28

    Conventional spice powders are often characterized by low sensory quality and high microbial loads. Furthermore, genuine enzymes are only inhibited but not entirely inactivated upon drying, so that they may regain their activity upon rehydration of dried foods. To overcome these problems, initial heating was applied in the present study as the first process step for the production of innovative pastelike parsley products. For this purpose, fresh parsley was blanched (80, 90, and 100 °C for 1-10 min) and subsequently comminuted to form a paste. Alternatively, mincing was carried out prior to heat treatment. Regardless of temperature, the color of the latter product did not show any change after heating for 1 min. With progressing exposure time the green color turned to olive hues due to marked pheophytin formation. Inactivation of genuine peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was achieved at all temperature-time regimes applied. In contrast, the parsley products obtained after immediate water-blanching were characterized by brighter green colors and enhanced pigment retention. With the exception of the variants water-blanched at 80 °C, POD and PPO were completely inactivated at any of the thermal treatments. Furthermore, in water-blanched samples, antioxidant capacities as determined by the TEAC and FRAP assays were even enhanced compared to unheated parsley, whereas a decrease of phenolic contents could not be prevented. Consequently, the innovative process presented in this study allows the production of novel herb and spice products characterized by improved sensory quality as compared to conventional spice products.

  10. Enhancing the Feed Capacity of Horticulture Agro-Ecosystem Through Technology for Goat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of feed and their efficiency of use throughout the year represent the most important constraint affecting the productivity of animals in any agro-ecosystems. Beside being the largest contributor to the total production cost, logistically feeds need to be available on a daily basis across the animal’s life time. In order to be competitive, goat production system must be directed toward the optimum utilization of inconventional feedstuffs such as crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. The horticulture crops provide various crop-residues and by products from the processing of its main products. These biomass are potential feedstuffs that could be used to support the production of goats. The processing of passion fruits (Passiflora edulis yield by products such as fruit shells and seeds. These products are good energy and protein sources for growing goats. Oriental radish (Raphanus sativus by-products composed by damaged root parts and culls have high digestible energy and low ether extract content, but have very high moisture content. The pineapple by-products composed by the peel and bagasse of the fruit could be used as energy source for goats. Other horticulture by-products or residues such as citrus pulp, abandoned citrus fruit, forages from Ipomea batatas are of great potential as feeds for goat production. Preserving technology like ensiling could be implemented in utilising those biomass categorized as wet by-products such as pineapple and oriental radish by-products. The technology of complete feed is an effective means in utilizing some of those products with relatively low palatability or to increase its inclusion level in diets. Introducing shade-tolerant forage species as intercrops such as Stenotaphrum secundatum, Brachiaria humidicola and Arachis pintoi in the citrus plantation should increase feed capacity of the area. The multi-purpose trees such as Indigofera sp. and Calliandra calothyrsus both are

  11. Opportunistic Market-Driven Regional Shifts of Cropping Practices Reduce Food Production Capacity of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Shuqing; Dong, Wenjie; Tao, Fulu; Chen, Min; Lin, Hui

    2018-04-01

    China is facing the challenge of feeding a growing population with the declining cropland and increasing shortage of water resources under the changing climate. This study identified that the opportunistic profit-driven shifts of planting areas and crop species composition have strongly reduced the food production capacity of China. First, the regional cultivation patterns of major crops in China have substantially shifted during the past five decades. Southeast and South China, the regions with abundant water resources and fewer natural disasters, have lost large planting areas of cropland in order to pursue industry and commerce. Meanwhile, Northeast and Northwest China, the regions with low water resources and frequent natural disasters, have witnessed increases in planting areas. These macroshifts have reduced the national food production by 1.02% per year. The lost grain production would have been enough to feed 13 million people. Second, the spatial shifts have been accompanied by major changes in crop species composition, with substantial increases in planting area and production of maize, due to its low water consumption and high economic returns. Consequently, the stockpile of maize in China has accounted for more than half of global stockpile, and the stock to use ratio of maize in China has exceeded the reliable level. Market-driven regional shifts of cropping practices have resulted in larger irrigation requirements and aggravated environmental stresses. Our results highlighted the need for Chinese food policies to consider the spatial shifts in cultivation, and the planting crop compositions limited by regional water resources and climate change.

  12. Capacity of Physiotherapy Workforce Production in Thailand: Public-Private Mix, Secular Trend and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsawang, Sarinee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana

    2016-06-01

    In Thailand, the shortage of physiotherapists has been an increasing concern because of increased health burden from demographic and epidemiologic changes. This study aims to analyse the current situation of the physiotherapy workforce production system, secular trend, geographical distribution and comparison of public and private physiotherapy training institutes. Longitudinal data related to production capacity of the physiotherapy institutes were applied. Data from 2008 to 2012 were obtained from all 16 physiotherapy institutes in Thailand. Data during 2000-2007 were also retrieved from annual reports from the Ministry of Education. Descriptive statistics were initially used. Comparison was made between public and private physiotherapy institutes in terms of the number of students admitted and graduated, number of teachers, annual tuition fee, student-teacher ratio and dropout rate within 1 year. Predictive factors for graduation within 4 years were determined using logistic regression. In Thailand, there was an average of 800 physiotherapy graduates per year. New private institutes have been recently established and have steadily increased student admission rates. However, this has resulted in a high student-teacher ratio (median 7.1, inter-quartile range (IQR) 5.9-10.0). The first-year dropout rate in 2012 was 29.1%. Geographically, the majority of the institutes are clustered in the central region. Multivariate analysis revealed significantly lower probability of graduation within 4 years among students admitted to the private institutes and those in non-north-east region. The production capacity of the physiotherapy workforce is below an estimated need. Private physiotherapy institutes need more support to improve the situation of staff shortages and student graduation rates. The non-central regions should be encouraged to produce more physiotherapists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  14. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  15. Biofilm-forming capacity in biogenic amine-producing bacteria isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDiaz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria - both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri, all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis - were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms.

  16. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Louche, A. [Espace de Recherche, Ajaccio (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Analysis of supply chain, scale factor, and optimum plant capacity for the production of ethanol from corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboreiro, Jose; Hilaly, Ahmad K.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed model is used to perform a thorough analysis on ethanol production from corn stover via the dilute acid process. The biomass supply chain cost model accounts for all steps needed to source corn stover including collection, transportation, and storage. The manufacturing cost model is based on work done at NREL; attainable conversions of key process parameters are used to calculate production cost. The choice of capital investment scaling function and scaling parameter has a significant impact on the optimum plant capacity. For the widely used exponential function, the scaling factors are functions of plant capacity. The pre-exponential factor decreases with increasing plant capacity while the exponential factor increases as the plant capacity increases. The use of scaling parameters calculated for small plant capacities leads to falsely large optimum plants; data from a wide range of plant capacities is required to produce accurate results. A mathematical expression to scale capital investment for fermentation-based biorefineries is proposed which accounts for the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) as well as the exponential nature of all other plant equipment. Ignoring the linear scaling behavior of bio-reactors leads to artificially large optimum plant capacities. The minimum production cost is found to be in the range of 789–830 $ m −3 which is significantly higher than previously reported. Optimum plant capacities are in the range of 5750–9850 Mg d −1 . The optimum plant capacity and production cost are highly sensitive to farmer participation in biomass harvest for low participation rates. -- Highlights: •A detailed model is used to perform a technoeconomic analysis for the production of ethanol from corn stover. •The capital investment scaling factors were found to be a function of plant capacity. •Bio-reactors (such as saccharification vessels and fermentors) in large size

  18. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  19. Integral capacity and inventory decision making in a simple production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper deals with the integral acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non zero lead-times for the supply of both materials and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and materials, most of this

  20. Remotely Sensed Estimation of Net Primary Productivity (NPP and Its Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Greater Khingan Mountain Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We improved the CASA model based on differences in the types of land use, the values of the maximum light use efficiency, and the calculation methods of solar radiation. Then, the parameters of the model were examined and recombined into 16 cases. We estimated the net primary productivity (NPP using the NDVI3g dataset, meteorological data, and vegetation classification data from the Greater Khingan Mountain region, China. We assessed the accuracy and temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region from 1982 to 2013. Based on a comparison of the results of the 16 cases, we found that different values of maximum light use efficiency affect the estimation more than differences in the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR. However, the FPARmax and the constant Tε2 values did not show marked effects. Different schemes were used to assess different model combinations. Models using a combination of parameters established by scholars from China and the United States produced different results and had large errors. These ideas are meaningful references for the estimation of NPP in other regions. The results reveal that the annual average NPP in the Greater Khingan Mountain region was 760 g C/m2·a in 1982–2013 and that the inter-annual fluctuations were not dramatic. The NPP estimation results of the 16 cases exhibit an increasing trend. In terms of the spatial distribution of the changes, the model indicated that the values in 75% of this area seldom or never increased. Prominent growth occurred in the areas of Taipingling, Genhe, and the Oroqen Autonomous Banner. Notably, NPP decreased in the southeastern region of the Greater Khingan Mountains, the Hulunbuir Pasture Land, and Holingol.

  1. World Energy Balance Outlook and OPEC Production Capacity: Implications for Global Oil Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh M. Rouhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between energy resource availability, demand, and production capacity, coupled with inherent economic and environmental uncertainties make strategic energy resources planning, management, and decision-making a challenging process. In this paper, a descriptive approach has been taken to synthesize the world’s energy portfolio and the global energy balance outlook in order to provide insights into the role of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC in maintaining “stability” and “balance” of the world’s energy market. This synthesis illustrates that in the absence of stringent policies, i.e., if historical trends of the global energy production and consumption hold into the future, it is unlikely that non-conventional liquid fuels and renewable energy sources will play a dominant role in meeting global energy demand by 2030. This should be a source of major global concern as the world may be unprepared for an ultimate shift to other energy sources when the imminent peak oil production is reached. OPEC’s potential to impact the supply and price of oil could enable this organization to act as a facilitator or a barrier for energy transition policies, and to play a key role in the global energy security through cooperative or non-cooperative strategies. It is argued that, as the global energy portfolio becomes more balanced in the long run, OPEC may change its typical high oil price strategies to drive the market prices to lower equilibria, making alternative energy sources less competitive. Alternatively, OPEC can contribute to a cooperative portfolio management approach to help mitigate the gradually emerging energy crisis and global warming, facilitating a less turbulent energy transition path while there is time.

  2. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  3. A Realistic View of Long-Term Middle East Production Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsam Bakhtiari, Ali [National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran (Iran)

    2003-07-01

    The Middle East is a unique landmass bridging the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia. It now consists of fifteen major countries and one neutral zone. Four of these countries (Afghanistan, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon) are practically devoid of commercial oil resources. And the other eleven jointly control oil reserves estimated by Colin Campbell at 805 bnb (42% of world total) -- made up of 758 bnb discovered and 47 bnb yet-to-find. These eleven countries, which produced on average 20.8 mb/d and 19.3 mb/d in 2001 and 2002 respectively, can be subdivided into three categories: (i) the low producers (4 countries); (ii) the mid-size producers (4 countries); and (iii) the three large producers (Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia). In order to investigate the Middle East's long-term production capacity, the forecasts and scenarios developed by the following experts or institutions were reviewed: (a) Dr. Campbell; (b) the major international institutions (IEA, EIA, OPEC); (c) the major oil companies; (d) the major international banks; (e) the specialised press; (f) prominent economists and consultants; (g) the simulations of the 'World Oil Production Capacity' (WOCAP) model. The most significant results were derived from Dr. Campbell's predictions and the WOCAP model. Both of these show Middle Eastern producers going through a long 'bumpy plateau' between 2003 and 2020 with a gradual ramping down during the second decade. WOCAP's simulations for each of the large three producers are presented and analysed. All in all, the Middle Eastern countries, which produce nearly a third of global crude oil, will continue to play a major role on the global oil stage, a role that, with time, can only tend to become more predominant. And although the region's oil represents over 40% of global reserves and roughly two-thirds of proved reserves, there are limits to its output. For those believing that for Middle East oil 'the sky's the limit

  4. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  5. On the Optimal Policy for the Single-product Inventory Problem with Set-up Cost and a Restricted Production Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foreest, N. D. van; Wijngaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    The single-product, stationary inventory problem with set-up cost is one of the classical problems in stochastic operations research. Theories have been developed to cope with finite production capacity in periodic review systems, and it has been proved that optimal policies for these cases are not

  6. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  7. Link Between Capacity for Current Production and Syntrophic Growth in Geobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia-Elena eRotaru

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes are unnatural electron acceptors, and it is yet unknown how some Geobacter species evolved to use electrodes as terminal electron acceptors. Analysis of different Geobacter species revealed that they varied in their capacity for current production. G. metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus generated high current densities (ca. 0.05 mA/cm2, comparable to G. sulfurreducens. G. bremensis, G. chapellei, G. humireducens, and G. uranireducens, produced much lower currents (ca. 0.05 mA/cm2 and G. bemidjiensis was previously found to not produce current. There was no correspondence between the effectiveness of current generation and Fe(III oxide reduction rates. Some high-current-density strains (G. metallireducens and G. hydrogenophilus reduced Fe(III-oxides as fast as some low-current-density strains (G. bremensis, G. humireducens, and G. uranireducens whereas other low-current-density strains (G. bemidjiensis and G. chapellei reduced Fe(III oxide as slowly as G. sulfurreducens, a high-current-density strain. However, there was a correspondence between the ability to produce higher currents and the ability to grow syntrophically. G. hydrogenophilius was found to grow in co-culture with Methanosarcina barkeri, which is capable of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET, but not with Methanospirillium hungatei capable only of H2 or formate transfer. Conductive granular activated carbon (GAC stimulated metabolism of the G. hydrogenophilus - M. barkeri co-culture, consistent with electron exchange via DIET. These findings, coupled with the previous finding that G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens are also capable of DIET, suggest that evolution to optimize DIET has fortuitiously conferred the capability for high-density current production to some Geobacter species.

  8. Optimizing the Capacity and Operation of U.S. Army Ammunition Production Facilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayram, Vedat

    2002-01-01

    .... The Army must also manage and maintain capacity to replenish ammunition consumed by major theater wars without expanding the industrial base, The combined organic and inorganic industrial base...

  9. The capacity investment decision for make-to-order production systems with demand rate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, J.W.M.; Ooijen, van H.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the capacity investment decision for make-to-order manufacturing firms that utilize a fixed capacity, operate in a stochastic, stationary market, and can influence their demand rate by increasing or decreasing their sales effort. We consider manufacturing situations that

  10. Capacity building to improve the Malaysian inspection and monitoring systems for aquaculture and fisheries products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.; Wegh, R.S.; Zaaijer, S.; Dijk, van J.P.; Gevers, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the content, the approach used and lessons learned during the implementation of a capacity development programme to build the analytical capacity of laboratory staff of the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) who are directly involved in the analysis

  11. Building research capacity and productivity among advanced practice nurses: an evaluation of the Community of Practice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Janice G; West, Sandra H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Wenger's Community of Practice as a framework for building research capacity and productivity. While research productivity is an expected domain in influential models of advanced nursing practice, internationally it remains largely unmet. Establishment of nursing research capacity precedes productivity and consequently, there is a strong imperative to identify successful capacity-building models for nursing-focussed research in busy clinical environments. Prospective, longitudinal, qualitative descriptive design was used in this study. Bruyn's participant observation framed evaluation of a Community of Practice comprising 25 advanced practice nurses. Data from focus groups, education evaluations, blog/email transcripts and field observations, collected between 2007 and 2014, were analysed using a qualitative descriptive method. The Community of Practice model invited differing levels of participation, allowed for evolution of the research community and created a rhythm of research-related interactions and enduring research relationships. Participants described the value of research for their patients and families and the significance of the developing research culture in providing richness to their practice and visibility of their work to multidisciplinary colleagues. Extensive examples of research dissemination and enrolment in doctoral programmes further confirmed this value. A Community of Practice framework is a powerful model enabling research capacity and productivity evidenced by publication. In developing a solid foundation for a nursing research culture, it should be recognized that research skills, confidence and growth develop over an extended period of time and success depends on skilled coordination and leadership. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tissue advanced glycation end products are associated with diastolic function and aerobic exercise capacity in diabetic heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Suzan; Hartog, Jasper W. L.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van Ruijven, Marieke H. I.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.

    Aims Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are increased in patients with diabetes and are associated with diastolic dysfunction through the formation of collagen crosslinks in the heart. The association among AGEs, diastolic function, and aerobic capacity in heart failure (HF) patients with and

  13. Greater oil investment opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  14. Radiation Preservation of fresh pork from semi-intensive and intensive pig production systems. A case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoakoaa, T. L

    2011-07-01

    The Ministry of Food and Agriculture estimates that about 40,000 Ghanaians suffer from several food borne diseases yearly and this poses a great drain on the economy. Meat contains 75% water and is a good substrate for organisms to grow. There are many food microorganisms and parasites associated with pigs, making it practically impossible to be used by many as a main source of protein even though it contains a lot of nutrients and less harmful fat. There is also the problem of recontamination of pork after packaging. Irradiation of food is one method of food preservation that can reduce microbial and parasitic load, prevent recontamination of food and increase its shelf life. The main objective of this study was to use radiation to make pork from semi-intensive and intensive pig production systems safe for human consumption and extend its shelf life. Questionnaires were administrate to 20 farmers and 10 pork samples were collected from 10 different locations within the Greater Accra Region, for both pig production systems. One location in each pig production systems with the least microbial count was selected for pork sampling for irradiation and shelf life studies. The pork samples were irradiated with irradiation doses of 0, 1.5 and 3kGy and stored at 4°C for 28 days. Statistical tools used were Microsoft Excel and Stat Graphics. Means were separated using tukey test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The study observed that most farmers did not have any measures in place to control microbial contamination. However the total mean count of total aerobic mesophillic bacteria and the coliform for pork samples from differentiated locations within Greater Accra in both pig production systems were 4.958 ± 0.90 log 10 cfu/g and ranged from 2.9 to 6.0 and 3.277 ± 1.066 log 10 cfu/g which ranged from 2.0 to 5.67 respectively. Results from the pooled means of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliform count indicated that a combination treatment of irradiation

  15. Assessment of wetland productive capacity from a remote-sensing-based model - A NASA/NMFS joint research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, M. K.; Frick, A. L.; Browder, J.

    1983-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service have undertaken the development of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) technology for the evaluation of the usefulness of wetlands to estuarine fish and shellfish production. Toward this end, a remote sensing-based Productive Capacity model has been developed which characterizes the biological and hydrographic features of a Gulf Coast Marsh to predict detrital export. Regression analyses of TM simulator data for wetland plant production estimation are noted to more accurately estimate the percent of total vegetative cover than biomass, indicating that a nonlinear relationship may be involved.

  16. Low SNR capacity for MIMO Rician and Rayleigh-product fading channels with single co-channel interferer and noise

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun

    2010-09-01

    This paper studies the ergodic capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a single co-channel interferer in the low signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Two MIMO models namely Rician and Rayleigh-product channels are investigated. Exact analytical expressions for the minimum energy per information bit, {Eb/N0min, and wideband slope, S0, are derived for both channels. Our results show that the minimum energy per information bit is the same for both channels while their wideband slopes differ significantly. Further, the impact of the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, the Rician K factor, the channel mean matrix and the interference-to-noise-ratio (INR) on the capacity, is addressed. Results indicate that interference degrades the capacity by increasing the required minimum energy per information bit and reducing the wideband slope. Simulation results validate our analytical results. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptorque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  18. Optimal Pricing and Production Master Planning in a Multiperiod Horizon Considering Capacity and Inventory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neale R. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and solve a single-item joint pricing and master planning optimization problem with capacity and inventory constrains. The objective is to maximize profits over a discrete-time multiperiod horizon. The solution process consists of two steps. First, we solve the single-period problem exactly. Second, using the exact solution of the single-period problem, we solve the multiperiod problem using a dynamic programming approach. The solution process and the importance of considering both capacity and inventory constraints are illustrated with numerical examples.

  19. Agricultural Capacity to Increase the Production of Select Fruits and Vegetables in the US: A Geospatial Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Zach; Peters, Christian J; Chui, Kenneth; Jahns, Lisa; Griffin, Timothy S

    2017-09-23

    The capacity of US agriculture to increase the output of specific foods to accommodate increased demand is not well documented. This research uses geospatial modeling to examine the capacity of the US agricultural landbase to increase the per capita availability of an example set of nutrient-dense fruits and vegetables. These fruits and vegetables were selected based on nutrient content and an increasing trend of domestic production and consumption. Geographic information system models were parameterized to identify agricultural land areas meeting crop-specific growing requirements for monthly precipitation and temperature; soil depth and type; cropland availability; and proximity to existing production centers. The results of these analyses demonstrate that crop production can be expanded by nearly 144,000 ha within existing national production centers, generating an additional 0.05 cup-equivalents of fruits and vegetables per capita per day, representing a 1.7% increase above current total F&V availability. Expanding the size of national crop production centers can further increase the availability of all F&V by 2.5%-5.4%, which is still less than the recommended amount. Challenges to increasing F&V production in the US include lack of labor availability, barriers to adoption among producers, and threats to crop yields from environmental concerns.

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  1. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  2. Safety considerations for continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Kaoru; Akino, Norio; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Higashi, Shunichi; Kubo, Shinji

    2001-03-01

    Since the thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen using toxic chemicals such as sulfuric acid, iodine and hydriodic acid, safety considerations are very important in its research and development. Therefore, before construction of continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour, comprehensive safety considerations were carried out to examine the design and construction works of the test apparatus, and the experimental plans using the apparatus. Emphasis was given on the safety considerations on prevention of breakage of glasswares and presumable abnormalities, accidents and their countermeasures. This report summarizes the results of the considerations. (author)

  3. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  4. ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES OF FARMERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON RICE PRODUCTION IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Nantui Mabe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the adaptive capacities of farmers to climate change adaptation strategies and their effects on rice production in the Northern Region of Ghana. The adaptive capacities of rice farmers were estimated quantitatively and categorized into high, moderate and low adaptive capacities. Double logarithmic regression model of Cobb-Douglas production function was used to quantity the effects of adaptive capacities of farmers on rice production. On the average, the farmers interviewed are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive farmers obtain nine more bags of 50 kg bag of paddy rice than farmers with low adaptive capacities. Therefore, the more a farmer has the ability to adjust to climate change, the more the number of bags of rice he or she obtains. Rice farmers should be empowered through better extension services in order to attain high adaptive capacity status so as to help them obtain more rice output.

  5. Gender differences in power production, energetic capacity and efficiency of elite cross‑country skiers during whole‑body, upper‑body, and arm poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Bucher, Elias; Ettema, Gertjan; Faude, Oliver; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    To characterize gender differences in power output, energetic capacity and exercise efficiency during whole-body (WP), upper-body (UP), and arm poling (AP). Ten male and ten female elite cross-country skiers, matched for international performance level, completed three incremental submaximal tests and a 3-min self-paced performance test on a Concept2 SkiErg. Power output, cardiorespiratory and kinematic variables were monitored. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The men demonstrated 87, 97 and 103% higher power output, and 51, 65 and 71% higher VO2peak (L min(−1)) than the women during WP, UP and AP, respectively, while utilizing ~10% more of their running VO2max in all modes (all P lean mass in the whole body, upper body and arms (all P production and peak aerobic capacity increased sequentially from WP to UP to AP, coinciding with a greater portion of the muscle mass in the arms of the men. Although the men and women employed each poling technique differently, the estimated efficiency of double poling was independent of gender.

  6. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  7. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  8. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-04-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, 'potential water retention capacity' (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer's grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  9. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of peanut by-products: Antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Rasera, Gabriela Boscariol; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2017-12-15

    Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49μgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10μg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesook Roh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  11. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  12. Implementation of Capacity Planning Agent of Demand Responsive Planning Framework : Master’s Thesis in Production Engineering of The Royal Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Juhong, Nirut

    2013-01-01

    This master’s thesis is conducted as a conclusion of Master degree of Science in Production Engineering and Management at The Royal Institute of Technology. The focus of this thesis work is to implement a Capacity planning agent. Nowadays, companies need to adapt themselves to be as responsive to customers’ demand as possible. However, the responsiveness is usually limited by the fixed capacity of the production. Evolvable Production System (EPS), motivated by the limitation mentioned above, ...

  13. The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

    2013-05-01

    Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Inhibition of the vitamin B12 binding capacity of proteins by the hydrolysis product of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenrych, W.; Ignatowicz, E.; Szczodrowska, E.

    1993-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide hydrolysis product (CPHP) on vitamin B 12 binding ability to proteins has been established. The ester N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(3-phosphopropyl)-etheylenediamine hydrochloride is probably responsible, in vitro, for blocking the protein binding sites. Preincubation of proteins with vitamin B 12 prevents the inhibitory effect of CPHP. (au)

  15. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... brand and subbrand (sections 904, 915 of the FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 387d, 387o). Please visit http://www... science. CTP's strategic public health goals include: Decreasing initiation of tobacco product use... Control Act; (3) plan, build, adapt, or expand data collection/information sharing mechanisms, management...

  16. Leader-follower Game in VMI System with Limited Production Capacity Considering Wholesale and Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yu (Yugang); L. Liang (Liming); G.Q. Huang (George)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractVMI (Vendor Managed Inventory) is a widely used cooperative inventory policy in supply chains in which each enterprise has its autonomy in pricing. This paper discusses a leader-follower Stackelberg game in a VMI supply chain where the manufacturer, as a leader, produces a single product

  17. Production Decision Based on Discounted Price and Delivery Frequency for Garment Original Equipment Manufacturer with Constrained Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Yanfang; GU Yajie; HAN Lin; WANG Xize

    2017-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEM) have never been so important and powerful as it is today in garment manufacturing industry.The OEM supplier's production decisions always have a great impact on the market performance and the profits of a garment brand manufacturer.With constrained capacity and multiply buyers,how to make reasonable production decisions is an urgent problem for OEM suppliers.A price discount model with a single OEM supplier and two buyers is proposed to deal with the problem.Based on this model,the OEM supplier could satisfy buyers' demands and guarantee their profits as well through adjusting price and delivery frequency.A numerical example validates the validity of the model.

  18. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, a cyanide-degrading bacterium with by-product (polyhydroxyalkanoates) formation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso Cobos, Isabel; Ibáñez García, María Isabel; de la Peña Moreno, Fernando; Sáez Melero, Lara Paloma; Luque-Almagro, Víctor Manuel; Castillo Rodríguez, Francisco; Roldán Ruiz, María Dolores; Prieto Jiménez, María Auxiliadora; Moreno Vivián, Conrado

    2015-06-10

    Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals produced by anthropogenic activities like mining and jewelry industries, which generate wastewater residues with high concentrations of this compound. Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a model microorganism to be used in detoxification of industrial wastewaters containing not only free cyanide (CN(-)) but also cyano-derivatives, such as cyanate, nitriles and metal-cyanide complexes. Previous in silico analyses suggested the existence of genes putatively involved in metabolism of short chain length (scl-) and medium chain length (mcl-) polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) located in three different clusters in the genome of this bacterium. PHAs are polyesters considered as an alternative of petroleum-based plastics. Strategies to optimize the bioremediation process in terms of reducing the cost of the production medium are required. In this work, a biological treatment of the jewelry industry cyanide-rich wastewater coupled to PHAs production as by-product has been considered. The functionality of the pha genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 has been demonstrated. Mutant strains defective in each proposed PHA synthases coding genes (Mpha(-), deleted in putative mcl-PHA synthases; Spha(-), deleted in the putative scl-PHA synthase) were generated. The accumulation and monomer composition of scl- or mcl-PHAs in wild type and mutant strains were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The production of PHAs as by-product while degrading cyanide from the jewelry industry wastewater was analyzed in batch reactor in each strain. The wild type and the mutant strains grew at similar rates when using octanoate as the carbon source and cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. When cyanide was depleted from the medium, both scl-PHAs and mcl-PHAs were detected in the wild-type strain, whereas scl-PHAs or mcl-PHAs were accumulated in Mpha(-) and Spha(-), respectively. The scl-PHAs were identified as homopolymers of 3

  19. Surfactins in Natto: The Surfactin Production Capacity of the Starter Strains and the Actual Surfactin Contents in the Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juola, Mari; Kinnunen, Kristiina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2014-01-01

    product, natto, were isolated in order to clarify their potential to produce the suspect lipopeptides. The isolated bacilli were characterized as Bacillus subtilis. They were b-hemolytic and gave a positive signal in the PCR screen for genes associated with surfactin production, and their culture extracts...... were cytotoxic to boar sperm cells. Organic extracts of both Bacillus cultures and the natto samples were analyzed for their surfactin content using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. All the strains proved to be surfactin producers (15 to 39 mg....../ml culture medium); the natto samples contained as much as 2.2 mg g21 of surfactins. This means that consumers can ingest at least approximately 80 to 100 mg of surfactins per single 50-g natto serving apparently without suffering any ill effects, indicating a very low human toxicity....

  20. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Okine Abdul; Masaaki, Hanada; Yimamu, Aibibula; Meiji, Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF) is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC), which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27) with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively), and their silages (n = 81). These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus), a root tuber source (potato pulp), a fruit source (apple pomace) and a cereal source (brewer’s grain), respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3). Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01), with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76) between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship. PMID:25049587

  1. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  2. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Monthly 25 km Ocean Acidification Product Suite from 1988-01-01 to 2012-01-31 covering the Greater Caribbean Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  3. NOAA Coral Reef Watch 25km Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) for January 1988 to the present covering the Greater Caribbean Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coral Reef Watch Experimental Ocean Acidification Product Suite (OAPS) offers an important synthesis of satellite and modeled environmental datasets to...

  4. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology is discussed. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant, liquid sodium, were injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction occurred, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon were developed. The desired degree of separation was not achieved. The electrical, control and instrumentation, cooling water, gas, SiCl4, and sodium systems are discussed. The plasma reactor, silicon collection, effluent disposal, the gas burnoff stack, and decontamination and safety are also discussed. Procedure manuals, shakedown testing, data acquisition and analysis, product characterization, disassembly and decontamination, and component evaluation are reviewed.

  5. The Synthesis of 58co-Naphthenate Complex Compound for Evaluation of Oil well Production Capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyeh Setiawan; Marlina

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technique using radioisotope as a tracer in oil industry has assisted to solve the degradation of oil production. Usually, the degradation of oil production in well caused by the formation changing of hydrostatic pressure of the oil layer in the well. This problem could be evaluated by injection of water to oil well, for recovering this hydrostatic pressure. The watcher of the water injection success is done by the way of nuclear technique radioactive tracer systems, applied radioisotope having short half life and low gamma radiation energy. Radioisotope cobalt-58 in the complex form with naphthenate ( 58 Co-naphthenate ) often used as the tracer in the water injection technique. The tracer 58 Co-naphthenate relatively easy to synthesis and radioisotope 58 Co has half life 70.86 days and gamma energy was 0.811 Me v. The synthesis method of 58 Co-naphthenate route has been carried out by mixing of 58 CoCl 2 radioisotope solution with sodium naphthenate (C 5 H 9 CH 2 COONa) in the optimum condition. The results shows that the optimal mole ratio of cobalt-58 and naphthenate was 1:6 which produced 87,38 % of ren dement and 82,5 % of efficiency labelling. This synthesis technique was made permanent procedure for making of 58 Co-naphthenate complex as radioactive tracer in service of radioisotope production especially industrial area. (author)

  6. Strengthening Knowledge Co-Production Capacity: Examining Interest in Community-University Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen P. Bell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building successful, enduring research partnerships is essential for improving links between knowledge and action to address sustainability challenges. Communication research can play a critical role in fostering more effective research partnerships, especially those concerned with knowledge co-production processes. This article focuses on community-university research partnerships and factors that influence participation in the co-production process. We identify specific pathways for improving partnership development through a prospective analytical approach that examines community officials’ interest in partnering with university researchers. Using survey responses from a statewide sample of Maine municipal officials, we conduct a statistical analysis of community-university partnership potential to test a conceptual model of partnership interest grounded in natural resource management theory and environmental communication. Our findings both support and advance prior research on collaborations. Results reveal that belief in the helpfulness of the collaborator to solve problems, institutional proximity, familiarity, perceived problem severity and problem type and trust influence interest in developing community-university partnerships. These findings underscore the benefits of proactively assessing partnership potential prior to forming partnerships and the important roles for communication research within sustainability science, especially with regard to strengthening partnership formation and knowledge co-production processes.

  7. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  8. Development of a Process for a High Capacity Arc Heater Production of Silicon for Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant (sodium) are injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection were developed. Included in this report are: test system preparation; testing; injection techniques; kinetics; reaction demonstration; conclusions; and the project status.

  9. Surfactins in natto: the surfactin production capacity of the starter strains and the actual surfactin contents in the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juola, Mari; Kinnunen, Kristiina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; von Wright, Atte

    2014-12-01

    Surfactin-type lipopeptides are suspected of being implicated in the rare food poisonings caused by Bacillus species outside the Bacillus cereus cluster. In order to get information on surfactin levels in actual human foods, bacilli from three commercial samples of a Japanese traditional bean product, natto, were isolated in order to clarify their potential to produce the suspect lipopeptides. The isolated bacilli were characterized as Bacillus subtilis. They were β-hemolytic and gave a positive signal in the PCR screen for genes associated with surfactin production, and their culture extracts were cytotoxic to boar sperm cells. Organic extracts of both Bacillus cultures and the natto samples were analyzed for their surfactin content using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. All the strains proved to be surfactin producers (15 to 39 μg/ml culture medium); the natto samples contained as much as 2.2 mg g(-1) of surfactins. This means that consumers can ingest at least approximately 80 to 100 mg of surfactins per single 50-g natto serving apparently without suffering any ill effects, indicating a very low human toxicity.

  10. Greater autonomy at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  11. Analysis of 99Mo Production Capacity in Uranyl Nitrate Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor using ORIGEN and MCNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Isnaeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 99mTc is a very useful radioisotope in medical diagnostic procedure. 99mTc is produced from 99Mo decay. Currently, most of 99Mo is produced by irradiating 235U in the nuclear reactor. 99Mo mostly results from the fission reaction of 235U targets with a fission yield about 6.1%. A small additional amount is created from 98Mo neutron activation. Actually 99Mo is also created in the reactor fuel, but usually we do not extract it. The fuel will become spent fuel which is a highly radioactive waste. 99Mo production system in the aqueous homogeneous reactor offers a better method, because all of the 99Mo can be extracted from the fuel solution. Fresh reactor fuel solution consists of uranyl nitrate dissolved in water. There is no separation of target and fuel in an aqueous homogeneous reactor where target and fuel become one liquid solution, and there is no spent fuel generated from this reactor. Simulation of the extraction process is performed while reactor in operation (without reactor shutdown. With an extraction flow rate of 3.6 L/h, after 43 hours of reactor operation the production of 99Mo is relatively constant at about 98.6 curie/hour

  12. A study of two photon production of two-body final states with invariant mass greater than 2.0 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Grigull, R.; Lackas, W.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Ackermann, H.; Alexander, G.

    1982-02-01

    We have measured the electron, muon, and charged-hadron pair production rates in two-photon interactions for invariant masses above 2.0 GeV over a large range of momentum transfers. The cross sections for electron and muon pairs show good agreement with the QED predictions at both small and large momentum transfers. The observed rate of hadron production is less than 6% of the rate that QED predicts for point-like hadrons, consistent with recent leading-order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  13. The Use of Lean Six Sigma Methodology in Increasing Capacity of a Chemical Production Facility at DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwse, Marco

    2018-03-30

    Lean Six Sigma is an improvement method, combining Lean, which focuses on removing 'waste' from a process, with Six Sigma, which is a data-driven approach, making use of statistical tools. Traditionally it is used to improve the quality of products (reducing defects), or processes (reducing variability). However, it can also be used as a tool to increase the productivity or capacity of a production plant. The Lean Six Sigma methodology is therefore an important pillar of continuous improvement within DSM. In the example shown here a multistep batch process is improved, by analyzing the duration of the relevant process steps, and optimizing the procedures. Process steps were performed in parallel instead of sequential, and some steps were made shorter. The variability was reduced, giving the opportunity to make a tighter planning, and thereby reducing waiting times. Without any investment in new equipment or technical modifications, the productivity of the plant was improved by more than 20%; only by changing procedures and the programming of the process control system.

  14. Capacity optimization and scheduling of a multiproduct manufacturing facility for biotech products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munawar A; Dhakre, Ankita; Rathore, Anurag S; Patil, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    A general mathematical framework has been proposed in this work for scheduling of a multiproduct and multipurpose facility involving manufacturing of biotech products. The specific problem involves several batch operations occurring in multiple units involving fixed processing time, unlimited storage policy, transition times, shared units, and deterministic and fixed data in the given time horizon. The different batch operations are modeled using state-task network representation. Two different mathematical formulations are proposed based on discrete- and continuous-time representations leading to a mixed-integer linear programming model which is solved using General Algebraic Modeling System software. A case study based on a real facility is presented to illustrate the potential and applicability of the proposed models. The continuous-time model required less number of events and has a smaller problem size compared to the discrete-time model. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Biochar characteristics produced from food-processing products and their sorptive capacity for mercury and phenanthrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2015-04-01

    Various organic-rich wastes including wood chips, animal manure, and crop residues have been used for biochar production. Biochar is used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility but its use as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes is gaining increased attention. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The scope of the present work was to evaluate the effect of key characteristics of biochars on their sorptive properties. Raw materials for biochar production were evaluated including byproducts from brewering, coffee, wine, and olive oil industry. The charring process was performed at different temperatures under limited-oxygen conditions using specialized containers. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Raw food-processing waste demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-700 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46 to73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Positive results were obtained when high surface area biochars were tested for their ability to remove organic (i.e. phenanthrene) and inorganic (i.e. mercury) compounds from aqueous solutions. All these properties point to new materials that can effectively be used for environmental remediation.

  16. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  17. Properties and Antioxidant Capacity of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) By-Product Protein Films Containing Thyme Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Serpil; Turhan, Sadettin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, some properties and antioxidant capacity of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus ) by-product protein films with added 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of thyme essential oil were investigated. The films with thyme essential oil had higher elongation at break, water vapour permeability and oxygen permeability, lower solubility and tensile strength than control film (p<0.05). The incorporation of thyme essential oil affected transparency values of the films, but only the addition of 1.5% of thyme essential oil significantly reduced the transparency (p<0.05). In the film matrix, molecular organisation and intermolecular interaction were changed by thyme essential oil addition. The films with thyme essential oil had a heterogeneous surface and a relatively smooth cross-section structure. Slightly higher phase transition and lower glass transition temperatures were observed in films with thyme essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the films was improved by incorporating thyme essential oil depending on its volume fraction.

  18. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    of syngas throughput that could be maintained over a full year by 74%, to 5.9 kmol/day. Importantly, a larger heliostat field collection area was calculated to reduce the required storage capacity to approximately halve 35 days, which in absolute terms corresponds to 3.0 tons of syngas. Nevertheless, a requirement for this capacity of storage suggests that the use of the packed bed solar gasification reactor for FT liquids production is unlikely to be viable without substantial changes to the design and operation of the reactor and/or downstream processing plant.

  20. Influence of wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production cost: analysis of the actual market trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laali, A.-R.; Meyer, J.-L.

    1996-01-01

    Several studies are undertaken in R and D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site that could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analysed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. (author)

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  2. Reconnaissance investigation of the rough diamond resource potential and production capacity of Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2013-01-01

    guéla and a total of 1,100,000 carats remain in Tortiya. Production capacity was calculated for the two study areas for the years 2006–2010 and 2012–2013. Production capacity was found to range from between 38,000 carats and 375,000 carats in Séguéla and from 13,000 carats and 20,000 carats in Tortiya. Further, this study demonstrates that artisanal mining activities can be successfully monitored by using remote sensing and geologic modeling techniques. The production capacity estimates presented here fill a significant data gap and provide policy makers, the UN, and the KP with important information not otherwise available.

  3. Turmoil on the International Oil Markets. Getting Used to Production Capacity Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Kate, W.; Van Geuns, L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 the world experienced a prelude to the new realities of the international oil market. These new realities include a tight balance between supply and demand, the rapidly increased cost of the marginal barrel and the extreme price volatility. This price volatility has driven prices up $50 a barrel in the space of 5 months, only to drop $50 in 2 months after the July 14 peak of $147 a barrel when consumers began to seriously drop out of the market and inventories were drawn down. After the extreme downward correction, the crisis on the international capital markets led to dim expectations about economic growth for the rest of the year and 2009, and this also played a role. However, prices are expected to rebound again, reflecting the fundamental upward shift of oil prices from an average of about $70-80 a barrel to about $110-120 a barrel. This fundamental upward shift is due to a combination of so-called 'underground' and 'above ground' conditions. The 'underground' problems include the size, depth and geological complexities of new oil fields that are driving up the cost per barrel. These complex oil fields need to be taken into production, since 'above ground' problems limit International Oil Companies' (IOCs) ability to access the lower-cost oil in producing countries. The 'above ground' problems slow the pace of development of medium-cost oil in the largest producing countries in the Middle East and Russia. Despite the expectation of a continued demand for oil, oil exporting countries are concerned about the security of demand, and adapt their development plans accordingly. Moreover, with the increased prices of the last few years and the resulting increase in oil revenues, the management of the monetarised oil wealth has become a concern as well. The value of the dollar has been slipping and oil exporting countries tried to match this depreciation by increasing oil prices. China's rise as an important manufacturer in the world, with the accompanying

  4. A 3-D evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the greater European region using CALIOP/CALIPSO satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Tsikerdekis, Athanasios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Marinou, Eleni; Benedetti, Angela; Zanis, Prodromos; Kourtidis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Significant amounts of dust are being transferred on an annual basis over the Mediterranean Basin and continental Europe from Northern Africa (Sahara Desert) and Middle East (Arabian Peninsula) as well as from other local sources. Dust affects a number of processes in the atmosphere modulating weather and climate also having an impact on human health and the economy. Therefore, the ability of simulating adequately the amount and optical properties of dust is essential. This work focuses on the evaluation of the MACC reanalysis dust product over the regions mentioned above. The evaluation procedure is based on pure dust satellite retrievals from CALIOP/CALIPSO that cover the period 2007-2012. The CALIOP/CALIPSO data utilized here come from an optimized retrieval scheme that was originally developed within the framework of the LIVAS (Lidar Climatology of Vertical Aerosol Structure for Space-Based LIDAR Simulation Studies) project. CALIOP/CALIPSO dust extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 532 nm are used for the validation of MACC natural aerosol extinction coefficients and dust optical depth patterns at 550 nm. Overall, it is shown in this work that space-based lidars may play a major role in the improvement of the MACC aerosol product. This research has been financed under the FP7 Programme MarcoPolo (Grand Number 606953, Theme SPA.2013.3.2-01).

  5. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  6. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  7. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  8. Can Brazil play a more important role in global tuberculosis drug production? An assessment of current capacity and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemal, Andre; Keravec, Joel; Menezes, Alexandre; Trajman, Anete

    2013-03-27

    Despite the existence of effective treatment, tuberculosis is still a global public health issue. The World Health Organization recommends a six-month four-drug regimen in fixed-dose combination formulation to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis, and long course regimens with several second-line drugs to treat multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. To achieve the projected tuberculosis elimination goal by 2050, it will be essential to ensure a non-interrupted supply of quality-assured tuberculosis drugs. However, quality and affordable tuberculosis drug supply is still a significant challenge for National Tuberculosis Programs. Quality drug production requires a combination of complex steps. The first challenge is to guarantee the quality of tuberculosis active pharmaceutical ingredients, then ensure an adequate manufacturing process, according to international standards, to guarantee final product's safety, efficacy and quality. Good practices for storage, transport, distribution and quality control procedures must follow. In contrast to other high-burden countries, Brazil produces tuberculosis drugs through a strong network of public sector drug manufacturers regulated by a World Health Organization-certified national sanitary authority. The installed capacity for production surpasses the 71,000 needed treatments in the country. However, in order to be prepared to act as a global supplier, important bottlenecks are to be overcome. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the current status of production of tuberculosis drugs in Brazil and the bottlenecks and opportunities for the country to sustain national demand and play a role as a potential global supplier. Raw material and drug production, quality control, international certification and pre-qualification, political commitment and regulatory aspects are discussed, as well recommendations for tackling these bottlenecks. This discussion becomes more important as new drugs and regimens to treat tuberculosis are

  9. Effect of pH buffering capacity and sources of dietary sulfur on rumen fermentation, sulfide production, methane production, sulfate reducing bacteria, and total Archaea in in vitro rumen cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Meng, Qingxiang; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-06-01

    The effects of three types of dietary sulfur on in vitro fermentation characteristics, sulfide production, methane production, and microbial populations at two different buffer capacities were examined using in vitro rumen cultures. Addition of dry distilled grain with soluble (DDGS) generally decreased total gas production, degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and concentration of total volatile fatty acids, while increasing ammonia concentration. High buffering capacity alleviated these adverse effects on fermentation. Increased sulfur content resulted in decreased methane emission, but total Archaea population was not changed significantly. The population of sulfate reducing bacteria was increased in a sulfur type-dependent manner. These results suggest that types of dietary sulfur and buffering capacity can affect rumen fermentation and sulfide production. Diet buffering capacity, and probably alkalinity, may be increased to alleviate some of the adverse effects associated with feeding DDGS at high levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  11. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  12. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  13. Advanced glycosylation end product promotes forkhead box O1 and inhibits Wnt pathway to suppress capacities of epidermal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zhimin; Lai, Wei; Cao, Yi; Huang, Pinbo; Xu, Qiaodong; Yu, Menglei; Xu, Junyao; Huang, Zitong; Zeng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by chronic complications like delayed wound healing, which is consider to be attributed to the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end product (AGE). However, the impacts of AGE on epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are largely unknown. This study aims to address the influence and mechanism of AGE on ESCs. ESCs isolated from rats were cultured in AGE-modified bovine serum albumin and transfected with small interfering RNA to knock down AGE-specific receptor (AGER). Expression of stem cell markers integrin β1 (ITGB1) and keratin 19 (KRT19), cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined. Wnt pathway-related factors Wnt family member 1 (WNT1), WNT3A, β-catenin, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) were quantified. The interaction between forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and β-catenin was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation. Results indicated that AGE down-regulated ITGB1 and KRT19 expression, suppressed ESC viability and promoted apoptosis, and ROS level ( P factor 1 to interact with β-catenin, which might help to elucidate the mechanism of AGE repressing ESCs. This study helps to understand the mechanism of accumulated AGE in affecting ESC capacities, and provides potential therapeutic targets to meliorate diabetic wound healing.

  14. Modeling the Effects of Trait Diversity on Short-term Adaptive Capacity and Long-term Productivity of Phytoplankton Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. L.; Vallina, S. M.; Merico, A.

    2016-02-01

    We examine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function (BEF) in a model phytoplankton community, using two recently developed mechanisms for sustaining diversity. The Trait Diffusion (TD) formulation represents the maintenance of diversity via endogenous mechanisms, such as inter-generational trait plasticity and rapid evolution. The 'Kill-the-Winner' (KTW) formulation for grazing sustains prey biodiversity via the exogenous mechanism of active prey switching. We implement both TD and KTW in a continuous trait-distribution model using simplified size-scalings to define a gleaner-opportunist trade-off for a phytoplankton community. By simulating semi-continuous culture experiments with periodic external dilutions, we test the dynamic response of the phytoplankton community to different scenarios of pulsed nutrient supply. We quantify the short-term Adaptive Capacity (AC) of the community by the specific growth rate averaged over the first 3 days of perturbations, and the Long-term Productivity (LP) by its average over the entire 120 day period of perturbations. When either the frequency or intensity of pulses is low, both AC and LP tend to decrease with diversity (and vice versa). Trait diversity has more impact on AC, particularly for pulses of high frequency or intensity, for which it tends to increase gradually at first, then steeply, and then to saturate with increasing diversity. For pulses of moderate intensity and frequency, increasing trait diversity from low to moderate levels leads to a trade-off between enhancing AC while slightly decreasing LP. Ultimately, we find that sustaining diversity increases the speed at which the phytoplankton community changes its composition in terms of size and hence nutrient acquisition traits, which may have implications for the transfer of productivity through the foodweb.

  15. Capacity and investments in power production. Studies concerning Germany, the Netherlands and Poland; Kapasitet og investeringer i kraftproduksjon. Landstudier for Tyskland, Nederland og Polen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Torleif; Magnus, Eivind; Moen, Paal; Bowitz, Einar

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the production capacity for electricity in Germany, the Netherlands and Poland and presents plans existing in these countries for investments in new capacity and scrapping of existing capacity. Using economic theory it discusses some issues that influence investments in a liberalized market. It is part of a project undertaken to quantify the value of power in the Norwegian hydroelectric power system. The observations and conclusions will form an important empirical foundation for the analysis of the adaptation and stability properties of the Nordic power market as one approaches full capacity with respect to power at peak load. The report will be followed up by an analysis of the developments of investments, market balance and prices up to 2015 in the three countries. These countries have considerable surplus capacities, but for reasons that vary from country to country. The composition of the surplus capacities also vary considerably from one country to the other, which is important for the impact that the capacity and market balance in these countries might have on the Nordic power market in the future. 16 refs., 23 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Early interferon-γ production in human lymphocyte subsets in response to nontyphoidal Salmonella demonstrates inherent capacity in innate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonney S Nyirenda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal Salmonellae frequently cause life-threatening bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children and HIV-infected adults are particularly susceptible. High case-fatality rates and increasing antibiotic resistance require new approaches to the management of this disease. Impaired cellular immunity caused by defects in the T helper 1 pathway lead to intracellular disease with Salmonella that can be countered by IFNγ administration. This report identifies the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFNγ early in Salmonella infection.Intracellular cytokine staining was used to identify IFNγ production in blood lymphocyte subsets of ten healthy adults with antibodies to Salmonella (as evidence of immunity to Salmonella, in response to stimulation with live and heat-killed preparations of the D23580 invasive African isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium. The absolute number of IFNγ-producing cells in innate, innate-like and adaptive lymphocyte subpopulations was determined.Early IFNγ production was found in the innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets: γδ-T cells, NK cells and NK-like T cells. Significantly higher percentages of such cells produced IFNγ compared to adaptive αβ-T cells (Student's t test, P<0.001 and ≤0.02 for each innate subset compared, respectively, with CD4(+- and CD8(+-T cells. The absolute numbers of IFNγ-producing cells showed similar differences. The proportion of IFNγ-producing γδ-T cells, but not other lymphocytes, was significantly higher when stimulated with live compared with heat-killed bacteria (P<0.0001.Our findings indicate an inherent capacity of innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets to produce IFNγ early in the response to Salmonella infection. This may serve to control intracellular infection and reduce the threat of extracellular spread of disease with bacteremia which becomes life-threatening in the absence of protective antibody. These innate cells may also help mitigate against the effect on IFN

  17. Design, Explanation, and Evaluation of Training Model Structures Based on Learning Organization--In the Cement Industry with a Nominal Production Capacity of Ten Thousand Tons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Hamid; Kazemi, Mojtaba; Abbspour, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the effectiveness of training based on learning organization in the staff of cement industry with production capacity over ten thousand tons. The purpose of this study is to propose a training model based on learning organization. For this purpose, the factors of organizational learning were introduced by…

  18. Influence of renewable sources of energy on the operation of the production capacity in electrical power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova-Potseva, Sofija

    2012-01-01

    interconnection systems, i.e. wind occurrence during periods of operation of the system near the technical minimum of thermal power plants. The doctoral thesis presents the results from the analyzed occurrence of suppressed energy, when wind power is injected into the system during periods when thermal power plants operate near the technical minimum. Further comparison was made of the possibilities for wind energy injection into the system for different wind power plants installed capacity in the considered system. In PhD dissertation, also, the emission of pollutants from thermal power plants, that used various types of fossil fuels such as: solid, liquid and gaseous, is considered. Then the reduction of CO 2 has been analyzed if wind power plants are integrated in the power system. Therefore the benefits from the production of electrical energy from wind power plants in terms of reducing production costs in the system and reducing the environmental impacts caused by the emission of pollutants in the environment has been investigated. (Author)

  19. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  20. A Small Decrease in Rubisco Content by Individual Suppression of RBCS Genes Leads to Improvement of Photosynthesis and Greater Biomass Production in Rice Under Conditions of Elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2017-03-01

    Rubisco limits photosynthesis at low CO2 concentrations ([CO2]), but does not limit it at elevated [CO2]. This means that the amount of Rubisco is excessive for photosynthesis at elevated [CO2]. Therefore, we examined whether a small decrease in Rubisco content by individual suppression of the RBCS multigene family leads to increases in photosynthesis and biomass production at elevated [CO2] in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Our previous studies indicated that the individual suppression of RBCS decreased Rubisco content in rice by 10-25%. Three lines of BC2F2 progeny were selected from transgenic plants with individual suppression of OsRBCS2, 3 and 5. Rubisco content in the selected lines was 71-90% that of wild-type plants. These three transgenic lines showed lower rates of CO2 assimilation at low [CO2] (28 Pa) but higher rates of CO2 assimilation at elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). Similarly, the biomass production and relative growth rate (RGR) of the two lines were also smaller at low [CO2] but greater than that of wild-type plants at elevated [CO2]. This greater RGR was caused by the higher net assimilation rate (NAR). When the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for the NAR was estimated by dividing the NAR by whole-plant leaf N content, the NUE for NAR at elevated [CO2] was higher in these two lines. Thus, a small decrease in Rubisco content leads to improvements of photosynthesis and greater biomass production in rice under conditions of elevated CO2. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Bias Correction of Satellite Precipitation Products (SPPs) using a User-friendly Tool: A Step in Enhancing Technical Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushi, B. R.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Adams, E. C.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Roy, T.; Valdés, J. B.; Mithieu, F.; Omondi, S.

    2017-12-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID initiative, works to build capacity in Earth observation technologies in developing countries for improved environmental decision making in the arena of: weather and climate, water and disasters, food security and land use/land cover. SERVIR partners with leading regional organizations in Eastern and Southern Africa, Hindu Kush-Himalaya, Mekong region, and West Africa to achieve its objectives. SERVIR develops hydrological applications to address specific needs articulated by key stakeholders and daily rainfall estimates are a vital input for these applications. Satellite-derived rainfall is subjected to systemic biases which need to be corrected before it can be used for any hydrologic application such as real-time or seasonal forecasting. SERVIR and the SWAAT team at the University of Arizona, have co-developed an open-source and user friendly tool of rainfall bias correction approaches for SPPs. Bias correction tools were developed based on Linear Scaling and Quantile Mapping techniques. A set of SPPs, such as PERSIANN-CCS, TMPA-RT, and CMORPH, are bias corrected using Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data which incorporates ground based precipitation observations. This bias correction tools also contains a component, which is included to improve monthly mean of CHIRPS using precipitation products of the Global Surface Summary of the Day (GSOD) database developed by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This tool takes input from command-line which makes it user-friendly and applicable in any operating platform without prior programming skills. This presentation will focus on this bias-correction tool for SPPs, including application scenarios.

  2. Impact of future climate change on wheat production in relation to plant-available water capacity in a semiaridenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmin; Liu, De Li; Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; Zuo, Heping; Yang, Yonghui

    2014-02-01

    Conceptions encompassing climate change are irreversible rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, increased temperature, and changes in rainfall both in spatial- and temporal-scales worldwide. This will have a major impact on wheat production, particularly if crops are frequently exposed to a sequence, frequency, and intensity of specific weather events like high temperature during growth period. However, the process of wheat response to climate change is complex and compounded by interactions among atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variables, soil, nutrition, and agronomic management. In this study, we use the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)-wheat model, driven by statistically downscaled climate projections of 18 global circulation models (GCMs) under the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 CO2 emission scenario to examine impact on future wheat yields across key wheat growing regions considering different soil types in New South Wales (NSW) of Australia. The response of wheat yield, yield components, and phenology vary across sites and soil types, but yield is closely related to plant available water capacity (PAWC). Results show a decreasing yield trend during the period of 2021-2040 compared to the baseline period of 1961-1990. Across different wheat-growing regions in NSW, grain yield difference in the future period (2021-2040) over the baseline (1961-1990) varies from +3.4 to -14.7 %, and in most sites, grain number is decreased, while grain size is increased in future climate. Reduction of wheat yield is mainly due to shorter growth duration, where average flowering and maturing time are advanced by an average of 11 and 12 days, respectively. In general, larger negative impacts of climate change are exhibited in those sites with higher PAWC. Current wheat cultivars with shorter growing season properties are viable in the future climate, but breading for

  3. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Synthesis and granulation of a titanosilicate with adsorption capacity for Cs to be used for treating de ILLW of the Ezeiza Radioisotope Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curi, Rodrigo; Bianchi, Hugo L; Luca, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The sitinakite structured titanosilicate is widely used for treating ILLW thanks to its capacity for adsorbing both Cs-137 and Sr-90. Its effectiveness lies in its incredibly high selectivity for such radioisotopes, which makes it useful in complex isotope solutions and even in strong acid and alkaline conditions. In Argentina, an off-the-shelve titanosilicate was used in Ezeiza's radioisotope production plant. Because of commercial restrictions, it is no longer available so an inhouse production is being developed. The aim of this project consists of the following: 1. Synthesis of titanosilicate and structural characterization 2. Adsorption kinetics of Cs + 3. Upscale of the synthesis process 4. Assessment of the influence of synthesis temperature and time on product crystallinity 5. Measurement of adsorption capacity of commercial titanosilicates IE910, IE911 and novel RC15H 6. Separative performance column essay and breakthrough plot 7. Chemical and radiolysis resistance of the adsorbent powder binder Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in contact with the actual waste Throughout this work we have studied the optimum synthesis conditions capable of rendering a sitinakite structured titanosilicate, assessed its Cs + adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity, crystal phase and purity via DRX, particle size with Laser Light Scattering technique. We have also conducted column breakthrough experiments and tried the chemical and radiolysis resistance of the final product (author)

  5. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  6. Capacity Building in Southern Africa: Experiences and Reflections--Towards Joint Knowledge Production and Social Change in International Development Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelen, Jacques; van der Linden, Josje

    2009-01-01

    The intent of capacity building in international development cooperation is to enable people to control their own development. Important premises are ownership, choice and self-esteem. The authors analyse the dynamics of the enabling process in practice, based on their own experiences working for several years in universities in developing…

  7. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand. Forecast for the 99Mo/99mTc Market, 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-04-01

    This document presents a forecast of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc production capacity and demand in 2015-2020, when two major irradiators - the OSIRIS and NRU reactors in France and Canada - are expected to exit the global supply chain and new alternative technology projects may be commissioned. The forecast does not attempt to predict shortages, but identify periods when there is an increased risk of disrupted supply, to inform policy makers and other stakeholders. (authors)

  8. Increased productivity in construction of civil and mining tunnels through the use of high-capacity tunnel-boring machines and continuous belt conveyor muck haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, J.G.; Ganey, R.J.; Killingsworth, J.E. [Perini Corp., Chicago, IL (United States). US Heavy Division

    1994-12-31

    The use of a large diameter high production tunnel boring machine interfaced with a high capacity continuous belt conveyor system provides a highly productive and cost effective construction system for both civil and mining tunnels. Continuous advance of the tunnel boring machine for a distance of 1,000 feet (305 m) allows for very efficient operation of the system. The available cost reductions will likely prove that this approach to waste handling will make marginally viable projects economically feasible. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparative Quantitative Assessments of Salivary Ion Activity Product for Hydroxyapatite and Buffering Capacity in Children with Different Caries Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Siddharth; Masih, Updesh; Yeluri, Ramakrishna

    If a relation exists between salivary I PHA , buffer capacity and caries experience, then this relationship could be used as screening chair side test for caries risk assessment. One hundred ninety seven children aged 4 to 6 years were examined. Data was collected by interview and clinical examination. They were divided into low, moderate and high caries experience group of 20 children each. Two ml of each sample was used to measure the pH value with pH meter. Regarding the buffering capacity, freshly prepared hydrochloric acid (HCl) was titrated into saliva and pH was recorded. The collected saliva samples were sent to Laboratory for measurement of calcium and phosphorus. I PHA was calculated and the negative logarithms of I PHA were used to determine the enamel solubility. The correlation between salivary I PHA , buffering capacity and caries experience were evaluated. There was a significant relation between pH, log I PHA and dental caries experience, it could be considered as a predictor of dental caries. pH measurement after HCl titration in saliva could be used as chair side screening test for the assessment of caries risk.

  10. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  11. Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Nissan M; Gigliotti, Joseph C; Beamer, Sarah K; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2012-01-15

    Cardiovascular disease has had an unquestioned status of the number one cause of death in the US since 1921. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have cardio-protective benefits. However, egg is typically a poor source of ω-3 PUFAs and, in general, the American diet is low in these cardio-protective fatty acids. Novel, nutritionally enhanced egg products were developed by substituting yolk with ω-3 PUFA-rich flaxseed, menhaden, algae, or krill oil. Experimental egg products matched composition of hen egg (whole egg). The experimental egg products, mixed whole egg, and a liquid egg product (Egg Beaters) were microwave-cooked and compared. Although fat, protein, and moisture contents of experimental egg products matched (P > 0.05) mixed whole egg, experimental egg products had more (P egg. Triglycerides were the main lipid class in all experimental egg products except those developed with krill oil, which had even more phospholipids than mixed whole egg. Analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed that lipid oxidation of experimental egg products was lower (P 0.05) to mixed whole egg, except for experimental egg products with krill oil. However, peroxide value showed that all egg samples had minimal oxidation. Experimental egg products developed with menhaden or flaxseed oil had the highest (P egg samples. However, experimental egg products with krill oil likely contained a natural antioxidant, astaxanthin. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to developing novel, nutraceutical egg products. Instead of dietary modification of chicken feed, yolk substitution with ω-3 PUFAs oils resulted in enhancement of ω-3 PUFAs beyond levels possible to achieve by modifying chicken feed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of treatment with natalizumab on ability to work in people with multiple sclerosis: productivity gain based on direct measurement of work capacity before and after 1 year of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Sara; Wickström, Anne; Häger Glenngård, Anna; Persson, Ulf; Svenningsson, Anders

    2011-10-01

    Sweden is a high endemic region for multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurologic disorder characterized by repeated inflammatory episodes affecting the CNS. The disease has its peak age of onset at approximately 30 years and affects women twice as often as men. The young age of onset makes MS one of the major causes of reduced capacity to work due to neurologic disease in Western society. Natalizumab (Tysabri®) is among the new generation of biologic drugs for the treatment of MS. Clinical studies have demonstrated that natalizumab is an effective treatment for preventing relapses and inflammatory activity. The aim of the study was to estimate the monetary value of treatment with natalizumab on the ability to work in patients with MS in Sweden, based on a direct measurement of weekly hours worked before and after 1 year of treatment with natalizumab. A sample of patients, consisting of all patients who had started treatment with natalizumab during the period June 2007-May 2008, was identified through the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Register (SMSreg). Data about sex, age, disease severity, and disease duration were collected from the register. Data about type of work and work capacity (number of hours worked per week) were collected retrospectively through a postal questionnaire. The average hours worked per week was estimated at baseline (2 weeks before treatment started) and at follow-up (50 weeks after treatment started), and the change was assigned an economic value using the human capital approach. This study showed that after 50 weeks of treatment with natalizumab, people with MS increased their productivity by 3.3 hours per week on average (p productivity gain (p = 0.025 and p = 0.002, respectively). A shorter duration of illness and a lower age at the start of treatment were significantly associated with a greater productivity gain after 50 weeks of treatment with natalizumab, which indicates that it is more beneficial to initiate efficient therapy early

  13. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  14. The Role of Knowledge Acquisition in Facilitating Customer Involvement in Product Development: Examining the Mediation Effect of Absorptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiyat, Samer E.; Al-Zu'bi, Zu'bi M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management has often been linked to product development, innovation, and customisation. In particular, effective exploitation of customer knowledge, through engaging customers in a process of co-creation of products, exemplifies such a link. Accordingly, this research aims to identify those dimensions of knowledge management activities…

  15. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  16. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minioti, K. S.; Georgiou, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (Tac) of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2'-amino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (Abets), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and F olin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg{sup -}1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg{sup -}1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg{sup -}1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg{sup -}1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89) and the ABTS (r = 0.69) assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81). However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil. (Author) 14 refs.

  17. Evaluation of a handling system for ley crop used in biogas production. Capacities and costs for a centralised system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaagstroem, Lena

    2005-07-01

    Within the Vaextkraft project in Vaesteraas, Sweden, biogas is to be produced out of ley crop and organic waste. The aim of this study has been to estimate the capacities within the handling system used for the ley crop harvest, and the resources needed. For this purpose a model in the form of a calculation program in Excel was built. The model makes it possible to vary parameters such as transport system design, distance from fields to storage, dry matter content and yield. The results showed that it is essential to match the capacities between chopper and transport to minimise the time and cost connected to the harvest. To avoid creating costly bottlenecks in the Vaextkraft case the transport system has to consist of at least two trucks with trailers. The estimates made with the model suggests that the distance to storage is strongly linked to the dimensioning of the transport system, whereas the number of fields and their size has a lesser impact on harvest time and cost. Variation of the dry matter yield from a base scenario had an impact on the cost for harvesting, but not on the choice of transport system. The model couldn't detect any reliable differences in total costs due to the variation of dry matter content between 25-45%. The choice of chopping machinery in the Vaextkraft project leads to small timeliness costs. Together with a reasonable choice of transport system they will only constitute a few percent of the total costs for harvesting.

  18. Ensuring full-capacity production in case of liquid loading in gas wells; Aufrechterhalten der Produktion aus verwaessernden Erdgasbohrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; Albrecht, I. [Schlumberger Holding GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Thurow, M. [ILF Consulting Engineers, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In the late production stages, water production from natural gas wells may become a problem that may require abandoning the well, thus losing valuable productive assets. In a joint project of organisations of the Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle, a status report was made in 2005, and best practice methods for dewatering natural gas wells were identified. This contribution presents some of the results: common methods for improved liquid unloading from natural gas wells, preconditions for their application, experience of the industries in this field, elements of the selection and planning process, and an outlook. (orig.)

  19. Self-Healing Capacity of Asphalt Mixtures Including By-Products Both as Aggregates and Heating Inductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Cortavitarte, Marta; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Calzada-Pérez, Miguel Á

    2018-05-15

    Major advances have been achieved in the field of self-healing by magnetic induction in which the addition of metallic particles into asphalt mixtures enables repairing their own cracks. This technology has already been proven to increase the life expectancy of roads. Nevertheless, its higher costs in comparison with conventional maintenance caused by the price of virgin metallic particles still makes it unattractive for investment. This research aimed at making this process economically accessible as well as environmentally efficient. To this end, an intense search for suitable industrial by-products to substitute both the virgin metal particles and the natural aggregates forming asphalt mixtures was conducted. The set of by-products used included sand blasting wastes, stainless shot wastes, and polished wastes as metallic particles and other inert by-products as aggregates. The results demonstrated that the by-products were adequately heated, which leads to satisfactory healing ratios in comparison with the reference mixture.

  20. Hydrogen production through small capacity water electrolysis systems; Production d'hydrogene par electrolyse de l'eau. Application a des systemes de petite capacite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Ph. [TotalFinaElf, la Defense 6, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-01-01

    Less than 1 % of the world's hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water, in large plants mainly in connection with hydropower. For users requiring extremely pure hydrogen, electrolysis can be a convenient mean of obtaining the required hydrogen quality, where cheap electricity is available. This paper aims at presenting the latest technical developments of small capacity electrolyzers, that could fuel hydrogen cells or internal combustion engines. (author)

  1. Expansion of Production Capacity in the Company Moje podjetje d.o.o. and its Impact on the Organizational Climate in the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriz Selimović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In a case study we will discuss the impact of expansion of production at the organizational climate of the company Mojepodjetje d.o.o. Method: When writing of the study was to systematically review the accomplishments of Experts on the surveyed area. We used the employee survey on the topic of expansion of production capacity of the company Mojepodjetjed.o.o. where we reasonably composite questionnaire come up with interesting findings. Results:: As a result of the research presented results of the survey on the planned expansion of production capacities Organization: Organizations must consider the fact that employees are people with feelings, specific desires and aspirations that motivate and inhibit different things. Employees are not just numbers and folders in the Human Resources department, but one of the main drivers of development organizations. With thisstudy we will draw attention to this fact. Originality: In the literature we have not found a similar case example. Our study may encourage critical evaluation of the impact of the human factor in the success of the expansion of operations of the organization. Limitations/Future Research: The study was limited to only one organization in the future it would be good to do a similar study had similar to what the company and to compare the results obtained with our own.

  2. Production of electricity through biomass gasification system downdraft and generator group with a capacity of 50 kVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Luiz Figueiredo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests performed with an internal combustion engine adapted to MWM Otto cycle, coupled to an electricity generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, fed exclusively with synthesis gas from a biomass gasifier downdraft, using wood eucalyptus. Also featured are the characteristics and efficiency of the generator set, in order to assess the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and the system of conventional electric power transmission is hampered by distance. The synthesis gas generated showed the average composition of 16,9% H2, 20% CO, 10,9% CO2, CH4, 2% and 50,1% N2. The performance of the span was monitored by applying loads of 0, 7, 13, 20,1 and 26,4 kW, the generator, keeping the average voltage of 222 V and currents of 0, 18,5, 33, 51, 84 and 67 A.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Capacities and Phenolic Compounds of Oat and Buckwheat Vinegars During Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Yang, Mei; Dong, Jilin; Shen, Ruiling

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the dynamic changes in the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid profiles of oat and buckwheat vinegars during different production stages. The results showed that both oat and buckwheat vinegar products comparably attenuated D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in mice serum and liver, indicating no obvious dose dependence within the tested concentrations. However, oat vinegar product revealed more favorable in vitro antioxidant activities than those in buckwheat vinegar product as evaluated by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, the alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation and fumigating induced successive increase in DPPH radical scavenging abilities and phenolic acid contents of the fermentation substrates of oat and buckwheat vinegars. Importantly, the different fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars were accompanied by the dynamic migration and transformation of specific phenolic acids across bound, esterified and free fractions. Thus, the antioxidant activities of oat and buckwheat vinegars could be improved through targeted modulation of the generation of specific phenolic acid fractions during production processes. We had evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of oat and buckwheat vinegars, and further explored the dynamic changes of bound, esterified and free phenolic acid fractions during successive fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars. This study provided the theoretical guidance for obtaining minor grain vinegar with the optimal antioxidant activities through targeted modulation of fermentation processes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Uranium enrichment capacity: public versus private ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Continual growth of conventional nuclear capacity requires an assured supply of enriched uranium and, hence, potential expansion of domestic uranium enrichment capacity. The question of ownership of new enrichment capacity, i.e., public or private, entails not only the social-opportunity costs of alternative investments but also technical parameters of uranium utilization and advanced reactor development. Inclusion of risk preferences in both the public and private sectors produces interesting results in terms of optimal investment strategies with respect to choice of technology and scale of investment. Utilization of a nuclear fuel cycle requirements process model allows explicit specification of production technology. Integration of process model output with a least-cost investment model permits flexibility in parametric analysis. Results indicate minimum incentive for Government subsidy of a private enrichment sector through 2000 given moderate to low nuclear growth assumptions. The long-run scenario, to 2020, exhibits potentially greater incentives for private enrichment investment

  6. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  7. Environmentally friendly and highly productive bi-component melt spinning of thermoregulated smart polymer fibres with high latent heat capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Cherif

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A stable and reproducible bi-component melt spinning process on an industrial scale incorporating Phase Change Material (PCM into textile fibres has been successfully developed and carried out using a melt spinning machine. The key factor for a successful bi-component melt spinning process is that a deep insight into the thermal and rheological behaviour of PCM using Difference Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, and an oscillatory rheological investigation. PCM is very sensitive to the temperature and residence time of the melt spinning process. It is found that the optimal process temperature of PCM is 210 °C. The textile-physical properties and the morphology of the melt spun and further drawn bi-component core and sheath fibres (bico fibres were investigated and interpreted. The heat capacities of PCM incorporated in bico fibres were also determined by means of DSC. The melt spun bico fibres integrating PCM provide a high latent heat of up to 22 J/g, which is three times higher than that of state-of-the-art fibres, which were also obtained using the melt spinning process. Therefore, they have the potential to be used as smart polymer fibres for textile and other technical applications.

  8. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2016 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2016-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2016-03-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a 99 Mo supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. That report was updated in 2015 with a report, '2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020' (NEA, 2015), which focused on the same period. This report updates the 2015 report, and focuses on the important 2016-2021 period. At the end of 2015, the OSIRIS reactor

  9. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. 2015 Medical Isotope Supply Review: 99Mo/99mTc Market Demand and Production Capacity Projection 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, Kevin; )

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnostic imaging techniques using technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) account for approximately 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures, representing 30-40 million examinations Worldwide every year. Disruptions in the supply chain of these medical isotopes - which have half-lives of 66 hours for molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) and only 6 hours for 99m Tc, and thus must be produced continuously - can lead to cancellations or delays in important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has been challenged over the past decade due to unexpected shutdowns and extended refurbishment periods at some of the mostly ageing, 99 Mo-producing research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have at times created conditions for extended global supply shortages (e.g. 2009-2010). At the request of its member countries, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) became involved in global efforts to ensure a secure supply of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc. Since June 2009, the NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have examined the causes of supply shortages and developed a policy approach, including principles and supporting recommendations to address those causes. The NEA has also reviewed the global 99 Mo supply situation periodically, using the most up-to-date data available from supply chain participants, to highlight periods of potential reduced supply and to underscore the case for implementing the HLG-MR policy approach in a timely and globally consistent manner. In 2012, the NEA released a M o supply and demand forecast up to 2030, identifying periods of potential low supply relative to demand. That 2012 forecast was updated with a report 'Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand Forecast for the 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Market 2015-2020' (NEA, 2014) in 2014 that focused on the much shorter 2015-2020 period. This report updates the 2014 report, and continues to focus on the potentially critical 2015

  10. Malian children with moderate acute malnutrition who are treated with lipid-based dietary supplements have greater weight gains and recovery rates than those treated with locally produced cereal-legume products: a community-based, cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackatia-Armah, Robert S; McDonald, Christine M; Doumbia, Seydou; Erhardt, Juergen G; Hamer, Davidson H; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-03-01

    Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), defined as weight-for-length z score between -3 and -2 or midupper arm circumference between 11.5 and 12.5 cm, affects ∼33 million children aged health centers in rural Mali were randomly assigned to provide to 1264 MAM children aged 6-35 mo one of 4 dietary supplements containing ∼500 kcal/d for 12 wk: 1) ready-to-use, lipid-based supplementary food (RUSF); 2) special corn-soy blend (CSB++); 3) locally processed, fortified flour (Misola); or 4) locally milled flours plus oil, sugar, and micronutrient powder (LMF). In total, 1178 children (93.2%) completed the study. The adjusted mean (95% CI) change in weight (kg) from baseline was greater with RUSF than with the locally processed blends and was intermediate with CSB++ [1.16 (1.08, 1.24) for RUSF, 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) for CSB++, 0.91 (0.82, 0.99) for Misola, and 0.83 (0.74, 0.92) for LMF; P < 0.001]. For length change, RUSF and CSB++ differed significantly from LMF. Sustained recovery rates were higher with RUSF (73%) than with Misola (61%) and LMF (58%), P < 0.0001; CSB++ recovery rates (68%) did not differ from any of the other groups. RUSF was more effective, but more costly, than other dietary supplements for the treatment of MAM; CSB++ yielded intermediate results. The benefits of treatment should be considered in relation to product costs and availability. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39–79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom–based supermarket comparison website. Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed. PMID:25926505

  12. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-07-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website. Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible, food affordability, particularly for lower income groups, will have to be addressed.

  13. Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The greenhouse gas intensity and potential biofuel production capacity of maize stover harvest in the US Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Curtis D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Reddy, Ashwan D. [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Robertson, G. Philip [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners MI 49060 USA; Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; Izaurralde, Roberto César [Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park MD 20742 USA; Texas A& M AgriLife Research & Extension Center, Temple TX 76502 USA

    2017-08-11

    Agricultural residues are important sources of feedstock for a cellulosic biofuels industry that is being developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy independence. While the US Midwest has been recognized as key to providing maize stover for meeting near-term cellulosic biofuel production goals, there is uncertainty that such feedstocks can produce biofuels that meet federal cellulosic standards. Here, we conducted extensive site-level calibration of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) terrestrial ecosystems model and applied the model at high spatial resolution across the US Midwest to improve estimates of the maximum production potential and greenhouse gas emissions expected from continuous maize residue-derived biofuels. A comparison of methodologies for calculating the soil carbon impacts of residue harvesting demonstrates the large impact of study duration, depth of soil considered, and inclusion of litter carbon in soil carbon change calculations on the estimated greenhouse gas intensity of maize stover-derived biofuels. Using the most representative methodology for assessing long-term residue harvesting impacts, we estimate that only 5.3 billion liters per year (bly) of ethanol, or 8.7% of the near-term US cellulosic biofuel demand, could be met under common no-till farming practices. However, appreciably more feedstock becomes available at modestly higher emissions levels, with potential for 89.0 bly of ethanol production meeting US advanced biofuel standards. Adjustments to management practices, such as adding cover crops to no-till management, will be required to produce sufficient quantities of residue meeting the greenhouse gas emission reduction standard for cellulosic biofuels. Considering the rapid increase in residue availability with modest relaxations in GHG reduction level, it is expected that management practices with modest benefits to soil carbon would allow considerable expansion of potential cellulosic

  15. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...

  16. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  17. Modeling the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere of the south coast air basin of California. 2. HOx radical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert J

    2004-02-01

    The production of HOx radicals in the South Coast Air Basin of California is investigated during the smog episode of September 9, 1993 using the California Institute of Technology (CIT) air-quality model. Sources of HOx(hydroxyl, hydroperoxy, and organic peroxy radicals) incorporated into the associated gas-phase chemical mechanism include the combination of excited-state singlet oxygen (formed from ozone (O3) photolysis (hv)) with water, the photolysis of nitrous acid, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde (HCHO) or higher aldehydes and ketones), the consumption of aldehydes and alkenes (ALK) by the nitrate radical, and the consumption of alkenes by O3 and the oxygen atom (O). At a given time or location for surface cells and vertical averages, each route of HOx formation may be the greatest contributor to overall formation except HCHO-hv, H2O2-hv, and ALK-O, the latter two of which are insignificant pathways in general. The contribution of the ALK-O3 pathway is dependent on the stoichiometric yield of OH, but this pathway, at least for the studied smog episode, may not be as generally significant as previous research suggests. Future emissions scenarios yield lower total HOx production rates and a shift in the relative importance of individual pathways.

  18. A human hemi-cornea model for eye irritation testing: quality control of production, reliability and predictive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Gabel, D; Reisinger, K; Rusche, B; Mewes, K R

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a 3-dimensional human hemi-cornea which comprises an immortalized epithelial cell line and keratocytes embedded in a collagen stroma. In the present study, we have used MTT reduction of the whole tissue to clarify whether the production of this complex 3-D-model is transferable into other laboratories and whether these tissues can be constructed reproducibly. Our results demonstrate the reproducible production of the hemi-cornea model according to standard operation procedures using 15 independent batches of reconstructed hemi-cornea models in two independent laboratories each. Furthermore, the hemi-cornea tissues have been treated with 20 chemicals of different eye-irritating potential under blind conditions to assess the performance and limitations of our test system comparing three different prediction models. The most suitable prediction model revealed an overall in vitro-in vivo concordance of 80% and 70% in the participating laboratories, respectively, and an inter-laboratory concordance of 80%. Sensitivity of the test was 77% and specificity was between 57% and 86% to discriminate classified from non-classified chemicals. We conclude that additional physiologically relevant endpoints in both epithelium and stroma have to be developed for the reliable prediction of all GHS classes of eye irritation in one stand alone test system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  20. First production of larvae using cryopreserved sperm: Effects of preservation temperature and cryopreservation on European eel sperm fertilization capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asturiano, J.F.; Sørensen, Sune Riis; Perez, L.

    2016-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation is a useful tool in captive fish reproduction management, that is to synchronize gamete production, especially in the case of species as the European eel, where the time of female spawning readiness is unpredictable. Several protocols to cryopreserve sperm of this species....... Fertilization of two egg batches was attempted. Diluted sperm caused a similar percentage of fertilized eggs and a similar number of embryos and larvae, independently of storage temperature (4 or 20°C). The cryopreserved sperm resulted in a lower percentage of fertilized eggs, but embryos developed and a few...... larvae ('cryolarvae') were obtained 55 h after fertilization in one of the two egg batches. This result evidences that the tested cryopreservation protocol is applicable for eel reproduction management, although improvements will be required to enhance fertilization success...

  1. Production capacity as a remedy for profit generator A capacidade de produção como recurso gerador de ganhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Tamborlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual growth of the flexography market generates different expectations in organizations of this segment. To ensure the fulfillment of the demand and ensure its market share, it is important to know the real productive capacity of its plant. The research aimed to identify the capacity of the sector recording a stereotype workshop the city of Blumenau/SC. Was defined as qualitative research, objective descriptive and as in the investigation, the research is characterized as action research. Data were collected from the daily monitoring of the processes performed in the recording industry, observing the development of activities, recording information in reports and informal interviews with employees. Thus, the data were triangulated and presented in tables and figures. The results of this investigation was identified the bottleneck of production as well as the existence of hours shutdowns for lack of service, and made ​​suggestions to optimize production capacity, as well as strategies to increase earnings.O crescimento gradativo do mercado de flexografia gera diversas expectativas nas organizações deste segmento. Para garantir o atendimento da demanda e garantir a sua fatia de mercado, é importante conhecer a real capacidade produtiva da sua unidade de produção. A pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a capacidade de produção do setor de gravação de uma clicheria da cidade de Blumenau/SC. Foi definida como pesquisa qualitativa, de objetivo descritivo e quanto aos procedimentos de investigação, a pesquisa se caracterizou como pesquisa-ação. Os dados foram coletados a partir do acompanhamento diário dos processos realizados no setor de gravação, observação do desenvolvimento das atividades, registro das informações em relatórios e entrevistas informais com os funcionários. Dessa forma, os dados obtidos foram triangulados e apresentados em figuras e tabelas. Como resultados desta investigação, foi identificado o

  2. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassetti, Daniela; Costa, Carlos; Moulay, Leila; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this study were the evaluation of polyphenols and vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity of dehydrated pulp powder and the dried flour obtained from the skin and seeds residue remaining after pulp preparation from camu-camu (Myrciaria dudia). Fifty-three different phenolics were characterised by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS-MS and UPLC-HR-QTOF-MS-MS. The phenolic content of camu-camu flour was higher than that of the pulp powder (4007.95 mg/100 g vs. 48.54 mg/100 g). In both products the flavonol myricetin and conjugates, ellagic acid and conjugates and ellagitannins were detected. Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3). The vitamin C content was lower in pulp powder (3.5%) than in the flour (9.1%). The radical-scavenging capacity of both powders was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays, and was higher for camu-camu flour as could be expected for its higher phenolics and vitamin C content. Comparative analyses with fresh camu-camu berries indicate that some transformations occur during processing. Analysis of fresh berries showed that ellagic acid derivatives and ellagitannins were mainly present in the seeds, while proanthocyanidins were present both in the seeds and skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of bio-hydrogen production yield capacity between asynchronous and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes from agricultural residue by mixed anaerobic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yameng; Zhang, Zhiping; Zhu, Shengnan; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Quanguo

    2018-01-01

    Taken common agricultural residues as substrate, dark fermentation bio-hydrogen yield capacity from asynchronous saccharification and fermentation (ASF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was investigated. The highest hydrogen yield of 472.75mL was achieved with corncob using ASF. Hydrogen yield from corn straw, rice straw, corncob and sorghum stalk by SSF were 20.54%,10.31%,13.99% and 5.92% higher than ASF, respectively. The experimental data fitted well to the modified Gompertz model. SSF offered a distinct advantage over ASF with respect to reducing overall process time (60h of SSF, 108h of ASF). Meanwhile, SSF performed better than SSF with respect to shortening the lag-stage. The major metabolites of anaerobic fermentation hydrogen production by ASF and SSF were butyric acid and acetic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubladier, Céline; Julliand, Véronique; Danel, Justine; Philippeau, Christelle

    2013-09-28

    The present study aimed at (1) describing age-related changes in faecal bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate degradation and in their activities in foals (n 10) from birth (day (d) 0) to 6 months (d180) and (2) investigating the effect of maternal supplementation (five mares per treatment) from d - 45 to d60 with fermented feed products on response trends over time of the foal bacterial carbohydratedegrading capacity. Maternal supplementation with fermented feed products stimulated foal growth from d0 to d60 and had an impact on the establishment of some digestive bacterial groups and their activities in foals from d0 to d5 but not in the longer term. Irrespective of the maternal treatment, total bacteria, total anaerobic, lactate-utilising and amylolytic bacteria were established immediately after birth (Panaerobes and lactate utilisers were established rapidly between d0 and d2 (P=0·021 and 0·066, respectively) and the increase in the percentage of propionate occurred earlier (P=0·013). Maternal supplementation had no effect on the establishment of fibrolytic bacteria and their activity. Cellulolytic bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes first appeared at d2 and d5, and increased progressively, reaching stable values at d30 and d60, respectively. From the second week of life, the increase in the molar percentage of acetate and the ratio (acetate + butyrate):propionate (P<0·05) suggested that fibrolytic activity had begun. From d60, only minor changes in bacterial composition and activities occurred, showing that the bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity was established at 2 months of age.

  5. 'Lean' approach gives greater efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Roger

    2014-02-01

    Adapting the 'Lean' methodologies used for many years by many manufacturers on the production line - such as in the automotive industry - and deploying them in healthcare 'spaces' can, Roger Call, an architect at Herman Miller Healthcare in the US, argues, 'easily remedy many of the inefficiencies' found within a healthcare facility. In an article that first appeared in the September 2013 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, he explains how 'Lean' approaches such as the 'Toyota production system', and 'Six Sigma', can be harnessed to good effect in the healthcare sphere.

  6. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  7. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. 农业生产与水资源承载力评价%Agricultural production and evaluation in terms of water resources carrying capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞祎; 张晖; 胡浩

    2016-01-01

    AbstractBased on the evaluation of water resources carrying capacity, especially taking into account the impact of agricultural pollution on sustainable use of water resources, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on the strains of water resources due to farming and animal production in different regions of China to provide reference for rational estimation of potential agricultural growth and correct approaches for structural adjustments in agriculture. Excess nitrogen and grey water were calculated as indicators to quantify the impact of agricultural pollution on water resources. Following nutrient balance theory, excess nitrogen was the difference between the sum of nitrogen provided by chemical fertilizer, livestock manure and soil, and total nitrogen needed by farming. Grey water was the amount of water required for diluting excessively high concentration of nitrogen in water to a more environmental-friendly level. Agricultural water footprint was the sum of agricultural water and grey water used. The huge quantity of excess nitrogen produced by farming and livestock consequently led to excessive amount of grey water, which more than doubled the amount of water used in agriculture. There was therefore the need to reserve enough environmental space for diluting pollution when estimating water resources carrying capacity based on water sustainability and healthy development. Water surplus were constructed to reflect the potential of water resources to support agricultural production with detailed environmental consideration. Water surplus was the difference between water resources and agricultural water footprint. Using 2003-2012 nationwide samples, a panel data model was constructed to analyze the impact of change in sown area and livestock head on water surplus. The results suggested that the nationwide water in China could carry a maximum of 168.89 million hm2 or 3.57 billion pigs. The water resources carrying capacity model results also showed that the

  9. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  10. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg-1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg-1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg-1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg-1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89 and the ABTS (r = 0.69 assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81. However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil.El objetivo de este estudio es el mapeo de la actividad antioxidante total (TAC de 50 aceites de oliva Griego de los años 2005-2006 de acuerdo a su región y cultivar, y se comparan los ensayos del ácido 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-etilbenzo-tiazolina- 6-sulfónico (ABTS, del 2,2-difenil-1-picrlhidrazil radical (DPPH y de Folin-Ciocalteu. La capacidad antioxidante determinada en la fracción hidrofílica varió entre 5.42-22.5 mM de ácido gálico Kg-1 de aceite para el método ABTS y 1.29- 9.95 mM Kg-1 de aceite para el método de DPPH mientras que la TAC del aceite de oliva completo varió entre 77-177 m

  11. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  12. Optimization of dietary zinc for egg production and antioxidant capacity in Chinese egg-laying ducks fed a diet based on corn-wheat bran and soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, S; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Xia, W G; Cui, Y Y; Zheng, C T; Lin, Y C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on productive performance and antioxidant status in laying ducks. Five-hundred-four laying ducks were divided into 7 treatments, each containing 6 replicates of 12 ducks. The ducks were caged individually and fed a corn-soybean meal and wheat bran basal diet (37 mg Zn/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, or 90 mg Zn/kg (as zinc sulfate). During the early laying period of 10 d (daily egg production 80%). Average egg weight and feed intake did not differ among the groups of graded Zn supplementation.The egg quality was not affected by dietary Zn, including the egg shape index, Haugh unit, yolk color score, egg composition, and shell thickness. The activities of plasma activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) increased in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with increasing supplemental Zn. Plasma concentration of Zn increased quadratically (P < 0.05) as dietary Zn increased. The hepatic activity of Cu/Zn-SOD and GSH-PX increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn. Plasma Zn concentrations were positively correlated with activities of T-SOD (P < 0.05), and positively with plasma Cu. Plasma concentration of reduced glutathione was correlated with plasma Cu. In conclusion, supplementation of Zn at 30 or 45 mg/kg to a corn-wheat bran and soybean basal diet may improve the productive performance and enhance the antioxidant capacity. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  14. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  15. Limnology in El Dorado: some surprising aspects of the regulation of phytoplankton productive capacity in a high-altitude Andean lake (Laguna de Guatavita, Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jhon; Jimenez, Paola; Reynolds, Colin

    2012-09-01

    High-altitude mountain lakes remain understudied, mostly because of their relative inaccessibility. Laguna de Guatavita, a small, equatorial, high-altitude crater lake in the Eastern Range of the Colombian Andes, was once of high cultural importance to pre-Columban inhabitants, the original location of the legendary El Dorado. We investigated the factors regulating the primary production in Laguna de Guatavita (4degrees58'50" N - 73degrees46'43" W, alt. 2 935m.a.s.l., area: 0.11km2, maximum depth: 30m), during a series of three intensive field campaigns, which were conducted over a year-long period in 2003-2004. In each, standard profiles of temperature, oxygen concentration and light intensity were determined on each of 16-18 consecutive days. Samples were collected and analysed for chlorophyll and for biologically-significant solutes in GF/F-filtered water (NH4+, NO3(-), NO2(-); soluble reactive phosphorus). Primary production was also determined, by oxygen generation, on each day of the campaign. Our results showed that the productive potential of the lake was typically modest (campaign averages of 45-90mg C/m2.h) but that many of the regulating factors were not those anticipated intuitively. The lake is demonstrably meromictic, reminiscent ofkarstic dolines in higher latitudes, its stratification being maintained by solute- concentration gradients. Light penetration is poor, attributable to the turbidity owing to fine calcite and other particulates in suspension. Net primary production in the mixolimnion of Laguna de Guavita is sensitive to day-to-day variations in solar irradiance at the surface. However, deficiencies in nutrient availability, especially nitrogen, also constrain the capacity of the lake to support a phytoplankton. We deduced that Laguna de Guatavita is something of a limnological enigma, atypical of the common anticipation of a "mountain lake". While doubtlessly not unique, comparable descriptions of similar sites elsewhere are sufficiently

  16. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  17. A interdependência entre sistemas de controle de produção e critérios de alocação de capacidades The relationship between production planning and control systems and methods of capacity allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bernardi de Souza

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Há uma aparente carência de pesquisas sobre os inter-relacionamentos entre critérios de alocação de capacidades de recursos de manufatura e os métodos de controle de produção. Estudos sobre alocação de capacidades se baseiam geralmente em sistemas simplificados de empurrar a produção, desconsiderando sistemas mais atuais de gestão de produção. Por outro lado, pesquisas sobre a aplicabilidade de sistemas de gestão da produção não consideram apropriada a maneira como as capacidades produtivas dos recursos estão alocadas ao longo da linha. Analisar as interdependências entre esses dois grandes ramos de pesquisa é o objetivo deste artigo.There is a lack of researches on the relationship between methods of capacity allocation of manufacturing resources and production planning and control systems. Studies about capacity allocation are based on simplified push production systems not considering more current production management systems. By other side, studies about efficiency of production management systems don't consider the effect of different criteria of capacity allocation of manufacturing resources at the results. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the different policies of capacity allocation and different production planning and control systems interrelate between each other.

  18. Informing the scale-up of Kenya’s nursing workforce: a mixed methods study of factors affecting pre-service training capacity and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the global nursing shortage and investments to scale-up the workforce, this study evaluated trends in annual student nurse enrolment, pre-service attrition between enrolment and registration, and factors that influence nurse production in Kenya. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach with data from the Regulatory Human Resources Information System (tracks initial student enrolment through registration) and the Kenya Health Workforce Information System (tracks deployment and demographic information on licensed nurses) for the quantitative analyses and qualitative data from key informant interviews with nurse training institution educators and/or administrators. Trends in annual student nurse enrolment from 1999 to 2010 were analyzed using regulatory and demographic data. To assess pre-service attrition between training enrolment and registration with the nursing council, data for a cohort that enrolled in training from 1999 to 2004 and completed training by 2010 was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test for factors that significantly affected attrition. To assess the capacity of nurse training institutions for scale-up, qualitative data was obtained through key informant interviews. Results From 1999 to 2010, 23,350 students enrolled in nurse training in Kenya. While annual new student enrolment doubled between 1999 (1,493) and 2010 (3,030), training institutions reported challenges in their capacity to accommodate the increased numbers. Key factors identified by the nursing faculty included congestion at clinical placement sites, limited clinical mentorship by qualified nurses, challenges with faculty recruitment and retention, and inadequate student housing, transportation and classroom space. Pre-service attrition among the cohort that enrolled between 1999 and 2004 and completed training by 2010 was found to be low (6%). Conclusion To scale-up the nursing workforce in Kenya, concurrent investments in expanding the

  19. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  20. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  1. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  2. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  3. Determinação da capacidade real necessária de um processo produtivo utilizando cadeia de Markov Determination of necessary real capacity in productive process using Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielly Hedler Staudt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Todas as empresas em desenvolvimento passam pelo momento de decidir se há ou não necessidade de realizar novos investimentos para suprir uma demanda crescente. Para tomar tal decisão é imprescindível conhecer se o processo atual tem capacidade de produzir a nova demanda. Porém, são raras as empresas que têm a percepção de que os refugos e retrabalhos também consomem recursos da produção e, portanto, devem ser considerados no cálculo da capacidade produtiva. A proposta deste trabalho consiste em incluir esses fatores na análise de capacidade da fábrica, utilizando uma matriz de transição estocástica da cadeia absorvente de Markov como ferramenta para obtenção do fator de capacidade. Este fator, aliado ao índice de eficiência e a demanda desejada ao fim do processo, resulta na capacidade real necessária. Um estudo de caso exemplifica a metodologia, apresentando resultados que permitem o cálculo do índice de ocupação real de cada centro produtivo. O cálculo desse índice demonstrou que alguns centros de trabalho necessitam de análises sobre investimentos em capacitação, pois ultrapassaram 90% de ocupação.All developing companies must decide once in a while whether it is required to perform new investments to handle a growing demand. In order to make this decision, it is essential to know whether the current productive capacity is able to supply the new demand. However, just few companies realize that refuse and rework use production resources, which must be taken into account in the productive capacity calculation. The aim of this work was to include these factors in factory capacity analysis, using Markov chain stochastic transition matrix as a tool to obtain the capacity factor. This factor - used together with the efficiency index and the required demand in the end of the process - results in the necessary real capacity. A case study exemplifies the proposed methodology, presenting results that allow for the

  4. Reconstruction actions carried out in order to achieve nominal design heat capacity of hot water boilers type VKSM 40; A product of TPK-Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica

    2000-01-01

    Hot water boilers with a steep turbines membranous produced by TPK-Zagreb in 1979 are projected for nominal capacity of 46.52 MW. But it was demonstrated in practice, according the performed measurements, that during the exploitation they do not give declared thermal power. In this article the chronological review of all successful performed reconstructive operations by engineering staff from Toplifikacija Joint-Stock Co. for district heating -Skopje (Macedonia) on the hot water boilers type VKSM40 with nominal capacity of 46.52 MW is given. (Authors)

  5. Limnology in El Dorado: some surprising aspects of the regulation of phytoplankton productive capacity in a high-altitude Andean lake (Laguna de Guatavita, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Donato

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude mountain lakes remain understudied, mostly because of their relative inaccessibility. Laguna de Guatavita, a small, equatorial, high-altitude crater lake in the Eastern Range of the Colombian Andes, was once of high cultural importance to pre-Columban inhabitants, the original location of the legendary El Dorado. We investigated the factors regulating the primary production in Laguna de Guatavita (4°58’50” N - 73°46’43” W, alt. 2 935m.a.s.l., area: 0.11km², maximum depth: 30m, during a series of three intensive field campaigns, which were conducted over a year-long period in 2003-2004. In each, standard profiles of temperature, oxygen concentration and light intensity were determined on each of 16-18 consecutive days. Samples were collected and analysed for chlorophyll and for biologically-significant solutes in GF/F-filtered water (NH4+, NO3- , NO2-; soluble reactive phosphorus. Primary production was also determined, by oxygen generation, on each day of the campaign. Our results showed that the productive potential of the lake was typically modest (campaign averages of 45-90mg C/m².h but that many of the regulating factors were not those anticipated intuitively. The lake is demonstrably meromictic, reminiscent of karstic dolines in higher latitudes, its stratification being maintained by solute- concentration gradients. Light penetration is poor, attributable to the turbidity owing to fine calcite and other particulates in suspension. Net primary production in the mixolimnion of Laguna de Guavita is sensitive to day-to-day variations in solar irradiance at the surface. However, deficiencies in nutrient availability, especially nitrogen, also constrain the capacity of the lake to support a phytoplankton. We deduced that Laguna de Guatavita is something of a limnological enigma, atypical of the common anticipation of a “mountain lake”. While doubtlessly not unique, comparable descriptions of similar sites elsewhere

  6. Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is to determine the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory planning decisions...

  7. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Lv

    2014-01-01

    leader under greater uncertainty. Furthermore, both firms will provide more outputs in the face of increasing uncertainty and the growth rate of the follower’s capacity will exceed that of the leader’s. In addition, this paper finds that the follower will end up with a larger capacity than the leader.

  8. Implementing Estimation of Capacity for Freeway Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-qiao Shao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the stochastic concept for freeway capacity, the procedure of capacity estimation is developed. Due to the fact that it is impossible to observe the value of the capacity and to obtain the probability distribution of the capacity, the product-limit method is used in this paper to estimate the capacity. In order to implement estimation of capacity using this technology, the lifetime table based on statistical methods for lifetime data analysis is introduced and the corresponding procedure is developed. Simulated data based on freeway sections in Beijing, China, were analyzed and the results indicate that the methodology and procedure are applicable and validated.

  9. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Williams, V.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  11. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were

  12. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plans for managing greater-than-glass C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, W.F.; Coleman, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low-level waste is defined in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (Title I, Public Law 99-240) as radioactive waste that is neither high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, nor by-product material (mill tailings). This paper presents proposed plans for the Department of Energy to fulfill its responsibility to dispose of GTCC LLW under the 1985 law, and to ensure that safe options are available for long-term management of such, pending the availability of disposal capacity. In the absence of a concentration-based definition for high-level waste, there currently is no upper bound for the concentration of radionuclides in low-level waste. DOE's plans for managing and disposing of GTCC LLW are generally consistent with a report issued by the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment in October 1988, An Evaluation of Options for Managing Greater-than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste

  14. Inhibition of mannosidase in hybridomas yields monoclonal antibodies with greater capacity for carbohydrate labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonson, R.B.; Ultee, M.E.; Long, C.G.; Gillette, R.W.; McKearn, T.J.; Rodwell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Labeling an antibody site specifically through its carbohydrate residues preserves more of its antigen-binding activity than does labeling through protein moieties. To boost the amount of immunoglobulin G carbohydrate capable of being labeled, we treated hybridoma cells with a mannosidase inhibitor, deoxymannojirimycin (dMM). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed formation of a glycoprotein with high mannose content, in that endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H 3.2.1.96) could digest the antibody from the dMM-treated cells, but not from control cultures. Carbohydrate analysis confirmed this conclusion, indicating that the antibody from the dMM-treated cells had twice as much mannose as did the control antibody. The glucosamine content of the treated-cells' antibodies was half that of the control, and no additional carbohydrate residues were detectable in the antibodies secreted by the dMM-treated cells. We conjugated both the dMM and control antibodies through their carbohydrate to a chelator. In labeling, the dMM antibody conjugate incorporated approximately threefold as much 111 In isotope as the control conjugate. The two labeled antibodies were injected into mice and showed similar organ distributions

  15. A Prospective, Multicenter Study to Compare a Disposable, High-fluid Capacity Underpad to Nonpermeable, Disposable, Reusable Containment Products on Incontinence-associated Dermatitis Rates Among Skilled Nursing Facility Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Glenda; Milne, Catherine T

    2017-12-01

    Due to the high prevalence of incontinence among skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents, incontinence-associated derma- titis (IAD) is a common occurrence. In addition, facility staff may mistakenly identify IAD as a pressure injury. A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted in 3 Connecticut facilities to evaluate the effect of substituting a disposable, high- uid capacity underpad for nonpermeable disposable and reusable containment products on the rate of IADs. Residents with and without IAD but with high IAD risk scores who were bed- or chairbound or ambulatory and used disposable nonpermeable briefs and underpads or reusable, laundered containment products when in bed longer than 2 hours were randomly enrolled and observed for a 4-week period. Facility staff were trained on the importance of differentiating between IAD and pressure injury; they substituted the study product (a disposable, high- uid capacity underpad) for all previously used containment products. Patient risk for IAD and skin condition were assessed using the Perineal Assessment Tool (PAT) and the Skin Condition Assessment Tool (SAT), respectively, at 5 time points: baseline, week 1, week 2, week 3, and week 4. The PAT is a 4-item instrument based conceptually on the 4 determinants in perineal skin breakdown; subscales are rated from 1 (least risk) to 3 (most risk), with a total score range of 4 to 12. The SAT is used to evaluate IAD speci cally, generating a cumulative severity score ranging from 0 to 3 on area of skin affected, degree of redness, and depth of ero- sion. Final data analysis was conducted on 40 residents: 25 had IAD present at enrollment and 15 were deemed high risk for developing IAD. Mean SAT scores in the 25 participants with IAD decreased with signi cance at week 1 (P = .0016), week 2 (P = .0023), week 3 (P = .0005), and week 4 (P disposable, high- uid capacity underpad improved SAT scores over time. IAD rates increased in each facility, but pressure

  16. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Costantini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces...... marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best...

  17. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox's H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Mammalian cell culture capacity for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Dawn M; Ransohoff, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    : With worldwide sales of biopharmaceuticals increasing each year and continuing growth on the horizon, the manufacture of mammalian biopharmaceuticals has become a major global enterprise. We describe the current and future industry wide supply of manufacturing capacity with regard to capacity type, distribution, and geographic location. Bioreactor capacity and the use of single-use products for biomanufacturing are also profiled. An analysis of the use of this capacity is performed, including a discussion of current trends that will influence capacity growth, availability, and utilization in the coming years.

  19. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  20. Abscisic Acid Induced Changes in Production of Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity, Antioxidant Capability, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2−, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2−, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05 and O2− (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05. This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals.

  1. Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 11443 and the mutant strain SCT-10-10-60 with enhanced L-lactic acid production capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Lu, Zhilong; Li, Jianxiu; Sun, Feifei; Huang, Ribo

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms for high L-lactic acid production remain unclear in many bacteria. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SCT-10-10-60 was previously obtained from L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443 via mutagenesis and showed improved L-lactic acid production. In this study, the genomes of strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443 were sequenced. Both genomes are a circular chromosome, 2.99 Mb in length with a GC content of approximately 46.8%. Eight split genes were identified in strain SCT-10-10-60, including two LytR family transcriptional regulators, two Rex redox-sensing transcriptional repressors, and four ABC transporters. In total, 60 significantly up-regulated genes (log 2 fold-change ≥ 2) and 39 significantly down-regulated genes (log 2 fold-change ≤ - 2) were identified by a transcriptome comparison between strains SCT-10-10-60 and ATCC 11443. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that "pyruvate metabolism" was significantly different (P < 0.05) between the two strains. The split genes and the differentially expressed genes involved in the "pyruvate metabolism" pathway are probably responsible for the increased L-lactic acid production by SCT-10-10-60. The genome and transcriptome sequencing information and comparison of SCT-10-10-60 with ATCC 11443 provide insights into the anabolism of L-lactic acid and a reference for improving L-lactic acid production using genetic engineering.

  2. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  3. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  4. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  5. Determination of optimum production capacity and mine life considering net present value in open pit mining at different overall slope angles

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Malli; Cagatay Pamukcu; Halil Köse

    2015-01-01

    In modern mining industry, with increasing competitive environment and unit costs, it is necessary to evaluate mineral resources optimally from the aspects of economy, safety and environment. On the other hand, production increase is another reality and obligation for today’s mining operations. The activities related to the extraction of ore deposit consist of risky operations, which are a great hazard for capital investments that will take many years. Therefore, in terms of feasibil...

  6. Sonatrach prepares for greater exports of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleb, M.

    1993-01-01

    Algeria is increasing its capacity to export natural gas in order to reinforce its strong position in the growing international market. The country's reserves are estimated at more than 3.6 trillion cu m. Algerian energy and development policy is based on a rational exploitation of this resource. A liquefield natural gas (LNG) pioneer, Algeria has one of the world's most important LNG production capacities. With a location encouraging export to nearby countries, Algeria has an important place in the world natural gas market and an exclusive role within its trading region. The effort will especially focus on southern Europe. The paper discusses Algeria's growing role in international markets, as well as local markets

  7. Decision project related to the energy multi-year 2018/2023 planning (PPE). Evolution of capacities of production of power generating renewable energies: the headlong rush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that the French government, in its energy multi-year planning for 2018-2023, decided to develop wind and photovoltaic energies at a higher rate, despite their intermittency and the need for back-up nuclear and hydroelectric power plants (which do not emit carbon), and outlined that the power market is now in the torment, in France and in Europe, the author notices that such a development of renewable energies is a matter of concern in Europe, and indicates the objectives defined by the French government for onshore and offshore wind energy and for solar energy. Then, he proposes a critical analysis of the low level scenario of this development, a scenario which the author assesses as not very realistic. A table indicates the status and objectives for all the different renewable energies. The author discusses these values, notices that it is similar to a programme defined by the ADEME. He analyses the 2018/2023 low scenario (production, share, production efficiency, minimum and maximum power) by comparing it with the situation in 2015. He outlines important seasonal variations for wind and solar energy: their production level in winter requires a massive use of other sources. He briefly discusses the perspectives for 2030, and then addresses the development cost in terms of required investments. He discusses the impact of the scenario on greenhouse gas emissions. The appendix provides the official text of the decision project

  8. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  9. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  10. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  11. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  12. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  13. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  14. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  15. [Methodological aspects of evaluation of potential lipid capacity for peroxidation from the serum levels of TBA-active products during iron ion stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, A I; Tugusheva, F A; Zubina, I M; Shepilova, I N

    2008-05-01

    The authors propose a simple and reproducible procedure for using iron ions to stimulate serum lipid peroxidation, with TBA-active products being further determined. The procedure determines the reserve of lipids that can be oxidized during oxidative stress. A combination of direct studies and correlation analysis suggests that low-density lipoproteins and very low-density lipoproteins are the major substrates for lipid peroxidation while high-density lipoproteins show a high resistance to this process. The presented procedure may be used to monitor lipid peroxidation in various conditions and upon various exposures in common laboratory practice.

  16. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  17. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  18. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  19. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-07-16

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inventory management with advance capacity information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaksic, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.; Kok, de A.G.; Rusjan, B.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important aspects of supply chain management is dealing with demand and supply uncertainty. The uncertainty of future supply can be reduced, if a company is able to obtain advance capacity information (ACI) on future supply/production capacity availability from its supplier. We address a

  1. Inventory management with advance capacity information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaksic, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Tan, T.; Kok, de A.G.; Rusjan, B.

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of supply chain management is dealing with demand and supply uncertainty. The uncertainty of future supply can be reduced if a company is able to obtain advance capacity information (ACI) about future supply/production capacity availability from its supplier. We address a

  2. Capacity building for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2006-01-01

    Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development - Mission: To build capacity in Member States (MS) for comprehensive energy system, economic and environmental analyses to assist in: - making informed policy decisions for sustainable energy development; - assessing the role of nuclear power; - understanding environmental and climate change issues related to energy production and use

  3. Low cost solar array project silicon materials task. Development of a process for high capacity arc heater production of silicon for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental verification system for the production of silicon via the arc heater-sodium reduction of SiCl4 was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated. Each of the attendant subsystems was checked out and operated to insure performance requirements. These subsystems included: the arc heaters/reactor, cooling water system, gas system, power system, Control & Instrumentation system, Na injection system, SiCl4 injection system, effluent disposal system and gas burnoff system. Prior to introducing the reactants (Na and SiCl4) to the arc heater/reactor, a series of gas only-power tests was conducted to establish the operating parameters of the three arc heaters of the system. Following the successful completion of the gas only-power tests and the readiness tests of the sodium and SiCl4 injection systems, a shakedown test of the complete experimental verification system was conducted.

  4. Analysis of Cell Signal Transduction Based on Kullback–Leibler Divergence: Channel Capacity and Conservation of Its Production Rate during Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuaki Tsuruyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD is a type of extended mutual entropy, which is used as a measure of information gain when transferring from a prior distribution to a posterior distribution. In this study, KLD is applied to the thermodynamic analysis of cell signal transduction cascade and serves an alternative to mutual entropy. When KLD is minimized, the divergence is given by the ratio of the prior selection probability of the signaling molecule to the posterior selection probability. Moreover, the information gain during the entire channel is shown to be adequately described by average KLD production rate. Thus, this approach provides a framework for the quantitative analysis of signal transduction. Moreover, the proposed approach can identify an effective cascade for a signaling network.

  5. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  6. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  7. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  8. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  9. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  10. Agricultural net primary production in relation to that liberated by the extinction of Pleistocene mega-herbivores: an estimate of agricultural carrying capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Field, Christopher B, E-mail: chris.doughty@ouce.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: cfield@ciw.edu [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Mega-fauna (defined as animals > 44 kg) experienced a global extinction with 97 of 150 genera going extinct by {approx} 10 000 years ago. We estimate the net primary production (NPP) that was liberated following the global extinction of these mega-herbivores. We then explore how humans, through agriculture, gradually appropriated this liberated NPP, with specific calculations for 800, 1850, and 2000 AD. By 1850, most of the liberated NPP had been appropriated by people, but NPP was still available in the Western US, South America and Australia. NPP liberated following the extinction of the mega-herbivores was {approx} 2.5% ({approx}1.4 (between 1.2 and 1.6) Pg yr{sup -1} of 56 Pg C yr{sup -1}; Pg: petagrams) of global terrestrial NPP. Liberated NPP peaked during the onset of agriculture and was sufficient for sustaining human agriculture until {approx} 320 (250-500) years ago. Humans currently use {approx} 6 times more NPP than was utilized by the extinct Pleistocene mega-herbivores.

  11. Agricultural net primary production in relation to that liberated by the extinction of Pleistocene mega-herbivores: an estimate of agricultural carrying capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Field, Christopher B

    2010-01-01

    Mega-fauna (defined as animals > 44 kg) experienced a global extinction with 97 of 150 genera going extinct by ∼ 10 000 years ago. We estimate the net primary production (NPP) that was liberated following the global extinction of these mega-herbivores. We then explore how humans, through agriculture, gradually appropriated this liberated NPP, with specific calculations for 800, 1850, and 2000 AD. By 1850, most of the liberated NPP had been appropriated by people, but NPP was still available in the Western US, South America and Australia. NPP liberated following the extinction of the mega-herbivores was ∼ 2.5% (∼1.4 (between 1.2 and 1.6) Pg yr -1 of 56 Pg C yr -1 ; Pg: petagrams) of global terrestrial NPP. Liberated NPP peaked during the onset of agriculture and was sufficient for sustaining human agriculture until ∼ 320 (250-500) years ago. Humans currently use ∼ 6 times more NPP than was utilized by the extinct Pleistocene mega-herbivores.

  12. Impacts of 2°C global warming on primary production and soil carbon storage capacity at pan-European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Sakalli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 has been dramatically increasing since beginning of the industrial time (i.e. 1860, being one of the main driver for climate change at regional and global level. The change in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, together with that of temperature, precipitation and/or so radiation, can influence the biogeochemical cycles in all ecosystems. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of CO2 concentration and six climate variables on carbon uptake, i.e., gross primary production (GPP and carbon storage, i.e, soil carbon (SoilC in terrestrial biosphere by using the Community Land Model (CLM vers. 4.5 and evaluate the model’s results against available observation data. We also analysed the change in carbon uptake and storage under a 2°C global mean warming. Results show that the model performed reasonably well for GPP and SoilC at pan-European scale. We also found a positive correlation between GPP, precipitation and surface wind, and a negative correlation between GPP and surface downwelling longwave radiation (rlds. Under a 2°C global warming, GPP and SoilC show an increase, an average, of about 20%, and 5% at pan-European scale, respectively. However, our results indicate that CLM4.5 may need improvements particularly in carbon-nitrogen interaction and carbon accumulation in soil.

  13. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  14. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  15. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox\\'s H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  16. Reduced soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) scavenger capacity precedes pre-eclampsia in Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Hanssen, KF; Kalyanaraman, V; Chirindel, A; Jenkins, AJ; Nankervis, AJ; Torjesen, PA; Scholz, H; Henriksen, T; Lorentzen, B; Garg, SK; Menard, MK; Hammad, SM; Scardo, JA; Stanley, JR; Wu, M; Basu, A; Aston, CE; Lyons, TJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increased advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their soluble receptors (sRAGE) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia (PE). However, this association has not been elucidated in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We aimed to investigate the serum levels of these factors in pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a condition associated with a four-fold increase in PE. Design Prospective study in women with T1DM at 12.2 ± 1.9, 21.6 ± 1.5 and 31.5 ± 1.7 weeks of gestation [mean ± standard deviation (SD); no overlap] before PE onset. Setting Antenatal clinics. Population Pregnant women with T1DM (n = 118; 26 developed PE) and healthy nondiabetic pregnant controls (n = 21). Methods Maternal serum levels of sRAGE (total circulating pool), Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), hydroimidazolone (methylglyoxal-modified proteins) and total AGEs were measured by immunoassays. Main outcome measures Serum sRAGE and AGEs in pregnant women with T1DM who subsequently developed PE (DM PE+) versus those who remained normotensive (DM PE–). Results In DM PE+ versus DM PE–, sRAGE was significantly lower in the first and second trimesters, prior to the clinical manifestation of PE (P diabetes, parity and mean arterial pressure as covariates. Conclusions In the early stages of pregnancy, lower circulating sRAGE levels, and the ratio of sRAGE to AGEs, may be associated with the subsequent development of PE in women with T1DM. PMID:22900949

  17. Heritability of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALL

    They can increase the antioxidant capacity ... cytokines, while increasing the production of anti- inflammatory ...... Evaluation of bitterness and astringency of ... phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J. Agric.

  18. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  19. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  20. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  2. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  3. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  4. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  5. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  6. COST ESTIMATES OF TWIN SCREW EXTRUDED PRODUCTS: TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN SNACKS AND CORN-SOY BLEND USED FOR EMERGENCY FEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operating costs associated with twin screw extrusion cooking of various foods are fixed for a given size and production capacity for any class of products; the greater percentage of costs arise from the choice of ingredients and the product end use. For example, extruder texturized whey proteins...

  7. When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S.; Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; Wieth, Mareike B.

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight…

  8. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  9. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  10. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  12. Production of a thermostable 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase mutant in Bacillus subtilis WB600 at a high fermentation capacity and its potential application in the brewing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chengtuo; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Zheng, Feiyun; Wang, Jinjing; Li, Qi

    2018-02-01

    1,3-1,4-β-glucanase was an important biotechnological aid in the brewing industry. In a previous research, a Bacillus BglTO mutant (BglTO) with high tolerance towards high temperature and low-pH conditions was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. However, E. coli was not a suitable host for enzyme production in food industry. Therefore, the present work aimed to achieve the high-level expression of BglTO in Bacillus subtilis WB600 and to test its effect in Congress mashing. The β-glucanase mutant was successfully expressed in B. subtilis WB600 and favorable plasmid segregation and structural stability were observed. The maximal extracellular activity of β-glucanase in recombinant B. subtilis WB600 reached 4840.4UmL -1 after cultivation condition optimization, which was 1.94-fold higher than that before optimization. The fermentation capacity of recombinant B. subtilis reached 242.02UmL -1 h -1 , which was the highest among all reported β-glucanases. The addition of BglTO in Congress mashing significantly reduced the filtration time and viscosity of mash by 29.7% and 12.3%, respectively, which was superior to two commercial enzymes. These favorable properties indicated that B. subtilis WB600 was a suitable host for production of BglTO, which was promising for application in the brewing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  14. Body and diet composition of sympatric black and grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Fortin, Jennifer K.; Teisberg, Justin E.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Servheen, Christopher; Robbins, Charles T.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has experienced changes in the distribution and availability of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) food resources in recent decades. The decline of ungulates, fish, and whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis) has prompted questions regarding their ability to adapt. We examined body composition and diet of grizzly bears using bioelectrical impedance and stable isotopes to determine if 1) we can detect a change in diet quality associated with the decline in either ungulates or whitebark pine, and 2) the combined decline in ungulates, fish, and pine seeds resulted in a change in grizzly bear carrying capacity in the GYE. We contrasted body fat and mass in grizzly bears with a potential competitor, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), to address these questions. Grizzly bears assimilated more meat into their diet and were in better body condition than black bears throughout the study period, indicating the decline in ungulate resources did not affect grizzly bears more than black bears. We also found no difference in autumn fat levels in grizzly bears in years of good or poor pine seed production, and stable isotope analyses revealed this was primarily a function of switching to meat resources during poor seed-producing years. This dietary plasticity was consistent over the course of our study. We did not detect an overall downward trend in either body mass or the fraction of meat assimilated into the diet by grizzly bears over the past decade, but we did detect a downward trend in percent body fat in adult female grizzly bears after 2006. Whether this decline is an artifact of small sample size or due to the population reaching the ecological carrying capacity of the Yellowstone ecosystem warrants further investigation.

  15. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant (Solanum melongena fruits following thermal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Leonor Zambrano-Moreno

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermal processing and production practices used in vegetables can cause changes in their phytochemical contents. Eggplant is characterized by its high antioxidant content. The objective of this work was to determine levels of anthocyanins, polyphenols, and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown eggplant prepared fresh or subjected to one of three thermal preparation methods: boiling, baking or steaming. The soluble and hydrolyzable polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Anthocyanins were quantified according to the pH differential method. Antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH and ORAC methods. The results showed differences between organic and conventional eggplant for some variables although cultivation method did not have a consistent effect. Hydrolysable polyphenol content was greater, and soluble and hydrolysable antioxidant capacities were higher in organically grown eggplant, while anthocyanin content was greater in conventionally grown eggplant. Fresh eggplant produced under conventional cultivation had a much greater content of anthocyanins compared to that of other cultivation method-thermal treatment combination. In general, steamed eggplant contained higher total polyphenol and flavonoid levels as well as greater antioxidant capacity. Steamed eggplant from both conventional and organic systems also had high amounts of anthocyanins compared to other thermal treatments.

  17. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  18. Vegetation Composition, Biomass Production, Carrying Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia tortilis, Acacia nilotica, Acacia mellifera and Acacia seyal were the most dominant shrubs with scattered Caddaba rotundifolia, Caddaba furmisa, Seddera bagshawei, Tamarix nilotica, Dobera glabra and abundant Parthenium hysterophorus, Cissus rotundifolia and C. quadrangularis. The grass biomass estimated in ...

  19. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  20. Plastic Foam Withstands Greater Temperatures And Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A.; Macarthur, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Improved plastic foam suitable for use in foam-core laminated composite parts and in tooling for making fiber/matrix-composite parts. Stronger at high temperatures, more thermally and dimensionally stable, machinable, resistant to chemical degradation, and less expensive. Compatible with variety of matrix resins. Made of polyisocyanurate blown with carbon dioxide and has density of 12 to 15 pounds per cubic feet. Does not contibute to depletion of ozone from atmosphere. Improved foam used in cores of composite panels in such diverse products as aircraft, automobiles, railroad cars, boats, and sporting equipment like surfboards, skis, and skateboards. Also used in thermally stable flotation devices in submersible vehicles. Machined into mandrels upon which filaments wound to make shells.

  1. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  2. PERHITUNGAN IDLE CAPACITY DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CAM-I CAPACITY MODEL DALAM RANGKA EFISIENSI BIAYA PADA PT X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Aditya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim for this research are to analyze capacity cost which incure from company production machines and human resources whose operate the production machine using CAM-I capacity model. CAM-I capacity model is an approach which focus  upon how to manage company resources. This research initiated at PT X which focus to production activity that used small mixer machine, extruder machine, oven drying machine, enrober machine, pan coting machine which consist of hot and cold pan coating machine, and packing machine which consist of vertical packing machine and horizontal packing machine as well as human resources that operates those machine. This research focus on rate capacity, productive capacity, idle capacity, and nonproductive capacity to measure capacity cost. Result of this research shows most of the capacity owned by either by production machine or human resources are not utilized to its maximum potential. There are need to reduce capacity cost owned by production machine and human resoures to increase the product sales but if its unachieveable there will be need to increase efficiency from production machine and human resources by reducing their quantityDOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1961

  3. Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Capacity for Feminist Research in Africa : Gender, Sexuality and Politics ... feminist work and gender theory, but be relatively new to issues of sexuality. ... long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender ...

  4. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  5. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  6. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  7. High Capacity cylinder roller bearing; High Capacity Zylinderrollenlager. Ein vollrolliges Lager mit Kaefig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Baum, J. [SKF, Schweinfurt (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The high capacity cylinder roller bearing is an example for continuous development of SKF products and does an effective contribution to increase operational safety and offers the possibility to reduce weight and compact design. (GL)

  8. Volume flexibility and capacity investment: a real options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Xingang; Kort, Peter; Talman, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the investment decision of a firm where it has to decide about the timing and capacity. We obtain that in a fast-growing market, right after investment the firm produces below capacity, where the utilization rate (the proportion of capacity that is used for production right

  9. Volume Flexibility and Capacity Investment : A Real Options Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, X.; Kort, P.M.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the investment decision of a firm where it has to decide about the timing and capacity. We obtain that in a fast growing market, right after investment the firm produces below capacity, where the utilization rate (the proportion of capacity that is used for production right

  10. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  11. A simple dynamic energy capacity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gander, James P.

    2012-01-01

    I develop a simple dynamic model showing how total energy capacity is allocated to two different uses and how these uses and their corresponding energy flows are related and behave through time. The control variable of the model determines the allocation. All the variables of the model are in terms of a composite energy equivalent measured in BTU's. A key focus is on the shadow price of energy capacity and its behavior through time. Another key focus is on the behavior of the control variable that determines the allocation of overall energy capacity. The matching or linking of the model's variables to real world U.S. energy data is undertaken. In spite of some limitations of the data, the model and its behavior fit the data fairly well. Some energy policy implications are discussed. - Highlights: ► The model shows how energy capacity is allocated to current output production versus added energy capacity production. ► Two variables in the allocation are the shadow price of capacity and the control variable that determines the allocation. ► The model was linked to U.S. historical energy data and fit the data quite well. ► In particular, the policy control variable was cyclical and consistent with the model. ► Policy implications relevant to the allocation of energy capacity are discussed briefly.

  12. Competition under capacitated dynamic lot-sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Lot-sizing and capacity planning are important supply chain decisions, and competition and cooperation affect the performance of these decisions. In this paper, we look into the dynamic lot-sizing and resource competition problem of an industry consisting of multiple firms. A capacity competition...... production setup, along with inventory carrying costs. The individual production lots of each firm are limited by a constant capacity restriction, which is purchased up front for the planning horizon. The capacity can be purchased from a spot market, and the capacity acquisition cost fluctuates...

  13. Greening government procurement in developing countries: building capacity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Doberstein, Brent

    2008-09-01

    With increasing environmental issues and depleting resources, the effective application of green government procurement (GGP) is urgently needed and potentially can have greater impacts in the developing world rather than in the developed world. Such an approach can help promote the general goal of sustainable development and address environmental issues through purchasing and facilitating the use of environmentally friendly services and products. This paper addresses this issue by employing a case study on China. We first trace the development of the GGP concept, its spread to Asian countries, and a number of approaches used to expand GGP adoption. We then review current practices in China on GGP, and analyze and identify some of the current barriers and problems in promoting green procurement in the Chinese governmental sector. We finally seek to identify possible appropriate capacity-building solutions, in order to facilitate the application of GGP in China.

  14. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  15. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  16. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  17. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Chahine, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas) which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermo-catalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. These issues are being addressed by H2CAN, a recently launched NSERC funded national strategic network in hydrogen production, purification, storage, infrastructure and safety. (author)

  18. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  19. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Towler, O.A.; Peterson, D.L.; Johnson, G.M.; Helton, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table

  20. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  1. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of biogas production from banana peel (Musa paradisiaca) in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruano, Jimmy Anderson; Caballero-Galván, Ashley Sthefanía; Restrepo-Serna, Daissy Lorena; Cardona, Carlos Ariel

    2018-04-07

    Two scenarios for the biogas production using Banana Peel as raw material were evaluated. The first scenario involves the stand-alone production of biogas and the second scenario includes the biogas production together with other products under biorefinery concept. In both scenarios, the influence of the production scale on the process economy was assessed and feasibility limits were defined. For this purpose, the mass and energy balances were established using the software Aspen Plus along with kinetic models reported in the literature. The economic and environmental analysis of the process was performed considering Colombian economic conditions. As a result, it was found that different process scales showed great potential for biogas production. Thus, plants with greater capacity have a greater economic benefit than those with lower capacity. However, this benefit leads to high-energy consumption and greater environmental impact.

  2. Capacity allocation and outsourcing in a process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de A.G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider a production facility producing a uniform product that ships a number of different package sizes to a (number of) stockpoint(s). The packaging capacity owned by the facility is finite and the actually used capacity must be reserved sometime before actual use. Furthermore,

  3. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen. The Panel...... the combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder was consumed for three months, that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the food could exert the claimed effect. The Panel...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase...

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  6. Greater Strength Gains after Training with Accentuated Eccentric than Traditional Isoinertial Loads in Already Strength-Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Blazevich, Anthony J.; Haff, G. Gregory; Tufano, James J.; Newton, Robert U.; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    As training experience increases it becomes more challenging to induce further neuromuscular adaptation. Consequently, strength trainers seek alternative training methods in order to further increase strength and muscle mass. One method is to utilize accentuated eccentric loading, which applies a greater external load during the eccentric phase of the lift as compared to the concentric phase. Based upon this practice, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 10 weeks of accentuated eccentric loading vs. traditional isoinertial resistance training in strength-trained men. Young (22 ± 3 years, 177 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 10 kg, n = 28) strength-trained men (2.6 ± 2.2 years experience) were allocated to concentric-eccentric resistance training in the form of accentuated eccentric load (eccentric load = concentric load + 40%) or traditional resistance training, while the control group continued their normal unsupervised training program. Both intervention groups performed three sets of 6-RM (session 1) and three sets of 10-RM (session 2) bilateral leg press and unilateral knee extension exercises per week. Maximum force production was measured by unilateral isometric (110° knee angle) and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric 30°.s−1) knee extension tests, and work capacity was measured by a knee extension repetition-to-failure test. Muscle mass was assessed using panoramic ultrasonography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Surface electromyogram amplitude normalized to maximum M-wave and the twitch interpolation technique were used to examine maximal muscle activation. After training, maximum isometric torque increased significantly more in the accentuated eccentric load group than control (18 ± 10 vs. 1 ± 5%, p < 0.01), which was accompanied by an increase in voluntary activation (3.5 ± 5%, p < 0.05). Isokinetic eccentric torque increased significantly after accentuated eccentric load training only (10 ± 9%, p < 0.05), whereas concentric torque

  7. Proliferative capacity of murine hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, S.; Botnick, L.E.; Hannon, E.C.; Vigneulle, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a decrease in self-renewal capacity with serial transfer of murine hematopoietic stem cells. Production of differentiated cell progeny is maintained longer than stem cell self-renewal. In normal animals the capacity for self-renewal is not decreased with increasing donor age. The stem cell compartment in normal animals, both young and old, appears to be proliferatively quiescent. After apparent recovery from the alkylating agent busulfan, the probability of stem cell self-renewal is decreased, there is a permanent defect in the capacity of the bone marrow for serial transplantation, and the stem cells are proliferatively active. These findings support a model of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment as a continuum of cells with decreasing capacities for self-renewal, increasing likelihood for differentiation, and increasing proliferative activity. Cells progress in the continuum in one direction and such progression is not reversible

  8. The creation in the French power system of a capacity mechanism and of a capacity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meda, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The key objective of the French capacity remuneration mechanism is to ensure long term security of supply and to promote peak load containment. The mechanism was set up by the NOME law of December 7, 2010 ('new organisation of the electricity market'), which has changed the organisation of the electricity market and explicitly requires a capacity obligation from suppliers, and by a decree published on December 14, 2012 'concerning the contribution of suppliers to the security of electricity supply and establishing a capacity obligation mechanism in the electricity sector'; further regulation will set up the rules for the capacity mechanism, probably during 2014. The mechanism is decentralized: every supplier has to contribute to supply security and to prove its ability to provide its clients with the capacity they need; all capacity owners in metropolitan France must have their production tools certified. Certificates can be sold and suppliers can buy them to adjust their positions. The transport System operator (TSO) calculates suppliers' obligation, checks if capacity owners fulfil their availability commitment and if suppliers have bought enough certificates. The contribution of interconnections to France's SOS is taken into account implicitly. The decree provides an additional safeguard mechanism, which is centralized: in case a critical situation is observed regarding the electricity supply and demand, the government can organize a call for tender to secure the necessary capacities; the conditions to trigger the call for tender are very restrictive, to ensure the capacity market remains the main investment provider. (author)

  9. Human skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, U F; Rasmussen, H N

    2000-04-01

    Under aerobic work, the oxygen consumption and major ATP production occur in the mitochondria and it is therefore a relevant question whether the in vivo rates can be accounted for by mitochondrial capacities measured in vitro. Mitochondria were isolated from human quadriceps muscle biopsies in yields of approximately 45%. The tissue content of total creatine, mitochondrial protein and different cytochromes was estimated. A number of activities were measured in functional assays of the mitochondria: pyruvate, ketoglutarate, glutamate and succinate dehydrogenases, palmitoyl-carnitine respiration, cytochrome oxidase, the respiratory chain and the ATP synthesis. The activities involved in carbohydrate oxidation could account for in vivo oxygen uptakes of 15-16 mmol O2 min-1 kg-1 or slightly above the value measured at maximal work rates in the knee-extensor model of Saltin and co-workers, i.e. without limitation from the cardiac output. This probably indicates that the maximal oxygen consumption of the muscle is limited by the mitochondrial capacities. The in vitro activities of fatty acid oxidation corresponded to only 39% of those of carbohydrate oxidation. The maximal rate of free energy production from aerobic metabolism of glycogen was calculated from the mitochondrial activities and estimates of the DeltaG or ATP hydrolysis and the efficiency of the actin-myosin reaction. The resultant value was 20 W kg-1 or approximately 70% of the maximal in vivo work rates of which 10-20% probably are sustained by the anaerobic ATP production. The lack of aerobic in vitro ATP synthesis might reflect termination of some critical interplay between cytoplasm and mitochondria.

  10. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  12. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  14. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  15. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  16. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  17. New capacity and the status of major projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.; Eastman, P.; Bajc, F.; Hawthorne, D.

    2003-01-01

    This session included highlights from from four guest speakers who were asked to comment on new electricity capacity in Ontario and the status of major projects. The summer of 2002 was one of the hottest on record in Ontario and presented a challenge for suppliers of electricity to meet demand. Some of the extra demand was met by interties. Imports provided 5 per cent of consumption in July and 8 per cent in August. TransAlta and ATCO are currently involved in 2 major projects to add generation capacity. In addition, Ontario Power Generation is getting more production from its existing nuclear plants and has made significant investment to get greater efficiency and increase safety margins at the plants. One panelist suggested that nuclear power is a key part of meeting Canada's Kyoto greenhouse reduction obligations. It was emphasized that market participants should allow time to let the market work and let a free market respond to price signals. It was argued that consumers expect and rely too much on low-cost electricity and are therefore not encouraged to conserve energy or look into new generation requirements. figs

  18. 基于有效容量分布的含风电场电力系统随机生产模拟%Power System Probabilistic Production Simulation With Wind Generation Based on Available Capacity Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹斌; 李冬

    2012-01-01

    The power system operation simulation including large wind turbine generations, which is based on the Monte Carlo method, is of good accuracy and extensive adaptability. However, the computation time of the simulation is long and this limits its application. The other theoretical methodologies have some disadvantages, for example, the wind turbine generations could not be described precisely, or it is difficult to deal with the multi wind farms and the correlations among them. In order to overcome these disadvantages, a probabilistic production simulation algorithm for power systems including wind farms was proposed based on available capacity distribution. The time-varying characteristics of the load and wind turbines were considered in the algorithm. The auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) time series model was applied to simulate the wind speed, and the cumulants method was used to calculate the available capacity distribution. The proposed algorithm could better describe the characteristics of the wind turbine generations, and is of high computing efficiency. Multi wind farms and their correlations are taken into consideration in the algorithm, and the probability and the energy of the abandoned wind power caused by the limitation of the minimum output can be calculated. The effectiveness of the method was verified based on the data of IEEE-RTS system.%基于蒙特卡罗(MonteCarlo)方法的含大规模风力发电的电力系统模拟虽然具有较好的精度和广泛的适应性,但其过大的时间开销限制了其应用。而现有的理论计算方法则存在风力发电描述不够准确、难以处理多风电场及其相关性等问题。针对此现状,提出了一种基于发电机组有效容量分布的含风电场的电力系统随机生产模拟算法。该算法保留了负荷和风电机组的时变特性,采用时间序列白回归移动平均(auto-regressive movingaverage,ARMA)模型模拟风速,使用半不变量

  19. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  20. Turning the wind into hydrogen: The long-run impact on electricity prices and generating capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard; Hu, Helen; Vasilakos, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production via electrolysis has been proposed as a way of absorbing the fluctuating electricity generated by wind power, potentially allowing the use of cheap electricity at times when it would otherwise be in surplus. We show that large-scale adoption of electrolysers would change the shape of the load-duration curve for electricity, affecting the optimal capacity mix. Nuclear power stations will replace gas-fired power stations, as they are able to run for longer periods of time. Changes in the electricity capacity mix will be much greater than changes to the pattern of prices. The long-run supply price of hydrogen will thus tend to be insensitive to the amount produced. - Research Highlights: → Hydrogen production from electrolysis may offset intermittent wind generation. → The generation capacity mix will change in response to changed demand patterns. → The long-run equilibrium supply curve for hydrogen will be quite flat. → The production cost will be very sensitive to fuel prices paid by generators.

  1. Early LC3 lipidation induced by d-limonene does not rely on mTOR inhibition, ERK activation and ROS production and it is associated with reduced clonogenic capacity of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliocchi, Laura; Chiappini, Carlotta; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Gentile, Debora; Cerri, Silvia; Russo, Rossella; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2018-02-01

    d-Limonene is a natural monoterpene abundant in Citrus essential oils. It is endowed with several biological activities, including inhibition of carcinogenesis and promotion of tumour regression. Recently, d-limonene has been shown to modulate autophagic markers in vitro at concentrations found in vivo, in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process serving as both an adaptive metabolic response and a quality control mechanism. Because autophagy defects have been linked to a wide range of human pathologies, including neurodegeneration and cancer, there is a need for new pharmacological tools to control deregulated autophagy. To better understand the effects of d-limonene on autophagy, to identify the molecular mechanisms through which this monoterpene rapidly triggers LC3 lipidation and to evaluate the role for autophagy in long-term effects of d-limonene. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma and MCF7 breast cancer cells were used. Endogenous LC3-II levels were evaluated by western blotting. Autophagic flux assay was performed using bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine. Intracellular distribution of LC3 protein was studied by confocal microscopy analysis of LC3B-GFP transduced cells. Expression of lysosomal-membrane protein LAMP-1 was assessed by immunofluorescence analysis. Phosphorylated levels of downstream substrates of mTOR kinase (p70S6 kinase, 4E-BP1, and ULK1) and ERK were analyzed by western blotting. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed by live confocal microscopy of cells loaded with CellROX ® Green Reagent. Clonogenic assay was used to evaluate the ability of treated cells to proliferate and form colonies. LC3 lipidation promoted by d-limonene correlates with autophagosome formation and stimulation of basal autophagy. LC3 lipidation does not rely on inhibition of mTOR kinase, which instead appears to be transiently activated. In addition, d-limonene rapidly activates ERK and

  2. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  3. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  4. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  5. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  6. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  7. Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Reddick, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) of low-level solid radioactive waste in a humid environment has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). GCD practices of waste segregation into high and low activity concentrations, emplacement of waste below the root zone, waste stabilization, and capping are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on the volume/activity distribution of low-level solid wastes as obtained from SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10 CFR 61. The first disposal units constructed are twenty 9-ft-diam, 30-ft-deep boreholes. These holes will be used to dispose of wastes from the production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from offsite. In 1984, construction will begin on an engineered GCD trench for disposal of boxed waste and large bulky items that meet the activity concentration criteria. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  8. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ? Universities and their scientific knowledges are often seen to have universal qualities; therefore, capacity building may appear straightforward. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa contests such universalistic notions. Inspired by ideas about the ‘geography of scientific knowledge’ it explores...... what role specific places and relationships have in knowledge production, and analyses how cultural experiences are included and excluded in teaching and research. Thus, the different chapters show how what constitutes legitimate scientific knowledge is negotiated and contested. In doing so...... is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in education, development studies, African studies and human geography, as well as anthropology and history....

  9. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  10. Building school-wide capacity for improvement: the role of leadership, school organizational conditions, and teacher factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, E.E.J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Oort, F.J.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Education policies for greater accountability of schools assume that schools are capable of building their capacity for continuous improvement. While policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners acknowledge the importance of building school-wide capacity for continuous improvement, empirical evidence

  11. Building school-wide capacity for improvement: the role of leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, E.E.J.; Thoonen, E.E.J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Oort, F.J.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Education policies for greater accountability of schools assume that schools are capable of building their capacity for continuous improvement. While policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners acknowledge the importance of building school-wide capacity for continuous improvement, empirical evidence

  12. On the cost of using capacity flexibility - a dynamic programming approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, J; Miltenburg, GJ

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of how to evaluate the resource use for sales opportunities in a production situation that is dually constrained: in operator capacity and machine capacity. The operator capacity is flexible, while the machine capacity is not. Therefore, there is a certain machine

  13. Capacity Planning for Batch and Perfusion Bioprocesses Across Multiple Biopharmaceutical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fed-batch or perfusion culture processes such as sequence-dependent changeover times, continuous culture constraints, and decoupled upstream and downstream operations that permit independent scheduling of each. Strategic inventory levels were accounted for by applying cost penalties when they were not met. A rolling time horizon methodology was utilized in conjunction with the MILP model and was shown to obtain solutions with greater optimality in less computational time than the full-scale model. The model was applied to an industrial case study to illustrate how the framework aids decisions regarding outsourcing capacity to third party manufacturers or building new facilities. The impact of variations on key parameters such as demand or titres on the optimal production plans and costs was captured. The analysis identified the critical ratio of in-house to contract manufacturing organization (CMO) manufacturing costs that led the optimization results to favor building a future facility over using a CMO. The tool predicted that if titres were higher than expected then the optimal solution would allocate more production to in-house facilities, where manufacturing costs were lower. Utilization graphs indicated when capacity expansion should be considered. © 2013 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:594–606, 2014 PMID:24376262

  14. Capacity planning for batch and perfusion bioprocesses across multiple biopharmaceutical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fed-batch or perfusion culture processes such as sequence-dependent changeover times, continuous culture constraints, and decoupled upstream and downstream operations that permit independent scheduling of each. Strategic inventory levels were accounted for by applying cost penalties when they were not met. A rolling time horizon methodology was utilized in conjunction with the MILP model and was shown to obtain solutions with greater optimality in less computational time than the full-scale model. The model was applied to an industrial case study to illustrate how the framework aids decisions regarding outsourcing capacity to third party manufacturers or building new facilities. The impact of variations on key parameters such as demand or titres on the optimal production plans and costs was captured. The analysis identified the critical ratio of in-house to contract manufacturing organization (CMO) manufacturing costs that led the optimization results to favor building a future facility over using a CMO. The tool predicted that if titres were higher than expected then the optimal solution would allocate more production to in-house facilities, where manufacturing costs were lower. Utilization graphs indicated when capacity expansion should be considered. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high-capacity

  16. Uranium enrichment. Technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.; Vanstrum, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R+D efforts on various processes. (author)

  17. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Jr., W. R.; Vanstrum, P. R.; Saire, D. E.; Gestson, D. K.; Peske, S. E.

    1982-08-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes.

  18. Uranium enrichment: technology, economics, capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, W.R. Jr.; Vanstrum, P.R.; Saire, D.E.; Gestson, D.K.; Peske, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Large-scale enrichment of uranium has now been carried out for 40 years. While the gaseous diffusion process was the original choice of several countries and continues today to provide the major component of the world production of separative work, the last two decades have witnessed the development of a number of alternative processes for enrichment. These processes, which are being studied and deployed around the world, offer a wide range of technical and economic characteristics which will be useful in assuring adequate capacity to meet projected reactor fuel market needs through the rest of this century at competitive prices. With present uncertainties in future enriched uranium needs, it is apparent that flexibility in the deployment and operation of any enrichment process will be one of the prime considerations for the future. More economical production of separative work not only can have a beneficial impact on reactor fuel costs, but also tends to conserve natural uranium resources. This paper reviews the world scene in the enrichment component of the fuel cycle, including existing or planned commercial-scale facilities and announced R and D efforts on various processes

  19. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  20. High capacity getter pump for UHV operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, P.; Marino, M.; Belloni, F.; Porro, M.

    1993-01-01

    UHV pumps based on non-evaporable getter coated strips find widespread use in particle accelerators, synchrotron radiation machines and nuclear fusion experimental devices. Depending on the geometric constraints, pressure operation conditions and the foreseen gas loads, optimized getter structures, such as modules and cartridges, can be designed and assembled into a high-efficiency pump. In the present paper, the design and performance of a newly conceived High Capacity Getter Pump (HCGP) based on sintered getter bodies, in the shape of blades instead of strips, is illustrated. The porosity and the specific surface area of the blades and their arrangement in the cartridge have been optimized to significantly increase sorption capacity at a given speed. These pumps are well suited for those applications where a very high gas load is expected during the machine operation. The sintered getter bodies increase surface area and capacity, requiring less frequent reactivation and facilitating greater overall life of the pump. A discussion of the experimental results in terms of sorption speed and capacity for various gases is presented

  1. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  2. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  3. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  4. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  5. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  6. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  7. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  8. Mapping grasslands suitable for cellulosic biofuels in the Greater Platte River Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Gu, Yingxin

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are an important component in the development of alternative energy supplies, which is needed to achieve national energy independence and security in the United States. The most common biofuel product today in the United States is corn-based ethanol; however, its development is limited because of concerns about global food shortages, livestock and food price increases, and water demand increases for irrigation and ethanol production. Corn-based ethanol also potentially contributes to soil erosion, and pesticides and fertilizers affect water quality. Studies indicate that future potential production of cellulosic ethanol is likely to be much greater than grain- or starch-based ethanol. As a result, economics and policy incentives could, in the near future, encourage expansion of cellulosic biofuels production from grasses, forest woody biomass, and agricultural and municipal wastes. If production expands, cultivation of cellulosic feedstock crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus species), is expected to increase dramatically. The main objective of this study is to identify grasslands in the Great Plains that are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock (such as switchgrass) production. Producing ethanol from noncropland holdings (such as grassland) will minimize the effects of biofuel developments on global food supplies. Our pilot study area is the Greater Platte River Basin, which includes a broad range of plant productivity from semiarid grasslands in the west to the fertile corn belt in the east. The Greater Platte River Basin was the subject of related U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) integrated research projects.

  9. Financial Capacity and its Cognitive Predictors in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Myers, Terina; Lowry, Kathleen; Martin, Roy C; Triebel, Kristen L; Bashir, Khurram; Marson, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Financial capacity is a cognitively-complex activity of daily living that has been shown to decline in a number of neurocognitive disorders. Although it has been well established that cognitive decline is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known about possible financial capacity impairment in people with MS. Thus, the objective of the current study is to investigate financial capacity and its neurocognitive correlates in MS. Data from 22 people with progressive MS and a healthy comparison group composed of 18 adults were analyzed. MS diagnoses were made by a board-certified neurologist with experience in MS. Study participants were administered the Financial Capacity Instrument, a performance-based measure of financial capacity, and neuropsychological battery. Overall financial capacity and most complex financial domains were significantly poorer for people with progressive MS in relation to the healthy comparison group, and a number of cognitive variables were associated with financial capacity declines. Financial capacity is a complex cognitively-mediated functional ability that was impaired in 50% of the current sample of people with progressive MS. These results indicate that people with progressive MS are at greater risk for showing impairment in complex financial tasks and should be clinically monitored for possible deficits in financial capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Greater-than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste management concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 assigned to the Federal Government responsibility for the disposal of commercial greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). In 1987, DOE committed to Congress to accept GTCC LLW and provide storage and other waste management as necessary until disposal capacity is available. Current estimates are that about 6,000 m 3 of unpackaged GTCC LLW will be generated to the year 2020. Generators estimate that 100 m 3 of raw GTCC LLW might exceed planned storage capacity to the year 2020. This paper reports the activities of the National Low-Level Waste Program to manage GTCC low-level radioactive waste

  12. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  13. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  14. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  15. Breeding of Greater and Lesser Flamingos at Sua Pan, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to fledging was unknown owing to the rapid drying of the pan in late March 1999. No Greater Flamingo breeding was seen that season. Exceptional flooding during 1999–2000 produced highly favourable breeding conditions, with numbers of Greater and Lesser Flamingos breeding estimated to be 23 869 and 64 287 pairs, ...

  16. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  17. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  18. INDUSTRIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURING DECONCENTRATION IN GREATER JAKARTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  19. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  20. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  1. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  2. Changing recruitment capacity in global fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Gregory L; Dowd, Michael; Worm, Boris

    2016-01-05

    Marine fish and invertebrates are shifting their regional and global distributions in response to climate change, but it is unclear whether their productivity is being affected as well. Here we tested for time-varying trends in biological productivity parameters across 262 fish stocks of 127 species in 39 large marine ecosystems and high-seas areas (hereafter LMEs). This global meta-analysis revealed widespread changes in the relationship between spawning stock size and the production of juvenile offspring (recruitment), suggesting fundamental biological change in fish stock productivity at early life stages. Across regions, we estimate that average recruitment capacity has declined at a rate approximately equal to 3% of the historical maximum per decade. However, we observed large variability among stocks and regions; for example, highly negative trends in the North Atlantic contrast with more neutral patterns in the North Pacific. The extent of biological change in each LME was significantly related to observed changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration and the intensity of historical overfishing in that ecosystem. We conclude that both environmental changes and chronic overfishing have already affected the productive capacity of many stocks at the recruitment stage of the life cycle. These results provide a baseline for ecosystem-based fisheries management and may help adjust expectations for future food production from the oceans.

  3. Integration of large-scale heat pumps in the district heating systems of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bjarne; Werling, Jesper; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the technical and private economic aspects of integrating a large capacity of electric driven HP (heat pumps) in the Greater Copenhagen DH (district heating) system, which is an example of a state-of-the-art large district heating system with many consumers and suppliers....... The analysis was based on using the energy model Balmorel to determine the optimum dispatch of HPs in the system. The potential heat sources in Copenhagen for use in HPs were determined based on data related to temperatures, flows, and hydrography at different locations, while respecting technical constraints...

  4. Advancing U.S. Strategic Communication through Greater Civilian-Military Coordination and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ADVANCING U.S. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION THROUGH GREATER CIVILIAN-MILITARY COORDINATION AND INTERGRATION by Wendy A. Kolls U.S... products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power." Department af Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms...the "British street," the "American street," and the "Israeli street.ŗ Selling "Brand America" If the " product " was America, then the thinking in

  5. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  6. Solid waste workers and livelihood strategies in Greater Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Claudel

    2010-01-01

    The solid waste management industry in Haiti is comprised of a formal and an informal sector. Many basic activities in the solid waste management sector are being carried out within the context of profound poverty, which exposes the failure of the socioeconomic and political system to provide sufficient job opportunities for the urban population. This paper examines the involvement of workers in the solid waste management industry in Greater Port-au-Prince and the implications for livelihood strategies. The findings revealed that the Greater Port-au-Prince solid waste management system is very inclusive with respect to age, while highly segregated with regard to gender. In terms of earning capacity, the results showed that workers hired by the State agencies were the most economically vulnerable group as more than 50% of them fell below the official nominal minimum wage. This paper calls for better salary scales and work compensation for the solid waste workers.

  7. Call to action: Better care, better health, and greater value in college health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotoli, Carlo; Smith, Allison J; Keeling, Richard P

    2018-03-05

    It is time for action by leaders across higher education to strengthen quality improvement (QI) in college health, in pursuit of better care, better health, and increased value - goals closely linked to students' learning and success. The size and importance of the college student population; the connections between wellbeing, and therefore QI, and student success; the need for improved standards and greater accountability; and the positive contributions of QI to employee satisfaction and professionalism all warrant a widespread commitment to building greater capacity and capability for QI in college health. This report aims to inspire, motivate, and challenge college health professionals and their colleagues, campus leaders, and national entities to take both immediate and sustainable steps to bring QI to the forefront of college health practice - and, by doing so, to elevate care, health, and value of college health as a key pathway to advancing student success.

  8. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  9. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  10. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  11. Fractures of the greater trochanter following total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Ole-Christian L; Maansson, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    We studied the incidence of greater trochanteric fractures at our department following THR. In all we examined 911 patients retrospectively and found the occurance of a greater trochanteric fracture to be 3%. Patients with fractures had significantly poorer outcome on Oxford Hip score, Pain VAS, Satisfaction VAS and EQ-5D compared to THR without fractures. Greater trochanteric fracture following THR is one of the most common complications following THR. It has previously been thought to have little impact on the overall outcome following THR, but our study suggests otherwise.

  12. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  13. Designing capacity-building in e-learning expertise: Challenges and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, J. C.; Peake, S. R.; Hardy, P.

    2008-01-01

    This research study looks at how organizations in developing countries perceive the challenge of building capacity in e-learning expertise. Data was collected on six such organizations, and a range of perceived rationales and constraints were identified. The paper hypothesizes a four-part framework to define the e-learning capacity gaps that these circumstances appear to represent: the 'instructional design capacity gap', the 'production capacity gap', the 'tutorial capacity gap' and the 'com...

  14. Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Joe P; Blackney, Donna M; Ennis, Erin J

    2017-11-10

    The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ r,Z , μ r,A ] that provides the maximum

  15. Understanding Absorptive Capacities is an "Innovation Systems" Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden our understanding of the concept underlying absorptive capacity atthe macro -level, paying particular attention to the growth and development perspectives. Weprovide definitions of absorptive and technological capacity, external technology flows,productivity growth....... We also undertake to explain how the nature ofabsorptive capacity changes with stages of economic development, and the importance of thedifferent aspects of absorptive capability at different stages. The relationship is not a linear one:the benefits that accrue from marginal increases in absorptive...... capability change over time.Finally, we provide a tentative and preliminary conceptual argument of how the different stagesof absorptive capacity are related to productivity growth, economic growth and employmentcreation.Key words: New economy, absorptive capacity, knowledge...

  16. Pacific Basin Heavy Oil Refining Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hackett

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States today is Canada’s largest customer for oil and refined oil products. However, this relationship may be strained due to physical, economic and political influences. Pipeline capacity is approaching its limits; Canadian oil is selling at substantive discounts to world market prices; and U.S. demand for crude oil and finished products (such as gasoline, has begun to flatten significantly relative to historical rates. Lower demand, combined with increased shale oil production, means U.S. demand for Canadian oil is expected to continue to decline. Under these circumstances, gaining access to new markets such as those in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming more and more important for the Canadian economy. However, expanding pipeline capacity to the Pacific via the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline and the planned Trans Mountain pipeline expansion is only feasible when there is sufficient demand and processing capacity to support Canadian crude blends. Canadian heavy oil requires more refining and produces less valuable end products than other lighter and sweeter blends. Canadian producers must compete with lighter, sweeter oils from the Middle East, and elsewhere, for a place in the Pacific Basin refineries built to handle heavy crude blends. Canadian oil sands producers are currently expanding production capacity. Once complete, the Northern Gateway pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion are expected to deliver an additional 500,000 to 1.1 million barrels a day to tankers on the Pacific coast. Through this survey of the capacity of Pacific Basin refineries, including existing and proposed facilities, we have concluded that there is sufficient technical capacity in the Pacific Basin to refine the additional Canadian volume; however, there may be some modifications required to certain refineries to allow them to process Western Canadian crude. Any additional capacity for Canadian oil would require refinery modifications or

  17. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  18. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  19. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  20. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Dave Druce, Heleen Genis, Jonathan Braak, Sophie Greatwood, Audrey Delsink, Ross Kettles, Luke Hunter, Rob Slotow ...

  1. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  2. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  3. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  4. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  5. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  6. GREATER OMENTUM: MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  7. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  8. Bilingualism and Working Memory Capacity: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G.; Timmer, Kalinka

    2017-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks, including tasks that tap cognitive flexibility, conflict monitoring, and task-switching abilities. Some have suggested that bilinguals also have greater working memory capacity than comparable monolinguals, but evidence for this suggestion is mixed. We therefore conducted a…

  9. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, David B.; Chahine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas), which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermocatalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. (author)

  10. A simulation study of capacity utilization to predict future capacity for manufacturing system sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimo, Tan Hauw Sen; Chai Tin, Ong

    2017-12-01

    Capacity utilization (CU) measurement is an important task in a manufacturing system, especially in make-to-order (MTO) type manufacturing system with product customization, in predicting capacity to meet future demand. A stochastic discrete-event simulation is developed using ARENA software to determine CU and capacity gap (CG) in short run production function. This study focused on machinery breakdown and product defective rate as random variables in the simulation. The study found that the manufacturing system run in 68.01% CU and 31.99% CG. It is revealed that machinery breakdown and product defective rate have a direct relationship with CU. By improving product defective rate into zero defect, manufacturing system can improve CU up to 73.56% and CG decrease to 26.44%. While improving machinery breakdown into zero breakdowns will improve CU up to 93.99% and the CG decrease to 6.01%. This study helps operation level to study CU using “what-if” analysis in order to meet future demand in more practical and easier method by using simulation approach. Further study is recommended by including other random variables that affect CU to make the simulation closer with the real-life situation for a better decision.

  11. Ob/ob mouse livers show decreased oxidative phosphorylation efficiencies and anaerobic capacities after cold ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. METHODS: Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9 and lean C57 mice (n = 9 were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. RESULTS: Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60% macrovesicular and mild (<30% microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. CONCLUSIONS: Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in

  12. Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

    2013-03-01

    Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving Technology And Setting-Up A Production Line For High Quality Zinc Oxide (99.5%) With A Capacity Of 150 Ton/Year By Reduction-Oxidation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Minh Tuan; Tran The Dinh; Tran Ngoc Vuong; Tuong Duy Nhan; Tran Trung Son; Le Huu Thiep; Nguyen Trung Dung; Le Thi Hong; Luong Manh Hung; Bui Huy Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide is used not only for the rubber industry, but also in many other industries such as pigments, ceramics, cosmetics etc. On the basis of references on international scientific researches and practical activities for the production of zinc oxide in our country, we have carried out additional research and testing to establish a zinc oxide production line for preparation of high quality (99.5%) product by treating the industrial zinc containing waste to obtain required composition materials [Zn] >50%; [Pb] < 0.3%; [Cl]/[PbO] < 0.2 for reduction-oxidation processes using reverberatory furnace. (author)

  14. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  15. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  16. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  17. Operating room management and operating room productivity: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Maresi; Berry-Stölzle, Thomas; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    We examine operating room productivity on the example of hospitals in Germany with independent anesthesiology departments. Linked to anesthesiology group literature, we use the ln(Total Surgical Time/Total Anesthesiologists Salary) as a proxy for operating room productivity. We test the association between operating room productivity and different structural, organizational and management characteristics based on survey data from 87 hospitals. Our empirical analysis links improved operating room productivity to greater operating room capacity, appropriate scheduling behavior and management methods to realign interests. From this analysis, the enforcing jurisdiction and avoiding advance over-scheduling appear to be the implementable tools for improving operating room productivity.

  18. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  19. Depressive Symptoms, Exercise Capacity, and Clinical Outcomes After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Byrd, Rebecca; Lusby, Megan; Clausen, Emily; Snyder, Laurie D

    2018-05-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant recipients and have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed at multiple time points or behavioral mechanisms by which posttransplant depressive symptoms may confer greater clinical risk. We therefore examined the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and mortality prospectively in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. Between July 2009 and February 2016, 251 lung transplant recipients were assessed before transplantation and again approximately 3 weeks and 3 months after transplant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. Functional exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, CLAD, and mortality. During a median (range) follow-up of 4.5 (0.1 to 6.3) years, 53 participants (21%) died. Greater depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.05 to 1.84], p = .021) and poorer exercise capacity (HR = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.38 to 0.90], p = .021) assessed 3 months after transplant were both independently associated with mortality. Although greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower exercise capacity (β = -0.14, p = .039), exercise capacity did not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality. In secondary analyses, depressive symptoms were independently predictive of CLAD (HR = 1.29 [95% CI = 1.01 to 1.65], p = .045) and the composite outcome of CLAD and mortality in a clustered event model (HR = 1.30 [1.09 to 1.56], p = .005). Depressive symptoms are associated with mortality and CLAD after lung transplantation, independent of exercise capacity.

  20. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  1. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans

  2. Population dynamics of Greater Scaup breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, J. Barry; Fondell, Thomas F.; Morse, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater scaup (Aythya marila) remained relatively stable during a period when populations of lesser scaup (A. affinis) have declined from historic levels. To assist in describing these differences in population trends, from 1991 through 2000, we studied the survival, nesting ecology, and productivity of greater scaup on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, to develop a model of population dynamics. We located nests, radio-marked females for renesting studies, estimated duckling survival, and leg-banded females to examine nest site fidelity and annual survival.

  3. Examining the Resilience of Crop Production, Livestock Carrying Capacity, and Woodland Density in a Rural Zimbabwean Socio-Ecological System Using Agent-Based Models Representing Human Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Neves, K.; Veski, A.; Solera, J.; Omoju, O. E.; Mawere Ndlovu, A.; Wilson, K.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change increases the pressures on arid ecosystems by changing timing and amount of rainfall, understanding the ways in which human management choices affect the resilience of these systems becomes key to their sustainability. On marginal farmland in Mazvihwa, Midlands Province, the historical carrying capacity of livestock has been consistently surprisingly high. We explore this phenomenon by building an agent-based model in NetLogo from a wealth of long-term data generated by the community-based participatory research team of The Muonde Trust, a Zimbabwean non-governmental organization. We combine the accumulated results of 35 years of indigenous and local knowledge with national datasets such as rainfall records. What factors keep the carrying capacity high? What management choices can maintain crops, livestock, and woodland at levels necessary for the community's survival? How do these choices affect long-term sustainability, and does increasing resilience at one scale reduce resilience at another scale? We use our agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between crops, livestock, and woodland and the impacts of various human choices as well as temporal and spatial ecological variation. By testing different scenarios, we disentangle the complex interactions between these components. We find that some factors out of the community's control can strongly affect the sustainability of the system through times of drought, and that supplementary feed may maintain livestock potentially at the expense of other resources. The challenges to resilience encountered by the farmers in Mazvihwa are not unique - many indigenous and rural people face drought and the legacies of colonialism, which contribute to lowered resilience to external challenges such as climate change, epidemics, and political instability. Using the agent-based model as a tool for synthesis and exploration initiates discussion about resilience-enhancing management choices for Mazvihwa's farmer-researchers.

  4. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  5. Capacity shortfalls hinder the performance of marine protected areas globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Ahmadia, Gabby N.; Glew, Louise; Lester, Sarah E.; Barnes, Megan; Craigie, Ian; Darling, Emily S.; Free, Christopher M.; Geldmann, Jonas; Holst, Susie; Jensen, Olaf P.; White, Alan T.; Basurto, Xavier; Coad, Lauren; Gates, Ruth D.; Guannel, Greg; Mumby, Peter J.; Thomas, Hannah; Whitmee, Sarah; Woodley, Stephen; Fox, Helen E.

    2017-03-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used globally to conserve marine resources. However, whether many MPAs are being effectively and equitably managed, and how MPA management influences substantive outcomes remain unknown. We developed a global database of management and fish population data (433 and 218 MPAs, respectively) to assess: MPA management processes; the effects of MPAs on fish populations; and relationships between management processes and ecological effects. Here we report that many MPAs failed to meet thresholds for effective and equitable management processes, with widespread shortfalls in staff and financial resources. Although 71% of MPAs positively influenced fish populations, these conservation impacts were highly variable. Staff and budget capacity were the strongest predictors of conservation impact: MPAs with adequate staff capacity had ecological effects 2.9 times greater than MPAs with inadequate capacity. Thus, continued global expansion of MPAs without adequate investment in human and financial capacity is likely to lead to sub-optimal conservation outcomes.

  6. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...

  7. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  8. Predatory Capacity in vitro of Native Nematophagous Fungi from Cundinamarca on Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildo Márquez Lara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence and indiscriminate use of chemical anthelmintics as the sole method for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of cattle causes problems in the environment, public health, and the productivity of cattle. It is important to develop non-chemical control strategies. Nematophagous fungi can be a viable and promising alternative for the control of these endoparasites. This study aimed to isolate, identify and evaluate in vitro the potential of nematophagous fungi from Cundinamarca on L3 larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. 60 soil samples from cattle ranches were sown in Petri boxes containing agar-water for trapping fungi, and three strains of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (L1, XVIII, and XXI and one of Arthrobotrys musiformis (XXIV were identified by morphometric keys. 1 x 106 conidia or chlamydospores of each fungi were used, which faced 100 nematode larvae. Isolate XXIV (A. musiformis showed greater predatory capacity (96.8% than isolates (A. oligospora XVIII, L1, and XXI (69.68, 71.1, and 87.62%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 among the strains with more predatory capacity. This is the first record of in vitro identification and evaluation of the predatory capacity of A. oligospora and A. musiformis, native fungi from Cundinamarca. The results suggest that these fungi could be used as biocontrol agents of nematodes in cattle.

  9. Aerobic capacity mediates susceptibility for the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Matthew; McCoin, Colin S; Allen, Julie A; Gastecki, Michelle L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fletcher, Justin A; Fu, Xiarong; Ding, Wen-Xing; Burgess, Shawn C; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2017-07-15

    Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality in humans. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity in the low capacity runner (LCR) rat increases susceptibility to acute and chronic high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced steatosis, without observed increases in liver inflammation. Addition of excess cholesterol to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet produced greater steatosis in LCR and high capacity runner (HCR) rats. However, the LCR rat demonstrated greater susceptibility to increased liver inflammatory and apoptotic markers compared to the HCR rat. The progressive non-alcoholic fatty liver disease observed in the LCR rats following western diet feeding was associated with further declines in liver fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared to HCR rats. Low aerobic capacity increases risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver-related disease mortality, but mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. We recently reported that rats bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runner; LCR) displayed susceptibility to high fat diet-induced steatosis in association with reduced hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and respiratory capacity compared to high aerobic capacity (high capacity runner; HCR) rats. Here we tested the impact of aerobic capacity on susceptibility for progressive liver disease following a 16-week 'western diet' (WD) high in fat (45% kcal), cholesterol (1% w/w) and sucrose (15% kcal). Unlike previously with a diet high in fat and sucrose alone, the inclusion of cholesterol in the WD induced hepatomegaly and steatosis in both HCR and LCR rats, while producing greater cholesterol ester accumulation in LCR compared to HCR rats. Importantly, WD-fed low-fitness LCR rats displayed greater inflammatory cell infiltration, serum alanine transaminase, expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (F4/80, MCP-1, TLR4, TLR2 and IL-1β) and effector caspase (caspase 3 and 7

  10. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Improving technology and setting-up a production line for high quality zinc oxide (99.5%) with a capacity of 150 ton/year by evaporation-oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Dinh Thinh; Pham Minh Tuan; Luong Manh Hung; Tran Ngoc Vuong

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the technology improvement and a production line to produce high quality zinc oxide of purity upper than 99.5% ZnO by evaporation-oxidation method. Secondary zinc metal recovered from galvanizing industrial will undergo a pre-treatment to meet all requirements of standardized feed material for evaporation-oxidation process. Zinc metal is melted at a temperature of about 650"oC, some impurities and metallic oxides are separated preliminary, then zinc metal is converted into liquid in evaporation pot. Here the temperature is maintained around 1050"oC, zinc liquid is evaporated, zinc vapor is oxidized by air in the oxidation chamber naturally by oxygen in the air and then zinc vapor is converted to zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is passed through a product classification systems and then go to a product collection of filtering bag design. The whole process of melting, evaporation, oxidation, particles classification and product collection is a continuous process. The efficiency of the transformation of zinc metal into zinc oxide can reach the value of 1.1 to 1.2. ZnO product quality is higher than 99.5%. (author)

  12. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  13. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  14. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  15. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  16. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  17. The Easterlin Illusion: Economic growth does go with greater happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); F. Vergunst (Floris)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The 'Easterlin Paradox' holds that economic growth in nations does not buy greater happiness for the average citizen. This thesis was advanced in the 1970s on the basis of the then available data on happiness in nations. Later data have disproved most of the empirical

  18. Job-Sharing at the Greater Victoria Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Don

    1978-01-01

    Describes the problems associated with the management of part-time library employees and some solutions afforded by a job sharing arrangement in use at the Greater Victoria Public Library. This is a voluntary work arrangement, changing formerly full-time positions into multiple part-time positions. (JVP)

  19. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun; Lim, Jong Nam

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis

  20. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.