WorldWideScience

Sample records for greater perceived risk

  1. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  2. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  3. Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Anno, Kozo; Kawata, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Rie; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles ?care? and ?overprotection? during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood. Methods A total of...

  4. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  5. Perceived inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood are associated with greater risk of sleep disturbance in adulthood: the Hisayama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Anno, Kozo; Kawata, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Rie; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako

    2016-07-07

    Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality are major health problems worldwide. One potential risk factor for the development and maintenance of sleep disturbance is the parenting style experienced during childhood. However, its role in sleep disturbance in adulthood has not yet been estimated. This Japanese population study was done to clarify the relation between the parenting styles "care" and "overprotection" during childhood and sleep disturbance in adulthood. A total of 702 community-dwelling Japanese residents aged ≥ 40 years were assessed in 2011 for their perceptions of the parenting style of their parents by use of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and for sleep disturbance by use of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The odds ratio (OR) for sleep disturbance (a global PSQI score > 5) was calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 29 %. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and physical factors in a comparison with the optimal parenting styles (high care and low overprotection), the ORs for sleep disturbance by men were significantly higher for low paternal care, by 2.49 times (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-5.09), and for high overprotection, by 2.40 times (95 % CI: 1.19-4.85), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care and high overprotection. For women the only significant factor was high maternal overprotection, by 1.62 times (95 % CI: 1.05-2.52), while the ORs were not significant for low maternal care, low paternal care and high paternal overprotection. The association remained significant for high paternal overprotection for men after additionally controlling for depression. This study suggests that parenting style, especially inadequate care and excessive overprotection during childhood, is related to sleep disturbance in adulthood and that the association is much more significant for parents of the same sex as the child.

  6. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  9. [Perceived risks of food contaminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Lohmann, Mark; Epp, Astrid; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-07-01

    Food contaminants can pose a serious health threat. In order to carry out adequate risk communication measures, the subjective risk perception of the public must be taken into account. In this context, the breadth of the topic and insufficient terminological delimitations from residues and food additives make an elaborate explanation of the topic to consumers indispensable. A representative population survey used language adequate for lay people and a clear definition of contaminants to measure risk perceptions with regard to food contaminants among the general public. The study aimed to assess public awareness of contaminants and the perceived health risks associated with them. In addition, people's current knowledge and need for additional information, their attitudes towards contaminants, views on stakeholder accountability, as well as compliance with precautionary measures, such as avoiding certain foods to reduce health risks originating from contaminants, were assessed. A representative sample of 1001 respondents was surveyed about food contaminants via computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The majority of respondents rated contaminants as a serious health threat, though few of them spontaneously mentioned examples of undesirable substances in foods that fit the scientific or legal definition of contaminants. Mercury and dioxin were the most well-known contaminants. Only a minority of respondents was familiar with pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The present findings highlight areas that require additional attention and provide implications for risk communication geared to specific target groups.

  10. Greater Caregiving Risk, Better Infant Memory Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-04-16

    Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  12. Analysis of uncertainty in modeling perceived risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, R.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Expanding on a mathematical model developed for quantifying and assessing perceived risks, the distribution functions, variances, and uncertainties associated with estimating the model parameters are quantified. The analytical model permits the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. Those risk perception factors associated with major technical issues are modeled using lognormal probability density functions to span the potentially large uncertainty variations associated with these risk perceptions. The model quantifies the logic of public risk perception and provides an effective means for measuring and responding to perceived risks. (authors)

  13. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p memory (p stress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p's stress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p = 0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women.

  14. ANTESEDEN PERCEIVED RISK PADA PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Rejeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of perceived risk to purchase intention  private label products in Indonesia modern market. This study used primary data sources obtained directly by distributing questionnaires using purposive sampling techniques, gathered 200 respondents with minimum criteria of period at least 18 years while maximum of period is > 61 years and have bought private label products. The dependent variable in this study is purchase intention, while independent variables are considered functional risk, perceived financial risk, physical risk, and perception of psychological risk. Data analysis use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results indicate that there was a negative effect on financial risk, the perceived physical risk to buy an interest in functional perception, the psychological risk has no effect on purchase intention on private label product. The implications for the manager is to increase consumer buying intentions by taking into account factors such as perceptions of financial risk and perceptions of physical risk.

  15. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential proximinity, perceived and acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power

  17. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  18. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  19. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  20. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  1. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  2. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...... the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk...

  3. Dimensions of Consumer's Perceived Risk in Online Shopping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Naiyi

    2004-01-01

    Perceived risk is an important concept in consumer behavior in online shopping. It impedes the adopting online shopping. A structure model with seven factors of consumer's perceived risk in online shopping is developed in this paper. The results have the descriptive power about Chinese consumers' perceived risk in Internet shopping and provide framework for managerial use in China's e-commerce market environment.

  4. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  5. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Measuring Risk Perception in Later Life: The Perceived Risk Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Rinat; Nimrod, Galit; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2016-11-01

    Risk perception is a subjective assessment of the actual or potential threat to one's life or, more broadly, to one's psychological well-being. Given the various risks associated with later life, a valid and reliable integrative screening tool for assessing risk perception among the elderly is warranted. The study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of a new integrative risk perception instrument, the Perceived Risk Scale. This eight-item measure refers to various risks simultaneously, including terror, health issues, traffic accidents, violence, and financial loss, and was developed specifically for older adults. An online survey was conducted with 306 participants aged 50 years and older. The scale was examined using exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity testing. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure: later-life risks and terror risks A high percentage of explained variance, as well as internal consistency, was found for the entire scale and for both factors. Concurrent validity was supported by significant positive associations with participants' depression and negative correlations with their life satisfaction. These findings suggest that the Perceived Risk Scale is internally reliable, valid, and appropriate for evaluating risk perception in later life. The scale's potential applications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  8. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  9. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  10. THE PERCEIVED RISK OF TRAVELLING, WITH EMPHASIS ON TERRORISM

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanou, Areti

    2009-01-01

    Risk is an important factor when considering international tourism (Lepp and Gibson, 2003; Sonmez and Graefe, 1998b; 1998a; Sonmez, 1998), especially nowadays as a result of the increased magnitude and frequency of terrorism attacks when travelling. Such events have negatively affected individuals’ perceived risk in international travel, making terrorism risk a key element of the international travel scene. Perceived risk can influence a positive image, intention to travel to a particular des...

  11. Leveraging Enterprise Risk Management: Opportunity for Greater Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.; Baird, Robert; Neugebauer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) gained a foothold in higher education during the first decade of the 21st century. College and university governing board members came to their board service with the perspective and experience of having served on corporate boards and in corporate leadership positions where ERM was in active use. Trustees asked…

  12. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  13. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  14. Scrotal neoplasia: would truck drivers be at greater risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze how scrotal neoplasias have been managed during the past decade and to question possible factors or professions associated to its presence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated every case reported from 1995 to 2005 at our hospital. We described the clinical scenario, complementary exams, treatments and outcomes. We also tried to verify if there was any risk, predisposing factors or professions that would explain the cancer origin. RESULTS: Six cases were reviewed. Out of these, three patients were truck drivers. Five of them showed restricted lesions without inguinal lymph nodes enlargement. Histologically, six patients presented squamous carcinoma, with two of them having the verrucous type. The median age of patients was 52 years old (31 to 89. The five patients who are still alive had their lesions completely removed with safety margin and primary closure. CONCLUSIONS: We have noticed that the scrotal carcinoma behavior is similar to that of the penis, where removal of the lesion and study of the regional lymph nodes help to increase the patient survival rate. The outstanding fact was that three out of six patients were truck drivers, raising the hypothesis that such profession, maybe due to the contact or attrition with the diesel exhaust expelled by the engine or to sexual promiscuity, would imply in a larger risk of developing this rare neoplasia.

  15. Alcohol use, sexual activity, and perceived risk in high school athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.

  16. WIC mothers' depressive symptoms are associated with greater use of feeding to soothe, regardless of perceived child negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2017-04-01

    Maternal symptoms of depression are related to suboptimal parenting practices and child well-being; women with elevated symptoms tend to be less responsive to their children. The objective is to explore how maternal depressive symptomatology is related to childhood obesity-promoting parenting behaviours, and whether depressive symptomatology moderates the association between perceived child negativity and the use of food to soothe among low-income mothers. There is a cross-sectional sample of 60 mothers and their formula fed infants/toddlers participating in the Special Supplemental Woman, Infants and Children Program. Measures included the Infant Behaviors Questionnaire, Baby's Basic Needs Questionnaire, the feeding problem assessment form and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms exceeded the clinical screening cut-off for 38% of women. Mothers with depressive symptoms perceived their child to be more negative and were more likely to use food to soothe, add cereal to the bottle and put baby to bed with bottle than mothers without depressive symptoms. Generalized linear models revealed that child negativity was associated with greater use of food to soothe but that this effect was moderated by maternal depression: negativity was positively associated with food to soothe among non-depressed but not depressed mothers. A high proportion of low-income mothers reported elevated depressive symptoms; depressive symptomatology was positively associated with perceived child negativity and greater reported use of controlling feeding practices. Screening for maternal depressive symptoms may help in providing more individually tailored counselling on responsive feeding. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Perceived risk of reinfection among individuals treated for sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived risk of reinfection among individuals treated for sexually transmitted infections in Northern Ethiopia: implication for use in clinical practice. Mache Tsadik, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Wondwossen Terefe ...

  18. Safety Climate, Perceived Risk, and Involvement in Safety Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kouabenan , Dongo Rémi; Ngueutsa , Robert ,; Safiétou , Mbaye

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article examines the relationship between safety climate, risk perception and involvement in safety management by first-line managers (FLM). Sixty-three FLMs from two French nuclear plants answered a questionnaire measuring perceived workplace safety climate, perceived risk, and involvement in safety management. We hypothesized that a positive perception of safety climate would promote substantial involvement in safety management, and that this effect would be str...

  19. Perceived health status : is obesity perceived as a risk factor and disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommy L.S. Visscher; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nanna Olsen; Leanne Küpers; Sofia Ramalho; Laura Keaver; Christina Brei; Jan-Inge Bjune; Silvia Ezquerro; Volkan Yumuk

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This

  20. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  1. Perceived quality, perceived risk and customer trust affecting customer loyalty of environmentally friendly electronics products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalinthorn Marakanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, industrial business competition causes producers to be aware of quality, price, and variety in developing new products to meet the consumers' needs. This research reviewed the literature on green marketing and proposes a new conceptual framework of customer loyalty. It uses four constructs—perceived quality, perceived risk, customer trust, and customer loyalty—in the context of environmentally friendly electronics products in Thailand. This research employed an empirical study using the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses. Data were obtained from 420 consumers who bought and used environmentally friendly electronic products, particularly mobile phones, computers, and laptops using a purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results showed that perceived risk and customer trust had a direct effect on customer loyalty while perceived quality had an indirect effect on customer loyalty via customer trust. Furthermore, perceived quality had direct effects on perceived risk and customer trust. The results from the final SEM model were used to confirm the proposed relationships among the variables.

  2. Perceived risk and risk-taking behavior during the festival firework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Naseripour, Masoud; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between perceived risk and risk-taking behaviors during the Iranian Last Wednesday Eve Fireworks (ILWEF). A random sample of 2475 Tehranian households were asked on perceived risk of injury, risk-taking behaviors, experience of injuries, and their perception of ability to manage the harmful events during the ILWEF. Lower perceived injury risk and higher perceived ability of managing an injured household member were associated with participation in fireworks practice and incidence of injury. These findings can be of practical importance to increase safety during festivals by improving risk perception in the community.

  3. Dispositional optimism and perceived risk interact to predict intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-07-01

    Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk. Participants (n = 496) had their genomes sequenced as part of a National Institutes of Health pilot cohort study (ClinSeq®). Participants completed a cross-sectional baseline survey of various types of risk perceptions and intentions to learn genome sequencing results for differing disease risks (e.g., medically actionable, nonmedically actionable, carrier status) and to use this information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. Risk perceptions (absolute, comparative, and experiential) were largely unassociated with intentions to learn sequencing results. Dispositional optimism and comparative risk perceptions interacted, however, such that individuals higher in optimism reported greater intentions to learn all 3 types of sequencing results when comparative risk was perceived to be higher than when it was perceived to be lower. This interaction was inconsistent for experiential risk and absent for absolute risk. Independent of perceived risk, participants high in dispositional optimism reported greater interest in learning risks for nonmedically actionable disease and carrier status, and greater intentions to use genome information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. The relationship between risk perceptions and intentions may depend on how risk perceptions are assessed and on degree of optimism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Do we actually understand how people perceive risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochud, Francois O.

    2016-11-01

    The best way to understand how people perceive radiation risk is to not consider them as fundamentally different from experts, but rather, to consider how we, as experts, naturally react when we are confronted with a risk and how we like to be treated. Do we have to alter our language to make it understandable by members of the public?.

  5. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  6. Perceived risk: rationality, uncertainty and scepticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; measuring what (deciding which outcomes are to be considered; personal safety, threat to health and safety (threat to society, threat to health)); accuracy of beliefs (distinction between immediate-in-effect hazards and delayed-in-effect hazards); the context of beliefs about risk (evolution of beliefs, changes in beliefs). Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  7. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers’ perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology. PMID:26262094

  8. Trust, Perceived Risk, Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness as Factors Related to mHealth Technology Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Brown, William; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology use is nearly ubiquitous which affords the opportunity for using these technologies for modifying health related behaviors. At the same time, use of mobile health (mHealth) technology raises privacy and security concerns of consumers. The goal of this analysis was to understand the perceived ease of use, usefulness, risk and trust that contribute to behavioral intention to use a mobile application for meeting the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). To understand these issues, we conducted focus group sessions with 50 persons living with HIV and 30 HIV healthcare providers. We used the e-commerce acceptance model to analyze our focus group data. Findings from the study demonstrated the need for mHealth to be perceived as useful, easy to use, with little perceived risk accompanied by a measure of trust in the creators of the technology. Findings from this work can inform future work on patients and providers' perceptions of risk, trust, ease of use and usefulness of mHealth technology.

  9. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic ta......) affected timing but not propensity showing that elevated risk carried over to alter migratory behaviour in the wild. Our key finding demonstrates predator-driven migratory plasticity, highlighting the powerful role of predation risk for migratory decision-making and dynamics.......Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic tags...... in their lake summer habitat and monitored individual migration to connected streams over an entire season. Individuals exposed to increased perceived direct predation risk (i.e. a live predator) showed a higher migratory propensity but no change in migratory timing, while indirect risk (i.e. roach density...

  10. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  11. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents in Uganda, logistic regression models were fitted to examine the odds that HIV/AIDS related knowledge and perceived risk of HIV infection are associated with condom use among adolescents. After including demographic measures, findings indicated that correct ...

  12. Accounting for Households' Perceived Income Uncertainty in Consumption Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a consumption risk-sharing model that distinguishes households' perceived income uncertainty from income uncertainty as measured by an econometrician. Households receive signals on their future disposable income that can drive a gap between the two uncertainties. Accounting for the

  13. Higher Pretransplantation Hemoglobin A1c Is Associated With Greater Risk of Posttransplant Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Im Shin

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Higher pretransplantation HbA1c above 5.4% is independently associated with greater risk of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients. A continuous relationship between pretransplantation HbA1c and risk of PTDM suggests that increased risk starts at HbA1c levels well below current thresholds for prediabetes.

  14. Cognitive and affective influences on perceived risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; McCarty, Frances; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Scholl, Lawrence E; Leadbetter, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Studies suggest that both affective and cognitive processes are involved in the perception of vulnerability to cancer and that affect has an early influence in this assessment of risk. We constructed a path model based on a conceptual framework of heuristic reasoning (affect, resemblance, and availability) coupled with cognitive processes involved in developing personal models of cancer causation. From an eligible cohort of 16 700 women in a managed care organization, we randomly selected 2524 women at high, elevated, and average risk of ovarian cancer and administered a questionnaire to test our model (response rate 76.3%). Path analysis delineated the relationships between personal and cognitive characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, age, ideas about cancer causation, perceived resemblance to an affected friend or relative, and ovarian cancer knowledge) and emotional constructs (closeness to an affected relative or friend, time spent processing the cancer experience, and cancer worry) on perceived risk of ovarian cancer. Our final model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98). This final model (1) demonstrated the nature and direction of relationships between cognitive characteristics and perceived risk; (2) showed that time spent processing the cancer experience was associated with cancer worry; and (3) showed that cancer worry moderately influenced perceived risk. Our results highlight the important role that family cancer experience has on cancer worry and shows how cancer experience translates into personal risk perceptions. This understanding informs the discordance between medical or objective risk assessment and personal risk assessment. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. How employees perceive risks and safety in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barny, M.-H.; Brenot, J.; Moreau, A.

    1992-01-01

    Employees of the French centre of Saclay have been interviewed twice in November 1984 and March 1987 about their risks at the workplace, their views on safety, their protective attitudes, and also about the Chernobyl accident in the second survey. Perceived risks are compared, safety measures and protection teams are judged, importance of the Chernobyl accident is appreciated. Differences in perception between the various professional groups are pointed out. The main results are briefly presented hereafter. (author)

  16. The acceptance of mobile government from a citizens’ perspective: Identifying perceived risks and perceived benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    and citizens. There are many examples of failures of early e-government projects due to a lack of consideration of users’ requirements. Against this background, this article tries to contribute to governmental communication processes by addressing the driving factors influencing the acceptance of mobile......-government is significantly influenced by both, factors users see as a benefit but also by factors of perceived risks....

  17. What are the Main Physical Functioning Factors Associated With Falls Among Older People With Different Perceived Fall Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mirian N; Bilton, Tereza L; Dias, Rosangela C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Perracini, Monica R

    2017-07-01

    Fall risk perceptions may influence the judgement over physical and functional competencies to avoid falls. However, few studies have explored the physical functioning characteristics associated with falls among older people with low perceived fall risk. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of falls and physical functioning factors associated with falling among community-dwelling older adults with low and high perceived fall risk. We conducted a cross-sectional population based study with 773 community-dwelling elders. Perceived fall risk was investigated using Falls Efficacy Scale International. We considered fallers those who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Physical functioning measures used were grip strength, usual gait speed, sit-to-stand test, five step test, timed up and go test, one-legged stance test, anterior and lateral functional reach test. At least one fall was reported by 103 (30%) participants with low perceived fall risk and by 196 (46%) participants with high perceived fall risk. The odds of falling were lower among those with greater grip strength and with a greater stance time in one-legged test, and the odds of falling among elders with high perceived fall risk were higher among those who took more time in performing the five step test. We believe that our results highlight the need of not neglecting the risk of falls among active older adults with low perceived fall risk, particularly in those elders that show reduced stability in a small base of support and a lower leg strength. In addition, we suggest that elders with high perceived fall risk should be assessed using anticipatory postural adjustment tests. Particularly, our results may help physiotherapists to identify eligible elders with different perceptions of fall risk for tailored interventions aimed at reducing falls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. On the perceived usefulness of risk descriptions for decision-making in disaster risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lexin; Nilsson, Anders; Sjölin, Johan; Abrahamsson, Marcus; Tehler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Managing risk using an “all-hazards” and “whole of society”-approach involves extensive communication of risk descriptions among many stakeholders. In the present study we investigate how professionals working with disaster risk management in such contexts perceive the usefulness of different descriptions of risk. Empirical data from the Swedish disaster risk management system were used in an attempt to investigate the aspects of a risk description that affect its usefulness (as perceived by professionals). Thirty-three local municipal risk and vulnerability assessments (RVA documents) produced in the region of Scania in 2012 were analyzed in terms of six variables. The documents were then ranked by professionals based on their perceived usefulness for decision-making. Statistical analysis was conducted to identify any possible correlations between the overall ranking of the usefulness of the municipal RVA:s and each of the variables. We conclude that the way the likelihood and consequences of scenarios are described influence the perceived usefulness of a risk description. Furthermore, whether descriptions of scenarios are included in a risk description or not, and whether background information concerning the likelihood of scenarios are included also influence perceived usefulness of risk descriptions. - Highlights: • Written communication of risk between professionals is investigated. • The way likelihood is described influences a risk description's usefulness. • The way consequences are described influence a risk description's usefulness. • Whether background information is included in a risk description influences its usefulness

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperthyroidism in Irish cats from the greater Dublin area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Laura; Gallagher, Barbara A; Shiel, Robert E; Mooney, Carmel T

    2018-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is common in older cats. Prevalence varies geographically, but is anecdotally considered low in Ireland. The aim of this study was to document prevalence of hyperthyroidism in older cats in the greater Dublin area of Ireland and to assess environmental and clinical associations for development and identification of the disease. Primary-care veterinary practices were requested to select cats aged 10 years or older where blood sampling was being performed for health screening or clinical investigations. Surplus serum/plasma samples were submitted to University College Dublin Diagnostic Endocrine Laboratory for total thyroxine (T 4 ) measurement. Cats were classified as hyperthyroid, equivocal or euthyroid based on a total T 4 concentration (reference interval, 15-60 nmol/L), of >60 nmol/L, 30-60 nmol/L or hyperthyroidism were excluded. A questionnaire completed by the client and veterinarian detailing historical and physical information was also required. Associations between categorical variables were analysed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test and odds ratio (OR) calculated. A P value of hyperthyroid, 54 (10.6%) equivocal and 346 (68.2%) euthyroid. The presence of goitre ( P  weight loss ( P  hyperthyroidism. Cats with goitre were more likely to be diagnosed as hyperthyroid [OR 2.85, (95% CI 1.75-4.62] compared to those without. However, goitre was only palpated in 40 of 102 (39.2%) hyperthyroid cats. Increasing age was the only significant ( P  hyperthyroidism. A relationship between hyperthyroidism and sex, breed, lifestyle, parasite control, vaccination status or feeding habits was not identified. Hyperthyroidism is not uncommon in Irish cats. Age was the only significant risk factor for its development. The high proportion of hyperthyroid cats without palpable goitre (> 60%) may reflect failure to detect goitre and account for the perceived low prevalence of this condition in Ireland.

  20. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança ePaúl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the face of limited resources and an ageing population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care. We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders from 1 (mild to 3 (Severe. The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (sd=7.3 and 2645 (58.8% were female. According to the primary care team 1616 (35.9% were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4% were mild, 559 (34.6% were moderate and 210 (13% were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalisation; OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalisation; OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death. These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  1. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  2. Graphic-enhanced information improves perceived risks of cigar smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Orom, Heather; Tang, Kathy Z.; Dumont, Rachel L.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Kozlowski, Lynn T.

    2011-01-01

    The internet is a major source of health information and several notable health web sites contain information on the risks associated with cigar smoking. Previous research indicates that internet pages containing health information on cigars have high reading levels and are restricted to text material, which can decrease understanding. We examined the effects of existing text-only (from the United States National Cancer Institute website) versus novel graphic-enhanced information on smokers' perceptions of health risks associated with cigar smoking. The study was a laboratory-based single session of current cigarette smokers (n=102) who viewed cigar smoking risk information on a computer monitor then completed cigar risk questionnaire items. Participants were randomized to view either text-only or graphic-enhanced cigar information. The graphic version contained additional risk information about cigarillos and little cigars. Text-only participants were more likely to underestimate perceived health risks associated with cigar smoking compared to graphic-enhanced participants (47.1% versus 17.7%, p=.001); and, graphic-enhanced participants were more likely to report that they would share the cigar health risk information with friends compared to those viewing text-only, 47.0% versus 27.4%, p=.005. Employing graphics to convey health risks associated with cigar smoking increases understanding and likeliness to share information. Integrating information about little cigars and cigarillos risk in conjunction with large cigar risk information is an effective public health strategy to provide more comprehensive risk information. Utilizing graphics on health information internet pages can increase knowledge and perceived risks of cigar smoking. PMID:21481542

  3. Perceived risk impacts from siting hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Edwards, B.K.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes methods for evaluating perception-based economic impacts resulting from siting hazardous waste facilities. Socioeconomic impact analysis has devoted increasing attention to the potential implications of changed public perceptions of risk due to an activity or situation. This contrasts with traditional socioecconomic impact analysis, which has been limited to measuring direct and indirect consequences of activities, e.g., the employment effects of placing a military base in a specified location. Approaches to estimating economic impacts due to changes in public perceptions are ex ante or ex post. The former predict impacts prior to the construction and operation of a facility, while the later is based on impacts that become evident only when the facility is up and running. The theoretical foundations and practical requirements for demonstrating impacts, resulting from the siting of a hazardous facility are described. The theoretical rationale supporting the study of perceived risk research is presented along with discussion of problems that arise in demonstrating the existence and measuring the quantitative importance of economic impacts due to changes in perceived risk. The high-level nuclear waste facility being considered in Nevada is presented as an example in which there is potential for impacts, but where the link between perceived risk and economic conditions has not yet been developed

  4. Perceived risk impacts from siting hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Edwards, B.K.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes methods for evaluating perception-based economic impacts resulting from siting hazardous waste facilities. Socioeconomic impact analysis has devoted increasing attention to the potential implications of changed public perceptions of risk due to an activity or situation. This contrasts with traditional socioeconomic impact analysis, which has been limited to measuring direct and indirect consequences of activities, e.g., the employment effects of placing a military base in a specified location. Approaches to estimating economic impacts due to changes in public perceptions are ex ante or ex post. The former predict impacts prior to the construction and operation of a facility, while the later is based on impacts that become evident only when the facility is up and running. The theoretical foundations and practical requirements for demonstrating impacts resulting from the siting of a hazardous facility are described. The theoretical rationale supporting the study of perceived risk research is presented along with discussion of problems that arise in demonstrating the existence and measuring the quantitative importance of economic impacts due to changes in perceived risk. The high-level nuclear waste facility being considered in Nevada is presented as an example in which there is potential for impacts, but where the link between perceived risk and economic conditions has not yet been developed

  5. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  6. Perceived Risk of Developing Cancer in a Suburban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Hafizah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Azhar Shah, Shamsul

    2018-02-26

    Objective: To determine the perceived risk of developing cancer in a suburban community in Malaysia. Methods: A cross sectional study using a simple random sampling was conducted among residents aged 18 years old and above (n=520) who had never been diagnosed with cancer, in selected households in a suburban area of Pahang state in Malaysia. The study instruments were a validated questionnaire on risk perception, an automatic blood pressure monitor, a weighing scale and a measuring tape. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0 and the p value was taken at p history of cancer (adjusted OR of 4.80; 95% CI = 1.45-15.82) (p=0.010) among this population. Conclusion: The perceived risk of developing cancer in the selected suburban community of Pahang state in Malaysia is low as compared to that for other non-communicable diseases in this country, whilst the perceived severity was higher than for other diseases. Thus, considering the importance of correct perceptions for behavioral changes, more health education and promotion is needed to make the community better aware of the actual threat of cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Attitudes and perceived risk of cannabis use in Irish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, P; Bradley, C

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the developed world and its use is associated with several adverse physical and mental health effects and negative social outcomes. Earlier use of cannabis increases the risk of adverse effects. Attitudes and perceived risk towards drugs are regarded as strong influences in determining whether or not a person uses cannabis, but there is little existing research on Irish teenagers' attitudes to the risks of this drug. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using a structured, anonymous questionnaire. The study was undertaken in nine public and private secondary schools in Cork City and suburbs. Students aged 15-18 and in fourth, fifth or sixth year of school were included. Of the 507 participating students, 39.3 % (n = 199) reported previous cannabis use. There were significantly lower levels of perceived risk of cannabis among those who had used the drug compared with those who had not, for all categories of risk (p < 0.01). Attitudes towards cannabis were more liberal among males and those with previous use of the drug. A minority of students (n = 92; 18.2 %) support legalisation of cannabis. The majority of teenagers (n = 382; 75.8 %) believe that they are not given enough information about the drug. Cannabis use is very widespread among teenagers in Cork. There are relatively low levels of perceived risk of mental and physical health problems with use of the drug. Attitudes towards cannabis are associated with personal use of the drug and gender.

  8. People's responses to risks of electromagnetic fields and trust in government policy: the role of perceived risk, benefits and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, D.; Claassen, L.; Smid, T.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trust in government policy affects the way people perceive and handle risks. In our study, we investigated the relationships between trust in government policy regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF), perceived risk and perceived benefits of public and personal EMF sources, perceived control over

  9. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2015-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  10. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  11. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars; Holtermann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status.......Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status....

  12. Perceived Health Status: Is Obesity Perceived as a Risk Factor and Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Tommy L.S.; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Olsen, Nanna; Küpers, Leanne; Ramalho, Sofia; Keaver, Laura; Brei, Christina; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Ezquerro, Silvia; Yumuk, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This paper aims at describing perception of obesity as risk factor and disease among individuals seeking care, individuals not seeking care, the society, and different professionals having a role in the field of obesity. The paper is a reflection of the lecture on the topic that was given at the EASO's New Investigators United's Summer School 2016 in Portugal and the discussion with the new investigators and other senior speakers. Individual obese patients seeking help are very much aware of obesity being a risk factor and disease, but perceptions regarding obesity seem to be flawed among those who do not seek help for obesity. Also, misperceptions regarding obesity play a role at different levels, including society, different political levels, the fields of health care and social work, prevention organizations, and the food and marketing industry. The food and marketing industry has an enormous role in changing perceptions by the society and policy makers. Obesity rates will continue to increase as long as individuals, the society, and professionals at different levels have false interpretations of the severity of obesity. Severe action is needed against those who are playing a role in maintaining false perceptions of obesity as a risk factor and disease. PMID:28278496

  13. Investigating Married Adults' Communal Coping with Genetic Health Risk and Perceived Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Sillars, Alan; Chesnut, Ryan P; Zhu, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Increased genetic testing in personalized medicine presents unique challenges for couples, including managing disease risk and potential discrimination as a couple. This study investigated couples' conflicts and support gaps as they coped with perceived genetic discrimination. We also explored the degree to which communal coping was beneficial in reducing support gaps, and ultimately stress. Dyadic analysis of married adults ( N = 266, 133 couples), in which one person had the genetic risk for serious illness, showed that perceived discrimination predicted more frequent conflicts about AATD-related treatment, privacy boundaries, and finances, which, in turn, predicted wider gaps in emotion and esteem support, and greater stress for both spouses. Communal coping predicted lower support gaps for both partners and marginally lower stress.

  14. Investigating Married Adults' Communal Coping with Genetic Health Risk and Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A.; Sillars, Alan; Chesnut, Ryan P.; Zhu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Increased genetic testing in personalized medicine presents unique challenges for couples, including managing disease risk and potential discrimination as a couple. This study investigated couples' conflicts and support gaps as they coped with perceived genetic discrimination. We also explored the degree to which communal coping was beneficial in reducing support gaps, and ultimately stress. Dyadic analysis of married adults (N = 266, 133 couples), in which one person had the genetic risk for serious illness, showed that perceived discrimination predicted more frequent conflicts about AATD-related treatment, privacy boundaries, and finances, which, in turn, predicted wider gaps in emotion and esteem support, and greater stress for both spouses. Communal coping predicted lower support gaps for both partners and marginally lower stress. PMID:29731540

  15. Sensation Seeking: A Potential Factor Influencing Perceived Risk and Perceived Competence in an Introductory Scuba Diving Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cass

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the sensation-seeking personality trait to changes in perceived risk and perceived competence during an adventure experience. Participants (n = 57) were enrolled in a 14-week introductory scuba diving course offered at a university in eastern North Carolina in 2006. The data was analyzed using a…

  16. Risk Factor Knowledge, Perceived Threat, and Protective Health Behaviors: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Control in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Bonnar, Kelly K; Black, David R; Coster, Daniel C

    2018-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how perceived threat of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is shaped by risk factor knowledge and promotes the engagement of protective health behaviors among rural adults. Methods Participants (N = 252) completed a cross-sectional mixed-mode survey. Chi-squared analyses were computed to examine differences in perceived threat by demographic factors and knowledge of T2D risk factors. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between T2D perceived threat and engagement in physical activity and health screenings. Results Perceived threat and knowledge of T2D risk factors were high. Perceived susceptibility was significantly higher among women, whites, and respondents with high body mass index (BMI). Respondents reporting physical activity most/almost every day had low perceived susceptibility to T2D. Perceived severity was significantly higher among respondents with high BMI. Blood cholesterol and glucose screenings were associated with greater T2D perceived susceptibility and severity. Higher BMI was associated with receiving a blood glucose screening. Conclusion Health education specialists and researchers should further explore the implications of using audience segmented fear appeal messages to promote T2D control through protective health behaviors.

  17. Emotional Clarity as a Buffer in the Association Between Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Weiss, Nicole H; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G

    2016-11-01

    Among people living with psychiatric disorders, mental illness stigma has been identified as a major barrier to recovery by contributing to low self-esteem and interfering with treatment-seeking. The present research examined the association between perceived mental illness stigma and suicide risk severity and considered the role of emotional clarity (i.e., the ability to identify and understand one's emotional experiences), a critical component of emotion regulation, as a moderator of this association. A sample of individuals who had experienced recent psychiatric hospitalizations ( N = 184) completed self-report measures of perceived stigma associated with their psychiatric diagnoses, deficits in emotional clarity, and behaviors that have been found to confer risk for suicide. A moderation analysis revealed that perceived mental illness stigma was positively associated with suicide risk severity, but only for individuals who have greater deficits in emotional clarity. These findings highlight the role of emotional clarity as a resource for individuals coping with mental illness stigma and underscore the potential utility of targeting deficits in emotional clarity in prevention and intervention efforts for reducing suicide risk.

  18. The perceived influence of financial risk factors on the viability of nurse anesthesia educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Sonja J; Martin-Sheridan, Denise

    2002-10-01

    Monetary cutbacks have occurred in the healthcare industry with increasing incidence since the mid-1980s. Attempts at self-preservation through cost-constraint have been instituted by hospitals, Medicare and Medicaid, and private insurance companies. Curtailment of expenditures, as well as reestablishing profit, has taken many forms. These include managed care, mergers, changing profit status, and aggressive competition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether directors of nurse anesthesia programs (NAPs) perceived these items as being detrimental to their NAPs. Data were gathered by descriptive survey design by completing a survey tool. Findings identified directors perceived NAPs at moderate to high risk for closure because of the financial constraints hospitals are experiencing as a result of healthcare reimbursement cutbacks. We found it interesting that many directors were either unaware or considered the hospitals' financial burdens as not impacting their NAP. However, directors who had taken courses or seminars with a focus on issues affecting the financing and reimbursement of healthcare institutions perceived significantly greater risk than those who did not. Potential learning opportunities and strategies to ameliorate risk were identified. Additional education may provide the knowledge and insight to find alternatives to risk, develop strategies, and promote more successful and stable nurse anesthesia educational programs.

  19. Hope, Perceived Financial Risk and Propensity for Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Barros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hope is an important construct in marketing, since it is an antecedent of important marketing variables, such as trust, expectation and satisfaction (MacInnis & Mello, 2005. Specifically, literature suggests that hope plays an important influence in risk perception (MacInnis & Mello, 2005 and propensity for indebtedness (Fleming, 2008. Thus, we aim to investigate the relationships among hope, risk perception related to purchasing and consumption and propensity for indebtedness by conducting two empirical studies. The first is a laboratory experiment, which accessed hope and risk perception of getting a mortgage loan. The second is a survey, investigating university students’ propensity to get indebted to pay for their university tuition, analyzed through the Structural Equations Modeling method. These studies found that higher levels of hope predicted an increase in the propensity to accept the mortgage loan, independent of actual risks, and an increase in the propensity of college students to get indebted to pay for their studies. In addition, the first study suggests that hope may lead to a decrease in risk perception, which, however, wasn’t confirmed by the second study. Finally, this research offers some methodological contributions, using an experimental approach to understand hope and its relationship with perceived financial risk and propensity for indebtedness.

  20. Limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations for greater confinement disposal compared to shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.; Lester, D.H.; Robertson, L.D.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stoddard, J.A.; Dickman, P.T.

    1984-09-01

    A limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations of greater confinement disposal (GCD) compared to shallow land burial (SLB) are presented. This study is limited to an analysis of the postclosure phase of hypothetical GCD and SLB facilities. Selected release scenarios are used which bound the range of risks to a maximally exposed individual and a hypothetical population. Based on the scenario assessments, GCD had a significant risk advantage over SLB for normal exposure pathways at both humid and arid sites, particularly for the human intrusion scenario. Since GCD costs are somewhat higher than SLB, it is necessary to weigh the higher costs of GCD against the higher risks of SLB. In this regard, GCD should be pursued as an alternative to SLB for certain types of low-level waste, and as an alternative to processing for wastes requiring improved stabilization or higher integrity packaging to be compatible with SLB. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, GCD might diminish public apprehension regarding the disposal of wastes perceived to be too hazardous for SLB. Second, GCD may be a relatively cost-effective alternative to various stabilization and packaging schemes required to meet 10 CFR 61 near-surface requirements as well as being a cost-effective alternative to deep geologic disposal. Radionuclide transport through the biosphere and resultant dose consequences were determined using the RADTRAN radionuclide transport code. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  1. The influence of narrative v. statistical information on perceiving vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Ulshöfer, Corina; Renkewitz, Frank; Betsch, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    Health-related information found on the Internet is increasing and impacts patient decision making, e.g. regarding vaccination decisions. In addition to statistical information (e.g. incidence rates of vaccine adverse events), narrative information is also widely available such as postings on online bulletin boards. Previous research has shown that narrative information can impact treatment decisions, even when statistical information is presented concurrently. As the determinants of this effect are largely unknown, we will vary features of the narratives to identify mechanisms through which narratives impact risk judgments. An online bulletin board setting provided participants with statistical information and authentic narratives about the occurrence and nonoccurrence of adverse events. Experiment 1 followed a single factorial design with 1, 2, or 4 narratives out of 10 reporting adverse events. Experiment 2 implemented a 2 (statistical risk 20% vs. 40%) × 2 (2/10 vs. 4/10 narratives reporting adverse events) × 2 (high vs. low richness) × 2 (high vs. low emotionality) between-subjects design. Dependent variables were perceived risk of side-effects and vaccination intentions. Experiment 1 shows an inverse relation between the number of narratives reporting adverse-events and vaccination intentions, which was mediated by the perceived risk of vaccinating. Experiment 2 showed a stronger influence of the number of narratives than of the statistical risk information. High (vs. low) emotional narratives had a greater impact on the perceived risk, while richness had no effect. The number of narratives influences risk judgments can potentially override statistical information about risk.

  2. Using mental mapping to unpack perceived cycling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Richard; Rau, Henrike; Fahy, Frances; Sheahan, Jerome; Clifford, Eoghan

    2016-03-01

    Cycling is the most energy-efficient mode of transport and can bring extensive environmental, social and economic benefits. Research has highlighted negative perceptions of safety as a major barrier to the growth of cycling. Understanding these perceptions through the application of novel place-sensitive methodological tools such as mental mapping could inform measures to increase cyclist numbers and consequently improve cyclist safety. Key steps to achieving this include: (a) the design of infrastructure to reduce actual risks and (b) targeted work on improving safety perceptions among current and future cyclists. This study combines mental mapping, a stated-preference survey and a transport infrastructure inventory to unpack perceptions of cycling risk and to reveal both overlaps and discrepancies between perceived and actual characteristics of the physical environment. Participants translate mentally mapped cycle routes onto hard-copy base-maps, colour-coding road sections according to risk, while a transport infrastructure inventory captures the objective cycling environment. These qualitative and quantitative data are matched using Geographic Information Systems and exported to statistical analysis software to model the individual and (infra)structural determinants of perceived cycling risk. This method was applied to cycling conditions in Galway City (Ireland). Participants' (n=104) mental maps delivered data-rich perceived safety observations (n=484) and initial comparison with locations of cycling collisions suggests some alignment between perception and reality, particularly relating to danger at roundabouts. Attributing individual and (infra)structural characteristics to each observation, a Generalised Linear Mixed Model statistical analysis identified segregated infrastructure, road width, the number of vehicles as well as gender and cycling experience as significant, and interactions were found between individual and infrastructural variables. The paper

  3. Perceived risks and use of psychotherapy via telemedicine for patients at risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a major public health problem and its human, emotional, and economic costs are significant. Individuals in rural areas are at highest risk for suicide. However, telemedicine services are typically not rendered to individuals who are actively suicidal. The goals of the current study were to identify the risks of using telemedicine for mental healthcare from the perspective of licensed mental health providers and to determine factors associated with the use of telemedicine with patients who are at high risk for suicide. Methods A total of 52 licensed mental health providers were recruited online through several professional organization listservs and targeted emails. Providers completed online questionnaires regarding demographics, caseload of suicidal patients, perceived risks for using telemedicine with patients at risk for suicide, attitudes towards telemedicine, and use of telemedicine with patients at risk for suicide. Results Three key perceived risks associated with using telemedicine were identified, including assessment, lack of control over patient, and difficulties triaging patients if needed. It was also found that individuals who had more positive attitudes towards telemedicine, younger providers, and more experienced providers were more likely to use telemedicine with patients who are at high risk for suicide. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the perceived risks and use of telemedicine with patients at high risk for suicide. It is essential to continue this line of research to develop protocols for the provision of evidence-based therapy via telemedicine for this high-risk group.

  4. Relationship Between Perceived Risk of Falling and Adoption of Precautions to Reduce Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J; Gildner, Paula L; Jones, Jennifer L; Bowling, James M; Casteel, Carri H

    2016-06-01

    To better understand the relationship between perceived risk of falling and awareness and adoption of four specific precautions that older adults have taken to reduce this risk. Cross-sectional. Data were collected in in-person interviews conducted in the homes of study participants. Interviews conducted between March 2011 and September 2013 and lasted an average of 60-90 minutes. A stratified sampling strategy designed to enroll an equal number of homebound and nonhomebound participants was used. All participants (N = 164) were recruited from central North Carolina. Participants were asked about 1-year fall history, perceived risk of falling, restriction of activities because of fear of falling, awareness of four recommended fall prevention behaviors (exercise, annual medication review, bathroom grab bars, safe footwear), and current practice of these behaviors. In bivariate analyses, individuals who were aware of two behaviors recommended to reduce the risk of falling (exercise, use of safe footwear) and had adopted these behaviors perceived their risk of falling as lower than individuals who were aware of the recommended behaviors but had not adopted them. Moreover, in multivariate analyses, individuals who did not know that exercise is recommended to reduce the risk of falling perceived their risk of falling as lower than those who were aware of this recommendation and had adopted it. Individuals were least likely to be aware that medication reviews and exercise are recommended to reduce fall risk. Awareness of behaviors recommended to reduce fall risk appears necessary for adoption of these behaviors to reduce perceived risk. Fall-prevention campaigns should emphasize behaviors where awareness is low. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Factors Influencing Consumer-Perceived Risk in E-Commerce Transactions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, electronic commerce has become one of the fastest growing markets in China and it is still growing at a dramatic speed. E-commerce introduces a convenient way for consumers to do shopping. During the online transaction processes, different types of risks are perceived by consumers due to the uncontrollable aspects of the Internet. The facets of perceived risk include social risk, financial risk, performance risk, psychological risk, privacy risk and time risk. This resea...

  6. Real and perceived risks of medical radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    After considering all the evidence related to the health effects of exposure to low levels of radiation, it is apparent that the risk is immeasurably small to any single person in a population exposed to small amounts of radiation. However, multiplying this immeasurably small estimate of risk by very large populations yields numbers that seem to imply that significant health effects (cancer, malformations, genetic effects) occur following exposure to small quantities of radiation. Although many advisory groups have cautioned against this procedure and conclusion, both continue to be used by some scientists and political action groups. In a public opinion poll conducted by Decision Research, Inc. of Eugene, Oregon, three groups were asked to rank the relative risks of various societal activities. Two of the three groups ranked nuclear power as the most hazardous of all societal activities, with a risk factor greater than that for smoking, automobiles, handguns and alcohol. Actually, nuclear power is the least hazardous of all 30 of the activities included in the poll. It is a conservative posture and probably a wise course of action to assume that exposure to any amount of radiation carries with it some element of risk. For example, requests for x-ray studies and nuclear medicine procedures should always be accompanied by an appreciation of the possibility of risk to the patient and to radiological personnel. At the same time, this element of risk should be placed in a realistic perspective by comparing it with other risks we assume every day

  7. User adoption of mobile commerce in Bangladesh: Integrating perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness with TAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and tests a model for predicting user adoption of mobile commerce (i.e. e-commerce using mobile phones in developing countries. The model takes up the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and extends these through the inclusion of three further determinants: perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness to enable prediction of the likelihood of mobile commerce adoption by users in the developing world. 575 usable surveys were gathered from the urban, semi-urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Perceived risk and perceived usefulness were found to be the most influential factors effecting mobile commerce adoption, while the effect of perceived ease of use and personal awareness was found to be low although significant. The study reconfirmed the need of extending TAM model, in the context of mobile commerce, to address both itrs transactional and non-transactional components. Service providers need to ensure high levels of security and privacy to reduce userrs perceptions of risk. Mobile commerce services and technologies should be upgraded to world standard to make them more useful to users.

  8. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Ren?e A.; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Methods Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in r...

  9. Effects of news frames on perceived risk, emotions, and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Otieno

    Full Text Available The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species, as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a "deeper level".

  10. Effects of News Frames on Perceived Risk, Emotions, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Christine; Spada, Hans; Renkl, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The media play a key role in forming opinions by influencing people´s understanding and perception of a topic. People gather information about topics of interest from the internet and print media, which employ various news frames to attract attention. One example of a common news frame is the human-interest frame, which emotionalizes and dramatizes information and often accentuates individual affectedness. Our study investigated effects of human-interest frames compared to a neutral-text condition with respect to perceived risk, emotions, and knowledge acquisition, and tested whether these effects can be "generalized" to common variants of the human-interest frame. Ninety-one participants read either one variant of the human-interest frame or a neutrally formulated version of a newspaper article describing the effects of invasive species in general and the Asian ladybug (an invasive species) in particular. The framing was achieved by varying the opening and concluding paragraphs (about invasive species), as well as the headline. The core text (about the Asian ladybug) was the same across all conditions. All outcome variables on framing effects referred to this common core text. We found that all versions of the human-interest frame increased perceived risk and the strength of negative emotions compared to the neutral text. Furthermore, participants in the human-interest frame condition displayed better (quantitative) learning outcomes but also biased knowledge, highlighting a potential dilemma: Human-interest frames may increase learning, but they also lead to a rather unbalanced view of the given topic on a “deeper level”. PMID:24223999

  11. THE MEDIATION EFFECTS OF GREEN PERCEIVED CONSUMER SKEPTICISM AND GREEN PERCEIVED RISK IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREENWASHING AND GREEN TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    LEBLEBİCİ KOÇER, Leyla; DELİCE, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out on the consumers in Kayseri and explores the influenceof greenwashing on green trust and discusses the mediation roles of green perceivedskepticism and green perceived risk. 430 consumers were participate in the research.Structural equation modelling was applied to test the research hypothesis. Thisstudy found that greenwashing has a negative association with green trust. In addition,it found that greenwashing is positively associated with green perceived consumersk...

  12. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

  13. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  14. Perceived Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use among Youth in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danseco, Evangeline R.; Kingery, Paul M.; Coggeshall, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Reviews studies that examined perceived risk or beliefs about harmful effects associated with marijuana use. Perceived risk was construed as consisting of at least four areas (physical harm; parental disapproval; peer disapproval; fear of arrest). Perception of risk varied with several factors including age and gender. Secondary data analysis was…

  15. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  16. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R

    2010-08-18

    To gain an understanding of elderly people's fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls. Prospective cohort study. Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia. 500 men and women aged 70-90 years. Baseline assessment of medical, physiological, and neuropsychological measures, with physiological fall risk estimated with the physiological profile assessment, and perceived fall risk estimated with the falls efficacy scale international. Participants were followed up monthly for falls over one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that perceived and physiological fall risk were both independent predictors of future falls. Classification tree analysis was used to split the sample into four groups (vigorous, anxious, stoic, and aware) based on the disparity between physiological and perceived risk of falling. Perceived fall risk was congruent with physiological fall risk in the vigorous (144 (29%)) and aware (202 (40%)) groups. The anxious group (54 (11%)) had a low physiological risk but high perceived fall risk, which was related to depressive symptoms (P=0.029), neurotic personality traits (P=0.026), and decreased executive functioning (P=0.010). The stoic group (100 (20%)) had a high physiological risk but low perceived fall risk, which was protective for falling and mediated through a positive outlook on life (P=0.001) and maintained physical activity and community participation (P=0.048). Many elderly people underestimated or overestimated their risk of falling. Such disparities between perceived and physiological fall risk were primarily associated with psychological measures and strongly influenced the probability of falling. Measures of both physiological and perceived fall risk should be included in fall risk assessments to allow tailoring of interventions for preventing falls in

  18. A THEORY OF CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED RISK UNDER THE HALO EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  19. Perceived cancer risk: why is it lower among nonwhites than whites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Kiviniemi, Marc T; Underwood, Willie; Ross, Levi; Shavers, Vickie L

    2010-03-01

    We explored racial/ethnic differences in perceived cancer risk and determinants of these differences in a nationally representative sample of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. Multiple regression techniques, including mediational analyses, were used to identify determinants and quantify racial/ethnic differences in the perception of the risk of developing cancer among 5,581 adult respondents to the 2007 Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians reported lower perceived cancer risk than whites [Bs = -0.40, -0.34, and -0.69, respectively; (Ps risk were attenuated in older respondents because perceived cancer risk was negatively associated with age for whites but not for nonwhites. Nonwhites had lower perceptions of cancer risk than whites. Some of the racial/ethnic variability in perceived risk may be due to racial and ethnic differences in awareness of one's family history of cancer and its relevance for cancer risk, experiences with behavioral risk factors, and salience of cancer risk information.

  20. Relative Importance of Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Perceived Risk on Willingness to Pay More

    OpenAIRE

    Demirgüneş, Banu Külter

    2015-01-01

    The consumer perceived value construct is a very important component in the consumer value literature and it has been identified as one of the most important measures for gaining a competitive advantage. All its consequences can be combined in a construct, defined as consumer behavior. The present article sustains the idea that consumer’s perceived value can been associated with satisfaction, which leads a behavioral intention such as willingness to pay a higher price. In the case of potentia...

  1. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  2. Societal risk is not just the sum of individually perceived risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Gjoerup, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The role of science in a democratic system is to provide the public with fundamental facts on which decisions can be based. In the present case, this means calculating a ''true'' risk as the most probable future outcome (mean future harm) based on previous experience and assuming linearity between harm and the expected number of casualties. Sociology tells us that individually perceived risks will often be at variance with ''true'' risks. This discrepancy is most marked at low probabilities, which people tend to overweight. Risk perception is also influenced by the mass media. Public authorities should not yield to obviously views and modify a rational scientific approach to risk assessment. Just as individual paranoia is regarded as a disease, so should society be able to reject mass paranoia as a rational basis of risk assessment. If people believe they are being threatened by the nuclear power plant and all the available scientific evidence tells us that they are not, then the public authorities should not accept that fear as reasonable. People must always be able to distinguish between an attempt to minimize actual harm and an attempt to minimize perceived harm. Both are a part of a political reality, but should be presented by themselves not mixed together

  3. Inverted U-shaped model: How frequent repetition affects perceived risk

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Lu; Xiaofei Xie; Lu Liu

    2015-01-01

    We asked how repeated media reports on technological hazards influence an individual's risk perception. We looked for two contradictory effects, an increasing effect of repetition on perceived risk with the first few repetitions and a decreasing effect with later repetitions, leading to the inverted U-shaped pattern. In an experiment, we demonstrated the inverted U-shaped relationship between the repetition and perceived risk in the context of food risk. The finding broaden...

  4. Perceived Risk in Service Consumption – a C2C Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In the field of services marketing some attention has been paid to the theme of risks associated with purchasing and consuming services. The literature includes issues such as: the relative uncertainty of services and goods at various stages of consumption; types of perceived risk; difficulties associated with evaluating services; service organisation responses to consumer perceived risk; and consumer risk reduction strategies. This literature, however, focuses overwhelmingly on service consu...

  5. Perceived risk of prenatal diagnostic procedure-related miscarriage and Down syndrome among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Washington, A Eugene; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify correlates of perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage among a diverse group of pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1081 English-, Spanish-, or Chinese-speaking women receiving prenatal care in the San Francisco Bay area. Perceived risk of procedure-related miscarriage or carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was assessed using a linear rating scale from 0 (no risk) to 1 (high risk). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were used to explore associations between maternal characteristics including age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status and perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or experiencing a procedure-related miscarriage. Women aged 35 years old or older had a higher perceived risk of Down syndrome than younger women (0.28 vs 0.22 on a scale from 0 to 1, P self-perceived health status (+0.08, P = .045). Latinas (+0.11, P = .008), women with an annual income less than $35,000 (+0.09, P = .003), and those who had difficulty conceiving (+0.09, P = .026) had higher perceived procedure-related miscarriage risk. Among women aged 35 years or older, perceived risk of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus was associated with the inclination to undergo prenatal diagnosis. Women's perceived risks of carrying a Down syndrome-affected fetus or having a procedure-related miscarriage are associated with numerous characteristics that have not been shown to be associated with the actual risks of these events. These perceived risks are associated with prenatal diagnostic test inclination. Understanding patients' risk perceptions and effectively communicating risk is critical to helping patients make informed decisions regarding use of invasive prenatal testing.

  6. Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nini; Wang, Xueqing; Griffin, Mark A; Wu, Chunlin; Liu, Bingsheng

    2017-09-01

    While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives. Specifically, it was expected that the identified three rational ways of perceiving risk, i.e., perceived probability, severity, and negative utility, would influence the direct emotional risk perception. Furthermore, these four risk perceptions were all expected to positively but differently influence safety behavior. The hypotheses were tested using a sample of 120 construction workers. It was found that all the three rational risk perceptions significantly influenced workers' direct perception of risk that is mainly based on emotions. Furthermore, safety behavior among workers relied mainly on emotional perception but not rational calculations of risk. This research contributes to workplace safety research by highlighting the importance of integrating the emotional assessment of risk, especially when workers' risk perception and behavior are concerned. Suggested avenues for improving safety behavior through improvement in risk perception include being aware of the possibility of different ways of perceiving risk, promoting experience sharing and accident simulation, and uncovering risk information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Methods: Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results: Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Conclusion: Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. PMID:25745873

  8. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-08-01

    Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1......Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  10. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  11. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.; Satterfield, Terre; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Chan, Kai M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  12. Bird Killer, Industrial Intruder or Clean Energy? Perceiving Risks to Ecosystem Services Due to an Offshore Wind Farm

    KAUST Repository

    Klain, Sarah C.

    2017-07-19

    Proposals to develop renewable energy technologies may threaten local values, which can generate opposition. Efforts to explain this opposition have focused on perceived negative aesthetic and environmental impact. Less attention has been paid to a fuller suite of the perceived risks and benefits associated with new energy technologies. This paper thus investigates impacts of an offshore wind farm pertaining to individual perceptions and judgments, and why risks to some ecosystem services might be cause for greater public concern than others. We find that this difference can be attributed to the affective and intuitive ways in which people perceive risk. Our mixed-methods design used interviews (n=27) that involved risk-benefit weighting tasks and an animated visualization to help people imagine an offshore wind farm in a familiar place. We found that affectively-loaded impacts (harm to charismatic wildlife and visual intrusion) were assigned greater weight than more easily quantifiable impacts (displacement of fishing, impact to tourism, cost of compliance with regulations). Interviewees identified increased regional energy self-sufficiency as the most valued potential benefit of an offshore wind farm. These results have implications for ecosystem service assessments generally and, more specifically, for our understanding of ‘affective’ dimensions of development proposals.

  13. Predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at risk for HIV and STI acquisition in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Street, Renée A; Abbai, Nathlee; Ramjee, Gita

    2016-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the independent predictors of perceived male partner concurrency. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were obtained for HIV and STI incidence in relation to male partner concurrency. A Cox Proportional Hazards model was used to assess the association between perceived male partner concurrency and HIV and STI incidence. The results revealed that 29 % of women reported their male partners to be in concurrent sexual relationships, 22 % reported partners that were not engaging in concurrency, whilst 49 % reported not knowing their partners concurrency status. Older women, having never married, experiencing economic abuse, and women reporting individual concurrency, were found to be significant predictors of perceived male partner concurrency in the studied population. Perceived male partner concurrency was not found to be a significantly associated with incident HIV and STI infections in this analysis. The study provides insight into predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among women at high risk for STI and HIV acquisition. These results may inform the design of behavioural and biomedical interventions, to address the role of multiple sexual partnerships in HIV prevention.

  14. Gender-differences in risk factors for suicidal behaviour identified by perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability: cross-sectional analysis from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Batterham, Philip J; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPT) is supported by recent epidemiological data. Unique risk factors for the IPT constructs have been identified in community epidemiological studies. Gender differences in these risk factors may contribute substantially to our understanding of suicidal risk, and require further investigation. The present study explores gender differences in the predictors and correlates of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide. Participants (547 males, 739 females) aged 32-38 from the PATH through Life study, an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1,177) were assessed on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide using the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire and Acquired Capability for Suicide Survey, and on a range of demographic, social support, psychological, mental health and physical health measures. Gender differences in the predictors of the IPT constructs were assessed using linear regression analyses. Higher perceived burdensomeness increased suicide ideation in both genders, while higher thwarted belongingness increased suicide ideation only in females. In females, thwarted belongingness was uniquely related to perceived burdensomeness, while greater physical health was significantly associated with greater thwarted belongingness in males but not in females. There were trends suggesting greater effects of being single and greater perceived burdensomeness for men, and stronger effects of less positive friendship support for women associated with greater thwarted belongingness. Men and women differ in the pattern of psychological characteristics that predict suicide ideation, and in the factors predicting vulnerability. Suicide prevention strategies need to take account of gender differences.

  15. Marketing strategies, perceived risks, and consumer trust in online buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase in online shopping, the literature is silent in terms of the interrelationship between perceived risk factors, the marketing impacts, and their influence on product and web-vendor consumer trust. This research focuses on holidaymakers’ perspectives using Internet bookings for their holidays. The findings reveal the associations between Internet perceived risks and the relatively equal influence of product and e-channel risks in consumers’ trust, and that online purc...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors cause premature rarefaction of the collateral circulation and greater ischemic tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Scott M; Zhang, Hua; Maeda, Nobuyo; Doerschuk, Claire M; Faber, James E

    2015-07-01

    Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies. We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention. Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction. Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.

  17. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: an examination of concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew M; Weller, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to committing decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules). Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate processes that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC) and one such process, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV). Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a) choosing risky options when EV favors those options and (b) avoiding risky options when EV favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  18. Greater decision-making competence is associated with greater expected-value sensitivity, but not overall risk taking: An examination of concurrent validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Parker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making competence reflects individual differences in the susceptibility to decision-making errors, measured using tasks common from behavioral decision research (e.g., framing effects, under/overconfidence, following decision rules. Prior research demonstrates that those with higher decision-making competence report lower incidence of health-risking and antisocial behaviors, but there has been less focus on intermediate mechanisms that may impact real-world decisions, and, in particular, those implicated by normative models. Here we test the associations between measures of youth decision-making competence (Y-DMC and one such mechanism, the degree to which individuals make choices consistent with maximizing expected value (EV. Using a task involving hypothetical gambles, we find that greater EV sensitivity is associated with greater Y-DMC. Higher Y-DMC scores are associated with (a choosing risky options when expected value favors those options and (b avoiding risky options when expected value favors a certain option. This relationship is stronger for gambles that involved potential losses. The results suggest that Y-DMC captures decision processes consistent with standard normative evaluations of risky decisions.

  19. Effects of a risk-based online mammography intervention on accuracy of perceived risk and mammography intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Holli H; Gibson, Laura; Skubisz, Christine; Forquer, Heather; Mello, Susan; Schapira, Marilyn M; Armstrong, Katrina; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-10-01

    This experiment tested the effects of an individualized risk-based online mammography decision intervention. The intervention employs exemplification theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion to improve the match between breast cancer risk and mammography intentions. 2918 women ages 35-49 were stratified into two levels of 10-year breast cancer risk (<1.5%; ≥1.5%) then randomly assigned to one of eight conditions: two comparison conditions and six risk-based intervention conditions that varied according to a 2 (amount of content: brief vs. extended) x 3 (format: expository vs. untailored exemplar [example case] vs. tailored exemplar) design. Outcomes included mammography intentions and accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk. Risk-based intervention conditions improved the match between objective risk estimates and perceived risk, especially for high-numeracy women with a 10-year breast cancer risk ≤1.5%. For women with a risk≤1.5%, exemplars improved accuracy of perceived risk and all risk-based interventions increased intentions to wait until age 50 to screen. A risk-based mammography intervention improved accuracy of perceived risk and the match between objective risk estimates and mammography intentions. Interventions could be applied in online or clinical settings to help women understand risk and make mammography decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rumination time around calving: an early signal to detect cows at greater risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Soriani, N; Panella, G; Petrera, F; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-01-01

    slower increase of RT after calving. Furthermore, more than 90% of the cows in the L group had clinical diseases in early lactation compared with 42% of the H cows. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of monitoring RT around calving, and in particular during the first week of lactation, as a way to identify in a timely fashion those cows at a greater risk of developing a disease in early lactation. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived Parental Relationships and Health-Risk Behaviors in College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Williams, Michelle K.; Bersamin, Melina; Finley, Gordon E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of perceived parenting with health-risk behaviors in an ethnically diverse sample of 1,728 college-attending emerging adults. Participants completed retrospective measures of perceived maternal and paternal nurturance, connection, psychological control, and disrespect and reported their frequency of…

  2. A qualitative assessment of the perceived risks of electronic cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Maike K; Padgett, Shannon; Shope, Cindy D; Griffin, Emily N; Xie, Susan S; Gonzalez, Pablo J; Levison, Judy; Mastrobattista, Joan; Abramovici, Adi R; Northrup, Thomas F; Stotts, Angela L; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Suter, Melissa A

    2015-12-21

    Studies reveal that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and hookah use are increasing among adolescents and young adults. However, the long-term health effects are unknown, especially with regards to pregnancy. Because of the increased use in women of reproductive age, and the unknown long-term health risks, our primary objectives were to determine the perceived risks of e-cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy, and learn common colloquial terms associated with e-cigarettes. Furthermore, we sought to determine if there is a stigma associated with e-cigarette use in pregnancy. Eleven focus groups including 87 participants were conducted immediately following regularly scheduled CenteringPregnancy® prenatal care with women at three different clinics in the greater Houston area. A minimum of two facilitators led the groups, using ten lead-in prompts, with Spanish translation as necessary. Facilitators took notes which were compared immediately following each group discussion and each group was audio recorded and transcribed. Three facilitators utilized NVivo 9.0 software to organize the transcribed data into nodes to identify major themes. To increase rigor, transcripts were further analyzed by two obstetricians who were instructed to find the major themes. Analyses revealed contradicting themes concerning e-cigarette use. In general, e-cigarettes were perceived as safer alternatives to regular tobacco cigarettes, especially if used as smoking cessation devices. A major theme is that use in pregnancy is harmful to the fetus. However, it was perceived that use for smoking cessation in pregnancy may have fewer side effects. We found that a common term for e-cigarettes is "Blu." In our discussion of hookah use, participants perceived use as popular among teenagers and that use in pregnancy is dangerous for the fetus. Although a strong theme emerged against hookah use, we found contradicting themes in our discussions on e-cigarette use in pregnancy. It is possible that e

  3. Perceived Versus Actual Risk of Type 2 Diabetes by Race and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kyeongra; Baniak, Lynn M; Imes, Christopher C; Choi, JiYeon; Chasens, Eileen R

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine associations between perceived risk and actual risk of type 2 diabetes by race and/or ethnicity. Methods The study sample included 10 999 adults from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using interviews and physical examinations. Participants were asked if they felt at risk for diabetes or prediabetes and then asked the reasons why. Data analyses were conducted with SAS to properly analyze complex survey data. Results About 86% of the sample (n = 9496) answered the risk perception question for diabetes, and among those, 28.4% indicated having a high perceived risk. Among this subsample, 38.3% were identified as having an actual risk for prediabetes or diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association guidelines. Across all race groups, the most frequently reported risk factors participants believed to contribute to their risk for diabetes were family history of diabetes, obesity, and poor diet habits. When the percentage of participants with an actual risk factor who correctly perceived it as a risk factor was examined, fewer Asians correctly perceived weight status and physical activity level as a risk for diabetes in contrast to the other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Our study showed that when perception was compared to actual risks, associations differed statistically by race. It will be essential to discuss their risk perception to proper screening for diabetes and relevant lifestyle modifications to prevent and delay the onset of diabetes.

  4. Past racial discrimination exacerbates the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect, perceived control, and alcohol-risk cognitions among Black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Molloy, Brianne K; Lambert, Sharon F

    2017-06-01

    Racial discrimination is associated with alcohol use and risky sex cognitions and behaviors, which are risk factors for negative health outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. The current study investigated the causal impact of racial discrimination on alcohol and sexual-risk cognitions while exploring potential mediators that might help explain this relation: negative affect, perceived control, and meaningful existence. We also examined if past discrimination impacts the strength of (moderates) these effects. Participants were 287 Black/African American young adults aged 18-25. They were randomly assigned to be excluded or included by White peers via the game Cyberball. Racial exclusion (vs. inclusion) predicted greater: perceived racial discrimination, negative affect, alcohol use willingness, and reduced perceived control and meaningful existence. Furthermore, excluded participants who experienced more past racial discrimination reported the lowest perceived control, and greatest negative affect and alcohol-risk cognitions. The findings suggest that past racial discrimination exacerbates the harmful health effects of immediate experiences of discrimination.

  5. A Comparison of Actual and Perceived Sexual Risk among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Sexual risk among older adults (OAs) is prevalent, though little is known about the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions. Thus, the aim was to determine the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions among OAs by examining concordance between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and perceived risk. Data on OAs aged 50 to 92 were collected via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Frequency of sexual risk behaviors (past 6 months) were reported along with perceived risk (i.e., STI susceptibility). Accuracy categories (accurate, underestimated, overestimated) were established based on dis/concordance between risk levels (low, moderate, high) and perceived risk (not susceptible, somewhat susceptible, very susceptible). Approximately half of the sample reported engaging in vaginal (49%) and/or oral sex (43%) without a condom in the past 6 months. However, approximately two-thirds of the sample indicated they were “not susceptible” to STIs. No relationship was found between risk behaviors and risk perceptions, and approximately half (48.1%) of OAs in the sample underestimated their risk. Accuracy was found to decrease as sexual risk level increased, with 93.1% of high risk OAs underestimating their risk. Several sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among OAs, particularly men. However, perception of risk is often inaccurate and warrants attention. PMID:26813853

  6. A Comparison of Actual and Perceived Sexual Risk Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    Sexual risk among older adults (OAs) is prevalent, though little is known about the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions. Thus, the aim was to determine the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions among OAs by examining concordance between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and perceived risk. Data on OAs aged 50 to 92 were collected via Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. Frequency of sexual risk behaviors (past six months) were reported along with perceived risk, namely, sexually transmitted infection (STI) susceptibility. Accuracy categories (accurate, underestimated, overestimated) were established based on dis/concordance between risk levels (low, moderate, high) and perceived risk (not susceptible, somewhat susceptible, very susceptible). Approximately half of the sample reported engaging in vaginal (49%) and/or oral sex (43%) without a condom in the past six months. However, approximately two-thirds of the sample indicated they were "not susceptible" to STIs. No relationship was found between risk behaviors and risk perceptions, and approximately half (48.1%) of OAs in the sample underestimated their risk. Accuracy was found to decrease as sexual risk level increased, with 93.1% of high-risk OAs underestimating their risk. Several sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among OAs, particularly men. However, perception of risk is often inaccurate and warrants attention.

  7. 21 CFR 50.52 - Clinical investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects. 50.52 Section 50.52... investigations involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to individual... prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring procedure that is likely to...

  8. FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF MESSAGE, BRAND ATTITUDE AND PERCEIVED BUYING RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN ANASTASIEI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a spectacular growth in electronic commerce in recent years, although we cannot say that it has been without obstacles. Among the barriers mentioned by the literature are the lack of trust in online brands, the perceived purchase risk, the perception of the type of promotional message. More often than not, commercial Facebook posts influence brand image and brand trust, which can lead to an increased buying intention. Our research attempted to determine whether the type of commercial Facebook posts (paid or unpaid and the type of post content (rational or emotional influence message credibility, attitude towards the advertised brand and perceived purchase risk. The type of post appeared not to influence any of these variables, while the type of message significantly influenced the credibility and the perceived risk. The rational message generated more credibility, while the perceived purchase risk is higher for the emotional messages.

  9. Risks versus benefits of medication use during pregnancy : What do women perceive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bianca; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke C.M.; Morssink, Leonard P.; Bijlsma, Maarten J.; Van Puijenbroek, Eugene; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Hak, Eelko; De Vries, Tjalling W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding risk perception is essential in designing good risk communication strategies. It has been reported that women overestimate the teratogenic risk of medication use, but these studies didn't include perceived benefits and major concerns of pregnant women regarding medication

  10. Buying Impulsive Trait: An effective moderator for shopping emotions and perceived risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Mishra, Hari Govind; Kaul, Surabhi; Singh, Sarabjot

    2014-01-01

    The study provides an evidence of the relationship between buying traits, perceived risk and buying emotions. The study also indicates that the three emotional states of arousal and pleasure and dominance have significant relationship with impulsive buying behavior. Arousal which was active with buying intentions and impulsive buying was seen insignificant with moderating regression results. Buying impulsive trait was found to be significant moderator of pleasure, dominance, perceived risk an...

  11. Perceived risk vs. intention to adopt e-commerce - a pilot study of potential moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Patricea Elena Bertea; Adriana Zait

    2013-01-01

    E-commerce continues to develop as an important channel for consumer purchases. This explains the growing interest in determining the most important variables which affect online consumer behavior, especially perceived risk as a well-known behavioral deterrent. Previous studies have proved a negative influence of perceived risk on the intention to adopt e-commerce. However, depending on the type of product and the population investigated, results were often contradictory and this relationship...

  12. Modeling trade-offs between plant fiber and toxins: a framework for quantifying risks perceived by foraging herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan J; Shipley, Lisa A; Johnson, Timothy R; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen; Rachlow, Janet L; Crowell, Miranda M

    2015-12-01

    When selecting habitats, herbivores must weigh multiple risks, such as predation, starvation, toxicity, and thermal stress, forcing them to make fitness trade-offs. Here, we applied the method of paired comparisons (PC) to investigate how herbivores make trade-offs between habitat features that influence selection of food patches. The method of PC measures utility and the inverse of utility, relative risk, and makes trade-offs and indifferences explicit by forcing animals to make choices between two patches with different types of risks. Using a series of paired-choice experiments to titrate the equivalence curve and find the marginal rate of substitution for one risk over the other, we evaluated how toxin-tolerant (pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis) and fiber-tolerant (mountain cottontail rabbit Sylviagus nuttallii) herbivores differed in their hypothesized perceived risk of fiber and toxins in food. Pygmy rabbits were willing to consume nearly five times more of the toxin 1,8-cineole in their diets to avoid consuming higher levels of fiber than were mountain cottontails. Fiber posed a greater relative risk for pygmy rabbits than cottontails and cineole a greater risk for cottontails than pygmy rabbits. Our flexible modeling approach can be used to (1) quantify how animals evaluate and trade off multiple habitat attributes when the benefits and risks are difficult to quantify, and (2) integrate diverse risks that influence fitness and habitat selection into a single index of habitat value. This index potentially could be applied to landscapes to predict habitat selection across several scales.

  13. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  14. Actual and perceived risk: a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    In response to growing concern about technological risks, a concerted effort is being made to improve risk analysis methods and approaches. As part of this effort, behavioral and social scientists have produced a substantial body of knowledge that is of value to risk analysts and decision-makers. This paper will focus on behavioral and social science studies of human intellectual limitations in thinking about risks, factors influencing risk attitudes and perceptions, and factors contributing to social conflicts and disputes about technological activities. A basic assumption of the paper is that analysts and decision-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how experts and non-experts think and make decisions about technological risks. Without such understanding, well-intended policies may be ineffective or even counterproductive

  15. Visual Darkness Reduces Perceived Risk of Contagious-Disease Transmission From Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ping; Zhong, Chen-Bo

    2018-05-01

    We examined the psychological impact of visual darkness on people's perceived risk of contagious-disease transmission. We posited that darkness triggers an abstract construal level and increases perceived social distance from others, rendering threats from others to seem less relevant to the self. We found that participants staying in a dimly lit room (Studies 1 and 3-5) or wearing sunglasses (Study 2) tended to estimate a lower risk of catching contagious diseases from others than did those staying in a brightly lit room or wearing clear glasses. The effect persisted in both laboratory (Studies 1-4) and real-life settings (Study 5). The effect arises because visual darkness elevates perceived social distance from the contagion (Study 3) and is attenuated among abstract (vs. concrete) thinkers (Study 4). These findings delineate a systematic, unconscious influence of visual darkness-a subtle yet pervasive situational factor-on perceived risk of contagion. Theoretical contributions and policy implications are discussed.

  16. Risk for affective disorders is associated with greater prefrontal gray matter volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Baaré, William Frans Christian; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Major depression and bipolar disorders aggregates in families and are linked with a wide range ofneurobiological abnormalities including cortical gray matter (GM) alterations. Prospective studies of individualsat familial risk may expose the neural mechanisms underlying risk...... inferior frontal cortex compared to high- and low-risk twins who remainedwell at follow-up.Conclusion: This pattern of apparently stable grater regional GM volume may constitute a neural marker of anincreased risk for developing an affective disorder in individuals at familial risk....... transmission.Methods: We used voxel based morphometry to investigate changes in regional GM brain volume, over a seven-year period, in 37 initially healthy individuals having a mono- or di-zygotic twin diagnosed with major de-pression or bipolar disorder (high-risk group; mean age 41.6 yrs.) as compared to 36...

  17. Perceived risk associated with ecstasy use: a latent class analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, SS; Carlson, RG; Alexandre, PK; Falck, RS

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define categories of perceived health problems among ecstasy users based on observed clustering of their perceptions of ecstasy-related health problems. Data from a community sample of ecstasy users (n=402) aged 18 to 30, in Ohio, was used in this study. Data was analyzed via Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and Regression. This study identified five different subgroups of ecstasy users based on their perceptions of health problems they associated with their ecstasy use. Almost one third of the sample (28.9%) belonged to a class with “low level of perceived problems” (Class 4). About one fourth (25.6%) of the sample (Class 2), had high probabilities of “perceiving problems on sexual-related items”, but generally low or moderate probabilities of perceiving problems in other areas. Roughly one-fifth of the sample (21.1%, Class 1) had moderate probabilities of perceiving ecstasy health-related problems in all areas. A small proportion of respondents (11.9%, Class 5) had high probabilities of reporting “perceived memory and cognitive problems, and of perceiving “ecstasy related-problems in all areas” (12.4%, Class 3). A large proportion of ecstasy users perceive either low or moderate risk associated with their ecstasy use. It is important to further investigate whether lower levels of risk perception are associated with persistence of ecstasy use. PMID:21296504

  18. Perceived risk of female infidelity moderates the relationship between objective risk of female infidelity and sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Starratt, Valerie G; Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2011-08-01

    Female extrapair copulation (EPC) can be costly to a woman's long-term romantic partner. If a woman has copulated recently with a man other than her long-term partner, her reproductive tract may contain the sperm of both men, initiating sperm competition (whereby sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize an egg). Should the woman become pregnant, her long-term partner is at risk of cuckoldry-investing unwittingly in offspring to whom he is not genetically related. Previous research in humans (Homo sapiens) and in nonhuman animals suggests that males have evolved tactics such as partner-directed sexual coercion that reduce the risk of cuckoldry. The current research provides preliminary evidence that mated men (n = 223) at greater risk of partner EPC, measured as having spent a greater proportion of time apart from their partner since the couple's last in-pair copulation, more frequently perform partner-directed sexually coercive behaviors. This relationship is moderated, however, by men's perceived risk of partner EPC, such that the correlation between the proportion of time spent apart since last in-pair copulation and sexually coercive behaviors remains significant only for those men who perceive themselves to be at some risk of partner EPC. Discussion addresses limitations of this research and highlights directions for future research investigating the relationship between female EPC and men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Values, Perceived Risks and Benefits, and Acceptability of Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that

  20. Catastrophizing and perceived injustice: risk factors for the transition to chronicity after whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Adams, Heather; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Scott, Whitney; Wideman, Timothy

    2011-12-01

    The article will summarize research that has supported the role of pain catastrophizing and perceived injustice as risk factors for problematic recovery after whiplash injury. This article focuses on two psychological variables that have been shown to impact on recovery trajectories after whiplash injury; namely pain catastrophizing and perceived injustice. Research has shown that psychological variables play a role in determining the trajectory of recovery after whiplash injury. This article will focus on two psychological variables that have been shown to impact on recovery trajectories after whiplash injury; namely pain catastrophizing and perceived injustice. The article will summarize research that has supported the role of pain catastrophizing and perceived injustice as risk factors for problematic recovery after whiplash injury. Several investigations have shown that measures of catastrophizing and perceived injustice prospectively predict problematic trajectories of recovery after whiplash injury. Basic research points to the potential roles of expectancies, attention, coping and endogenous opioid dysregulation as possible avenues through which catastrophizing might heighten the probability of the persistence of pain after whiplash injury. Although research has yet to systematically address the mechanisms by which perceived injustice might contribute to prolonged disability in individuals with whiplash injuries, there are grounds for suggesting the potential contributions of catastrophizing, pain behavior and anger. A challenge for future research will be the development and evaluation of risk factor-targeted interventions aimed at reducing catastrophizing and perceived injustice to improve recovery trajectories after whiplash injury.

  1. Optimal wildlife management in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem: A spatiotemporal model of disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    South of Yellowstone National Park there are twenty-three sites where elk herds are provided supplementary feeding during the winter and spring months. Supplementary feeding of elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has been practiced since the early twentieth century, but the practice has b...

  2. The impact of perceived risk on on-line purchase behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Gerber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To avoid risks, consumers tend to be failry thoughtful decision makers. Research has shown that consumers perceive risks associated with purchasing online and as a result online purchasing has not yet reached the numbers that were projected. In order for e-commerce to live up to its full potential, online retailers should gain an understanding of which perceived risks online purchasing consumers are most concerned with. This study aimed to assess the impact of perceived risk on online buying behaviour. Personal interview surveys were conducted in an emerging market whereby 200 respondents that have access to the internet were interviewed in selected malls with regards to their perceived risks when buying online. The results showed that perceived risk does have an impact on online buying behaviour, and that consumers that have not bought online in the past are likely not to do so in the future. The results show that characteristics of emerging markets are sufficiently distinct from developed markets in that consumers in developed markets seem to be more conservative when buying online. Marketers should therefore developed alternative marketing programs when communicating to these markets in an attempt to persuade consumers to buy online

  3. Students’ perceived risk and investment intention: the effect of brand equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Macías

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging markets bring out the question of motivation to include of new investors in the market for financial securities often arises. The purpose of this study is to analyze how brands influence the investment intention of young potential investors. Specifically, the relationship between consumer based brand equity - according to Aaker’s multidimensional conceptualization - and investment intention, mediated by perceived risk, is analyzed. The study contributes to the literature in two ways: (1 based on the revision made, no study has analyzed Aaker’s brand equity construct in investment decisions; (2 studies linking brand aspects to investment decisions have not examined the mediating role of perceived risk. Through an experiment, where perceived risk and investment intention in a famous brand were measured as differences from fictitious brands, the following results were found: (1 the investment intention in a famous brand is higher than in a non-famous one, once controlled for risk and return; (2 the higher the brand equity, the lesser the perceived risk of investing in the famous brand, and the higher the investment intention; (3 the perceived quality of a brand’s products was the dimension by which the effect of brand equity is transmitted. Involvement with the investment task and cognitive ability, at an individual level, the relative size of comparable firms, and the risk and return of investment alternatives were introduced as control variables.

  4. Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit Sang; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Cottler, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Risk perception, perceived behavioral control of obtaining ecstasy (PBC-obtaining), current ecstasy dependence, and recent depression have been associated with past ecstasy use, however, their utility in predicting ecstasy use has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to determine whether these four modifiable risk factors could predict ecstasy use after controlling for socio-demographic covariates and recent polydrug use. Data from 601 ecstasy users in the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded TriCity Study of Club Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Participants were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using standardized instruments. Thirteen percent (n=80) of the participants reported using ecstasy between the two interviews. Low risk perception, high PBC-obtaining (an estimated ecstasy procurement time ecstasy dependence were statistically associated with ecstasy use between the two interviews. Recent depression was not a significant predictor. Despite not being a target predictor, recent polydrug use was also statistically associated with ecstasy use. The present findings may inform the development of interventions targeting ecstasy users. PMID:19880258

  5. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxlade, Olivia; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB. Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the 2006 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) for India, we assessed self-reported TB status, TB determinants and household socioeconomic status. We used these data to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF) for each key TB risk factor based on the prevalence of determinants and estimates of the effect of these risk factors derived from published sources. We conducted a mediation analysis using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to demonstrate how the association between poverty and TB prevalence is mediated. The prevalence of self-reported TB in the 2006 DHS for India was 545 per 100,000 and ranged from 201 in the highest quintile to 1100 in the lowest quintile. Among those in the poorest population, the PAFs for low body mass index (BMI) and indoor air pollution were 34.2% and 28.5% respectively. The PCA analysis also showed that low BMI had the strongest mediating effect on the association between poverty and prevalent TB (12%, p = 0.019). TB control strategies should be targeted to the poorest populations that are most at risk, and should address the most important determinants of disease--specifically low BMI and indoor air pollution.

  6. Greater ability to express positive emotion is associated with lower projected cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Adams, Kathryn S; Pressman, Sarah D; Consedine, Nathan S

    2017-12-01

    Positive emotion is associated with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, yet some mechanisms remain unclear. One potential pathway is via emotional competencies/skills. The present study tests whether the ability to facially express positive emotion is associated with CVD risk scores, while controlling for potential confounds and testing for sex moderation. Eighty-two men and women underwent blood draws before completing self-report assessments and a performance test of expressive skill. Positive expressions were scored for degree of 'happiness' using expression coding software. CVD risk scores were calculated using established algorithms based on biological, demographic, and behavioral risk factors. Linear regressions revealed a main effect for skill, with skill in expressing positive emotion associated with lower CVD risk scores. Analyses also revealed a sex-by-skill interaction whereby links between expressive skill and CVD risk scores were stronger among men. Objective tests of expressive skill have methodological advantages, appear to have links to physical health, and offer a novel avenue for research and intervention.

  7. Engaging with residents' perceived risks and benefits about technologies as a way of resolving remediation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jason; Rai, Tapan

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades the diversity of remediation technologies has increased significantly, with the breadth of technologies ranging from dig and dump to emergent technologies like phytoremediation and nanoremediation. The benefits of these technologies to the environment and human health are believed to be substantial. However, they also potentially constitute risks. Whilst there is a growing body of knowledge about the risks and benefits of these technologies from the perspective of experts, little is known about how residents perceive the risks and benefits of the application of these technologies to address contaminants in their local environment. This absence of knowledge poses a challenge to remediation practitioners and policy makers who are increasingly seeking to engage these affected local residents in choosing technology applications. Building on broader research into the perceived benefits and risks of technologies, and data from a telephone survey of 2009 residents living near 13 contaminated sites in Australia, regression analysis of closed-ended survey questions and coding of open-ended questions are combined to identify the main predictors of resident's perceived levels of risk and benefit to resident's health and to their local environment from remediation technologies. This research identifies a range of factors associated with the residents' physical context, their engagement with institutions during remediation processes, and the technologies which are associated with residents' level of perceived risk and benefit for human health and the local environment. The analysis found that bioremediation technologies were perceived as less risky and more beneficial than chemical, thermal and physical technologies. The paper also supports broader technology research that reports an inverse correlation between levels of perceived risks and benefits. In addition, the paper reveals the types of risks and benefits to human health and the local environment that

  8. The impact of young drivers' lifestyle on their road traffic accident risk in greater Athens area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chliaoutakis, J E; Darviri, C; Demakakos, P T

    1999-11-01

    Young drivers (18-24) both in Greece and elsewhere appear to have high rates of road traffic accidents. Many factors contribute to the creation of these high road traffic accidents rates. It has been suggested that lifestyle is an important one. The main objective of this study is to find out and clarify the (potential) relationship between young drivers' lifestyle and the road traffic accident risk they face. Moreover, to examine if all the youngsters have the same elevated risk on the road or not. The sample consisted of 241 young Greek drivers of both sexes. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Through the principal component analysis a ten factor scale was created which included the basic lifestyle traits of young Greek drivers. The logistic regression analysis showed that the young drivers whose dominant lifestyle trait is alcohol consumption or drive without destination have high accident risk, while these whose dominant lifestyle trait is culture, face low accident risk. Furthermore, young drivers who are religious in one way or another seem to have low accident risk. Finally, some preliminary observations on how health promotion should be put into practice are discussed.

  9. THE ROLE OF TRUST AND PERCEIVED RISK IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA DANA LAURA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trust and risk are very important in consumers' electronic commerce purchasing decisions. How do trust and risk affect an Internet consumer's purchasing decision? To answer this question I’ve developed a theoretical framework describing the trust-based decision-making process a consumer uses when making a purchase from a given site. Consumer disposition to trust, reputation, privacy concerns, security concerns, the information quality of the Website, and the company's reputation, have strong effects on Internet consumers' trust in the Website.

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10?12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting s...

  11. The Impact of Marijuana Legalization on Adolescent Use, Consequences, and Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoup, Ashley C; Moise-Campbell, Claudine; Varma, Malini; Stewart, David G

    2016-12-05

    Currently, only four states have legalized recreational marijuana use for adults over 21 years of age. Therefore, little is known about the influence that legalization will have on adolescent marijuana use. This study examines how marijuana legalization has impacted the frequency and consequences of adolescent use in a sample of participants in a school-based, substance use intervention. We hypothesized that adolescents enrolled in the intervention in years after marijuana legalization would present with more problematic use compared to those enrolled prior, and that changes in the perceived risk of marijuana would be a mechanism of problematic use. Participants were 262 students enrolled in a school-based substance use intervention in 2010 to 2015. The Customary Drinking and Drug Use Record, Alcohol and Drug Use Consequences Questionnaire, and a decisional balance matrix were used to assess marijuana frequency, negative consequences, and perceived risk of use. A mediation model was used to test the degree to which marijuana legalization may lead to increased frequency and consequences of use through perceived risk. Findings indicated a significantly positive correlation between marijuana-related consequences and perceived risk post legalization. Despite relatively equal use between both groups, adolescents in the legalization group experienced higher levels of perceived risk and increased negative consequences. Due to the rising legalization status of marijuana in the United States, it is imperative that psychoeducation is provided to adults and adolescents about the consequences of underage marijuana use.

  12. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 26.405... but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. If the IRB finds that an...: (a) The intervention or procedure holds out the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subject...

  13. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Oxlade

    Full Text Available Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB.Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the 2006 Demographic Health Survey (DHS for India, we assessed self-reported TB status, TB determinants and household socioeconomic status. We used these data to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF for each key TB risk factor based on the prevalence of determinants and estimates of the effect of these risk factors derived from published sources. We conducted a mediation analysis using principal components analysis (PCA and regression to demonstrate how the association between poverty and TB prevalence is mediated.The prevalence of self-reported TB in the 2006 DHS for India was 545 per 100,000 and ranged from 201 in the highest quintile to 1100 in the lowest quintile. Among those in the poorest population, the PAFs for low body mass index (BMI and indoor air pollution were 34.2% and 28.5% respectively. The PCA analysis also showed that low BMI had the strongest mediating effect on the association between poverty and prevalent TB (12%, p = 0.019.TB control strategies should be targeted to the poorest populations that are most at risk, and should address the most important determinants of disease--specifically low BMI and indoor air pollution.

  14. Risk for affective disorders is associated with greater prefrontal gray matter volumes: A prospective longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Baaré, William; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2017-01-01

    transmission. Methods: We used voxel based morphometry to investigate changes in regional GM brain volume, over a seven-year period, in 37 initially healthy individuals having a mono- or di-zygotic twin diagnosed with major depression or bipolar disorder (high-risk group; mean age 41.6 yrs.) as compared to 36...... anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and temporoparietal regions as compared to low-risk twins. Further, individuals who developed an affective disorder at follow-up (n=12), had relatively the largest GM volumes, both at baseline and follow-up, in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and right...

  15. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at Electronic Marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meents, Selmar; Tan, Yao-Hua; Verhagen, Tibert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer oriented e-business models today. In this paper we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace. Typical for electronic

  16. Perceived risk and trust associated with purchasing at electronic marketplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Meents, S.; Tan, Y.H.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is of vital importance to consumer-oriented e-business models today. In this paper, we study the relationships between consumer perceptions of risk and trust and the attitude towards purchasing at a consumer-to-consumer electronic marketplace (EM). Typical for EM

  17. Perceived breast cancer risk: heuristic reasoning and search for a dominance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Facione, Noreen C; Humphreys, Janice C; Dodd, Marylin J

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that people construct their risk perceptions by using inferential rules called heuristics. The purpose of this study was to identify heuristics that influence perceived breast cancer risk. We examined 11 interviews from women of diverse ethnic/cultural backgrounds who were recruited from community settings. Narratives in which women elaborated about their own breast cancer risk were analyzed with Argument and Heuristic Reasoning Analysis methodology, which is based on applied logic. The availability, simulation, representativeness, affect, and perceived control heuristics, and search for a dominance structure were commonly used for making risk assessments. Risk assessments were based on experiences with an abnormal breast symptom, experiences with affected family members and friends, beliefs about living a healthy lifestyle, and trust in health providers. Assessment of the potential threat of a breast symptom was facilitated by the search for a dominance structure. Experiences with family members and friends were incorporated into risk assessments through the availability, simulation, representativeness, and affect heuristics. Mistrust in health providers led to an inappropriate dependence on the perceived control heuristic. Identified heuristics appear to create predictable biases and suggest that perceived breast cancer risk is based on common cognitive patterns.

  18. Design and validation of a questionnaire for measuring perceived risk of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, M A; Peralta-Pedrero, M L; Domínguez-Gómez, M A

    2014-04-01

    A perceived risk of cancer encourages preventive behavior while the lack of such a perception is a barrier to risk reduction. There are no instruments in Spanish to measure this perceived risk and thus quantify response to interventions for preventing this disease at a population level. The aim of this study was to design and validate a self-administered questionnaire for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer. A self-administered questionnaire with a visual Likert-type scale was designed based on the results of the analysis of the content of a survey performed in 100 patients in the Dr. Ladislao de la Pascua Skin Clinic, Distrito Federal México, Mexico. Subsequently, the questionnaire was administered to a sample of 359 adult patients who attended the clinic for the first time. As no gold standard exists for measuring the perceived risk of skin cancer, the construct was validated through factor analysis. The final questionnaire had 18 items. The internal consistency measured with Cronbach α was 0.824 overall. In the factor analysis, 4 factors (denoted as affective, behavioral, severity, and susceptibility) and an indicator of risk accounted for 65.133% of the variance. The psychometric properties of the scale were appropriate for measuring the perception of risk in adult patients (aged 18 years or more) who attended the dermatology clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond Hurt Feelings: Investigating Why Some Victims of Bullying Are at Greater Risk for Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Rina A.; Hymel, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated why some adolescents who are victimized through peer bullying are more negatively impacted than others. Drawing from research on peer victimization and suicidology, two theoretically derived models were investigated, one examining social hopelessness as a risk factor, the other examining social support as a protective…

  20. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E H Beaudrie

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404 of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches, and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development.

  1. Perceived aesthetic impact of malocclusion and oral self-perceptions in 14-15-year-old Asian and Caucasian children in greater Manchester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandall, N A; McCord, J F; Blinkhorn, A S; Worthington, H V; O'Brien, K D

    2000-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the effect of ethnicity, social deprivation, and normative orthodontic treatment need on orthodontic aesthetic self-perception, self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment, and oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion; (ii) the effect of ethnicity, social deprivation, and gender on perceived orthodontic treatment need and use of orthodontic services; (iii) the influence of perceived oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion on perceived need and wish for orthodontic treatment; and (iv) whether orthodontic treatment experience influences perceived oral aesthetic impact of malocclusion. A stratified, random sample of 434 14-15-year-old children from schools in Manchester, UK, was obtained. Information was collected on orthodontic aesthetic self-perception and orthodontic treatment experience using a questionnaire. The former data were combined to form an Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). Normative orthodontic treatment need was measured with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Children with higher clinical need for orthodontic treatment perceived themselves as worse off than their peers with lower need. More socially deprived children or those with high IOTN aesthetic component (AC) scores had a higher (i.e. more negative) aesthetic impact (OASIS) score. Asians and females had higher IOTN dental health component (DHC) scores, but a better aesthetic appearance than Caucasians and males. More deprived children were less likely to have received orthodontic treatment. Despite this, OASIS scores were similar between treated and untreated children. Untreated children who wished for orthodontic treatment had higher IOTN AC and OASIS scores.

  2. Social Media, Online Shopping Activities and Perceived Risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Majid, M.; Firend, A.R

    2017-01-01

    The Internet shopping experience offers dissimilar ways of off-online communications with communication differences tools that need a better decision of their effect on customer communications. Social networking sites is also fast becoming the platform for interaction, attracting new potential customers and has become the trend for companies to engage with their consumers online. The main objective of this research is to examine Malaysia customer’s risk perception toward online shopping via s...

  3. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Li, Y; Cai, Y; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, C; Niu, Q; Tang, C; Yang, Y; Wang, Q; Cui, W; Xia, J; Liu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Guo, Z; Pan, J; Chen, H; Luo, Y; Sun, L; Xiao, X; Chen, Q; Zhao, X; He, F; Lv, L; Guo, L; Liu, L; Li, H; Shi, S; Flint, J; Kendler, K S; Tao, M

    2012-05-01

    In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.

  4. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chen, J.; Shen, Y.; Ni, S.; Wei, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Zhu, X.; Liu, Y.; Lu, C.; Chen, C.; Niu, Q.; Tang, C.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Cui, W.; Xia, J.; Liu, T.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Guo, Z.; Pan, J.; Chen, H.; Luo, Y.; Sun, L.; Xiao, X.; Chen, Q.; Zhao, X.; He, F.; Lv, L.; Guo, L.; Liu, L.; Li, H.; Shi, S.; Flint, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Tao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Method Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Results Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Conclusions Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD. PMID:21943491

  5. Perceived breast cancer risk: Heuristic reasoning and search for a dominance structure

    OpenAIRE

    Katapodi, M. C.; Facione, N. C.; Humphreys, J. C.; Dodd, MJ.

    2005-01-01

    Studies suggest that people construct their risk perceptions by using inferential rules called heuristics. The purpose of this study was to identify heuristics that influence perceived breast cancer risk. We examined 11 interviews from women of diverse ethnic/cultural backgrounds who were recruited from community settings. Narratives in which women elaborated about their own breast cancer risk were analyzed with Argument and Heuristic Reasoning Analysis methodology, which is based on applied ...

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AWARENESS IN CONSUMERS’ BUYING DECISION AND PERCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness, as one of the fundamental dimensions of brand equity, isoften considered to be a prerequisite of consumers’ buying decision, as itrepresents the main factor for including a brand in the consideration set.Brand awareness can also influence consumers’ perceived risk assessmentand their confidence in the purchase decision, due to familiarity with thebrand and its characteristics. On the other hand, brand awareness can bedepicted into at least two facets – unaided (brand recall and aided (brandrecognition – each of the two facets having its more or less effectiveinfluence on buying decision and perceived risk assessment. This paper triesto reveal, on one hand, the importance of unaided brand awareness when itcomes to consumers’ buying decision and, on the other hand, the importanceof aided brand awareness when assessing the perceived risk associated withthe purchase. The analysis is conducted in a comparative manner,considering the case of durable versus non-durable products, and with focuson urban Romanian consumers.

  7. Perceived Risk and Trust as Major Determinants of Actual Purchase, Transcending The Influence of Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Indiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed online purchasing behavior in the hotel industry through an integrative framework, utilizing sets of variables rarely used in previous studies. The analysis was focused on the influence of online purchase intention, perceived risk, and trust upon actual purchase, with the idea of further determining which construct has the strongest impact. It also analyzed two new measurement items for website quality. The sample consisted of travelers who have recently made hotel reservations online. The model was tested with Structural Equation Modeling. Perceived risk was found to have the strongest impact on actual purchase, followed by trust and online purchase intention. The weak influence of online purchase intention is quite interesting since it stands in contrast to previous research findings. Perceived risk also perfectly mediates the relationship between website quality and eWOM towards online purchase intention. Being descriptive in nature, this study did not manipulate the antecedents in the manner of an experimental study.

  8. Active unicameral bone cysts in the upper limb are at greater risk of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Inn Kuang; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lim, Kevin Boon Leong; Lee, Eng Hin; Nathan, Saminathan Suresh

    2009-08-01

    To elucidate the natural history of unicameral bone cyst (UBC) and risk factors for pathological fracture. 14 males and 8 females (mean age, 9 years) diagnosed with UBC were reviewed. Cyst location, symptoms, and whether there was any fracture or surgery were recorded. Cyst parameters were measured on radiographs, and included (1) the cyst index, (2) the ratio of the widest cyst diameter to the growth plate diameter, and (3) the adjusted distance of the cyst border from the growth plate. There were 11 upper- and 11 lower-limb cysts. 13 patients had pathological fractures and 9 did not. 20 patients were treated conservatively with limb immobilisation; 2 underwent curettage and bone grafting (one resolved and one did not). Seven cysts resolved (5 had fractures and 2 did not). The risk of fracture was higher in the upper than lower limbs (100% vs 18%, pFractured cysts were larger than unfractured cysts (mean cyst index, 4.5 vs. 2.2, p=0.07). Active cysts were more likely to fracture. Conservative management had a 30% resolution rate. Surgery should be considered for large active cysts in the upper limbs in order to minimise the fracture risk.

  9. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvie, Helen P.; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P + suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication

  10. Gratitude is associated with greater levels of protective factors and lower levels of risks in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mindy; Kibler, Jeffrey L; Sly, Kaye

    2013-10-01

    The literature suggests gratitude is associated with positive youth development. The current study examined the relationship between gratitude and protective/risk factors among African American youth. Adolescents (N = 389; 50.4% males) ages 12-14 completed measures of gratitude (moral affect and life-orientation), protective factors (e.g., academic and activity engagement, family relationship), and high-risk behaviors (e.g., sexual attitudes and behaviors, drug/alcohol use). Results indicated greater moral affect gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with greater academic interest, better academic performance, and more extra-curricular activity engagement. Greater moral affect and life-orientation gratitude both significantly correlated with positive family relationship. Greater life-orientation gratitude was the only variable significantly associated with abstinence from sexual intimacy, sexual intercourse, likelihood of engaging in sex during primary school, and abstinence from drug/alcohol use. The findings suggest that moral affect gratitude may enhance protective factors while life-orientation gratitude may buffer against high-risk behaviors among African American youth. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km 2 . The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs

  12. Perceived risks and risk attitudes in southern Russia in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B M [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research; Rumyantseva, G M; Martyvshov, A N [The Serbsky Research Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted within the framework of the Joint Study Project 2 (JSP2), a research project involving the European Community and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The task involved the investigation of public reactions to radioactive contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The here presented field-work was designed as a pilot investigation in a series of studies aimed at contributing to the understanding of social and psychological factors relevant to the design of countermeasures in the case of a future nuclear accident. The report presents questionnaire data collected from people living in Novozybkov and its surroundings in Russia, in the summer of 1992. The chosen areas had an overall surface contamination level of 15-40 Ci/km{sup 2}. The results showed that the respondents recalled the date of the accident surprisingly well. They often indicated that they had heard the first news of the accident via TV, radio or rumors. They often reported the content of that information to have been related to an explosion or a fire at a nuclear plant. They indicated that they at the time had a rather modest reaction to the news. Current worries especially concerned health risks due to the radioactive contamination, although the respondents also emphasized that ordinary life was filled with worries. Middle-aged persons and parents often indicated the highest personal worry. Risk ratings related to radiation and radioactive contamination were high. Ratings of perceived change in risk level since the accident of a variety of hazards showed an overall increase. 27 refs, 23 figs, 23 tabs.

  13. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans--DiLH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; S Bender, Melinda; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3±16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n=421), and 14.3% (n=129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.04-2.86) and Korean (AOR=2.4; 1.33-4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR=1.4; 1.00-1.84), female gender (AOR=1.4; 1.04-1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09-2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR=1.1; 1.08-1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR=2.9; 1.69-5.02), high blood pressure (AOR=2.4; 1.45-3.84), and higher BMI (AOR=1.1; 1.04-1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual's risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic subjects submitted to a routine medical evaluation: The perception gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Marcelo; Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Franco, Fabio G M; Conceicao, Raquel D; Carvalho, Jose A M; Pesaro, Antonio E P; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Santos, Raul D

    2015-08-01

    Poor adherence to medical treatment represents a major health problem. A subject's misperception of his own cardiovascular risk has been indicated as a key driver for low compliance with preventive measures. This study analysed the relationship between objectively calculated short- and long-term cardiovascular risk and its subjective perception. Cross-sectional study in asymptomatic Brazilian subjects. Individuals (N = 6544, mean age 49.1 ± 7 years, 22.2% female) who underwent a routine mandatory health evaluation were studied. A questionnaire in which each individual rated his own cardiovascular risk as low, intermediate or high according to his own perception was used. The 10-year and lifetime cardiovascular risk were calculated respectively using the Framingham risk (FRS) and Lifetime risk (LRS) scores. Individuals were classified as hypo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk lower than estimated risk), normo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk coincident with estimated risk) and hyper-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk higher than estimated risk). Cardiovascular risk, using the FRS, was low in 77.9% (N = 5071), intermediate in 14.4% (N = 939) and high in 7.7% (N = 499) of subjects. Cardiovascular risk, using the LRS, was low in 7.6% (N = 492), intermediate in 43.1% (N = 2787) and high in 49.3% (N = 3184) of the study population. The prevalence of normo-perceivers was 57.6% using the FRS and only 20.6% using the LRS. Using the LRS, 72.3% of the intermediate and 91.2% of the high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. In a large sample of asymptomatic individuals, there was a gap between calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk. Using a long-term risk score, most of the intermediate- and high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, T.; Calzonetti, F.

    1996-01-01

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors

  16. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors.

  17. Moderating effect of perceived risk on the relationship between product safety and intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ismail

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal Products industry has experienced significant growth in product demand. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors effecting the actual buying of Herbal Product. This study also examines the moderation effect of perceived risk on the relationship between product safety and intention. Mall intercept survey was used to collect data from six various states in Malaysia. The data is analyzed using Partial Least Squares (PLS path modeling. The path coefficient results supported the direct influence of intention on actual buying. Similarly, the findings reveal that perceived risk moderate the relationship between product safety and buying intention.

  18. Perceived nuclear risk, organizational commitment, and appraisals of management: A study of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.; Salminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined to what extent nuclear risk perceptions, organizational commitment (OC), and appraisals of management are associated with each other among nuclear power plant personnel. The sample consisted of 428 nuclear power plant workers who completed a questionnaire at their workplace. Perceived nuclear risk and OC were most closely related to the appraisals of the top management of the organization. As the trust in and satisfaction with the top management increased, perceived nuclear safety and acceptance of the organizational goals and values heightened. This result is discussed in the context of industrial safety management. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Perceived Quality of Work Life and Risk for Compassion Fatigue Among Oncology Nurses: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denigris, Jami; Fisher, Kathleen; Maley, MaryKay; Nolan, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    To examine factors that influenced the nurse's perceived quality of work life and risk for compassion fatigue (CF). The specific aims of the study were to describe the (a) relationship among nurse characteristics and perceived quality of work life, (b) relationship between personal life stress and perceived quality of work life, and (c) the nurse's beliefs about his or her risk for CF.
. A descriptive, mixed-methods study.
. A hematology-oncology unit in a large urban teaching hospital in Pennsylvania.
. 20 oncology nurses. 
. Descriptive study using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The variables were nurse characteristics, personal life stress, and quality of work life. Data were analyzed descriptively and thematically. Scores on the self-report questionnaires were compared to themes.
. Personal life stressors, measured by combining the Impact of Events Scale and Life Events Scale, identified powerful or severe impacts on well-being for 30% of nurse respondents in this study, theoretically placing them at risk for CF. However, qualitative data did not complement the results of the Life Events Scale, and 55% of the nurses described their overall work experiences as "life-affirming and rewarding." The participants provided multiple sources of their work-related stress, including subcategories of communication breakdown, work environment/institution, and care-driven factors. 
. Overall, oncology nurses experienced positive reinforcement at work and they had little concern about individual or organizational effectiveness. Positive experiences offset the negative and balanced out the risk for CF.
. The identification of personal and social contributors, as well as solutions to work-related stress, supports the philosophical premises (i.e., conceptual model) that the circumstances that place a nurse at risk for CF are socially constructed. Nurses can achieve greater empathy through self-understanding and translate this learning to patient care.

  20. Children in family foster care have greater health risks and less involvement in Child Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M; Emmelin, M; Hjern, A; Rosvall, M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of being in family foster care on selected health determinants and participation in Child Health Services (CHS). Two groups of 100 children, born between 1992 and 2008, were studied using data from Swedish Child Health Services for the preschool period up to the age of six. The first group had been in family foster care, and the controls, matched for age, sex and geographic location, had not. Descriptive statistics were used to describe differences in health determinants and participation in Child Health Services between the two groups. The foster care group had higher health risks, with lower rates of breastfeeding and higher levels of parental smoking. They were less likely to have received immunisations and attended key nurse or physician visits and speech and vision screening. Missing data for the phenylketonuria test were more common in children in family foster care. Children in family foster care were exposed to more health risks than the control children and had lower participation in the universal child health programme during the preschool period. These results call for secure access to high-quality preventive health care for this particularly vulnerable group of children. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Benefit-cost-risk analysis of alternatives for greater-confinement disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seven alternatives are included in the analysis: near-surface disposal; improved waste form; below-ground engineered structure; augered shaft; shale fracturing; shallow geologic repository; and high-level waste repository. These alternatives are representative generic facilities that span the range from low-level waste disposal practice to high-level waste disposal practice, tentatively ordered according to an expected increasing cost and/or effectiveness of confinement. They have been chosen to enable an assessment of the degree of confinement that represents an appropriate balance between public health and safety requirements and costs rather than identification of a specific preferred facility design. The objective of the analysis is to provide a comparative ranking of the alternatives on the basis of benefit-cost-risk considerations

  2. Greater rupture risk for familial as compared to sporadic unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Joseph P; Brown, Robert D; Sauerbeck, Laura; Hornung, Richard; Huston, John; Woo, Daniel; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Foroud, Tatiana; Moomaw, E Charles J; Connolly, E Sander

    2009-06-01

    The risk of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture in asymptomatic members of families who have multiple affected individuals is not known. First-degree unaffected relatives of those with a familial history of IA who had a history of smoking or hypertension but no known IA were offered cerebral MR angiography (MRA) and followed yearly as part of a National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke-funded study of familial IA (Familial Intracranial Aneurysm [FIA] Study). A total of 2874 subjects from 542 FIA Study families were enrolled. After study enrollment, MRAs were performed in 548 FIA Study family members with no known history of IA. Of these 548 subjects, 113 subjects (20.6%) had 148 IAs by MRA of whom 5 subjects had IA >or=7 mm. Two subjects with an unruptured IA by MRA/CT angiography (3-mm and 4-mm anterior communicating artery) subsequently had rupture of their IA. This represents an annual rate of 1.2 ruptures per 100 subjects (1.2% per year; 95% CI, 0.14% to 4.3% per year). None of the 435 subjects with a negative MRA have had a ruptured IA. Survival curves between the MRA-positive and -negative cohorts were significantly different (P=0.004). This rupture rate of unruptured IA in the FIA Study cohort of 1.2% per year is approximately 17 times higher than the rupture rate for subjects with an unruptured IA in the International Study of Unruptured Aneurysm Study with a matched distribution of IA size and location 0.069% per year. Small unruptured IAs in patients from FIA Study families may have a higher risk of rupture than sporadic unruptured IAs of similar size, which should be considered in the management of these patients.

  3. The Neighborhood Environment: Perceived Fall Risk, Resources, and Strategies for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie

    2015-08-01

    To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Are Perceived and Objective Distances to Fresh Food and Physical Activity Resources Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Katherine L; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2018-01-29

    Perceived and objective measures of neighbourhood features have shown limited correspondence. Few studies have examined whether discordance between objective measures and individual perceptions of neighbourhood environments relates to individual health. Individuals with mismatched perceptions may benefit from initiatives to improve understandings of resource availability. This study utilised data from n = 1491 adult participants in a biomedical cohort to evaluate cross-sectional associations between measures of access (perceived, objective, and perceived-objective mismatch) to fruit and vegetable retailers (FVR) and public open space (POS), and clinically-measured metabolic syndrome and its component risk factors: central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and pre-diabetes/diabetes. Access measures included perceived distances from home to the nearest FVR and POS, corresponding objectively-assessed road network distances, and the discordance between perceived and objective distances (overestimated (i.e., mismatched) distances versus matched perceived-objective distances). Individual and neighbourhood measures were spatially joined using a geographic information system. Associations were evaluated using multilevel logistic regression, accounting for individual and area-level covariates. Hypertension was positively associated with perceived distances to FVR (odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.28) and POS (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), after accounting for covariates and objective distances. Hypertension was positively associated with overestimating distances to FVR (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.80). Overestimating distances to POS was positively associated with both hypertension (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.83) and dyslipidaemia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.57). Results provide new evidence for specific associations between perceived and overestimated distances from home to nearby resources and cardiometabolic risk factors.

  5. Globalization and eating disorder risk: peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits relative to other personal health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefkens, Christine; Valli, Veronica; Mazzocchi, Mario; Traill, W Bruce; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Poor eating habits are a key priority on the European public health agenda due to their large health and economic implications. Healthy eating interventions may be more effective if consumers perceive their eating habits as a more serious personal health risk. This study investigates European consumers' perceived seriousness of their eating habits, its determinants and relative importance among other potential personal health risks including weight, stress and pollution. A quantitative survey was conducted during Spring 2011 among samples representative for age, gender and region in five European countries (n=3003). Participants were neutral towards the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. Eating habits were ranked third after stress and weight. Gender, age, country, health motive, body mass index, and subjective health status were important determinants of the perceived seriousness of their eating habits, whereas perceived financial condition, smoking and education were insignificant. Eating habits were perceived more seriously by women, Italians, obese, and younger individuals with stronger health motives and fair subjective health status. Nevertheless, other health risks were often considered more important than eating habits. More or specific efforts are required to increase Europeans' awareness of the seriousness of their eating habits for personal health. © 2013.

  7. Is the risk from nanomaterials perceived as different from the risk of 'chemicals' by the Australian public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2016-04-15

    Manufactured nanomaterials in Australia are managed predominantly through existing chemical regulatory frameworks. Many Australian government regulators have suggested the framing of manufactured nanomaterials as 'chemicals' when communicating about manufactured nanomaterials to the general public. This paper aims to determine whether the Australian public perception of manufactured nanomaterials differs to that of 'chemicals', and to examine the relationship between attitudes towards chemicals and perceptions of nanomaterial risk. We undertook a computerised assisted telephone survey of the Australian public. Analysis was undertaken using descriptive, paired tests of proportion, paired t-test and logistic regression techniques. We explored perceptions of nanomaterial risk and their relationship to perceptions of chemical risk and 'chemical attitudes'. We found that the public perceives nanomaterials in a more favourable light than it does chemicals. Perception of risk from chemicals had the greatest association with perceived nanomaterial risk (adjusted odds ratios between 0.1 and 0.2) and that attitudes to chemicals were associated with perception of nanomaterial risk in some cases. Risk communicators and policy makers need to consider the differences and associations between nanomaterials and chemicals when addressing the regulatory aspects of nanomaterials with the public. This is relevant for communication strategies that attempt to normalise the risks from nanomaterials compared with those of chemicals, especially as nanomaterials are perceived to be less risky than chemicals.

  8. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnie, John A

    2012-12-01

    Aspen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are hypothesized to be recovering from decades of heavy browsing by elk due to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade (BMTC). Several authors have suggested that wolves interact with certain terrain features, creating places of high predation risk at fine spatial scales, and that elk avoid these places, which creates refugia for plants. This hypothesized BMTC could release aspen from elk browsing pressure, leading to a patchy recovery in places of high risk. I tested whether four specific, hypothesized fine-scale risk factors are correlated with changes in current elk browsing pressure on aspen, or with aspen recruitment since wolf reintroduction, in the Daly Creek drainage in Yellowstone National Park, and near two aspen enclosures outside of the park boundary. Aspen were not responding to hypothesized fine-scale risk factors in ways consistent with the current BMTC hypothesis.

  9. Rethinking International Counterterrorism Assistance to the Greater Horn of Africa: Toward a Regional Risk Reduction Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schwartz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Horn of Africa has long been a recipient of foreign security assistance, with significant funds increasingly devoted to supporting subregional civilian-oriented counterterrorism efforts over the past decade. Despite efforts to better coordinate delivery, counterterrorism programming in the subregion generally remains fragmented, short-term, and siloed in implementation. This article argues that it is time to rethink the international community’s approach to counterterrorism assistance to the Horn of Africa and calls for a cohesive regional approach that not only bridges the gap between security and development, but also the gap between counterterrorism and human security. It emphasizes that the international community must not only better coordinate existing streams of counterterrorism assistance to the region, but also rethink how this assistance is designed and the ways it can be delivered to complement broader subregional development and security agendas. After a brief introduction to international counterterrorism assistance to the Horn of Africa, the article examines linkages across three thematic streams of programming being delivered to the subregion: anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism; criminal justice capacity building assistance to counter terrorism; and, countering violent extremism. This discussion will highlight the need for a regional risk reduction strategy for the Horn of Africa that not only builds on the interplay of different streams of counterterrorism assistance, but on synergies across broader subregional development and security agendas as well.

  10. What to expect from a greater geographic dispersion of wind farms?-A risk portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, Ben; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The UK, like many other industrialised countries, is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. To achieve this goal the UK is increasingly turning towards wind power as a source of emissions free energy. However, the variable nature of wind power generation makes it an unreliable energy source, especially at higher rates of penetration. Likewise the aim of this paper is to measure the potential reduction in wind power variability that could be realised as a result of geographically dispersing the location of wind farm sites. To achieve this aim wind speed data will be used to simulate two scenarios. The first scenario involves locating a total of 2.7 gigawatts (GW) of wind power capacity in a single location within the UK while the second scenario consists of sharing the same amount of capacity amongst four different locations. A risk portfolio approach as used in financial appraisals is then applied in the second scenario to decide upon the allocation of wind power capacity, amongst the four wind farm sites, that succeeds in minimising overall variability for a given level of wind power generation. The findings of this paper indicate that reductions in the order of 36% in wind power variability are possible as a result of distributing wind power capacity

  11. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Zolezzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students’ (HCSs knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorst achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half (n = 38, 47% were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32% were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3. Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  13. Perceived Preparedness of Health Care Students for Providing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Monica; Abdallah, Oraib; Aden, Suad; Major, Stella; White, Diana; El-Awaisi, Alla

    2017-02-21

    Early assessment and management of risk factors is known to have significant impact in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated burden. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management (CVDRAM) is best approached by teamwork across health care professionals. This study aimed at assessing health care students' (HCSs) knowledge about the parameters needed for estimating CVD risk, their self-assessed preparedness/confidence and perceived barriers for the provision of CVDRAM services through a survey administered to third and fourth year pharmacy, medical, and nursing students in Qatar. Although all student cohorts achieved similar knowledge scores, less than half ( n = 38, 47%) were able to identify all of the six main risk factors necessary to estimate absolute CVD risk, and a third (32%) were unable to identify total cholesterol as an independent risk factor necessary to estimate CVD risk. Training on the use of CVD risk assessment tools differed among the three student cohorts. All student cohorts also perceived similar levels of preparedness in CVDRAM. However, pharmacy students reported the highest preparedness/confidence with the use of the latest CVDRAM guidelines. The majority of statements listed under the barriers scale were perceived by the students as being moderate (median score = 3). Poor public acceptance or unawareness of importance of estimating CVD risk was the only barrier perceived as a major by nursing students. Future integration of interprofessional educational (IPE) activities in the CVDRAM curricula of HCSs may be a suitable strategy to minimize barriers and foster collaborative practice for the provision of CVDRAM services in Qatar.

  14. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  15. Negative emotions in veterans relate to suicide risk through feelings of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan L; Kelliher-Rabon, Jessica; Hagan, Christopher R; Hirsch, Jameson K; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-15

    Suicide rates among veterans are disproportionately high compared to rates among the general population. Veterans may experience a number of negative emotions (e.g., anger, self-directed hostility, shame, guilt) during periods of postwar adjustment and reintegration into civilian life that may uniquely confer risk for suicide. Mechanisms of these associations, however, are less well studied. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between negative emotions and suicide risk in veterans through the theoretical framework of the interpersonal theory of suicide. A large sample of veterans (N = 541) completed measures assessing their negative emotions, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide risk. Self-directed hostility and shame related indirectly to suicide risk through both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Thwarted belongingness accounted for the association between anger and suicide risk, whereas perceived burdensomeness accounted for the relationship between guilt and suicide risk. This study had a cross-sectional design and relied solely on self-report measures. These findings provide evidence for the role of negative emotions in conferring risk for suicide in veterans. Clinical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality risk among Black and White working women: the role of perceived work trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2012-02-01

    Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. The findings reveal the imprint of women's work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. © The Author(s) 2012

  17. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  18. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  19. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  20. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  1. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in

  2. Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the

  3. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  4. Determinants of Self-Perceived HIV Risk in Young South Africans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Self-Perceived HIV Risk in Young South Africans Engaged in Concurrent Sexual Relationships. C Kenyon, S Zondo, M Badri. Abstract. Concurrent sexual partnerships are increasingly believed to be a key factor explaining the size of the HIV pandemic in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little, however, is ...

  5. Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2007-11-01

    To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well-being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of "being told on" by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self-imposed isolation. Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this "choice", participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well-being against formidable odds.

  6. Impact of Perceived Risk and Friend Influence on Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L; Rosen, Brittany L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-12-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data ( N = 937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime alcohol use-compared to students who had never used alcohol or marijuana-perceived lower alcohol risk ( p academic performance decreased the risk of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use ( p = .043). Findings are beneficial to school nurses with students experiencing effects associated with substance use.

  7. ENHANCING TRUST OR REDUCING PERCEIVED RISK, WHAT MATTERS MORE WHEN LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT?

    OpenAIRE

    ANN-MARIE NIENABER; GERHARD SCHEWE

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection of data among 490 participants from different companies in the field of medical engineering market, we contribute to the role of contact intensity by a business partner when launching new products by introducing trust as a mediator to the concept of perceived risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment. The findings show that the common concept of risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment is overrated. In detail, the results show first, that the influe...

  8. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  9. Study on the Perceived Risk about the Online Shopping for Fresh Agricultural Commodities and Customer Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; HUANG; Juan; FENG; Fengxian; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Fresh agricultural commodities have been entering the era of network marketing. However,the coverage population is still relatively small. In this paper,more than 400 online shopping customer survey data are statistically analyzed based on perceived risk multidimensional model by factor analysis method to classify the potential customers’ perceived risk,concluding that food safety risks,mental health risk,relative convenience risk,liquidity risk,privacy risk and time risk are the most important risk factors that impact potential customers online shopping of fresh agricultural commodities. By using customers prediction model which is based on the classification and prediction methods to mining potential customers,it comes to the conclusion that men are more likely to purchase fresh agricultural commodities online,specifically,in the male sample,those whose average monthly net purchase cost equals to or is higher than 51 yuan or whose online shopping time equals to or is longer than 3 years and at the same time whose age is younger than 30 are the most potential customers. Finally,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of risk control and effective customer acquisition.

  10. Perceived risk vs. intention to adopt e-commerce - a pilot study of potential moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena Bertea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce continues to develop as an important channel for consumer purchases. This explains the growing interest in determining the most important variables which affect online consumer behavior, especially perceived risk as a well-known behavioral deterrent. Previous studies have proved a negative influence of perceived risk on the intention to adopt e-commerce. However, depending on the type of product and the population investigated, results were often contradictory and this relationship was found to be stronger, weaker or even inconclusive. This led us to conclude that, besides direct influence factors, there could be moderating effects for the analyzed relationship. Moderators are qualitative or quantitative variables which modify a relationship, and affect the direction and/or strength of that relationship between an independent and a dependant variable. The purpose of our research was to investigate potential moderator variables which could change the relationship between perceived risk and the intention to buy online. We used three observable variables – gender, experience in using the Internet and experience with online shopping – and three latent, psychological variables – fear of uncertainty, trust in e-commerce and materialism. The research consisted of a survey conducted on a sample of 481 business students, followed by a Structural Equation Modeling approach. Although no moderation effect was proved, partly due to the homogeneity of the investigated pilot population, fear of uncertainty and trust in e-commerce were found to be antecedents of perceived risk in e-commerce, making perceived risk a mediator between these two variables and the intention to buy online.

  11. Scientists versus Regulators: Precaution, Novelty & Regulatory Oversight as Predictors of Perceived Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrie, Christian E. H.; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of ‘nano experts’ to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  12. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  13. Taxonomic analysis of perceived risk: modeling individual and group perceptions within homogeneous hazard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, N.N.; Slovic, P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of risk perception have typically focused on the mean judgments of a group of people regarding the riskiness (or safety) of a diverse set of hazardous activities, substances, and technologies. This paper reports the results of two studies that take a different path. Study 1 investigated whether models within a single technological domain were similar to previous models based on group means and diverse hazards. Study 2 created a group taxonomy of perceived risk for only one technological domain, railroads, and examined whether the structure of that taxonomy corresponded with taxonomies derived from prior studies of diverse hazards. Results from Study 1 indicated that the importance of various risk characteristics in determining perceived risk differed across individuals and across hazards, but not so much as to invalidate the results of earlier studies based on group means and diverse hazards. In Study 2, the detailed analysis of railroad hazards produced a structure that had both important similarities to, and dissimilarities from, the structure obtained in prior research with diverse hazard domains. The data also indicated that railroad hazards are really quite diverse, with some approaching nuclear reactors in their perceived seriousness. These results suggest that information about the diversity of perceptions within a single domain of hazards could provide valuable input to risk-management decisions

  14. Type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: greater than fourfold risk among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Catherine R; Oldenburg, Brian; Wilson, Alyce N; Eades, Sandra J; O'Dea, Kerin; Oats, Jeremy J N; Wolfe, Rory

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes. However, progression rates among Indigenous women in Australia who experience high prevalence of gestational diabetes are unknown. This retrospective cohort study includes all births to women at a regional hospital in Far North Queensland, Australia, coded as having 'gestational diabetes' from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010 (1098 births) and receiving laboratory postpartum screening from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2011 (n = 483 births). Women who did not receive postpartum screening were excluded from the denominator. Data were linked between hospital electronic records, routinely collected birth data and laboratories, with sample validation by reviews of medical records. Analysis was conducted using Cox-proportional regression models. Indigenous women had a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 8 years of having gestational diabetes, compared with non-Indigenous women (hazards ratio 4.55, 95% confidence interval 2.63-7.88, p Australian women have a greater than fourfold risk of developing type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes. Strategies are urgently needed to reduce rates of type 2 diabetes by supporting a healthy weight and breastfeeding and to improve postpartum screening among Indigenous women with gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  16. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  17. Perceived Fall Risk and Functional Decline: Gender Differences in Patient's Willingness to Discuss Fall Risk, Fall History, or to Have a Home Safety Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Moore, Elizabeth C; Nguyen, Michael C; Stello, Brian; Goldberg, Arnold; Barraco, Robert D; Porter, Bernadette G; Kurt, Anita; Dusza, Stephen W; Kane, Bryan G

    2016-06-01

    The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed. The survey included demographics, the Falls Efficacy Scale (FES) and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES); both validated surveys measuring fall concern and functional decline. Females had higher FES scores (mean 12.3, SD 5.9) than males (mean 9.7, SD 5.9 p = .007) in the 146 surveys analyzed. Females were more likely to report an increased fear of falling, and almost three times more likely to have a VES score of 3 or greater than males (OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.17-7.00, p = .02). A strong correlation was observed between FES and VES scores (r = 0.80, p fall risk with a provider; there was no difference between genders (p = .57). In this study, irrespective of gender, there appears to be a high association between subjects' perceived fall risk and risk for functional decline and death. The majority of patients are likely willing to discuss their fall risk with their provider. These findings may suggest a meaningful opportunity for fall risk mitigation in this setting.

  18. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  19. Determinants of perceived risk and initial trust on a team leader. Impact of working environment and leader traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guinalíu Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspects such as the growing importance of teamwork and the emergence of new organizational schemes based on information and communication technologies highlight the need for understanding the mechanisms that promote effective leadership. In this sense, this paper analyzes the determinants of perceived risk and trust on a team leader. The research consists of two experiments. The first analyzes the influence of working environment—virtual or traditional—on the two dependent variables considered. The second experiment focuses on the virtual environment and analyzes the importance of the inclusion of a photo on the electronic leader’s profile in order to generate trust. Moreover, it analyzes the impact of perceived leader traits (attractive or expert on the ability to build trust and the perception of risk. It shouldbe noted that these analyzes are contextualized in the initial stage of team development, poorly studied in the literature. Among others, the results reveal the greater difficulty of building trust in virtual environments, as well as the relevance of including graphical information on the profile and that the leader with expert traits has the greatest potential to buildtrust. These results have interesting managerial implications, which are discussed along with the main future research lines and limitations.

  20. Discounting the value of safety: effects of perceived risk and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Taylor, Matthew A; Wirth, Oliver

    2013-09-01

    Although falls from heights remain the most prevalent cause of fatalities in the construction industry, factors impacting safety-related choices associated with work at heights are not completely understood. Better tools are needed to identify and study the factors influencing safety-related choices and decision making. Using a computer-based task within a behavioral economics paradigm, college students were presented a choice between two hypothetical scenarios that differed in working height and effort associated with retrieving and donning a safety harness. Participants were instructed to choose the scenario in which they were more likely to wear the safety harness. Based on choice patterns, switch points were identified, indicating when the perceived risk in both scenarios was equivalent. Switch points were a systematic function of working height and effort, and the quantified relation between perceived risk and effort was described well by a hyperbolic equation. Choice patterns revealed that the perceived risk of working at heights decreased as the effort to retrieve and don a safety harness increased. Results contribute to the development of computer-based procedure for assessing risk discounting within a behavioral economics framework. Such a procedure can be used as a research tool to study factors that influence safety-related decision making with a goal of informing more effective prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal Change of Perceived Salt Intake and Stroke Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Huang, Zhe; Jin, Cheng; Xing, Aijun; Liu, Yesong; Huangfu, Chunmei; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Data for a relationship between salt intake and stroke have been inconsistent. This inconstancy could be because of the majority of studies evaluated salt intake at a single time point, which may be insufficient to accurately characterize salt intake throughout the observation period. Included were 77 605 participants from the Kailuan study. We assessed perceived salt intake via questionnaire in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Salt intake trajectories from 2006 to 2010 were identified using latent mixture models. Incident stroke cases were identified from 2010 to 2015 and confirmed by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between salt intake trajectories and stroke risk after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, lifestyle, social economic status, body mass index, use of medicines, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profiles. Identified were 5 distinct salt intake trajectories: moderate-stable (n=59 241), moderate-decreasing (n=9268), moderate-increasing (n=2975), low-increasing (n=2879), and high-decreasing (n=3242). During the 5-year follow-up period, there were 1564 incident strokes cases. Compared with individuals with the moderate-stable salt intake trajectory, individuals with moderate-decreasing salt intake trajectory had significantly lower cerebral infarction stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.92) but not intracerebral hemorrhage risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.29). Further adjustment for 2006 or 2010 perceived salt intakes generated similar results. When baseline perceived salt intake only was used as the exposure, a significant dose-response relationship between higher perceived salt intake and higher stroke risk was observed ( P trend=0.006). Change in salt intake was associated with the stroke risk. These data support the dietary recommendation to the reduction of salt intake. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  3. Quantifying the social costs of nuclear energy: Perceived risk of accident at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtala, Anni; Remes, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The preferences expressed in voting on nuclear reactor licenses and the risk perceptions of citizens provide insights into social costs of nuclear power and decision making in energy policy. We show analytically that these costs consist of disutility caused by unnecessary anxiety - due to misperceived risks relating to existing reactors - and where licenses for new nuclear reactors are not granted, delayed or totally lost energy production. Empirical evidence is derived from Finnish surveys eliciting explicitly the importance of risk perceptions on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts. We show that the estimated marginal impact of a high perceived risk of nuclear accident is statistically significant and that such a perception considerably decreases the probability of a person supporting nuclear power. This result holds across a number of robustness checks including an instrumental variable estimation and a model validation by observed voting behavior of the members of Parliament. The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost, and are likely to affect the revenues, costs and financing conditions in the nuclear power sector in the future. - Highlights: • Survey on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts utilized. • A high perceived risk of nuclear accident decreases support for nuclear power. • The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost.

  4. Examining the Relationship Between Pain Catastrophizing and Suicide Risk in Patients with Rheumatic Disease: the Mediating Role of Depression, Perceived Social Support, and Perceived Burdensomeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eun -Jung; Song, Yeong Wook; Park, Seung-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Min; Go, Dong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Little research has examined the role of pain catastrophizing (PC) in predicting suicide among patients with rheumatic disease or the mechanisms through which it works. This study examines whether depression, perceived social support (PSS), and perceived burdensomeness (PB) mediate the relationship between PC and suicide risk. It also examines the relative importance of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors in predicting suicide risk. Three hundred sixty patients from a rheumatology clinic in Korea completed measures of pain catastrophizing, social support, depression, and perceived burdensomeness. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the PC magnification, PB, physical disability, and PSS were significantly related to suicide risk. Results of the serial multiple mediation analysis indicated that the total indirect effect of PC magnification on suicide risk was significant while the direct effect was not. Four specific indirect effects of PC magnification were found to be statistically significant. First of all, PC magnification was associated with suicide risk through PB and through depression and PB. PC magnification was also associated with suicide risk through depression and PSS. Lastly, PC magnification was associated with suicide risk through depression, PSS, and PB. The identified pathways through which PC affects suicide risk suggest the importance of depression, PSS, and PB. Evaluation and intervention targeted at physical disability and the psychological factors of PC magnification, depression, PSS, and PB may be integrated into the management of suicide risk in patients with rheumatic disease.

  5. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  6. Factors Associated With High-Risk Alcohol Consumption Among LGB Older Adults: The Roles of Gender, Social Support, Perceived Stress, Discrimination, and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The aesthetics of hazardous waste - Distinguishing visual impacts from publicly perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.

    1986-01-01

    The need to address the aesthetic impacts of hazardous waste projects on the environment and the public stems from two sources: government regulations which specifically require assessment of aesthetic effects; and rapidly increasing public concern for perceived impacts and risks of existing or proposed hazardous waste facilities. How aesthetic issues are handled on hazardous waste projects can potentially have significant implications on the fate of those projects. These implications range from delays in the permitting process to denial of sites or costly legal judgments in damage suits. This paper discusses strategies for evaluating the aesthetic/perceptual aspects of hazardous waste. In particular, it focuses upon ways to distinguish visual concerns from other influences on public perceptions such as perceived health and safety risks

  8. 'Yeah, I've grown; I can't go out anymore': differences in perceived risks between girls and boys entering adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmari, Kristin; Moreau, Caroline; Gibbs, Susannah Emily; De Meyer, Sara; Michielsen, Kristien; Kabiru, Caroline W; Bello, Bamidele; Fatusi, Adesegun; Lou, Chaohua; Zuo, Xiayun; Yu, Chunyan; Al-Attar, Ghada S T; El-Gibaly, Omaima

    2017-10-18

    This analysis is based on data from the Global Early Adolescent Study, which aims to understand the factors that predispose young people aged 10-14 years to positive or negative health trajectories. Specifically, interview transcripts from 202 adolescents and 191 parents across six diverse urban sites (Baltimore, Ghent, Nairobi, Ile Ife, Assuit and Shanghai) were analysed to compare the perceived risks associated with entering adolescence and how these risks differed by gender. Findings reveal that in all sites except Ghent, both young people and their parents perceived that girls face greater risks related to their sexual and reproductive health, and because of their sexual development, were perceived to require more protection. In contrast, when boys grow up, they and their parents recognised that their independence broadened, and parents felt that boys were strong enough to protect themselves. This has negative consequences as well, as boys were perceived to be more prone to risks associated with street violence and peer pressure. These differences in perceptions of vulnerability and related mobility are markers of a gender system that separates young women and men's roles, responsibilities and behaviours in ways that widen gender power imbalance with lifelong social and health consequences for people of both sexes.

  9. Actual sexual risk and perceived risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya A. Kesler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory suggests that perceived human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk and actual HIV risk behaviour are cyclical whereby engaging in high risk behaviour can increase perceived risk, which initiates precautionary behaviour that reduces actual risk, and with time reduces perceived risk. While current perceived risk may impact future actual risk, it is less clear how previous actual risk shapes current perceived risk. If individuals do not base their current perceived risk on past behaviour, they lose the protective effect of perceived risk motivating precautionary behaviour. Our goal was to determine the impact of actual risk on perceived risk. Methods Sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited at the Maple Leaf Medical Clinic in downtown Toronto from September 2010 to June 2012. Participants completed a socio-behavioural questionnaire using an Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI. Actual HIV risk (primary predictor was constructed by applying principal component analysis (PCA to eight sexual risk survey questions and comprised three components which reflected sex with casual partners, sex with HIV-positive regular partners and sex with HIV unknown status regular partners. Perceived HIV risk (outcome was measured by asking participants what the chances were that they would ever get HIV. Multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the association between actual and perceived HIV risk. Results One hundred and fifty HIV-negative MSM were recruited (median age 44.5 years [IQR 37–50 years]. Twenty percent of MSM perceived their HIV risk to be high. The odds of having a high perceived risk was significantly higher in those with high actual HIV risk indicated by low condom use with an HIV-positive regular partner compared to those with low actual HIV risk indicated by high condom use with an HIV-positive regular partner (Odds Ratio (OR 18.33, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.65–203.45. Older

  10. Perceived Risk towards Mobile Banking: A case study of Malaysia Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhidan, Shuhaida Mohamed; Rahah Hamidi, Saidatul; Syazwani Saleh, Intan

    2017-08-01

    The advancement of technology and the raise of smart devices ownership in Malaysia has eventually increase the exploration of mobile banking services. Mobile banking has been first commercialized in Malaysia on 2005 and expected to growth. Despite the exponential growth, the mobile banking penetration rate is slow compared to online banking. This study aims to highlight the issues and challenges of mobile banking and to have insight on young adulthood perceived risk towards mobile banking, specifically in Malaysia. In order to support the exploratory study, these risks are surveyed in quantitative study conducted among young adulthood in Malaysia. The self-administered questionnaire distributed through email with 384 respondents indicated that the most impacted facets perceiveed risks are performance risk, following by security risk. The results of this study can be used by the practitioner to address the customer challenges, customer interest and concern for mobile banking service improvement.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF BRAND AWARENESS IN CONSUMERS’ BUYING DECISION AND PERCEIVED RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU

    2009-01-01

    Brand awareness, as one of the fundamental dimensions of brand equity, is often considered to be a prerequisite of consumers’ buying decision, as it represents the main factor for including a brand in the consideration set. Brand awareness can also influence consumers’ perceived risk assessment and their confidence in the purchase decision, due to familiarity with the brand and its characteristics. On the other hand, brand awareness can be depicted into at least two facets – unaided (brand re...

  12. Biosafety decisions and perceived commercial risks: The role of GM-free private standards

    OpenAIRE

    Gruère, Guillaume; Sengupta, Debdatta

    2009-01-01

    "We herein investigate the observed discrepancy between real and perceived commercial risks associated with the use of genetically modified (GM) products in developing countries. We focus particularly on the effects of GM-free private standards set up by food companies in Europe and other countries on biotechnology and biosafety policy decisions in food-exporting developing countries. Based on field visits made to South Africa, Namibia, and Kenya in June 2007, and secondary information from t...

  13. Influence of store image on purchase intention: The moderating role of trust and perceived risk

    OpenAIRE

    saeid Saeida Ardekani; neda jahanbazi

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, customers’ subjective image of products and services is one of the important issue in consumer behavior. Retailers as one of the products’ suppliers is Offering variety of product to their customers. Therefore, trying to attract customers is one of the critical concerns of any retail store. The previous research was demonstrated that customers’ trust and perceived risk effect on relationship between store image and purchase intention. This research was carried out to investigate the...

  14. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  15. FACEBOOK ADVERTISING: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF MESSAGE, BRAND ATTITUDE AND PERCEIVED BUYING RISK

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN ANASTASIEI; NICOLETA DOSPINESCU

    2017-01-01

    We are witnessing a spectacular growth in electronic commerce in recent years, although we cannot say that it has been without obstacles. Among the barriers mentioned by the literature are the lack of trust in online brands, the perceived purchase risk, the perception of the type of promotional message. More often than not, commercial Facebook posts influence brand image and brand trust, which can lead to an increased buying intention. Our research attempted to determine whether t...

  16. Angiogenesis in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis: predominance of the inhibitor endostatin is related to a greater extent and risk of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Montaner, Joan; Rosell, Anna; Molina, Carlos A; Rovira, Alex; Ribó, Marc; Sánchez, Esther; Quintana, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis may be beneficial in chronic myocardial and limb ischemia, but its role in intracranial atherosclerosis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the anti-angiogenic endostatin, and the extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. Of a total of 94 consecutive patients with symptomatic intracranial stenoses, 40 fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Intracranial stenoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted sequences was conducted. Plasmatic VEGF and endostatin were determined from blood samples obtained 3 months after stroke onset, and patients were followed-up thereafter. A total of 144 intracranial stenoses were confirmed (median number per patient=3). Endostatin/VEGF ratio gradually augmented with the increasing number of intracranial stenoses (r=0.35, P=0.02). Diabetes mellitus (OR, 6.04; CI, 1.1 to 32.2; P=0.03) and a higher endostatin/VEGF ratio (OR, 15.7; CI, 2.2 to 112.3; P=0.006) were independently associated with a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis. During a median follow-up of 13 months, 8 patients (20%) experienced a new cerebral ischemic event. A higher baseline endostatin concentration was an independent predictor of new events (hazard ratio, 7.24; CI, 1.6 to 33.8; P=0.011) in a Cox regression model after adjustment for age, sex, number of stenotic vessels, and risk factors. Patients with a higher endostatin level had a lower survival free of new events (P=0.01, log-rank test). A predominance of the inhibitor endostatin within the endogenous angiogenic response is associated with a greater extent and risk of recurrence of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis, suggesting that angiogenesis may be beneficial in this condition.

  17. Analysis of perceived risk among construction workers: a cross-cultural study and reflection on the Hofstede model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fiestas, Myriam; Rodríguez-Garzón, Ignacio; Delgado-Padial, Antonio; Lucas-Ruiz, Valeriano

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a cross-cultural study on perceived risk in the construction industry. Worker samples from three different countries were studied: Spain, Peru and Nicaragua. The main goal was to explain how construction workers perceive their occupational hazard and to analyze how this is related to their national culture. The model used to measure perceived risk was the psychometric paradigm. The results show three very similar profiles, indicating that risk perception is independent of nationality. A cultural analysis was conducted using the Hofstede model. The results of this analysis and the relation to perceived risk showed that risk perception in construction is independent of national culture. Finally, a multiple lineal regression analysis was conducted to determine what qualitative attributes could predict the global quantitative size of risk perception. All of the findings have important implications regarding the management of safety in the workplace.

  18. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J M; van Aken, Marcel A G; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-07-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands (N = 2,230). Regression analyses were used to determine the relative contribution of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles to parent and teacher ratings of externalizing behaviors. FR-EXT was based on lifetime parental externalizing psychopathology and the different parenting styles (emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection) were based on the child's perspective. We also investigated whether different dimensions of perceived parenting styles had different effects on subdomains of externalizing behavior. We found main effects for FR-EXT (vs. no FR-EXT), emotional warmth, rejection, and overprotection that were fairly consistent across rater and outcome measures. More specific, emotional warmth was the most consistent predictor of all outcome measures, and rejection was a stronger predictor of aggression and delinquency than of inattention. Interaction effects were found for FR-EXT and perceived parental rejection and overprotection; other interactions between FR-EXT and parenting styles were not significant. Correlations between FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles were absent or very low and were without clinical significance. Predominantly main effects of FR-EXT and perceived parenting styles independently contribute to externalizing behaviors in preadolescents, suggesting FR-EXT and parenting styles to be two separate areas of causality. The relative lack of gene-environment interactions may be due to the epidemiological nature of the study, the preadolescent age of the subjects, the measurement level of parenting and the measurement level of FR-EXT, which might be a consequence of both genetic and

  19. Accuracy and determinants of perceived HIV risk among young women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV risk perceptions are a key determinant of HIV testing. The success of efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation – including reaching the UNAIDS 90–90-90 target – thus depends critically on the content of these perceptions. We examined the accuracy of HIV-risk perceptions and their correlates among young black women in South Africa, a group with one of the highest HIV incidence rates worldwide. Methods We used individual-level longitudinal data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS from 2005 to 2009 on black African women (20–30 years old in 2009 to assess the association between perceived HIV-risk in 2005 and the probability of testing HIV-positive four years later. We then estimated multivariable logistic regressions using cross-sectional data from the 2009 CAPS wave to assess the relationship between risk perceptions and a wide range of demographic, sexual behaviour and psychosocial covariates of perceived HIV-risk. Results We found that the proportion testing HIV-positive in 2009 was almost identical across perceived risk categories in 2005 (no, small, moderate, great (χ 2  = 1.43, p = 0.85. Consistent with epidemiologic risk factors, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great HIV-risk perceptions was associated with condom-use (aOR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.89; p < 0.01; having ≥3 lifetime partners (aOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.73; p < 0.01; knowledge of one’s partner’s HIV status (aOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.07; p = 0.09; and being in an age-disparate partnerships (aOR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.76; p = 0.02. However, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great self-perceived risk did not vary with sexually transmitted disease history and respondent age, both strong predictors of HIV risk in the study setting. Risk perceptions were associated with stigmatising attitudes (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.26, 1.09; p = 0.09; prior HIV testing (aOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.35; p < 0.01; and having heard

  20. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p valuenuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/nuclear power. These factors are considered as important indicators and they can be used for suggesting future policy amendments and public referendum on the decision of the operation of the planned NPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B.

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab

  2. The Impact of Personalized Risk Feedback on Mexican Americans' Perceived Risk for Heart Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…

  3. Perceived risk, trust in government, and response to repository siting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Conflicts over the siting of high-level radioactive waste repositories have been intense and unrelenting. Public and state opposition to implementation of the US Nuclear Waste Policy Act is tied closely to the perception of unacceptably high repository risks and to lack of trust and confidence in governmental agencies, particularly the DOE. This paper explores the relationship of perceived risk, trust in government, and opposition to repository siting in the US in an attempt to clarify the conditions of successful implementation of nuclear waste policy in the decades ahead

  4. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  5. Anti-nuclear behavioral intentions: The role of perceived knowledge, information processing, and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the key factors underlying people's anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. The protective action decision model and the heuristic–systematic model were integrated and adapted from a risk information perspective to construct a hypothetical model. A questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of residents near the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, which is under construction in Shandong Province, China (N=487). Results show that, as expected, perceived knowledge is vital in predicting people's information insufficiency, information seeking, systematic processing, and risk perception. Moreover, the inverted U relationship between perceived knowledge and anti-nuclear behavioral intentions is indicated in the study. Information insufficiency and information seeking also significantly predict systematic processing. Furthermore, people's behavioral intentions are motivated by risk perception but fail to be stimulated by systematic processing. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. - Highlights: • The study explores anti-nuclear behavior from a risk information perspective. • Risk perception and knowledge matter to anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. • Inverted U relationship between knowledge and behavioral intentions is indicated. • More understanding of nuclear power could reduce public opposition.

  6. Perceived Workplace Stress Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer before Age 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding the potential role of chronic psychological stress on cancer incidence. The workplace is reported to be the main source of stress among Canadian men. We examined the association between perceived lifetime workplace stress and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a large case-control study. Cases were 1,933 men, aged ≤ 75 years, newly diagnosed with PCa in 2005-2009 across hospitals in Montreal, Canada. Concurrently, 1994 population controls frequency-matched on age were randomly selected from the electoral list based on cases' residential districts. Detailed lifestyle and work histories (including perceived stress, from any type of work stressor, for each job held) were collected during in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between work-related stress and PCa risk in multivariate analyses. Over the lifetime, 58% of subjects reported at least one job as stressful. Occupations described as stressful were most often among white-collar workers. Perceived workplace stress duration was associated with a higher risk of PCa (OR = 1.12, 95% CI:1.04-1.20 per 10-year increase) among men younger than 65 years, but not among older men. Associations were similar irrespective of PCa aggressiveness. Frequent or recent screening for PCa, age at first exposure and time since exposure to work-related stress, and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, had little influence on risk estimates. Findings are in line with an association between reporting prolonged workplace stress and an increase in risk of PCa before age 65.

  7. Perceived risks of radioactive waste transport through Oregon: Results of a statewide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, D.; Slovic, P.; Mason, R.G.; Detweiler, J.; Binney, S.E.; Dodd, B.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation of hazardous materials, and particularly radioactive wastes, on public highways has become an important risk management issue. The unfavorability of public attitudes regarding hazardous and nuclear waste signals the potential for strong public opposition to programs for transporting these materials. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted to assess public reactions to a long-term nuclear waste transport program planned to follow a route through a portion of rural Oregon. The survey assessed a number of key risk perception issues, including perceived health and safety risks of nuclear waste transport, relative risks of transport vs. storage at an existing site, trust in state officials, and satisfaction with life in communities along the transport route. The survey identified a number of attitudes and concerns that need to be understood and considered by those in charge of designing and implementing the waste-transportation program. 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Consistent with our account, in Study 1, we find that participants who endorse higher likelihoods of cross-species disease transmission have stronger intentions to report animal bites. In Study 2, using real-world descriptions of Ebola virus from the WHO and CDC, we find that communications conveying a broader range of animals as susceptible to the virus increase intentions to report animal bites and decrease perceived safety of wild game meat. These results suggest that inductive reasoning principles may be harnessed to modulate zoonosis risk perception and combat emerging infectious diseases.

  9. Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Consistent with our account, in Study 1, we find that participants who endorse higher likelihoods of cross-species disease transmission have stronger intentions to report animal bites. In Study 2, using real-world descriptions of Ebola virus from the WHO and CDC, we find that communications conveying a broader range of animals as susceptible to the virus increase intentions to report animal bites and decrease perceived safety of wild game meat. These results suggest that inductive reasoning principles may be harnessed to modulate zoonosis risk perception and combat emerging infectious diseases. PMID:29117192

  10. Can you catch Ebola from a stork bite? Inductive reasoning influences generalization of perceived zoonosis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Goldwater, Micah B; Ireland, Molly E; Gaylord, Nicholas; Van Allen, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses are a prominent global health threat. Human beliefs are central to drivers of emerging zoonoses, yet little is known about how people make inferences about risk in such scenarios. We present an inductive account of zoonosis risk perception, suggesting that beliefs about the range of animals able to transmit diseases to each other influence how people generalize risks to other animals and health behaviors. Consistent with our account, in Study 1, we find that participants who endorse higher likelihoods of cross-species disease transmission have stronger intentions to report animal bites. In Study 2, using real-world descriptions of Ebola virus from the WHO and CDC, we find that communications conveying a broader range of animals as susceptible to the virus increase intentions to report animal bites and decrease perceived safety of wild game meat. These results suggest that inductive reasoning principles may be harnessed to modulate zoonosis risk perception and combat emerging infectious diseases.

  11. Fine particulate matter components and mortality in Greater Houston: Did the risk reduce from 2000 to 2011?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suyang; Zhang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Zhang@uth.tmc.edu

    2015-12-15

    Fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM{sub 2.5}) pollution poses a major environmental threat in Greater Houston due to rapid economic growth and the numerous PM{sub 2.5} sources including ports, vehicles, and the largest petrochemical industry in the United States (U.S.). Our objectives were to estimate the short-term associations between the PM{sub 2.5} components and mortality during 2000–2011, and evaluate whether these associations have changed over time. A total of 333,317 deaths were included in our assessment, with an average of 76 deaths per day. We selected 17 PM{sub 2.5} components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the associations between the PM{sub 2.5} components and mortality. Additionally, we repeated our analysis for two consecutive periods: 2000–2005 and 2006–2011. Interquartile range increases in ammonium (0.881 μg/m{sup 3}), nitrate (0.487 μg/m{sup 3}), sulfate (2.245 μg/m{sup 3}), and vanadium (0.004 μg/m{sup 3}) were associated with an increased risk in mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.12%), 0.38% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.66%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.15, 1.06%), and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.12, 1.04%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested that the associations were strongest during the winter months. The association between PM{sub 2.5} mass and mortality decreased during 2000–2011, however, the PM{sub 2.5} components showed no notable changes in mortality risk over time. Our study indicates that the short-term associations between PM{sub 2.5} and mortality differ across the PM{sub 2.5} components and suggests that future air pollution control measures should not only focus on mass but also pollutant sources. - Highlights: • PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were associated with increased mortality risk. • A few major PM{sub 2.5} components were associated with increased mortality risk.

  12. Greater Fall Risk in Elderly Women Than in Men Is Associated With Increased Gait Variability During Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonas; Nordström, Anna; Nordström, Peter

    2016-06-01

    As 90% of fractures are caused by falls, and as fractures are more common in elderly women than in elderly men, a better understanding of potential sex differences in fall rates and underlying mechanisms is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women are more prone than men to falling, and to evaluate whether the risk of falling is associated with variations in gait patterns. The cohort for this prospective observational study consisted of 1390 community-dwelling men and women aged 70 years, examined in a health survey between July 2012 and November 2014. Gait patterns were measured using a computerized walkway system during normal-speed, fast-speed, and dual-task trials. Triaxial accelerometers were used to collect objective data on physical activity, and self-reported fall data were collected by telephone 6 and 12 months after examination. Incident low-energy falls were defined as unexpected events in which participants came to rest on the ground. During the follow-up period, 148 study participants (88 women, 60 men; P = .01) reported falls. After adjusting for multiple confounders, including objective measures of physical activity, socioeconomic factors, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive function, the odds ratio for falling in women was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.19). Variations in gait pattern were significantly (20%-40%) increased in fallers compared with nonfallers during the dual-task trial for step width, step length, stride length, step time, stance time, stride velocity, and single support time (all P women showed 15% to 35% increased variability in all of these gait parameters during the dual-task trial compared with men (all P women were at greater risk of falls compared with their male counterparts. This increased risk was associated with increased variation in gait pattern during dual-task activities, and may contribute to women's greater fracture risk compared with men. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The

  13. Fine particulate matter components and mortality in Greater Houston: Did the risk reduce from 2000 to 2011?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Suyang; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM_2_._5) pollution poses a major environmental threat in Greater Houston due to rapid economic growth and the numerous PM_2_._5 sources including ports, vehicles, and the largest petrochemical industry in the United States (U.S.). Our objectives were to estimate the short-term associations between the PM_2_._5 components and mortality during 2000–2011, and evaluate whether these associations have changed over time. A total of 333,317 deaths were included in our assessment, with an average of 76 deaths per day. We selected 17 PM_2_._5 components from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chemical Speciation Network, and then applied Poisson regression models to assess the associations between the PM_2_._5 components and mortality. Additionally, we repeated our analysis for two consecutive periods: 2000–2005 and 2006–2011. Interquartile range increases in ammonium (0.881 μg/m"3), nitrate (0.487 μg/m"3), sulfate (2.245 μg/m"3), and vanadium (0.004 μg/m"3) were associated with an increased risk in mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 1.12%), 0.38% (95% CI: 0.11, 0.66%), 0.61% (95% CI: 0.15, 1.06%), and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.12, 1.04%), respectively. Seasonal analysis suggested that the associations were strongest during the winter months. The association between PM_2_._5 mass and mortality decreased during 2000–2011, however, the PM_2_._5 components showed no notable changes in mortality risk over time. Our study indicates that the short-term associations between PM_2_._5 and mortality differ across the PM_2_._5 components and suggests that future air pollution control measures should not only focus on mass but also pollutant sources. - Highlights: • PM_2_._5 concentrations were associated with increased mortality risk. • A few major PM_2_._5 components were associated with increased mortality risk. • Associations were generally strongest in winter in Greater

  14. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  15. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  16. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  17. Perceived health status and cardiometabolic risk among a sample of youth in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Yvonne N.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Morales, Leo S.; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M.; Edwards, Todd C.; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status (PHS), as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life (QoL), perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL). Results Nearly 50% of participants were female, 21% had a normal BMI, 39% were overweight, and 40% were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of PHS and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared to normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. Conclusions In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25648756

  18. Perceived Risks Associated with Contraceptive Method Use among Men and Women in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana E; Saad, Abdulmumin

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that side effects are often the most common reason for contraceptive non-use in Nigeria; however, research to date has not explored the underlying factors that influence risk and benefit perceptions associated with specific contraceptive methods in Nigeria. A qualitative study design using focus group discussions was used to explore social attitudes and beliefs about family planning methods in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. A total of 26 focus group discussions were held in 2010 with men and women of reproductive age, disaggregated by city, sex, age, marital status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and--for women only--family planning experience. A discussion guide was used that included specific questions about the perceived risks and benefits associated with the use of six different family planning methods. A thematic content analytic approach guided the analysis. Participants identified a spectrum of risks encompassing perceived threats to health (both real and fictitious) and social concerns, as well as benefits associated with each method. By exploring Nigerian perspectives on the risks and benefits associated with specific family planning methods, programs aiming to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria can be better equipped to highlight recognized benefits, address specific concerns, and work to dispel misperceptions associated with each family planning method.

  19. Perceived risk and benefits of e-cigarette use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Amy L; Peltier, MacKenzie R; Waldo, Krystal

    2017-08-01

    Recent data demonstrates that the use of e-cigarettes is growing, especially among college students and young adults. This trend is increasingly problematic, as many of these individuals report never using traditional tobacco cigarettes, but nevertheless are using e-cigarettes. The present study sought to develop the Risks and Benefits of E-cigarettes (RABE) questionnaire to assess the perceptions about e-cigarette use among college students. College students (N=734) completed the RABE via online survey. Principal components analysis yielded two reliable scales representing perceptions about e-cigarette use. Based on the two-factor solution, subscales were named according to item content. The resulting 30 items demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Risks scale α=0.92; Benefits scale α=0.89). Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis generally supported the 2-factor structure. As an initial measure of construct validity, scale scores were compared across smoking status groups. Smoking status groups were defined by the following: "e-cigarette users" were current daily users of e-cigarettes, "conventional smokers" were daily traditional cigarette users, and "dual users" were individuals who used both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes daily. Scale scores for perceived Benefits of e-cigarette use differed significantly across groups (pe-cigarette use. Scale scores for perceived Risks of e-cigarette use across smoking status groups did not significantly differ. The present results indicate that the RABE is a reliable instrument to measure college student's perceived risks and benefits of e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relapse insomnia increases greater risk of anxiety and depression: evidence from a population-based 4-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Jen; Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Weng, Shih-Feng; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tsai, Wan-Chi; Hsu, Ya-Wen

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the longitudinal impacts of insomnia on the subsequent developments of anxiety and depression during a four-year follow-up. We further categorized individuals with insomnia into different insomnia subgroups to examine whether the risk of anxiety and depression varies by subtype. Participants were identified from National Health Insurance enrollees in Taiwan during 2002-2009. The study included 19,273 subjects with insomnia and 38,546 matched subjects without insomnia. All subjects did not have previous diagnosis of insomnia, sleep apnea, anxiety, or depression. Compared with non-insomniacs, insomniacs had a higher risk of developing anxiety only [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 8.83, 95% CI = 7.59-10.27], depression only (adjusted HR = 8.48, 95% CI = 6.92-10.39), and both anxiety and depression (adjusted HR = 17.98, 95% CI = 12.65-25.56). When breaking down the insomnia subgroups, individuals with a relapse of insomnia (adjusted HR = 10.42-26.80) had the highest risk of anxiety only, depression only, and both anxiety and depression, followed by persistent insomnia (adjusted HR = 9.82-18.98), then remitted insomnia (adjusted HR = 4.50-8.27). All three insomnia subgroups had a greater four-year cumulative incidence rate than the non-insomnia group for anxiety only, depression only, and both anxiety and depression (p anxiety or/and depression. Awareness of insomnia and treatment of insomnia should be recommended at clinics, and patterns of insomnia should be monitored to help treatment and control of subsequent psychiatric disorders. Future research with comprehensive data collection is needed to identify factors that contribute to different insomnia subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Karine; Taylor, Jeff; Sylla, Laurie; Evans, David; Dee, Lynda; Burton, Alasdair; Willenberg, Loreen; Rennie, Stuart; Skinner, Asheley; Tucker, Joseph D; Weiner, Bryan J; Greene, Sandra B

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists. We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory. We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1) Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2) Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3) Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4) PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders. Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers, clinicians

  2. 'Well, It's the Risk of the Unknown… Right?': A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of HIV Cure Research in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Dubé

    Full Text Available Biomedical research towards an HIV cure is advancing in the United States and elsewhere, yet little is known about perceptions of risks and benefits among potential study participants and other stakeholders. We conducted a qualitative study to explore perceived risks and benefits of investigational HIV cure research among people living with HIV (PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists.We conducted a qualitative research study using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of PLWHIV, biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists in 2015-2016. We analysed interview transcripts using thematic analysis anchored in grounded theory.We conducted and analyzed 36 key informant interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed four main findings. 1 Potential HIV cure study volunteers noted needing more information and education about the potential risks of HIV cure research. 2 Biomedical HIV cure researchers, policy-makers and bioethicists showed less awareness of social and financial risks of HIV cure research than PLWHIV. 3 Most respondents across the different categories of informants identified some risks that were too great to be acceptable in HIV cure research, although a subset of PLWHIV did not place an upper limit on acceptable risk. 4 PLWHIV showed a better awareness of potential psychological benefits of participating in HIV cure research than other groups of stakeholders.Our research suggests that PLWHIV have a variable understanding of the individual risks, sometimes substantial, associated with participating in biomedical HIV cure research studies. Community engagement and increased research literacy may help improve community understanding. Intensive informed consent procedures will be necessary for ethical study implementation. The current state of HIV cure research offers greater potential benefits to society than to participants. There is likely to be disagreement among regulators, researchers

  3. Risks versus benefits of medication use during pregnancy: what do women perceive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder B

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bianca Mulder,1 Maarten J Bijlsma,1 Catharina CM Schuiling-Veninga,1 Leonard P Morssink,2 Eugene van Puijenbroek,3,4 Jan G Aarnoudse,5 Eelko Hak,1 Tjalling W de Vries6 1Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Unit PharmacoTherapy, Epidemiology & Economics, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands; 3Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, ´s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands; 4Unit of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6Department of Pediatrics, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands Background: Understanding perception of risks and benefits is essential for informed patient choices regarding medical care. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of risks and benefits of 9 drug classes during pregnancy and associations with women’s characteristics.Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to pregnant women who attended a Dutch Obstetric Care facility (first- and second-line care. Mean perceived risk and benefit scores were computed for 9 different drug classes (paracetamol, antacids, antibiotics, antifungal medication, drugs against nausea and vomiting, histamine-2 receptor antagonists/proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and sedatives/anxiolytics. For each participant, we computed weighted risk and benefit sum scores with principal component analysis. In addition, major concerns regarding medication use were evaluated.Results: The questionnaire was completed by 136 women (response rate 77%. Pregnant women were most concerned about having a child with a birth defect (35%, a miscarriage (35%, or their child developing an allergic disease (23

  4. When Does Perceived Susceptibility to Skin Cancer Influence Indoor Tanning? The Moderating Role of Two Risk Perception Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated an inconsistent relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and indoor tanning. The current study explored potential moderators of this relationship to better understand how risk perceptions can impact indoor tanning intentions and behavior. A national online survey (N = 267) was administered in the United States to establish the relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, cancer fatalism, and external risk attribution beliefs on indoor tanning intentions and behavior. Results revealed significant 3-way interactions among these risk perceptions on both intentions and behavior that run contrary to much of the published research on perceived susceptibility and health behavior. These findings suggest that the relationship between perceived susceptibility to skin cancer and indoor tanning is conditional on other risk perceptions. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications.

  5. Screening for markers of frailty and perceived risk of adverse outcomes using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Caoimh, Rónán

    2014-09-19

    Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

  6. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK ON CONUMERS’ INTENTION TO BUY ONLINE: A META-ANALYSIS OF EMPIRICAL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Iconaru Claudia; Perju Alexandra; Macovei Octav Ionut

    2012-01-01

    When buying online consumers fear for the security of their financial data and the privacy of their personal information. These two fears summed up gives researchers the perceived risk of an online transaction. The influence of perceived risk on consumers’ intention to buy online has been studied in various models, ranging from having an insignificant influence to having a strong and direct influence. Faced with these confusing results from previous empirical researches, we wonder why there a...

  8. How do women at increased breast cancer risk perceive and decide between risks of cancer and risk-reducing treatments? A synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Hannah G; Brown, Stephen L; Saini, Pooja; Beesley, Helen; Salmon, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Risk-reducing procedures can be offered to people at increased cancer risk, but many procedures can have iatrogenic effects. People therefore need to weigh risks associated with both cancer and the risk-reduction procedure in their decisions. By reviewing relevant literature on breast cancer (BC) risk reduction, we aimed to understand how women at relatively high risk of BC perceive their risk and how their risk perceptions influence their decisions about risk reduction. Synthesis of 15 qualitative studies obtained from systematic searches of SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge, PsychINFO, and Medline electronic databases (inception-June 2015). Women did not think about risk probabilistically. Instead, they allocated themselves to broad risk categories, typically influenced by their own or familial experiences of BC. In deciding about risk-reduction procedures, some women reported weighing the risks and benefits, but papers did not describe how they did so. For many women, however, an overriding wish to reduce intense worry about BC led them to choose aggressive risk-reducing procedures without such deliberation. Reasoning that categorisation is a fundamental aspect of risk perception, we argue that patients can be encouraged to develop more nuanced and accurate categorisations of their own risk through their interactions with clinicians. Empirically-based ethical reflection is required to determine whether and when it is appropriate to provide risk-reduction procedures to alleviate worry. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK)

    1981-04-30

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy.

  10. Comparative risk perception: how the public perceives the risks and benefits of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.

    1981-01-01

    The view of risk perception adopted in this paper focuses on how individuals define, and hence feel about, the outcomes of a risk issue. Perception of risk is seen as encompassing a variety of attributes of a risk issue including wider beliefs that permit a risk benefit trade-off. A survey of beliefs and attitudes of the general public toward the use of various energy systems (coal, oil, hydro, solar and nuclear energy) was carried out in Austria at a time of increasing concern with energy strategies and the controversy surrounding Austria's first nuclear energy plant. The results are analysed. In general, energy systems were found to be associated with only environmental risk; however, nuclear energy was an exception in that the public, whether in favour of nuclear energy or against, believed that it is also associated with psychological and physical risk. It was also found that the policy makers underestimated the public's negative feelings about the psychological risk dimension and their belief in its association with nuclear energy. (author)

  11. INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL VALUES ON PERCEIVED RISK OF INTERFAITH MARRIAGE AMONG UNMARRIED URBAN STUDENTS IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneman Juneman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of interfaith marriage has been analyzed with the approach of theology, sociology, law, politics, and public policy. The original contribution of this study is its effort and aim to approach this phenomenon with psychological perspective. This study placed the level of one’s identification towards sexual values as predictors for his/her perceived risk of interfaith marriage, of which the values cannot be separated from metropolitan culture. This research is a quantitative research by employing predictive correlational design. The samples were 271 students (99 men, 172 women; Mage = 20.59 years, SDage = 1.67 years from five campuses in and around Jakarta. Research data analyses, by using multiple linear regression, show results which indicate that there is interaction between the gender with sexual values in influencing the risk perception. There are differences between men and women in terms of correlation between the two variables. In men, sexual values are not able to predict the perceived risk. In the Moslem women, two sexual values, i.e. absolutism and hedonism, are able to predict it. The results provide new insights regarding the relationship between sexuality with religion and marriage, particularly in urban areas in Indonesia.

  12. Functional Traits, Flocking Propensity, and Perceived Predation Risk in an Amazonian Understory Bird Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ari E; Gomez, Juan P; Ponciano, José Miguel; Robinson, Scott K

    2016-05-01

    Within a community, different species might share similar predation risks, and, thus, the ability of species to signal and interpret heterospecific threat information may determine species' associations. We combined observational, experimental, and phylogenetic approaches to determine the extent to which evolutionary history and functional traits determined flocking propensity and perceived predation risk (response to heterospecific alarm calls) in a lowland Amazonian bird community. We predicted that small birds that feed myopically and out in the open would have higher flocking propensities and account for a higher proportion of positive responses to alarms. Using generalized linear models and the incorporation of phylogeny on data from 56 species, our results suggest that phylogenetic relationships alongside body size, foraging height, vegetation density, and response to alarm calls influence flocking propensity. Conversely, phylogenetic relationships did not influence response to heterospecific alarm calls. Among functional traits, however, foraging strategy, foraging density, and flocking propensity partially explained responses to alarm calls. Our results suggest that flocking propensity and perceived predation risk are positively related and that functional ecological traits and evolutionary history may explain certain species' associations.

  13. Elements of a Workplace Culture of Health, Perceived Organizational Support for Health, and Lifestyle Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Julianne; Cluff, Laurie; Lang, Jason; Matson-Koffman, Dyann; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the impact of elements of a workplace culture of health (COH) on employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk. We used 2013 and 2015 survey data from the National Healthy Worksite Program, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led initiative to help workplaces implement health-promoting interventions. Forty-one employers completed the CDC Worksite Health Scorecard to document organizational changes. Eight hundred twenty-five employees provided data to evaluate changes in their health and attitudes. We defined elements of a COH as environmental, policy, and programmatic supports; leadership and coworker support; employee engagement (motivational interventions); and strategic communication. Outcomes included scores of employees' perceptions of employer support for health and lifestyle risk derived from self-reported physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco use. We estimated effects using multilevel regression models. At the employee level and across time, regression coefficients show positive associations between leadership support, coworker support, employee engagement, and perceived support for health ( P leadership support in 2015 only ( P leadership and coworker support) tend to be associated with perceived support for health, while workplace elements (environmental and policy supports) are more associated with lifestyle risk. Employers need to confront relational and workplace elements together to build a COH.

  14. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  15. Perceived stress and risk of adult-onset asthma and other atopic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, N H; Kristensen, T S; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress can affect airway inflammatory response to irritants and allergens, but the importance of stress in the etiology of adult-onset respiratory and dermatologic allergic disorders remains unclear. We aim to address the relationship between perceived stress and the risk...... of adult-onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma/bronchitis medication. METHODS: Participants (n = 9785) from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, free of atopic disorders at baseline in 1981-1983 were asked questions on stress intensity and frequency. They were followed...

  16. PERCEIVED RISK, PRICE AND ONLINE TRAVEL AGENCIES: DOES PRICE ALWAYS MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the influence of price level in the case of onlineshopping for travel services. The methodology used is a quasi experimentdeveloped in the online environment. The analysis is made within groups andfollows three scenarios which depend on the level of brand awareness.Inside each scenario price takes two levels: similar to competition andsmaller than competition. Results show that price does not have an influenceon all types of perceived risk and that its influence depends also on the brandawareness component.

  17. Is perceived parental monitoring associated with sexual risk behaviors of young Black males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Crosby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males. Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. Young Black males living with a parent or guardian (N = 324 were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of perceived parental monitoring. The obtained range was 10–45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd = 7.0. Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with perceived parental monitoring (all in a direction indicating a protective effect. Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile–vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15–23 years of age.

  18. Is compromised oral health associated with a greater risk of mortality among nursing home residents? A controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Anna-Luisa; Hassel, Alexander Jochen; Schröder, Johannes; Rammelsberg, Peter; Zenthöfer, Andreas

    2017-08-30

    The objective of this controlled clinical study was to evaluate the association between oral health and 1-year mortality among nursing home residents with or without oral health intervention. This research was part of a multidisciplinary intervention study (EVI-P) performed in 14 nursing homes in Germany. Two-hundred and nineteen nursing home residents were included in the study and assigned to an intervention group, for which dental health education was offered and ultrasonic baths were used for denture cleaning (n = 144), or to a control group (n = 75). Before the intervention, each participant was examined, and dental status, plaque control record (PCR), Denture Hygiene Index, and results from the Revised Oral Assessment Guide were recorded. Amount of care needed and dementia were also assessed, by use of the Barthel Index and the Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. Participant mortality was determined after 12 months, and bivariate analysis and logistic regression models were used to evaluate possible factors affecting mortality. Bivariate analysis detected a direct association between greater mortality and being in the control group (p = .038). Participants with higher PCR were also more likely to die during the study period (p = .049). For dentate participants, the protective effect of being in the intervention group was confirmed by multivariate analysis in which covariates such as age and gender were considered. Oral hygiene and oral health seem to affect the risk of mortality of nursing home residents. Dental intervention programs seem to reduce the risk of 1-year mortality among nursing home residents having remaining natural teeth. Further studies, with larger sample sizes and evaluation of the causes of death, are necessary to investigate the reasons for these associations.

  19. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  20. Perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking in a sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Seng, Elizabeth K; Esan, Hannah; Shuter, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) smoke at high prevalences and experience significant smoking-related consequences. In community samples, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking are related to quit motivation and outcomes and are more strongly endorsed by women. This study examined perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking and the relationship between risks and benefits and quit motivation and confidence in male and female PLWH. One hundred seven PLWH who reported current cigarette smoking completed measures of demographics, smoking, perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking, motivation to quit smoking, and confidence in ability to quit smoking. The highest endorsed risks of quitting smoking were cravings and weight gain and higher endorsement of craving risks was associated with lower confidence in the ability to quit smoking. Women endorsed overall risks and risks related to negative affect more highly than men. Women and men did not differ in their endorsement of the other risks, the benefits of quitting, or the relationship between risks and benefits and quit motivation or confidence. It may be useful for health care professionals to incorporate information about perceived risks and benefits of quitting smoking into treatment when working with PLWH who want to stop smoking.

  1. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers about Community Pharmacy-Based Cardiovascular Risk Screening Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Community pharmacies are considered as ideal settings to provide cardiovascular risk screening (CRS. However, little is known about pharmacists’ views on providing such services in developing countries including Iran. In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacists’ attitudes and perceived barriers to providing CRS services. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire in three sections was developed by the investigators (attitudes, perceived barriers, and demographics. Five likert items (5 points bipolar scale were designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes about their professional role in providing CRS services in community pharmacies. Seven likert items were designed to assess the pharmacists’ perceived importance of possible barriers to providing the services. The study tool was distributed among a convenient sample of 500 pharmacists, who had participated in a national continuing education event. Results:The response rate was 44% and descriptive statistics and Chi squared test were used to analyze data. Results showed that 70.4% participants had an overall positive attitude to providing CRS services. Pharmacists who were pharmacy owner and pharmacist-in-charge simultaneously were more positive about providing CRS services. Lack of regulatory policy and compensation mechanism, limited physical space in pharmacy and time limitation were reported to be the most important barriers to providing CRS services (> 50% rated as highly important. Low human resource and time limitation were significantly associated with negative attitudes (P: 0.02 and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion:The Iranian pharmacists’ attitudes seem to be positive about providing CRS services; however, their perceived barriers should be addressed prior to CRS service implementation.

  3. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  4. The moderating role of personal relevance on differential priming of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chen, Chien-Lung

    2009-04-01

    Raghunathan and Pham conducted a pioneer study in 1999 on the motivational influences of anxiety and sadness on decision making and indicated that anxiety would motivate individuals to be risk averse, whereas sadness would motivate individuals to be risk taking. A replication study was employed in the domain of perceived travel risk. Compared to participants in a neutral mood, anxious participants showed higher perceived travel risk than sad participants. Moreover, the differential effect of anxiety and sadness on perceived travel risk was only pronounced under the high personal relevance condition, in which participants made personal decisions and expected that they would be affected by the outcomes. In general, the results extend the notion proposed by Raghunathan and Pham suggesting that travelers' implicit goals primed by anxiety or sadness used for mood-repair purposes appear to be moderated by personal relevance.

  5. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  6. Perceived Benefits of Participation and Risks of Soil Contamination in St. Louis Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Roger; Gable, Leah; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar

    2018-06-01

    Community gardens are credited for promoting health within neighborhoods, by increasing healthy food intake and exercise frequency. These benefits, however, are potentially undermined as urban soils are often contaminated from industrial legacies. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits of participation and risks of soil contamination within urban community gardens, and factors associated with soil contamination concerns. Ninety-three gardeners were interviewed across 20 community gardens in St. Louis, Missouri between June and August 2015. Surveys included questions on demographics, gardening practices, and perceptions of community gardening. Multilevel logistic models assessed how gardener demographics, gardening practices, and garden characteristics were associated with soil contamination concerns. Common perceived benefits of community gardening were community building (68.8%), healthy and fresh food (35.5%), and gardening education (18.3%). Most gardeners (62.4%) were not concerned about soil contamination, but nearly half (48.4%) stated concerns about heavy metals. Black race was significantly associated with soil contamination concerns (OR 5.47, 95% CI 1.00-30.15, p = .04). Community gardens offer numerous social and health benefits. Although most gardeners were not concerned about soil contamination, black gardeners were more likely to have concerns. Garden leaders should provide resources to gardeners to learn about soil contamination and methods to manage their risk, particularly in minority neighborhoods.

  7. Perceived risks in product innovation projects : development of a risk skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, J.I.M.; Keizer, J.A.; Song, X.M.

    1999-01-01

    The essence of undertaking a product innovation project is to create or establish something new. Risk taking is an intrinsic part of that process. In today's markets, with heavy competition, advanced technology and tough economic conditions, successful product innovation has become critically

  8. Credit risk transfer activities and systemic risk : How banks became less risky individually but posed greater risks to the financial system at the same time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.; Nijskens, R.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    A main cause of the crisis of 2007–2009 is the various ways through which banks have transferred credit risk in the financial system. We study the systematic risk of banks before the crisis, using two samples of banks respectively trading Credit Default Swaps (CDS) and issuing Collateralized Loan

  9. Risk is still relevant: Time-varying associations between perceived risk and marijuana use among US 12th grade students from 1991 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Patrick, Megan E; Miech, Richard A

    2017-11-01

    Perceived risk of harm has long been a key preventive factor for adolescent marijuana use. However, in recent years, perceived risk has decreased markedly and marijuana use has increased only slightly, leading to new questions about their association. This study investigates the magnitude and stability of the US adolescent marijuana risk/use association from 1991 to 2016, overall and by gender and race/ethnicity. Self-reported data on past 12-month marijuana use, perceived risk of regular marijuana use, gender, and race/ethnicity were obtained from 275,768 US 12th grade students participating in the nationally representative Monitoring the Future study. Time-varying effect modeling (TVEM) was used to examine the marijuana risk/use association over time. Both before and after controlling for gender and race/ethnicity, perceived risk was a strong protective factor against adolescent marijuana use. The magnitude of the great risk/use association strengthened for Hispanic students; remained generally stable over time for 12th graders overall, males, females, and White students; and weakened for Black students. The magnitude of the moderate risk/use association strengthened for 12th graders overall, males, females, White and Hispanic students, but did not continue to strengthen for Black students from 2005 onwards. In general, marijuana use prevalence decreased over time within all levels of perceived risk. Perceived risk remains a strong protective factor for adolescent marijuana use, and the protective association for moderate risk (vs. no/slight risk) is actually increasing over time. Results suggest that accurate and credible information on the risks associated with marijuana use should remain a key component of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Robertson, Angela M; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2014-01-01

    Deported injection drug users (IDUs) in Mexico may be vulnerable to HIV infection following expulsion from the USA. We examined factors associated with HIV risk perception among a sample of deportees in Tijuana. From January to April 2010, 313 male IDUs who reported ever being deported from the USA completed a questionnaire. Overall, 35% (N=110) of deportees perceived HIV risk. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with HIV risk perception included ever having a steady female partner in Tijuana post-deportation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-5.07) and years spent in a US prison (AOR: 1.29 per year; 95% CI: 1.13-1.48). Conversely, years of drug injection use (AOR: 0.95 per year; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), ever witnessing family members use drugs prior to first migration trip (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65), years of residence in the USA (AOR: 0.91 per year; 95% CI: 0.84-0.98) and being a Tijuana native (AOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with HIV risk perception. US-Mexico border cities that receive deported migrants should target HIV prevention interventions to specific subgroups, including drug-using male deportees. Interventions should consider migrant's time in the USA, the role of their social networks, and reducing missed opportunities for HIV testing/education.

  11. Perceived risk of nuclear and hydro electrical power generation in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report deals with the estimation of risk factors of hydro plants and the perception of risks and benefits of nuclear, hydropower and coal by a selected part of the public. Historical data (1922 - 1979) on occurrence of earthquakes in Colombia demonstrate high seismicity (3,489 incidents) for the country in total and also for areas where the majority of hydro projects are to be located. Model-based calculations of regional probabilities for earthquakes at prospective dam-sites with a magnitude of 7 (Richter scale) or larger resulted in p=0.038/year for a 50 year recurrence period for high and p=0.0004/year for low seismicity areas. Attitudes towards three energy systems were elicited from 130 university students and graduates with a questionnaire based on a psychometric model. Generally attitudes were most favourable towards hydro, less favourable towards coal and more critical towards nuclear. Nuclear is perceived to have economic advantages, but to pose environmental, individual and societal risks. Respondents PRO and CON nuclear agree on the lack of risk from hydropower

  12. The influence of coping styles and perceived control on emotional distress in persons at risk for a hereditary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, Ehy; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Van Tintelen, J. Peter

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the influence of two coping styles (monitoring and blunting) and perceived control (health loci-is of control and mastery) on emotional distress in persons at risk of a hereditary cardiac disease. Emotional distress in people at risk for a hereditary cardiac

  13. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J. van; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  14. Lycopene supplementation elevates circulating insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and-2 concentrations in persons at greater risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J.; Cats, A.; Depla, A.C.; Timmer, R.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been related to a greater risk of cancer. Lycopene intake is inversely associated with cancer risk, and experimental studies have shown that it may affect the IGF system, possibly through an effect on IGF-binding

  15. Cardiovascular risk indicators and perceived race/ethnic discrimination in the Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A; Ravenell, Joseph; Glynn, Robert J; Khera, Amit; Halevy, Nitsan; de Lemos, James A

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between race/ethnic (r/e) discrimination and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although r/e discrimination is a chronic stressor that might have negative health effects, cardiovascular data related to experiences with discrimination among different r/e groups in the United States remain sparse. Using data from the Dallas Heart Study, we assessed the association between perceived r/e discrimination and traditional CVD risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), aortic plaque area and wall thickness, and coronary calcium (CAC) score among black, white, and Hispanic participants. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score > or =10 Agatston units; CRP elevation was defined as > or =3 mg/L. Participants were asked, "Have you ever been discriminated against due to your race/ethnicity? (responses: yes, no, or don't know)". Blacks reported r/e discrimination more frequently than whites or Hispanics (P discrimination were more likely to be college graduates, to have a family history of myocardial infarction, and to be more physically active than blacks who did not report r/e discrimination (each P discrimination had a higher prevalence of smoking (P discrimination and aortic wall thickness, aortic plaque area, prevalent CAC, or elevated CRP in any of the r/e groups. Among blacks, stratification by gender and education did not change the observed relationship between perceived r/e discrimination and CAC or CRP. Although perceived r/e discrimination is associated with certain health characteristics that may result in negative health outcomes, in general, we found no association of r/e discrimination with either subclinical atherosclerosis as determined by CAC score, aortic wall thickness and aortic plaque area, or inflammation as assessed by elevated CRP levels.

  16. Perceived cervical cancer risk among women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: The importance of specific knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Andersson

    Full Text Available Women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. We examine how women with high-grade CIN perceive their own risk, and about pertinent knowledge concerning human high-risk papillomavirus (HPV, CIN and cervical cancer.All patients who underwent first-time treatment of high-grade CIN (grade 2+ were followed-up at 6-months at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and were invited to participate in the present study. This included completion of a questionnaire examining sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up, and 14 queries about HPV, CIN and cervical cancer knowledge, inter alia.The participation rate was 96.6%, with 479 women enrolled in this study. Over 75% were age 40 or younger, over half had completed university education. Most were married or co-living with their partner and were gainfully employed. On a scale scored from 10 (highest self-perceived risk of cervical cancer without regular gynecologic follow-up to 1 (lowest self-perceived risk, 64% rated their risk ≥ 7; almost 30% viewed their risk ≤ 6 and 7.5% did not rate their risk. A Specific Knowledge Scale with six of the queries explained 58.3% of the total variance. Nearly 30% of the women answered four or fewer of the six queries correctly. The Specific Knowledge Scale predicted self-perceived cervical cancer risk (Odds ratio = 11.3, 95% Confidence Interval 5.6 - 22.6 after adjusting for age, income and education. Most of the women with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk did not rate their HPV-related knowledge as good. However, 32 predominantly university-educated women, with low self-perceived cervical cancer risk, considered their HPV-related knowledge good.It is vital to effectively convey accurate information about these patients' cervical cancer risk, needed preventive and follow-up measures, together with the relevant

  17. Relationship Between Physiological and Perceived Fall Risk in People With Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Hilary; Cameron, Michelle; Hoang, Phu; Lord, Stephen; Shaw, Steve; Freeman, Jennifer

    2018-04-24

    This study evaluated the relationship between physiological and perceived fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Secondary analysis of data from prospective cohort studies undertaken in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Community. Ambulatory people with MS (N=416) (age 51.5±12.0 years; 73% female; 62% relapsing-remitting MS; 13.7±9.9 years disease duration). Not applicable. All participants completed measures of physiological (Physiological Profile Assessment [PPA]) and perceived (Falls Efficacy Scale-international [FESi]) fall risk and prospectively recorded falls for 3 months. 155 (37%) of the participants were recurrent fallers (≥2 falls). Mean PPA and FESi scores were high (PPA 2.14±1.87, FESi 34.27±11.18). The PPA and the FESi independently predicted faller classification in logistic regression, which indicated that the odds of being classified as a recurrent faller significantly increased with increasing scores (PPA odds ratio [OR] 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.46], FESi OR 1.05 [95% CI 1.03-1.07]). Classification and regression tree analysis divided the sample into four groups based on cutoff values for the PPA: (1) low physiological/low perceived risk (PPA 27.5), (3) high physiological/low perceived risk (PPA >2.83, FESi 35.5). Over 50% of participants had a disparity between perceived and physiological fall risk; most were in group 2. It is possible that physiological risk factors not detected by the PPA may also be influential. This study highlights the importance of considering both physiological and perceived fall risk in MS and the need for further research to explore the complex interrelationships of perceptual and physiological risk factors in this population. This study also supports the importance of developing behavioral and physical interventions that can be tailored to the individual's needs. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived risks around choice and decision making at end-of-life: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F; Gott, M; Ingleton, C

    2013-01-01

    the World Health Organization identifies meeting patient choice for care as central to effective palliative care delivery. Little is known about how choice, which implies an objective balancing of options and risks, is understood and enacted through decision making at end-of-life. to explore how perceptions of 'risk' may inform decision-making processes at end-of-life. an integrative literature review was conducted between January and February 2010. Papers were reviewed using Hawker et al.'s criteria and evaluated according to clarity of methods, analysis and evidence of ethical consideration. All literature was retained as background data, but given the significant international heterogeneity the final analysis specifically focused on the UK context. the databases Medline, PsycINFO, Assia, British Nursing Index, High Wire Press and CINAHL were explored using the search terms decision*, risk, anxiety, hospice and palliative care, end-of-life care and publication date of 1998-2010. thematic analysis of 25 papers suggests that decision making at end-of-life is multifactorial, involving a balancing of risks related to caregiver support; service provider resources; health inequalities and access; challenges to information giving; and perceptions of self-identity. Overall there is a dissonance in understandings of choice and decision making between service providers and service users. the concept of risk acknowledges the factors that shape and constrain end-of-life choices. Recognition of perceived risks as a central factor in decision making would be of value in acknowledging and supporting meaningful decision making processes for patients with palliative care needs and their families.

  19. Thinking versus feeling: differentiating between cognitive and affective components of perceived cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; Candel, Math; de Vries, Hein

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased recognition of affect in guiding probability estimates, perceived risk has been mainly operationalised in a cognitive way and the differentiation between rational and intuitive judgements is largely unexplored. This study investigated the validity of a measurement instrument differentiating cognitive and affective probability beliefs and examined whether behavioural decision making is mainly guided by cognition or affect. Data were obtained from four surveys focusing on smoking (N=268), fruit consumption (N=989), sunbed use (N=251) and sun protection (N=858). Correlational analyses showed that affective likelihood was more strongly correlated with worry compared to cognitive likelihood and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a two-factor model of perceived likelihood instead of a one-factor model (i.e. cognition and affect combined). Furthermore, affective likelihood was significantly associated with the various outcome variables, whereas the association for cognitive likelihood was absent in three studies. The findings provide support for the construct validity of the measures used to assess cognitive and affective likelihood. Since affective likelihood might be a better predictor of health behaviour than the commonly used cognitive operationalisation, both dimensions should be considered in future research.

  20. Exploitation, Violence, and Suicide Risk Among Child and Adolescent Survivors of Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Yun, Katherine; Pocock, Nicola; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-09-01

    Human trafficking and exploitation of children have profound health consequences. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest survey on the health of child and adolescent survivors of human trafficking. To describe experiences of abuse and exploitation, mental health outcomes, and suicidal behavior among children and adolescents in posttrafficking services. We also examine how exposures to violence, exploitation, and abuse affect the mental health and suicidal behavior of trafficked children. A survey was conducted with 387 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years in posttrafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, or Vietnam, which along with Laos, Myanmar, and Yunnan Province, China, compose the Greater Mekong Subregion. Participants were interviewed within 2 weeks of entering services from October 2011 through May 2013. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self-injury, and suicide attempts. Among the 387 children and adolescent study participants, most (82%) were female. Twelve percent had tried to harm or kill themselves in the month before the interview. Fifty-six percent screened positive for depression, 33% for an anxiety disorder, and 26% for posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse at home was reported by 20%. Physical violence while trafficked was reported by 41% of boys and 19% of girls. Twenty-three percent of girls and 1 boy reported sexual violence. Mental health symptoms were strongly associated with recent self-harm and suicide attempts. Severe physical violence was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.64-7.71), anxiety (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05), and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.77-7.67). Sexual violence while trafficked was associated with depression (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.22-4.23) and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.80-6.54). Children and adolescents in posttrafficking care showed high symptom levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress

  1. Perceived norms moderate the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Miles, Jeremy N V; Hunter, Sarah B; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2013-09-01

    There has been limited research examining the association between mental health symptoms, perceived peer alcohol norms, and alcohol use and consequences among samples of adolescents. The current study used a sample of 193 at-risk youths with a first-time alcohol and/or other drug offense in the California Teen Court system to explore the moderating role of perceived peer alcohol norms on the association between mental health symptoms and drinking outcomes. Measures of drinking, consequences, mental health symptoms, and perceived peer alcohol norms were taken at baseline, with measures of drinking and consequences assessed again 6 months later. Regression analyses examined the association of perceived norms and mental health symptoms with concurrent and future drinking and consequences. We found that higher perceived drinking peer norms were associated with heavy drinking behavior at baseline and with negative alcohol consequences both at baseline and 6 months later. Also, perceived drinking norms moderated the association between mental health symptoms and alcohol-related consequences such that better mental health was related to increased risk for alcohol-related consequences both concurrently and 6 months later among those with higher baseline perceptions of peer drinking norms. Findings demonstrate the value of norms-based interventions, especially among adolescents with few mental health problems who are at risk for heavy drinking.

  2. Physicians' acceptance of electronic medical records exchange: an extension of the decomposed TPB model with institutional trust and perceived risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Pi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) exchange improves clinical quality and reduces medical costs. However, few studies address the antecedent factors of physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange. Based on institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB) model, we propose a theoretical model to explain the intention of physicians to use an EMR exchange system. We conducted a field survey in Taiwan to collect data from physicians who had experience using the EMR exchange systems. A valid sample of 191 responses was collected for data analysis. To test the proposed research model, we employed structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method. The study findings show that the following five factors have a significant influence on the physicians' intentions to use EMR exchange systems: (a) attitude; (b) subjective norm; (c) perceived behavior control; (d) institutional trust; and (e) perceived risk. These five factors are predictable by perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and compatibility, interpersonal and governmental influence, facilitating conditions and self-efficacy, situational normality and structural assurance, and institutional trust, respectively. The results also indicate that institutional trust and perceived risk integrated with the decomposed TPB model improve the prediction of physician's intentions to use EMR exchange. The results of this study indicate that our research model effectively predicts the intention of physicians to use EMR exchange, and provides valuable implications for academics and practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (I): A citizen-science based risk model for bovine brucellosis transmission from elk to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Scurlock, Brandon; Logan, Jim; Robinson, Timothy; Cook, Walt; Boroff, Kari; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-09-15

    Livestock producers and state wildlife agencies have used multiple management strategies to control bovine brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). However, spillover from elk to domestic bison and cattle herds continues to occur. Although knowledge is increasing about the location and behavior of elk in the SGYA, predicting spatiotemporal overlap between elk and cattle requires locations of livestock operations and observations of elk contact by producers. We queried all producers in a three-county area using a questionnaire designed to determine location of cattle and whether producers saw elk comingle with their animals. This information was used to parameterize a spatially-explicit risk model to estimate the number of elk expected to overlap with cattle during the brucellosis transmission risk period. Elk-cattle overlap was predicted in areas further from roads and forest boundaries in areas with wolf activity, with higher slopes, lower hunter densities, and where the cost-distance to feedgrounds was very low or very high. The model was used to estimate the expected number of years until a cattle reactor will be detected, under alternative management strategies. The model predicted cattle cases every 4.28 years in the highest risk herd unit, a higher prediction than the one case in 26 years we have observed. This difference likely indicates that ongoing management strategies are at least somewhat effective in preventing potential elk-cattle brucellosis transmission in these areas. Using this model, we can infer the expected effectiveness of various management strategies for reducing the risk of brucellosis spillover from elk to cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health risk assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls contaminations in dairy products from selected farms in Greater Accra Region - Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, D.

    2013-07-01

    The residual concentrations of synthetic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides (OCPs), pyrethroids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese) from selected farms in Greater Accra were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). A total of 50 samples of dairy products (9 cheese, 25 cow milk and 16 yogourt) were analyzed for OCPs, prethroids and PCBs. Of the numerious pesticides evaluated, detectable levels of OCPs (β-HCH, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, p ' p-DDT and methoxchlor); synthetic prethroids (permathrin, allethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and PCBs (18, 28, 52, 101, 153, 138, and 180) were found in all the dairy product samples analysed. Milk samples were found to be the most contaminated with respect to the OCPs and the levels ranged between 0.0001µg/ml and 0.0407µg/ml. ß-HCH was the highest OCP with concentration of 0.0407µg/ml while cyfluthrin was the highest synthetic prethroids recorded in yoghurt sample (0.0318µg/ml). The highest PCB 18 (2,2,5-Trichlorobiphenyl) recorded (0.2668µg/ml) in yoghurt samples. (Data obtained from the field survey regarding safe use of pesticides, toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers indicated that a very high proportion of animal farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 70% of farm workers did not practise safety precaution during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness including nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, dizziness, diarrhoea and headaches in this agricultural community. The presence of pesticide residues in dairy products was of further concern because milk is the main protein diet for infants. The estimated dose for γ-chlordane(8.5x10 5 µ/ml), endrin(0.0114 µg/ml) p ' p ' -DDT(8.5x10 5 µg/ml), DDE(8.5x10 5 µg/ml),heptachlor(2.5x10 5 µg/ml), dieldrin(6.8x10 5 µg/ml) do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present

  5. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  6. Perceived stress and risk of ischemic heart disease: causation or bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Prescott, Eva

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the commonly recognized link between stress and cardiovascular disease is causal or the result of reporting bias. The objective of this study was to address the association between perceived stress and first incidence of ischemic heart disease and to evaluate...... the suggested reporting bias by addressing subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease separately. METHODS: The 11,839 men and women who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were at baseline (1981-1983) asked about their stress level. The participants were followed in nationwide registries until the year...... 2000, and fewer than 0.1% were lost to follow-up. During follow-up, 2316 individuals were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease. RESULTS: High levels of stress were associated with slightly higher risk of incident ischemic heart disease in both women (hazard ratio = 1.23; 95% confidence interval = 1...

  7. Defensive spending on tap water substitutes: the value of reducing perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane P; Jahan, Nowshin

    2012-03-01

    We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.

  8. [Perceived risks and victimization of military and civil police in the public (in)security domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Constantino, Patrícia

    2007-11-01

    This study was based on a larger survey on the socioeconomic, quality-of-life, occupational, and health characteristics of military and civil police in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study triangulated quantitative methods (an anonymous questionnaire in a random sample of clusters involving 46 police units and 2,678 police force members) and qualitative ones (18 focus groups with 143 police force members, 24 individual semi-structured interviews, and field observations). The article specifically approaches the issues of victimization and perceived risks among on-duty and off-duty police. Data were processed and analyzed according to risk-related variables. We performed a content analysis, comparing strata within and between police forces, according to thematic lines. This empirical approach is supported by secondary data analyses. According to our analysis, the police are the greatest victims in the performance of their duties, especially military police and those from both forces involved in direct law enforcement activities. Different variables are associated with risk in the two forces, with an emphasis on work conditions and especially involvement in other activities during their official off-duty time.

  9. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

  10. Perceived heart risk factors can predict experienced psychological stress in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was done to investigate the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs in the prediction of psychological symptoms of cardiac rehabilitation (CR patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 124 CR patients referred to Kermanshah Hospital of Imam Ali were assessed during April–July 2015. PHRFs scale and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale-21 used for data collection. The data were analyzed using linear multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean age of samples (69.4% male was 58.9 ± 9.7 years. The results of regression analysis evidenced that there is no significant relationship between any of the PHRFs with depression and anxiety (P > 0.05; however, biological (P = 0.018 and psychological (P = 0.019 risk factors significantly can predict stress. The model generally can explain 6.4% of the stress variance. Conclusion: PHRFs are included some significant predictors for experienced stress among the CR patients. Given that the biological and psychological risk factors are more effective in experienced stress by the patients, it is recommended that specialists pay more attention to the potential psychological outcomes of this group of patients.

  11. Perceived and actual obesity in childhood and adolescence and risk of adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Field, Alison E; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Fava, Maurizio; Gortmaker, Steven; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood and adolescence has important health consequences, but its relation to risk of adult depression remains uncertain. To examine the effect of perceived and actual obesity during childhood and adolescence on prevalence and incidence of adult depression risk. Cohort study of 91,798 female registered nurses followed longitudinally for 12 years. As compared with lean women of the same age, women in the two highest categories of body shape at age 10 had both higher prevalence (OR=2.59, 95% CI 1.46 to 4.61) and incidence (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.71) of depression. Similar results were obtained for body shape at age 20 (OR=3.43 for prevalence and OR=2.03 for incidence) and for body mass index (BMI) at age 18 (OR=2.92 for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). These associations remained significant after adjustment for multiple confounders. These results indicate that childhood-adolescence obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for adult depression.

  12. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images; An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.

  13. Morality, responsibility and risk: negative gay men's perceived proximity to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Peter

    2008-05-01

    In order to examine the ways in which men's perceptions of their social surroundings influence how they experience and negotiate sexual risk, we conducted a qualitative study with 36 men who lived in London or Birmingham, had five or more male partners in the previous year and believed themselves to be HIV negative. Men were recruited into two sub-samples (18 men each). The high proximity group personally knew someone with HIV and had a positive sexual partner in the year prior to interview. The low proximity group had never personally known anyone with HIV and had never had a sexual partner who they knew or believed to be HIV positive. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Men in the low proximity groups used moral discourses to articulate beliefs and social norms around the disclosure of HIV which may act as a deterrent to sexual partners disclosing. Although most expected positive sexual partners to disclose, they had difficulty in articulating how they would respond to disclosure and how they would manage any consequent sexual risk. For the men in the high proximity group, living around HIV constituted a part of everyday life. Disclosure and discussion of HIV did not violate their social norms. The majority did not expect positive sexual partners to disclose to them and knew how they would respond to such disclosure if it occurred. Men in this group did not use moral discourses but talked practically about better and worse ways of managing disclosure. Proximity to HIV is mediated by strong social norms and self-perpetuating moral discourses which effectively creates a social divide between men who perceive themselves to be in low proximity to HIV and their HIV positive contacts and sexual partners. Men with perceived low proximity to HIV are appropriate as a target group for HIV prevention.

  14. Does perceived stress increase the risk of atrial fibrillation? A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Simon; Prior, Anders; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological stress is associated with increased risk of acute cardiovascular diseases, as myocardial infarction. We recently found a higher risk of atrial fibrillation following an acute stressful life event, but it remains unknown whether this also applies to common and less acute....... Conclusions This large population-based cohort study did not reveal a higher risk of atrial fibrillation among persons with a high degree of perceived stress after adjustment for participants' baseline characteristics....

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Perceived Risk and Website Reputation on Purchase Intention: The Mediating Role of Online Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatpong Tangmanee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Success in electronic commerce relies greatly on customer trust. While other studies have examined various factors affecting online customer trust, few have investigated the joint effects of perceived risk and website reputation on purchase intention using online trust as a mediator. The current study attempts to fill this gap. 300 online shoppers participated via web-based questionnaires using a quota sampling technique. Based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, our measurements were found to be valid and reliable. Using structural equation modeling (SEM, we confirmed significant direct effects of perceived risk and website reputation on customer purchase intentions. Furthermore, both factors had significant indirect effects on purchase intention through online trust. In addition to extending theoretical insight into online trust as a mediator for the effects of perceived risk and website reputation on purchase intention, web-based vendors may adopt the findings to adjust their online stores to raise customer trust and ultimately increase the possibility of online purchases.

  16. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc......PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey...... was conducted among 3,436 respondents. The questionnaire focused on perceived threat, vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy related to SARS and eight other diseases. RESULTS: Perceived threat of SARS in case of an outbreak in the country was higher than that of other diseases. Perceived...... vulnerability of SARS was at an intermediate level and perceived severity was high compared to other diseases. Perceived threat for SARS varied between countries in Europe and Asia with a higher perceived severity of SARS in Europe and a higher perceived vulnerability in Asia. Response efficacy and self...

  17. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Weighing the Risks of Nuclear Energy and Climate Change: Trust in Different Information Sources, Perceived Risks, and Willingness to Pay for Alternatives to Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja

    2017-03-01

    We examined how individuals perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation and how their perceptions are associated with trust in different risk information sources. We analyzed the interrelationships between trust, perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, perception of nuclear energy as an acceptable way to mitigate climate change, and willingness to pay (WTP) for alternatives to nuclear power. A nationwide survey (N = 967) collected in Finland was analyzed with structural equation modeling. The associations between trust and perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, and perception of nuclear power as a way to mitigate climate change varied by the type of information source. Political party support and other background variables were associated with trust in different information sources. The effect of trust in information sources on WTP was mediated by perceived risks and benefits. The results will increase our understanding of how individuals perceive nuclear energy as a way to cut CO 2 emissions and the role of trust in different information sources in shaping nuclear risk perceptions and energy choices. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Driving under the influence of alcohol: frequency, reasons, perceived risk and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Francisco; Pastor, Juan C; Montoro, Luis; Esteban, Cristina

    2015-03-12

    The aim of this study was to gain information useful to improve traffic safety, concerning the following aspects for DUI (Driving Under the Influence): frequency, reasons, perceived risk, drivers' knowledge of the related penalties, perceived likelihood of being punished, drivers' perception of the harshness of punitive measures and drivers' perception of the probability of behavioral change after punishment for DUI. A sample of 1100 Spanish drivers, 678 men and 422 women aged from 14 to 65 years old, took part in a telephone survey using a questionnaire to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial information about drivers, as well as information on enforcement, clustered in five related categories: "Knowledge and perception of traffic norms"; "Opinions on sanctions"; "Opinions on policing"; "Opinions on laws" (in general and on traffic); and "Assessment of the effectiveness of various punitive measures". Results showed around 60% of respondents believe that driving under the influence of alcohol is maximum risk behavior. Nevertheless, 90.2% of the sample said they never or almost never drove under the influence of alcohol. In this case, the main reasons were to avoid accidents (28.3%) as opposed to avoiding sanctions (10.4%). On the contrary, the remaining 9.7% acknowledged they had driven after consuming alcohol. It is noted that the main reasons for doing so were "not having another way to return home" (24.5%) and alcohol consumption being associated with meals (17.3%). Another important finding is that the risk perception of traffic accident as a result of DUI is influenced by variables such as sex and age. With regard to the type of sanctions, 90% think that DUI is punishable by a fine, 96.4% that it may result in temporary or permanent suspension of driving license, and 70% that it can be punished with imprisonment. Knowing how alcohol consumption impairs safe driving and skills, being aware of the associated risks, knowing the traffic regulations concerning

  20. Perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting for hippotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Audrey; Rochette, Annie; Mainville, Carolyne

    2017-04-01

    Explore the perceived risks and benefits of hippotherapy among parents of children currently engaged in or waiting rehabilitation using hippotherapy. Phenomenological qualitative exploratory pilot study. An interview guide validated by experts was used to conduct the interviews. Summaries were written to capture first impressions. One team member coded the transcripts and the coding was validated by the research team through discussion until consensus was reached. The average age of the participants (n = 4) was 37.3 ± 6.6 years. The few risks they perceived related to physical injuries. Lack of knowledge of contraindications, lack of fear, minimization of risks, and risk-attenuation factors also emerged as important themes. Benefits accounted for a large part of the content of the interviews and were grouped under 13 themes, including motor and postural control, enjoyment and the development of a special relationship. Minimization of the perceived risks compared to the numerous perceived benefits could create clinical issues such as the client putting self at risk of injuries (e.g., bites, falls, and kicks) if not cautious enough or complications insufficiently prevented, which suggests the need to develop educational activities for an informed consent to this type of rehabilitation.

  1. Adolescents who perceive fewer consequences of risk-taking choose to switch off games later at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Chelsea M; Gradisar, Michael; Kar, Kellyann; Perry, Ashleigh; Wolfe, Jasper; Short, Michelle A

    2015-05-01

    Technology use by adolescents close to bedtime commonly leads to sleep problems, and individual factors predicting those at heightened risk are under studied. We investigated whether risk-taking perceptions influenced length of adolescent technology use at bedtime and whether being aware of time moderated this association. We recruited 16 males and five females, with a mean age of 17.6 years, from school and university populations to assess adolescent technology use and bedtimes. They were assessed for trait risk-taking using the Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events questionnaire and had unrestrained access to a video game on two separate nights, counterbalanced for clock present or clock absent conditions. The adolescents' self-selected bedtime provided a measure of the level of technology use and was the dependent variable. Adolescents who perceived fewer negative consequences of risky activities on the Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events played the video game longer and went to bed later than those who perceived more negative consequences (p = 0.03). There was no influence on bedtimes from perceived benefits of risk-taking or clock presence. Adolescents who perceived fewer negative consequences of risk-taking were more likely to stay up later using technology, facing a heightened risk of displaced sleep. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reduction of Perceived Social Distance as an Explanation for Media's Influence on Personal Risk Perceptions: A Test of the Risk Convergence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jiyeon; Nabi, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The risk convergence model proposes reduction of perceived social distance to a mediated personality as a mechanism through which the mass media can influence audiences' personal risk perceptions. As an initial test of the model, this study examined whether 5 audience variables known to facilitate media effects on personal risk…

  3. Polygenic Risk Score Identifies Subgroup With Higher Burden of Atherosclerosis and Greater Relative Benefit From Statin Therapy in the Primary Prevention Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Pradeep; Young, Robin; Stitziel, Nathan O; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Sartori, Samantha; Fuster, Valentin; Reilly, Dermot F; Butterworth, Adam; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-05-30

    Relative risk reduction with statin therapy has been consistent across nearly all subgroups studied to date. However, in analyses of 2 randomized controlled primary prevention trials (ASCOT [Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm] and JUPITER [Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin]), statin therapy led to a greater relative risk reduction among a subgroup at high genetic risk. Here, we aimed to confirm this observation in a third primary prevention randomized controlled trial. In addition, we assessed whether those at high genetic risk had a greater burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. We studied participants from a randomized controlled trial of primary prevention with statin therapy (WOSCOPS [West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study]; n=4910) and 2 observational cohort studies (CARDIA [Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults] and BioImage; n=1154 and 4392, respectively). For each participant, we calculated a polygenic risk score derived from up to 57 common DNA sequence variants previously associated with coronary heart disease. We compared the relative efficacy of statin therapy in those at high genetic risk (top quintile of polygenic risk score) versus all others (WOSCOPS), as well as the association between the polygenic risk score and coronary artery calcification (CARDIA) and carotid artery plaque burden (BioImage). Among WOSCOPS trial participants at high genetic risk, statin therapy was associated with a relative risk reduction of 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-60; P statin therapy was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.0-5.1) among those in the high genetic risk group and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.6-1.9) in all others. Each 1-SD increase in the polygenic risk score was associated with 1.32-fold (95% CI, 1.04-1.68) greater likelihood of having coronary artery calcification and 9.7% higher (95% CI, 2.2-17.8) burden of carotid plaque. Those at high genetic risk have a greater

  4. 21 CFR 50.53 - Clinical investigations involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable... minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual subjects, but likely to yield generalizable... intervention or procedure that does not hold out the prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or...

  5. 34 CFR 97.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject, or by a monitoring procedure which is not likely to contribute to the well-being of the subject, only if the IRB finds that— (a) The risk represents a minor increase over minimal risk; (b) The... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional ED Protections for Children Who Are Subjects in Research...

  6. College students' perceived risk of sexual victimization and the role of optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saling Untied, Amy; Dulaney, Cynthia L

    2015-05-01

    Many college women believe that their chances of experiencing a sexual assault are less than their peers. This phenomenon, called optimistic bias, has been hypothesized to be one important element to address in sexual assault risk reduction and awareness programs aimed at reducing women's chances of experiencing a sexual assault. The present study examined the role that participants' (N = 89) perceived similarity to a narrator (portraying a sexual assault survivor) describing an assault plays in reducing this bias. The age of the narrator was manipulated (similar or dissimilar to age of participants) with the aim of assessing whether the program could produce reductions in optimistic bias for those participants who watched a video of someone similar to them in age. A significant interaction between pre- and post-program and age similarity indicated a significant decrease in optimistic bias from pre- to posttest for the similar group. Furthermore, an exploratory analysis indicated optimistic bias for White participants decreased from pre- to posttest, whereas optimistic bias for the Black participants increased. These results suggest that some factors such as age similarity may reduce optimistic bias in sexual assault risk reduction and awareness programs. However, a race dissimilarity may increase optimistic bias. Thus, more research is needed to understand the factors that affect optimistic bias with regard to sexual assault awareness. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Perceived risk and other predictors and correlates of teenagers' safety belt use during the first year of licensure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Morton, Bruce G Simons; Noelcke, Elizabeth A; Williams, Allan F; Leaf, William A; Preusser, David F; Hartos, Jessica L

    2008-03-01

    Teenagers have the lowest rate of safety belt use and the highest crash rate compared to other age groups. Past studies on teenagers' belt use have mostly been cross-sectional. The first goals of this study were to examine, at licensure, teenagers' and parents' perceptions of risk of crash/injury for newly licensed teenagers when driving unbelted and teenagers' perceived and parents' intended consequences for safety belt rule violations. In addition, the comparability of these variables to other risky driving behaviors was explored. The second goal was to evaluate the importance of these variables in the prediction of teenagers' belt use during the first year of licensure, relative to other factors related to belt use, including demographics and substance use. More than 2,000 parent-teenager dyads were interviewed by telephone, parents at permit and licensure and teenagers at permit, licensure, and 3, 6, and 12 months after licensure. Approximately a third of the teenagers reported at least once at 3, 6, or 12 months post-licensure not always using their safety belt in the past week. At licensure, participants' perceived risk of safety belt non-use was high and ranked among the behaviors most related to crash/injury for newly licensed teenagers, behind driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Parent-imposed consequences for safety belt rule violations were not as highly rated as parent-imposed consequences for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Sequential logistic regression modeled the relationship between safety belt use and perceived risk and consequences of non-use, as well as other prospective predictors assessed at permit and licensure, and driving correlates measured after licensure. Teenagers' extreme perceived risk and parents' intended sure consequences for non-use were significant prospective predictors of regular use during the first year of licensure. Other significant predictors and correlates were race (White), high school grade

  8. Psychological distress in women at risk for hereditary breast cancer: the role of family communication and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Heijer, Mariska; Seynaeve, Caroline; Vanheusden, Kathleen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bartels, Carina C M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Tibben, Aad

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary breast cancer has a profound impact on individual family members and on their mutual communication and interactions. The way at-risk women cope with the threat of hereditary breast cancer may depend on the quality of family communication about hereditary breast cancer and on the perceived social support from family and friends. To examine the associations of family communication and social support with long-term psychological distress in a group of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who opted either for regular breast surveillance or prophylactic surgery. The study cohort consisted of 222 women at risk for hereditary breast cancer, who previously participated in a study on the psychological consequences of either regular breast cancer surveillance or prophylactic surgery. General and breast cancer specific distress, hereditary cancer-related family communication, perceived social support, and demographics were assessed. Using structural equation modelling, we found that open communication about hereditary cancer within the family was associated with less general and breast cancer specific distress. In addition, perceived support from family and friends was indirectly associated with less general and breast cancer-specific distress through open communication within the family. These findings indicate that family communication and perceived social support from friends and family are of paramount importance in the long-term adaptation to being at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Attention for these issues needs to be incorporated in the care of women at risk for hereditary breast cancer. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The moderating effect of control over work scheduling and overtime on the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näswall, Katharina; Burt, Christopher D B; Pearce, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of workload demands on perceived job risk using the Job Demand-Control model as a research framework. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that employee control over work scheduling and overtime would moderate the relationship between workload demands and perceived job risk. Ninety-six participants working in a variety of industries completed measures of workload demands, and of control over work scheduling and overtime, and a measure of perceived job risk. Workload demands predicted higher perceptions of job risk. However, the results also suggest that control over overtime moderated this relationship, where those with the combination of high workload demands and low control over overtime reported higher levels of perceived risk. The results indicate that the JDC model is applicable to safety research. The results suggest that employee control over workload demands is an important variable to consider in terms of managing workplace safety. The present study also points to important areas for future research to explore in order to further understand the connection between demands and safety.

  10. Perceived need to increase physical activity levels among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis within a community-based diabetes prevention project FIN-D2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vähäsarja Kati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity is a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes prevention. The perception of a need to change is considered essential in behaviour change processes. However, the existing literature on individuals’ perceived need to change health behaviour is limited. In order to improve understanding of diabetes prevention through increased physical activity levels (PAL, we assessed factors associated with perceiving a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Methods Opportunistic screening was used within a primary-care based lifestyle intervention covering 10 149 men and women at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained at baseline visits. The explored determinants were demographic, anthropometric/clinical, behavioural and psychosocial characteristics, along with four categories of PAL awareness. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results 74% of men (n = 2 577 and 76% of women (n = 4 551 perceived a need to increase their PAL. The participants most likely to perceive this need were inactive, had a larger waist circumference, rated their PAL as insufficient, and were at the contemplation stage of change. Smoking, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and a family history of diabetes were not associated with this perception. The likelihood was also greater among women with less perceived fitness and less education. Demographic factors other than education did not determine participants’ perceived need to increase PAL. PAL overestimators were less likely to perceive the need to increase their PAL than realistic inactive participants. Conclusions Subjective rather than objective health factors appear to determine the perception of a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Client perceptions need to be evaluated in health counselling in order to facilitate a change in PAL. Practical descriptions of the associations between metabolic risk factors, PAL, and

  11. Violence and the perceived risks of taking antiretroviral therapy in US jails and prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    About one in five men living with HIV in the USA passes through a correctional center annually. Jails and prisons are seen therefore as key intervention sites to promote HIV treatment as prevention. Almost no research, however, has examined inmates' perspectives on HIV treatment or their strategies for retaining access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of an exploratory study examining men's perceptions of and experiences with HIV care and ART during incarceration. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV positive male and male-to-female transgendered persons recently released from male correctional centers in Illinois, USA. Interpersonal violence, a lack of safety, and perceived threats to privacy were frequently cited barriers to one's willingness and ability to access and adhere to treatment. Over 60 percent of study participants reported missed doses or sustained treatment interruption (greater than two weeks) because of failure to disclose their HIV status, delayed prescribing, intermittent dosing and out-of-stock medications, confiscation of medications, and medication strikes. Substantial improvements in ART access and adherence are likely to follow organizational changes that make incarcerated men feel safer, facilitate HIV status disclosure, and better protect the confidentiality of inmates receiving ART. This study identified novel causes of ART non-adherence among prisoners and provides first-hand information about how violence, stigma, and the pursuit of social support influence prisoner's decisions to disclose their HIV status or accept ART during incarceration.

  12. 45 CFR 46.406 - Research involving greater than minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit to individual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the well-being of the subject, only if the IRB finds that: (a) The risk represents a minor... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Children...

  13. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit) and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate). Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people's health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.

  14. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Pepper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate. Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.

  15. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Perceived usability and use of custom-made footwear in diabetic patients at high risk for foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Mark L. J.; de Haart, Mirjam; Bus, Sicco A.; Bakker, Jan P. J.; Hacking, Hub G. A.; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    To assess the perceived usability and use of custom- made footwear in diabetic patients who are at high-risk for foot ulceration, and to elucidate the determinants of usability and use. Survey. A total of 153 patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, prior plantar foot ulceration and newly

  17. A cross-cultural study of perceived benefit versus risk as mediators in the trust-acceptance relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C; Vázquez, Esperanza López

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have identified the significant role social trust in regulatory organizations plays in the public acceptance of various technologies and activities. In a cross-cultural investigation, the current work explores empirically the relationship between social trust in management authorities and the degree of public acceptability of hazards for individuals residing in either developed or emerging Latin American economies using confirmatory rather than exploratory techniques. Undergraduates in Mexico, Brazil, and Chile and the United States and Spain assessed trust in regulatory authorities, public acceptance, personal knowledge, and the risks and benefits for 23 activities and technological hazards. Four findings were encountered. (i) In Latin American nations trust in regulatory entities was strongly and significantly (directly as well as indirectly) linked with the public's acceptance of any activity or technology. In developed countries trust and acceptability are essentially linked indirectly (through perceived risk and perceived benefit). (ii) Lack of knowledge strengthened the magnitude and statistical significance of the trust-acceptability relationship in both developed and developing countries. (iii) For high levels of claimed knowledge, the impact on the trust-acceptability relationship varied depending upon the origin of the sample. (iv) Confirmatory analysis revealed the relative importance of perceived benefit over perceived risk in meditating the trust-acceptability causal chain. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  19. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  20. Update of identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images: An annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.; Wernette, D.

    1991-08-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews selected literature published through August 1991 on the identification of perceived risks and methods for estimating the economic impacts of risk perception. It updates the literature review found in Argonne National Laboratory report ANL/EAIS/TM-24 (February 1990). Included in this update are (1) a literature review of the risk perception process, of the relationship between risk perception and economic impacts, of economic methods and empirical applications, and interregional market interactions and adjustments; (2) a working bibliography (that includes the documents abstracted in the 1990 report); (3) a topical index to the abstracts found in both reports; and (4) abstracts of selected articles found in this update

  1. Update of identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images: An annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Clark, D.E.; Wernette, D.

    1991-08-01

    This annotated bibliography reviews selected literature published through August 1991 on the identification of perceived risks and methods for estimating the economic impacts of risk perception. It updates the literature review found in Argonne National Laboratory report ANL/EAIS/TM-24 (February 1990). Included in this update are (1) a literature review of the risk perception process, of the relationship between risk perception and economic impacts, of economic methods and empirical applications, and interregional market interactions and adjustments; (2) a working bibliography (that includes the documents abstracted in the 1990 report); (3) a topical index to the abstracts found in both reports; and (4) abstracts of selected articles found in this update.

  2. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion

    OpenAIRE

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This ‘risk-framing hypothesis’, as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing re...

  3. 45 CFR 46.405 - Research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. 46.405 Section 46.405 Public Welfare... risk but presenting the prospect of direct benefit to the individual subjects. HHS will conduct or fund... procedure that holds out the prospect of direct benefit for the individual subject, or by a monitoring...

  4. Loop diuretics are associated with greater risk of sarcopenia in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Seiko; Naito, Shotaro; Iimori, Soichiro; Takahashi, Daiei; Zeniya, Moko; Sato, Hidehiko; Nomura, Naohiro; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, frequently accompanies chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and the risk factors for sarcopenia among patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD), focusing on the use of drugs. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a cohort of 260 patients with NDD-CKD in a university hospital, recruited between June 2016 and March 2017. We extracted data on patient gender, age, cause of chronic kidney disease, use of drugs, and comorbidities that could potentially affect the prevalence of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association of each factor on the prevalence of sarcopenia. 25.0% of our study subjects had sarcopenia. Multivariable analysis revealed that an increased risk of sarcopenia was significantly associated with age, male gender, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and loop diuretic use (odds ratio, 4.59: 95% confidence interval, 1.81-11.61: P-value 0.001). In our cohort, the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with NDD-CKD was high, and diuretics use, particularly loop diuretic use, was suggested to be a risk factor of sarcopenia. Although loop diuretics are commonly used in patients with CKD, careful consideration of the risk of sarcopenia may be necessary.

  5. Open Single Item of Perceived Risk Factors (OSIPRF toward Cardiovascular Diseases Is an Appropriate Instrument for Evaluating Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological symptoms are considered as one of the aspects and consequences of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, management of which can precipitate and facilitate the process of recovery. Evaluation of the psychological symptoms can increase awareness of treatment team regarding patients’ mental health, which can be beneficial for designing treatment programs (1. However, time-consuming process of interviews and assessment by questionnaires lead to fatigue and lack of patient cooperation, which may be problematic for healthcare evaluators. Therefore, the use of brief and suitable alternatives is always recommended.The use of practical and easy to implement instruments is constantly emphasized. A practical method for assessing patients' psychological status is examining causal beliefs and attitudes about the disease. The causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients, which are significantly related to the actual risk factors for CVDs (2, are not only related to psychological adjustment and mental health but also have an impact on patients’ compliance with treatment recommendations (3.It seems that several risk factors are at play regarding the perceived risk factors for CVDs such as gender (4, age (5, and most importantly, patients’ psychological status (3. Accordingly, evaluation of causal beliefs and perceived risk factors by patients could probably be a shortcut method for evaluation of patients’ psychological health. In recent years, Saeidi and Komasi (5 proposed a question and investigated the perceived risk factors with an open single item: “What do you think is the main cause of your illness?”. According to the authors, the perceived risk factors are recorded in five categories including biological (age, gender, and family history, environmental (dust, smoke, passive smoking, toxic substances, and effects of war, physiological (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, behavioral (lack of exercise, nutrition

  6. A Comprehensive Examination of the Determinants for Food Risk Perception: Focusing on Psychometric Factors, Perceivers' Characteristics, and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myoungsoon; Ju, Youngkee

    2017-01-01

    Risk characteristics within a psychometric paradigm have been of major concern in studies of food risk perception. This study compared the influence of psychometric factors, perceivers' characteristics (i.e., risk attitude, trust, and favorability of the country of origin), and that of the news media on the levels of food risk perception. The interaction of news media with the other two factors was also examined. A nationwide survey (n = 1,500) was conducted. The foods under investigation were Chinese processed foods and Japanese seafood imported to South Korea. In both cases, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that psychometric factors had the greatest influence on food risk perception, followed by perceivers' characteristics and media use. In addition, our results showed that the effect of perceived benefit and dread in Chinese food were salient only for those with little media use. The implication of the interaction effect on food risk perception is discussed in terms of accessibility and limited capacity of information processing.

  7. The Effect of a Web Seal's Placement, Color, and Size, and the E-Retailer's Name on Intention to Purchase Online as Mediated by Perceived Trust and Perceived Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the e-retailer's "Website Name," and a third party assurance seal's position, color, and size on "Intention to Purchase Online". Since "Intention to Purchase Online" is influenced by both "Perceived Trust" and "Perceived Risk," and since…

  8. Associations Between Neighborhood Characteristics, Social Cohesion, and Perceived Sex Partner Risk and Non-Monogamy Among HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Women in the Southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Danielle F; Wingood, Gina M; Kramer, Michael R; Haardörfer, Regine; Adimora, Adaora A; Rubtsova, Anna; Edmonds, Andrew; Goswami, Neela D; Ludema, Christina; Hickson, DeMarc A; Ramirez, Catalina; Ross, Zev; Bolivar, Hector; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2018-07-01

    Neighborhood social and physical factors shape sexual network characteristics in HIV-seronegative adults in the U.S. This multilevel analysis evaluated whether these relationships also exist in a predominantly HIV-seropositive cohort of women. This cross-sectional multilevel analysis included data from 734 women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study's sites in the U.S. South. Census tract-level contextual data captured socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., tract poverty), number of alcohol outlets, and number of non-profits in the census tracts where women lived; participant-level data, including perceived neighborhood cohesion, were gathered via survey. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to evaluate relationships between tract characteristics and two outcomes: perceived main sex partner risk level (e.g., partner substance use) and perceived main sex partner non-monogamy. We tested whether these relationships varied by women's HIV status. Greater tract-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with greater sex partner risk (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.58) among HIV-seropositive women and less partner non-monogamy among HIV-seronegative women (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51-0.92). Perceived neighborhood trust and cohesion was associated with lower partner risk (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.00) for HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. The tract-level number of alcohol outlets and non-profits were not associated with partner risk characteristics. Neighborhood characteristics are associated with perceived sex partner risk and non-monogamy among women in the South; these relationships vary by HIV status. Future studies should examine causal relationships and explore the pathways through which neighborhoods influence partner selection and risk characteristics.

  9. A Neglected Population: Media Consumption, Perceived Risk, and Fear of Crime Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Luzi

    2018-03-01

    The 4.5 million international students worldwide bring in multifold benefits to the advancement of culture, economy, and national security in education host countries. Surprisingly, few prior studies have explored international students' fear of crime, which may harm their mental and physical health and undermine their educational achievements. The current study aims to fill in this research void by investigating international students' fear of crime in line with the cultivation theoretical framework, which postulates that media consumption cultivates fear of crime. The analyses draw on a sample of 398 international students attending nine different public and private universities across the United States. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), I investigate the extent and correlates of students' fear of crime. The findings reveal that international students are more fearful in the United States than in their home countries. SEM results show that controlling for students' fear in their home countries, attention paid to crime news is positively related to fear in the United States, through perceived victimization risk. The SEM results also suggest that exposure to non-U.S. social media (e.g., WeChat and Weibo) is positively related to respondents' fear of crime, whereas exposure to U.S. social media (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) is not related to fear of crime. The current study highlights the importance of studying the impact of fear of crime and social media use on international students.

  10. Role of prostate dose escalation in patients with greater than 15% risk of pelvic lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rojymon; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Uzzo, Robert G.; Pollack, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the radiation dose is a determinant of clinical outcome in patients with a lymph node risk of >15% treated using whole pelvic (WP), partial pelvic (PP), or prostate only (PO) fields. Methods and materials: A total of 420 patients with prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with or without short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) between June 1989 and July 2000 were included in this study. Patients had an initial pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 15% in the patient population studied. These data suggest that the primary tumor takes precedence over lymph node coverage or the use of STAD. Doses >70 Gy are of paramount importance in such intermediate- and high-risk patients

  11. Pathological Outcome following Radical Prostatectomy in Men with Prostate Specific Antigen Greater than 10 ng/ml and Histologically Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiwoong; Kwon, Young Suk; Kim, Sinae; Han, Christopher Sejong; Farber, Nicholas; Kim, Jongmyung; Byun, Seok Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance is now the treatment of choice in men with low risk prostate cancer. Although there is no consensus on which patients are eligible for active surveillance, prostate specific antigen above 10 ng/ml is generally excluded. In an attempt to determine the validity of using a prostate specific antigen cutoff of 10 ng/ml to counsel men considering active surveillance we analyzed a multi-institution database to determine the pathological outcome in men with prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml but histologically favorable risk prostate cancer. We queried a prospectively maintained database of men with histologically favorable risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2003 and 2015. The cohort was categorized into 3 groups based on prostate specific antigen level, including low-less than 10 ng/ml, intermediate-10 or greater to less than 20 and high-20 or greater. Associations of prostate specific antigen group with adverse pathological and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Of 2,125 patients 1,327 were categorized with histologically favorable risk disease. However on multivariate analyses the rates of up staging and upgrading were similar between the intermediate and low prostate specific antigen groups. In contrast compared to the intermediate prostate specific antigen group the high group had higher incidences of up staging (p = 0.02) and upgrading to 4 + 3 or greater disease (p = 0.046). Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates revealed no pairwise intergroup differences except between the low and high groups. Patients with preoperatively elevated prostate specific antigen between 10 and less than 20 ng/ml who otherwise had histologically favorable risk prostate cancer were not at higher risk for adverse pathological outcomes than men with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Restructuring supervision and reconfiguration of skill mix in community pharmacy: Classification of perceived safety and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Fay; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2016-01-01

    Broadening the range of services provided through community pharmacy increases workloads for pharmacists that could be alleviated by reconfiguring roles within the pharmacy team. To examine pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians (PTs)' perceptions of how safe it would be for support staff to undertake a range of pharmacy activities during a pharmacist's absence. Views on supervision, support staff roles, competency and responsibility were also sought. Informed by nominal group discussions, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of 1500 pharmacists and 1500 PTs registered in England. Whilst focused on community pharmacy practice, hospital pharmacy respondents were included, as more advanced skill mix models may provide valuable insights. Respondents were asked to rank a list of 22 pharmacy activities in terms of perceived risk and safety of these activities being performed by support staff during a pharmacist's absence. Descriptive and comparative statistic analyses were conducted. Six-hundred-and-forty-two pharmacists (43.2%) and 854 PTs (57.3%) responded; the majority worked in community pharmacy. Dependent on agreement levels with perceived safety, from community pharmacists and PTs, and hospital pharmacists and PTs, the 22 activities were grouped into 'safe' (n = 7), 'borderline' (n = 9) and 'unsafe' (n = 6). Activities such as assembly and labeling were considered 'safe,' clinical activities were considered 'unsafe.' There were clear differences between pharmacists and PTs, and sectors (community pharmacy vs. hospital). Community pharmacists were most cautious (particularly mobile and portfolio pharmacists) about which activities they felt support staff could safely perform; PTs in both sectors felt significantly more confident performing particularly technical activities than pharmacists. This paper presents novel empirical evidence informing the categorization of pharmacy activities into 'safe,' 'borderline' or 'unsafe

  13. Relationships and cardiovascular risk: perceived spousal ambivalence in specific relationship contexts and its links to inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, B.N.; Bosch, J.A.; Smith, T.W.; Carlisle, M.; Birmingham, W.; Bowen, K.S.; Light, K.C.; O'Hartaigh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Although perceiving one’s social ties as sources of ambivalence has been linked to negative health outcomes, the more specific contexts by which such relationships influence health remain less studied. We thus examined if perceived spousal relationship quality in three theoretically

  14. Exploring the interactions between forecast accuracy, risk perception and perceived forecast reliability in reservoir operator's decision to use forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, M.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in streamflow forecasts at different time scales offer a promise for proactive flood management and improved risk management. Despite the huge potential, previous studies have found that water resources managers are often not willing to incorporate streamflow forecasts information in decisions making, particularly in risky situations. While low accuracy of forecasts information is often cited as the main reason, some studies have found that implementation of streamflow forecasts sometimes is impeded by institutional obstacles and behavioral factors (e.g., risk perception). In fact, a seminal study by O'Connor et al. (2005) found that risk perception is the strongest determinant of forecast use while managers' perception about forecast reliability is not significant. In this study, we aim to address this issue again. However, instead of using survey data and regression analysis, we develop a theoretical framework to assess the user-perceived value of streamflow forecasts. The framework includes a novel behavioral component which incorporates both risk perception and perceived forecast reliability. The framework is then used in a hypothetical problem where reservoir operator should react to probabilistic flood forecasts with different reliabilities. The framework will allow us to explore the interactions among risk perception and perceived forecast reliability, and among the behavioral components and information accuracy. The findings will provide insights to improve the usability of flood forecasts information through better communication and education.

  15. Higher perceived risk of antimicrobials is related to lower antimicrobial usage among pig farmers in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Postma, M; Sjölund, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Siegrist, M; Stärk, K D C

    2016-11-12

    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers' motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers' self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers' actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers' perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers' awareness of the risks of extensive AMU. British Veterinary Association.

  16. A Survey of Knowledge, Individual Perceived Risk, General Perceived Risk, and Behavioral Intentions Regarding Hepatitis B among Students in the Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimiankakolaki, Zohreh; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Gerayllo, Sakineh; Sheikh Samani, Nadia; Hadipour, Hajar

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis B is the most common cause of liver disease, and medical students are a risk group for the disease given their future occupations. The aim of the study was to assess of predictors of hepatitis B in the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University in 2014. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 300 students from the Faculty of nursing, midwifery and health at Shahrekord Islamic Azad University. The students answered questionnaires with items covering demographic characteristics, individual knowledge, public risk perception, perceived personal risk, and behavioral intentions regarding hepatitis B. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 18 software. The mean knowledge score of the students was 4.77 ± 1.71, the mean public risk perception score was 24.22 ± 3.44, the mean perceived personal risk score was 6.51 ± 1.97, and the mean behavioral intention score was 12.06 ± 2.97. There were significant differences in the mean knowledge scores in terms of gender, level of awareness, and level of education. There were also differences in the mean behavioral intention scores in terms of gender and field of study, the mean perceived personal risk scores in terms of level of education and field of study, and the mean public risk perception scores in terms of field of study. According to the results of this study, it is necessary to implement educational intervention in order to allow students to identify risk factors and overcome barriers to understanding the implications of the disease in this context.

  17. Clinicians' use of breast cancer risk assessment tools according to their perceived importance of breast cancer risk factors: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Anne; Kop, Jean-Luc; Antoniou, Antonis C; Cunningham, Alex P; De Pauw, Antoine; Tischkowitz, Marc; Ehrencrona, Hans; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Rhiem, Kerstin; Easton, Douglas F; Devilee, Peter; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Schmutlzer, Rita

    2018-03-05

    The BOADICEA breast cancer (BC) risk assessment model and its associated Web Application v3 (BWA) tool are being extended to incorporate additional genetic and non-genetic BC risk factors. From an online survey through the BOADICEA website and UK, Dutch, French and Swedish national genetic societies, we explored the relationships between the usage frequencies of the BWA and six other common BC risk assessment tools and respondents' perceived importance of BC risk factors. Respondents (N = 443) varied in age, country and clinical seniority but comprised mainly genetics health professionals (82%) and BWA users (93%). Oncology professionals perceived reproductive, hormonal (exogenous) and lifestyle BC risk factors as more important in BC risk assessment compared to genetics professionals (p values personal BC history as BC risk factors. BWA use was positively related to the weight given to hormonal BC risk factors. The importance attributed to lifestyle and BMI BC risk factors was not associated with the use of BWA or any of the other tools. Next version of the BWA encompassing additional BC risk factors will facilitate more comprehensive BC risk assessment in genetics and oncology practice.

  18. National evaluation of the benefits and risks of greater structuring and coding of the electronic health record: exploratory qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Zoe; Fernando, Bernard; Kalra, Dipak; Cresswell, Kathrin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to explore stakeholder views, attitudes, needs, and expectations regarding likely benefits and risks resulting from increased structuring and coding of clinical information within electronic health records (EHRs). Qualitative investigation in primary and secondary care and research settings throughout the UK. Data were derived from interviews, expert discussion groups, observations, and relevant documents. Participants (n=70) included patients, healthcare professionals, health service commissioners, policy makers, managers, administrators, systems developers, researchers, and academics. Four main themes arose from our data: variations in documentation practice; patient care benefits; secondary uses of information; and informing and involving patients. We observed a lack of guidelines, co-ordination, and dissemination of best practice relating to the design and use of information structures. While we identified immediate benefits for direct care and secondary analysis, many healthcare professionals did not see the relevance of structured and/or coded data to clinical practice. The potential for structured information to increase patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment contrasted with concerns regarding the appropriateness of coded information for patients. The design and development of EHRs requires the capture of narrative information to reflect patient/clinician communication and computable data for administration and research purposes. Increased structuring and/or coding of EHRs therefore offers both benefits and risks. Documentation standards within clinical guidelines are likely to encourage comprehensive, accurate processing of data. As data structures may impact upon clinician/patient interactions, new models of documentation may be necessary if EHRs are to be read and authored by patients.

  19. Associations between perceived stress, socioeconomic status, and health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Ekholm, Ola; Nielsen, Line; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2018-02-13

    Previous studies have found that residents of deprived neighbourhoods have an increased risk of perceived stress compared to residents with similar sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics in non-deprived neighbourhoods. While stress may provide an explanatory pathway linking neighbourhood deprivation to health-risk behaviour, only limited research has been undertaken on whether perceived stress influences health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods. Moreover, it is uncertain whether perceived stress has a negative effect on the associations between socioeconomic status and health-risk behaviours in deprived neighbourhoods. The overall aim of this study was to compare perceived stress in deprived neighbourhood with that in the general population, and to examine whether perceived stress was associated with health-risk behaviours (including their co-occurrence) in deprived neighbourhoods. A further aim was to examine whether perceived stress modified the associations between socioeconomic status and health-risk behaviours. Four questions from the Perceived Stress Scale were used as indicators of perceived stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to cross-sectional data from 5113 adults living in 12 deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark. Data from 14,868 individuals from the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 were used as a comparison group with regard to perceived stress. Residents of deprived neighbourhoods had higher odds of perceived stress than the general population. Associations between disposable income, economic deprivation, strain, and perceived stress were found in deprived neighbourhoods. Perceived stress was significantly associated with higher odds of health-risk behaviour, including a low intake of fruit or vegetables, daily smoking, physical inactivity, and the co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours, even after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Perceived stress

  20. Health-damaging policing practices among persons who inject drugs in Mexico: Are deported migrants at greater risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Miguel; Beletsky, Leo; Alamillo, Nathan; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2017-08-01

    Evidence-based public health and criminal justice policies aimed at addressing the structurally vulnerable population of persons who inject drugs (PWID) and who are involved in the immigrant enforcement and deportation system are lacking. Policing practices are critical structural determinants of HIV among PWID. PWID in Mexico who have been deported from the US are at elevated risk of HIV. From 2011 to 2013, 733 PWID were recruited to complete structured questionnaires, including past 6-month experiences with police. Eligible PWID were 18 years or older, had injected in the past month, and resided in Tijuana, Mexico with no intentions of moving. To determine if deportation status was associated with experiences of arrests and problematic policing practices, we conducted separate multivariate logistic regression models for independent policing variables. In multivariate analyses, deportation status was independently associated with higher odds of being arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-2.05), being asked for a bribe (AOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-2.04), and being forced to leave a place of residence (AOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.08-3.70) in the past 6 months. Results highlight a previously poorly understood elements of the US-deportation experience: migrants' experiences with law enforcement post-deportation and the role of deportation policies and practices as structural drivers of public health risk in destination countries. We provide policy recommendations for Mexico and the US based on our findings, which have potential application in other countries seeking to improve enforcement and related policing practices from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  2. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective....... Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  3. Perceived Benefits and Challenges of a Risk-Based Approach to Multidisciplinary Chronic Kidney Disease Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekal, Michelle D; Tam-Tham, Helen; Finlay, Juli; Donald, Maoliosa; Benterud, Eleanor; Thomas, Chandra; Quinn, Robert R; Tam, Kin; Manns, Braden J; Tonelli, Marcello; Bello, Aminu; Tangri, Navdeep; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2018-01-01

    The kidney failure risk equation (KFRE) provides an estimate of risk of progression to kidney failure, and may guide clinical care. We aimed to describe patient, family, and health care provider's perspectives of the perceived benefits and challenges of using a risk-based approach to guide care delivery for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and refine implementation based on their input. We used qualitative methodology to explore perceived benefits and challenges of implementing a risk-based approach (using the KFRE) to determine eligibility for multidisciplinary CKD care in Southern Alberta. We obtained perspectives from patients and families through focus groups, as well as input from health care providers through interviews and open-ended responses from an online survey. Twelve patients/family members participated in 2 focus groups, 16 health care providers participated in an interview, and 40 health care providers responded to the survey. Overall, participants felt that a KFRE-based approach had the potential to improve efficiency of the clinics by targeting care to patients at highest risk of kidney failure; however, they also expressed concerns about the impact of loss of services for lower risk individuals. Participants also articulated concerns about a perceived lack of capacity for adequate CKD patient care in the community. Our implementation strategy was modified as a result of participants' feedback. We identified benefits and challenges to implementation of a risk-based approach to guide care of patients with advanced CKD. Based on these results, our implementation strategy has been modified by removing the category of referral back to primary care alone, and instead having that decision made jointly by nephrologists and patients among low-risk patients.

  4. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S.; Kiss, Ligia; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. Methods We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Findings Data are presented on 446 males aged 10–58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63–7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39–7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62–4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0–51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74–39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20–0.75). Conclusion This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant

  5. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Kiss, Ligia; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Data are presented on 446 males aged 10-58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63-7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39-7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62-4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0-51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74-39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20-0.75). This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant labourers working in high-risk sectors, particularly

  6. Self-Perceived Viral Load and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Known HIV-Positive MSM in San Francisco, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigayoma, John; Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Hecht, Jennifer; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-07-01

    Self-perceived viral suppression status among men who have sex with men (MSM) may impact HIV risk transmission behaviors. We conducted a 2014 cross-sectional survey of MSM in San Francisco and assessed differences in sexual risk behavior among known HIV-positive MSM based on viral suppression of HIV. We collected demographics, self-perceived viral load status, and sexual risk behavior and tested for viral load levels through laboratory assays. Men were categorized in a hierarchical schema of sexual risk behavior categories based on responses to questions regarding recent partners' HIV status, condom use, and sexual positioning. We used Fisher exact tests to assess for differences based on self-perceived viral load status. Out of a sample of 96 known HIV-positive men, 59 men self-reported an undetectable HIV viral load and 9 men self-reported a detectable viral load consented to confirmatory laboratory testing. The sample of self-reported undetectable men had gradually larger proportions of higher-risk sexual practices, whereas the sample of detectable men was evenly distributed across sexual practices. This association was not statistically significant (P = 0.91). Self-perceived viral suppression may influence sexual practices of known HIV-positive MSM, but small sample size, especially within the detectable category, hinders our ability to determine statistical significance. More research is necessary to assess how HIV-positive men account for viral load in sexual decision-making practices, and this research may inform resource allocation and clinical recommendations to maintain the health of MSM populations.

  7. Is greater acculturation associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latinos in South Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia; Ilangovan, Kumar; Li, Hua; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alonzo, Yisel; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association of acculturation with various cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among Latinos with diabetes in South Florida. In a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 300 Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes we measured acculturation using the Marin Short Acculturation Scale. We examined correlations between acculturation and the following 7 CRFs: hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake. Cubans made up 38% of our population; no other Latino subgroup represented over 17% of the sample. Of the 8 outcomes examined, only smoking was associated with increased acculturation; 12% of Latinos in the 2 lowest acculturation groups were current smokers versus 25% in the highest acculturation group (P=0.02). Furthermore, Cuban Americans from our sample had over double the prevalence of smoking compared with non-Cubans in both the lowest and highest acculturation groups. With the exception of smoking, our data does not support a link between increased acculturation and higher prevalence of CRFs in Latinos with diabetes. Smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Latinos and particularly among Cubans are needed.

  8. Environmental fate and ecotoxicological risk of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole across the Katari catchment (Bolivian Altiplano) : application of the GREAT-ER model

    OpenAIRE

    Archundia, D.; Boithias, Laurie; Duwig, Céline; Morel, M. C.; Aviles, G. F.; Martins, J. M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics are emergent contaminants that can induce adverse effects in terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The surface water compartment is of particular concern as it receives direct waste water discharge. Modeling is highlighted as an essential tool to understand the fate and behavior of these compounds and to assess their eco-toxicological risk. This study aims at testing the ability of the GREAT-ER model in simulating sulfamethoxazole (SMX) concentrations in the surface waters of the ari...

  9. Variable use of amiodarone is associated with a greater risk of recurrence of atrial fibrillation in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrić, Goran; Udy, Andrew; Bandeshe, Hiran; Clement, Pierre; Boots, Rob

    2016-04-02

    Atrial fibrillation is a common rhythm disturbance in the general medical-surgical intensive care unit. Amiodarone is a popular drug in this setting but evidence to inform clinical practice remains scarce. We aimed to identify whether variation in the clinical use of amiodarone was associated with recurrent atrial fibrillation. This was a retrospective audit of 177 critically ill patients who developed new-onset atrial fibrillation after admission to a tertiary level medical-surgical trauma intensive care unit. Patterns of amiodarone prescription (including dosage schedule and duration) were assessed in relation to recurrence of atrial fibrillation during the intensive care unit stay. Known recurrence risk factors, such as inotrope administration, cardiac disease indices, Charlson Comorbidity Index, magnesium concentrations, fluid balance, and potassium concentrations, were also included in adjusted analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression modelling. The cohort had a median (interquartile range) age of 69 years (60-75), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evalution II score of 22 (17-28) and Charlson Comorbidity Index of 2 (1-4). A bolus dose of amiodarone followed by infusion (P = 0.02), in addition to continuing amiodarone infusion through to discharge from the intensive care unit (P < 0.001), were associated with less recurrent dysrhythmia. Recurrence after successful treatment was associated with ceasing amiodarone while an inotrope infusion continued (P < 0.001), and was more common in patients with a prior history of congestive cardiac failure (P = 0.04), and a diagnosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (P = 0.02). Amiodarone should be administered as a bolus dose followed immediately with an infusion when treating atrial fibrillation in the medical-surgical intensive care unit. Consideration should be given to continuing amiodarone infusions in patients on inotropes until they are ceased.

  10. Results of comparative evaluations concerning the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.; Renn, O.

    1983-01-01

    The perception of risk has become a mayor research field, after scientists and politicians recognized that scientific risk studies like the Rasmussen-Report on nuclear energy had no large impact on the public acceptance. With our surveys we aimed to combine two methodological approaches (object perception and attitude theory) and to develop a technique in which the psychic process of perceiving and assessing risk-objects by the general public was followed up and analyzed. Psychological experiments in the field of isolating relevant factors of qualitative risk properties as well as demographic surveys for the measurement of the belief structure were carried out. Our results indicate that in objection to the common conception by natural scientists people in general have a good estimative ability to judge the expected value of different risks. But beyond this estimation of fatalities people also use other criteria (like personal control) to order different objects in respect to their riskiness. The perceived risk is but one factor influencing attitude. A simplified model of the acceptance-building process is carried out showing that acceptance-building is not a purely individual process. Individuals are linked together by their social environment so that every individual decision is influenced by the decision of other people

  11. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  12. Perceived Information Security, Information Privacy, Risk and Institutional Trust on Consumer€™s Trust in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Parengkuan, Frane Maorets

    2014-01-01

    E-commerce is widely being used in nowadays generation where the business entrepreneur from small to large institution, has widely taken advantage on the internet to promote business and deliver information about their product. Consumer trust is an important aspect of e-commerce, and understanding its antecedents and consequences is a prime concern. This research designed to find out the influence of Perceived Information Security, Privacy, Risk and Institutional Trust on Consumers Trust in E...

  13. Children at risk: the association between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and attempts in middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Lauren M; Morrissey, Susan L; Cummings, Doyle M

    2007-02-01

    Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among young people. A report from the US Surgeon General called for strategies to prevent suicide, including increasing public awareness of suicide and risks factors, and enhancing research to understand risk and protective factors. Weight perception has been linked to depression and poor self-esteem in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived weight status and suicidal thoughts and actions by gender in middle school youth. All public middle school students in 4 eastern North Carolina counties presented, and with parental permission (n = 5174), completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Middle School Questionnaire. The 3 dependent variables were self-reported thinking, planning, and attempting suicide. Bivariate analyses describe suicidal thoughts and actions; multiple logistic regression models examined the relationship between weight description and suicidal thoughts and actions controlling for age, race, household composition, grades on report cards, and parents' education. Significantly more females than males reported thinking (26% vs 19%), planning (12% vs 9%), and attempting (11% vs 8%) suicide. For females, those who perceived themselves as overweight were significantly more likely to report suicidal thoughts and actions; while for males, perceptions of overweight and underweight were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions. Controlling for personal and family characteristics, perceived weight status was significantly associated with suicidal thoughts and actions in middle school boys and girls.

  14. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project. [Basalt Waste Isolation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab.

  15. Autonomy and Firefighting: Perceived Competence and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Baley, John; Ponder, Joy; Padilla, Miguel A

    2016-12-01

    In workplace settings, autonomy is implicated in employee motivation as well as supervisor autonomy support. As a profession of risk, firefighters may experience greater levels of stress. A self-determination paradigm was applied to the firefighter workplace. Of particular interest were perceived competence (to perform job duties) and the experience of stress. Firefighters' levels of autonomous and controlled regulation were surveyed, along with their perceptions of the autonomy support of their immediate supervisor. Autonomous regulation was positively related to perceived competence, whereas controlled regulation was negatively related. Higher levels of controlled regulation were also connected with greater stress. In contrast, greater perceived autonomy support was associated with decreased stress. Both perceived competence and stress are related to firefighter motivation and autonomy support. Recommendations are offered to increase autonomy support by chief officers.

  16. The early warning application role in facing the environmental crisis and disasters: "Preliminarily risk management strategy for the greater city of Cairo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoneem Yousef M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies, methods using the new technology applications which play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disasters. This paper describes the importance of the remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS in evolving a suitable strategy for disaster, crises and risk management using these technologies. The main objective of this paper is to make a Preliminary risk management plan (it is a logical and systematic method of identifying, analyzing, treating and monitoring the risks involved in any activity or process. This process helps Administrations to focus on priorities and in decisions on deploying limited resources to deal with the highest risks using the Environmental risk map of the greater city of Cairo demonstrating the most high-risk administrative areas in the city, supported by field evidence and different sources of information. to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. This study has shown that how can the early warning Applications can be useful in analyzing, Integrating and managing different datasets for predicting the environmental crises and disasters that may affect the urbanism inside the city and help in the preparation of the Risk management plan.

  17. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  18. Greater sexual risk-taking in female and male recreational MDMA/ecstasy users compared with alcohol drinkers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Aimee L; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown increased sexual risk-taking in experienced MDMA/ecstasy users. The main objectives of this study were to compare levels of sexual risk-taking between a young student sample of predominantly heterosexual MDMA users and alcohol-drinker controls and investigate potential gender differences. Recreational drug use and sexual risk questionnaires were completed by 20 MDMA users (10 females, 10 males) and 20 non-user controls (10 females, 10 males). They were predominantly university students, aged between 20-22 years, mainly heterosexual (n = 37), with three bisexual participants. MDMA users displayed significantly greater levels of sexual risk-taking than the alcohol-drinker controls. It involved significantly higher rates of casual sex, non-condom use during sex, and penetrative sexual risks. This increase in sexual riskiness occurred to a similar extent in males and females. These findings indicate that both female and male ecstasy/MDMA users reported more risky sexual behaviours, than the non-user controls. Further research into the sexual behaviour and sexual risk-taking of heterosexual MDMA users should be conducted because much of the past literature has focused on homosexual participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2014-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing research for the last two decades, and does not cease to appeal to researchers. The present paper examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis. We performed six empirical studies on the interaction between perceived risk and message framing. These studies were conducted in two different countries and employed framed messages targeting skin cancer prevention and detection, physical activity, breast self-examination and vaccination behaviour. Behavioural intention served as the outcome measure. None of these studies found evidence in support of the risk-framing hypothesis. We conclude that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and discuss the ramifications of this for future message framing research.

  20. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van ’t Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D.; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D.; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This ‘risk-framing hypothesis’, as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing research for the last two decades, and does not cease to appeal to researchers. The present paper examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis. We performed six empirical studies on the interaction between perceived risk and message framing. These studies were conducted in two different countries and employed framed messages targeting skin cancer prevention and detection, physical activity, breast self-examination and vaccination behaviour. Behavioural intention served as the outcome measure. None of these studies found evidence in support of the risk-framing hypothesis. We conclude that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and discuss the ramifications of this for future message framing research. PMID:24579986

  1. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  2. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256

  3. A Greater Extent of Insomnia Symptoms and Physician-Recommended Sleep Medication Use Predict Fall Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tuo-Yu; Lee, Soomi; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that insomnia symptoms are associated with falls in later life. This longitudinal study examines the independent and interactive effects of the extent of insomnia symptoms (i.e., multiple co-existing insomnia symptoms) and sleep medications on fall risk over a 2-year follow-up among community-dwelling older adults. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2014, N = 6882, Mage = 74.5 years ± 6.6 years), we calculated the extent of insomnia symptoms (range = 0-4) participants reported (i.e., trouble falling asleep, waking up during the night, waking up too early, and not feeling rested). At each wave, participants reported recent sleep medications use and falls since the last wave, and were evaluated for balance and walking speed. A greater burden of insomnia symptoms and using physician-recommended sleep medications at baseline independently predicted falling after adjusting for known risk factors of falling. The effects of insomnia symptoms on fall risk differed by sleep medications use. The extent of insomnia symptoms exhibited a positive, dose-response relation with risk of falling among those not using sleep medications. Older adults using physician-recommended sleep medications exhibited a consistently higher fall risk irrespective of the extent of insomnia symptoms. The number of insomnia symptoms predicts 2-year fall risk in older adults. Taking physician-recommended sleep medications increases the risks for falling in older adults, irrespective of the presence of insomnia symptoms. Future efforts should be directed toward treating insomnia symptoms, and managing and selecting sleep medications effectively to decrease the risk of falling in older adults. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  5. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  6. Perceived Burdensomeness, Familism, and Suicidal Ideation among Mexican Women: Enhancing Understanding of Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Monica J.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2010-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide and a culturally-relevant construct, familism, was used to examine predictors of suicidal ideation among Mexican and Mexican American women in the United States. A sense of perceived burdensomeness toward others was expected to significantly predict suicidal ideation, especially among women who…

  7. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  8. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kohlbrenner

    Full Text Available Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender people (TG in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%, had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%, and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%. Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48. Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60. However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15. The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination.

  9. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmanen, Tapio (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), e-mail: Tapio.Litmanen@jyu.fi

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  10. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanen, Tapio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  11. Characteristics Associated with HPV Diagnosis and Perceived Risk for Cervical Cancer Among Unmarried, Sexually Active College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L; Cowart, Clayton J; Rosen, Brittany L; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Solari, Kayce D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2018-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the leading cause of cervical cancer. While HPV risk factors have been well studied, less is known about those with HPV and their perceptions about health ramifications. The purposes of this study were to examine unmarried college student women's (1) HPV diagnosis status and (2) perceived risk of getting cervical cancer in the next 5 years. Data were analyzed from 1106 unmarried, sexually active college women aged 18 to 26. Binary logistic regression compared HPV-related knowledge, vaccination-related perceptions, mandate support, healthcare utilization, sexual behaviors, and personal characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the degree to which these factors were associated with perceived risk of cervical cancer diagnosis. Relative to those not diagnosed with HPV, participants who had more lifetime sex partners (P HPV. Those with HPV were more likely to support HPV vaccination mandates (P = 0.036) and have fewer friends vaccinated (P = 0.002). Participants who were uninsured (P = 0.011), diagnosed with HPV (P HPV, despite engaging in risky sexual behaviors, acknowledge their cervical cancer risk and may be strong advocates for HPV vaccination mandates to protect youth against this preventable virus.

  12. Experienced and Perceived Risks of Mycobacterial Diseases: A Cross Sectional Study among Agropastoral Communities in Northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Martin Kilale

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania.We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013.The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25% were TB patients, 68(41.5% were their relatives and 55(33.5% their neighbors. Sixty four (39% knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39% perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01, more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01 than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01.Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.

  13. Experienced and Perceived Risks of Mycobacterial Diseases: A Cross Sectional Study among Agropastoral Communities in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Muhumuza, Julius; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2015-01-01

    The current study was conducted to assess experienced risk factors and perceptions of mycobacterial diseases in communities in northern Tanzania. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Arusha and Manyara regions in Northern Tanzania. We enrolled tuberculosis (TB) patients attending Mount Meru Hospital, Enduleni Hospital and Haydom Lutheran Hospitals in Arusha municipality, Ngorongoro and Mbulu districts, respectively. Patient addresses were recorded during their first visit to the hospitals. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of TB by sputum smear microscopy and/or culture at central laboratory were followed up and interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires, and selected relatives and neighbors were also interviewed. The study was conducted between June 2011 and May 2013. The study involved 164 respondents: 41(25%) were TB patients, 68(41.5%) were their relatives and 55(33.5%) their neighbors. Sixty four (39%) knew a risk factor for mycobacterial disease. Overall, 64(39%) perceived to be at risk of mycobacterial diseases. Exposure to potential risks of mycobacterial diseases were: keeping livestock, not boiling drinking water, large family, smoking and sharing dwelling with TB patients. Rural dwellers were more often livestock keepers (p<0.01), more often shared dwelling with livestock (p<0.01) than urban dwellers. More primary school leavers reported sharing dwelling with TB patients than participants with secondary and higher education (p = 0.01). Livestock keeping, sharing dwelling with livestock, sharing household with a TB patient were perceived risk factors for mycobacterial diseases and the participants were exposed to some of these risk factors. Improving knowledge about the risk factors may protect them from these serious diseases.

  14. Greater early and mid-pregnancy gestational weight gain are associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunrong; Li, Xiating; Chen, Renjuan; Zhou, Xuezhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Wu, Jiangyue; Xu, Shangzhi; Wang, Weiye; Xiao, Mei; Xiong, Guoping; Wang, Jing; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and the offspring. To examine the relationship between the rates of gestational weight gain (RGWG) during early and mid-pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 2090 singleton pregnant women from the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort (TMCHC) without overt diabetes before pregnancy were analyzed in our study. Gestational weight were measured regularly in every antenatal visit. Gestational diabetes mellitus was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate effect of RGWG on GDM. A total of 8.3% (n = 173) of pregnant women were diagnosed with GDM. Women with elevated rate of gestational weight gain prior to glucose screening test (RGWG-PG) increased the risk of GDM (adjusted p-trend = 0.004; odds ratios (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.01-2.68 and OR 2.30,95% CI 1.44-3.66 for 0.297-0.384 kg/wk and 0.385 kg/wk or more vs. 0.213 kg/wk or less, respectively). Women with greater rate of gestational weight gain in the first trimester (RGWG-F) increased the risk of GDM (adjusted p-trend = 0.048; OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.94 and OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.10-2.83 for 0.086-0.200 kg/wk and 0.201 kg/wk or more vs. -0.025 kg/wk or less, respectively). The rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) was significantly associated with GDM only among women with RGWG-F more than 0.086 kg/wk (adjusted p-trend = 0.035; OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.16-3.59 for 0.658 kg/wk or more vs. 0.418 kg/wk or less). Greater early pregnancy weight gain are associated with increased risk of GDM. Elevated weight gain in mid-pregnancy increased the risk of GDM only among pregnant women with greater weight gain in the first trimester. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H-L; Wu, B-H; Xue, W-Q; He, M-G; Fan, F; Ouyang, W-F; Tu, S-L; Zhu, H-L; Chen, Y-M

    2013-11-01

    In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and risk of hip fractures in 646 pairs of incident cases and controls in elderly Chinese. We found that greater consumption of both fruit and vegetables in men and vegetables in women was associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of osteoporotic fractures remains controversial due to limited published evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether consuming fruits and vegetables has a protective effect against hip fractures. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 646 (162 males, 484 females) incident cases (70.9 ± 6.8 years) of hip fractures were enrolled from five hospitals, with 646 sex- and age-matched (±3 years) controls (70.7 ± 6.8 years) from hospitals or the community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intakes using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates by structured questionnaires. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed dose-dependent inverse correlations between the intake of total fruit (p-trend = 0.014), total vegetables (p-trend fruits and vegetables combined (p-trend fruits, vegetables and the combination of fruits and vegetables were 0.53 (0.32-0.87), 0.37 (0.23-0.60) and 0.25 (0.15-0.41), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the benefits remained significant in males (p = 0.001) but not in females (p = 0.210) (p-interaction 0.045). Among the subcategories of fruits and vegetables, similar associations were observed for all subgroups except light-coloured fruits. Our findings suggest that greater consumption of both fruits and vegetables in men and vegetables in women may decrease the risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese.

  16. Perceived social risk in medical decision-making for physical child abuse: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A; Page, Kent; Cook, Lawrence J; Bardsley, Tyler; Olson, Lenora M

    2017-12-22

    The medical literature reports differential decision-making for children with suspected physical abuse based on race and socioeconomic status. Differential evaluation may be related to differences of risk indicators in these populations or differences in physicians' perceptions of abuse risk. Our objective was to understand the contribution of the child's social ecology to child abuse pediatricians' perception of abuse risk and to test whether risk perception influences diagnostic decision-making. Thirty-two child abuse pediatrician participants prospectively contributed 746 consultations from for children referred for physical abuse evaluation (2009-2013). Participants entered consultations to a web-based interface. Participants noted their perception of child race, family SES, abuse diagnosis. Participants rated their perception of social risk for abuse and diagnostic certainty on a 1-100 scale. Consultations (n = 730) meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively analyzed for social risk indicators, social and non-social cues. Using a linear mixed-effects model, we examined the associations of social risk indicators with participant social risk perception. We reversed social risk indicators in 102 cases whilst leaving all injury mechanism and medical information unchanged. Participants reviewed these reversed cases and recorded their social risk perception, diagnosis and diagnostic certainty. After adjustment for physician characteristics and social risk indicators, social risk perception was highest in the poorest non-minority families (24.9 points, 95%CI: 19.2, 30.6) and minority families (17.9 points, 95%CI, 12.8, 23.0). Diagnostic certainty and perceived social risk were associated: certainty increased as social risk perception increased (Spearman correlation 0.21, p < 0.001) in probable abuse cases; certainty decreased as risk perception increased (Spearman correlation (-)0.19, p = 0.003) in probable not abuse cases. Diagnostic decisions changed

  17. Greater Pupil Size in Response to Emotional Faces as an Early Marker of Social-Communicative Difficulties in Infants at High Risk for Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer B; Luyster, Rhiannon J; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth. Attention was overall greater to eyes than mouth, but this varied as a function of the emotion presented. HRA- showed significantly larger pupil size than LRC. Correlations between scanning at 9 months, pupil size at 9 months, and 18-month social-communicative behavior, revealed positive associations between pupil size and attention to both face and eyes at 9 months in LRC, and a negative association between 9-month pupil size and 18-month social-communicative behavior in HRA-. The present findings point to heightened autonomic arousal in HRA-. Further, with greater arousal relating to worse social-communicative functioning at 18 months, this work points to a mechanism by which unaffected siblings might develop atypical social behavior.

  18. Perceived risks of HIV/AIDS and first sexual intercourse among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Rajulton, Fernando; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2009-04-01

    The 'Health Belief Model' (HBM) identifies perception of HIV/AIDS risks, recognition of its seriousness, and knowledge about prevention as predictors of safer sexual activity. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey (CAPS) and hazard models, this study examines the impact of risk perception, considered the first step in HIV prevention, set within the context of the HBM and socio-economic, familial and school factors, on the timing of first sexual intercourse among youth aged 14-22 in Cape Town, South Africa. Of the HBM components, female youth who perceive their risk as 'very small' and males with higher knowledge, experience their sexual debut later than comparison groups, net of other influences. For both males and females socio-economic and familial factors also influence timing of sexual debut, confirming the need to consider the social embeddedness of this sexual behavior as well as the rational components of decision making when designing prevention programs.

  19. Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part II: perceived physical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2009-09-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance. A significant Treatment x Time interaction (p < .001) was present, supporting that MMC participants reported significantly higher PPC scores over time, while no positive changes were present in LA and comparison participants. The results show that an MMC leads to psychological benefits related to achievement motivation. These findings should encourage early childhood educators to consider the effect of instructional climates on children's self-perception.

  20. From which level of competition in clubs are adolescents at greater risk of injury compared with outside-of-clubs athletes? A school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiggi, Maxime; Rindler, Victoria; Griffet, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Sport practice is a key factor in a person's physical and mental health but, for adolescent athletes, some injuries lead to health problems in the long term. The literature provides multiple factors for understanding injury but does not give information about injury risk related to each level of play in a large sample of multisport athletes. This study investigates this relationship in 14- to 19-year-old adolescents. The survey on adolescents and health was conducted in classrooms of France, from February to March 2015. Only sports players were included in the analyses (n = 986). The levels of play were divided into five categories: outside of a club/no competition, club player/no competition, club player/local level, club player/state level and club player/national and higher level. A three-step binary logistic regression analysis with age, sex, type of sport, weekly hours of exposure, and level of play was used. During the past year, 48.1% of the adolescents were injured. Age and sex were not risk factors. The injury risk associated with the increases in level of play is higher than those related to the hours of exposure per week or the type of sport. In clubs, adolescents who do not compete or play at a local level showed no evidence of greater injury risk whereas state-level and national- and higher-level athletes were at greater risk than outside-of-club players (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.13-3.94 and OR = 3.89, 95%CI = 2.07-7.31, respectively). Adolescents who play sports in clubs are clearly more exposed to injury than those who play outside of a club, mainly from state level. Age and sex are not related to injury. Future epidemiological studies should control adolescents' level of play. Special attention should be accorded to the injury risk of athletes playing at these levels of competition.

  1. Role of Travel Motivations, Perceived Risks and Travel Constraints on Destination Image and Visit Intention in Medical Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad J.; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod S.; Ahmed, Sahrish

    2017-01-01

    Travel motivations, perceived risks and travel constraints, along with the attributes and characteristics of medical tourism destinations, are important issues in medical tourism. Although the importance of these factors is already known, a comprehensive theoretical model of the decision-making process of medical tourists has yet to be established, analysing the intricate relationships between the different variables involved. This article examines a large body of literature on both medical and conventional tourism in order to propose a comprehensive theoretical framework of medical tourism decision-making. Many facets of this complex phenomenon require further empirical investigation. PMID:28417022

  2. Role of Travel Motivations, Perceived Risks and Travel Constraints on Destination Image and Visit Intention in Medical Tourism: Theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad J; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod S; Ahmed, Sahrish

    2017-02-01

    Travel motivations, perceived risks and travel constraints, along with the attributes and characteristics of medical tourism destinations, are important issues in medical tourism. Although the importance of these factors is already known, a comprehensive theoretical model of the decision-making process of medical tourists has yet to be established, analysing the intricate relationships between the different variables involved. This article examines a large body of literature on both medical and conventional tourism in order to propose a comprehensive theoretical framework of medical tourism decision-making. Many facets of this complex phenomenon require further empirical investigation.

  3. Role of Travel Motivations, Perceived Risks and Travel Constraints on Destination Image and Visit Intention in Medical Tourism; Theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel motivations, perceived risks and travel constraints, along with the attributes and characteristics of medical tourism destinations, are important issues in medical tourism. Although the importance of these factors is already known, a comprehensive theoretical model of the decision-making process of medical tourists has yet to be established, analysing the intricate relationships between the different variables involved. This article examines a large body of literature on both medical and conventional tourism in order to propose a comprehensive theoretical framework of medical tourism decision-making. Many facets of this complex phenomenon require further empirical investigation.

  4. Effects of Message Framing on Influenza Vaccination: Understanding the Role of Risk Disclosure, Perceived Vaccine Efficacy, and Felt Ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Pjesivac, Ivanka; Jin, Yan

    2017-10-20

    The current study examined the effects of framing in promotional health messages on intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza virus. The findings of an experimental study (N = 86) indicated that exposure to both benefits and side effects of vaccination (gain-framed with risk disclosure message) led to lower intention to receive the flu vaccine. This relationship was mediated by both perceived vaccine efficacy and felt ambivalence in a serial order, revealing the underlying psychological mechanisms important for understanding health-related behaviors. Theoretical implications of constructing sub-framed messages are discussed and the concept of second-order framing is introduced.

  5. Perceived usability and use of custom-made footwear in diabetic patients at high risk for foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Mark L J; de Haart, Mirjam; Bus, Sicco A; Bakker, Jan P J; Hacking, Hub G A; Nollet, Frans

    2014-04-01

    To assess the perceived usability and use of custom- made footwear in diabetic patients who are at high-risk for foot ulceration, and to elucidate the determinants of usability and use. Survey. A total of 153 patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, prior plantar foot ulceration and newly prescribed custom-made footwear, recruited from 10 Dutch multidisciplinary foot clinics. The Questionnaire of Usability Evaluation was used to assess the patients' perception of weight, appearance, comfort, durability, donning/doffing, stability, benefit and overall appreciation of their prescription footwear (all expressed as visual analogue scores). Data on priorities for usability and footwear use (in h/day) were obtained from patient reports. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of usability and use. Median (interquartile range) score for overall appreciation was 8.3 (7.1-9.1). Scores ranged from 6.5 (4.5-8.6) for weight to 9.6 (6.3-9.9) for donning/doffing. Footwear comfort was listed most often (33.3%) as the highest priority. Footwear use was benefit of the footwear (p = 0.045). Perceived usability of footwear was mostly positive, although individual scores and priorities varied considerably. Footwear use was low to moderate and dependent only on the perceived benefit of the footwear. Therefore, practitioners should focus on enhancing the patient's ap-preciation of the therapeutic benefit of custom-made footwear.

  6. Assessing perceived risk and STI prevention behavior: a national population-based study with special reference to HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Leval

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.

  7. The perceived health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines: a comparative multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Cox, Patrick; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2008-02-01

    Radon and overhead powerlines are two radiation risk cases that have raised varying levels of concern among the general public and experts. Despite both involving radiation-a typically feared and unseen health hazard-individuals' perceptions of the two risk cases may invoke rather different factors. We examined individual and geographic-contextual factors influencing public perceptions of the health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines in a comparative research design, utilizing a postal questionnaire with 1,528 members of the general public (response rate 28%) and multilevel modeling techniques. This study found that beliefs about the two risk cases mainly differed according to the level of "exposure"-defined here in terms of spatial proximity. We argue that there are two alternative explanations for this pattern of findings: that risk perception itself varies directly with proximity, or that risk is more salient to concerned people in the exposed areas. We also found that while people living in high radon areas are more concerned about the risks of indoor radon gas, they find these risks more acceptable and have more trust in authorities. These results might reflect the positive effects of successive radon campaigns in high radon areas, which may have raised awareness and concern, and at the same time may have helped to increase trust by showing that the government takes the health risks of indoor radon gas seriously, suggesting that genuine risk communication initiatives may have positive impacts on trust in risk management institutions.

  8. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  9. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case-control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Are female daycare workers at greater risk of cytomegalovirus infection? A secondary data analysis of CMV seroprevalence between 2010 and 2013 in Hamburg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranzinger, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Close contact with asymptomatic children younger than three years is a risk factor for a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV infection. In pregnant women, such primary infection increases the risk of CMV-induced feto- or embryopathy. Daycare providers have therefore implemented working restrictions for pregnant daycare workers (DCWs in accordance with legislation and guidelines for maternity protection. However, little is known about the infection risk for DCWs. We therefore compared the prevalence of CMV antibodies of pregnant DCWs to that of female blood donors (BDs.Method: In a secondary data analysis, the prevalence of anti-CMV IgG among pregnant DCWs (N=509 in daycare centers (DCCs was compared to the prevalence of female first-time BDs (N=14,358 from the greater region of Hamburg, Germany. Data collection took place between 2010 and 2013. The influence of other risk factors such as age, pregnancies and place of residence was evaluated using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of CMV antibodies in pregnant DCWs was higher than in female BDs (54.6 vs 41.5%; OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3–1.9. The subgroup of BDs who had given birth to at least one child and who lived in the city of Hamburg (N=2,591 had a prevalence of CMV antibodies similar to the prevalence in pregnant DCWs (53.9 vs 54.6%; OR 0.9; 95%CI 0.8–1.2. Age, pregnancy history and living in the center of Hamburg were risk factors for CMV infections.Conclusion: The comparison of pregnant DCWs to the best-matching subgroup of female first-time BDs with past pregnancies and living in the city of Hamburg does not indicate an elevated risk of CMV infection among DCWs. However, as two secondary data sets from convenience samples were used, a more detailed investigation of the risk factors other than place of residence, age and maternity was not possible. Therefore, the CMV infection risk in DCWs should be further studied by taking into consideration the potential preventive

  11. Emergency Department Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Prevention: Multisite Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Implemented Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Pallin, Daniel J; Mandel, Leslie; Sinnette, Corine; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-02-01

    Existing knowledge of emergency department (ED) catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention is limited. We aimed to describe the motivations, perceived risks for CAUTI acquisition, and strategies used to address CAUTI risk among EDs that had existing CAUTI prevention programs. In this qualitative comparative case study, we enrolled early-adopting EDs, that is, those using criteria for urinary catheter placement and tracking the frequency of catheters placed in the ED. At 6 diverse facilities, we conducted 52 semistructured interviews and 9 focus groups with hospital and ED participants. All ED CAUTI programs originated from a hospitalwide focus on CAUTI prevention. Staff were motivated to address CAUTI because they believed program compliance improved patient care. ED CAUTI prevention was perceived to differ from CAUTI prevention in the inpatient setting. To identify areas of ED CAUTI prevention focus, programs examined ED workflow and identified 4 CAUTI risks: (1) inappropriate reasons for urinary catheter placement; (2) physicians' limited involvement in placement decisions; (3) patterns of urinary catheter overuse; and (4) poor insertion technique. Programs redesigned workflow to address risks by (1) requiring staff to specify the medical reason for catheter at the point of order entry and placement; (2) making physicians responsible for determining catheter use; (3) using catheter alternatives to address patterns of overuse; and (4) modifying urinary catheter insertion practices to ensure proper placement. Early-adopting EDs redesigned workflow to minimize catheter use and ensure proper insertion technique. Assessment of ED workflow is necessary to identify and modify local practices that may increase CAUTI risk.

  12. Too risky to settle: avian community structure changes in response to perceived predation risk on adults and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Fletcher, Robert J.; Sieving, Kathryn E.; Dorazio, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk is widely hypothesized as an important force structuring communities, but this potential force is rarely tested experimentally, particularly in terrestrial vertebrate communities. How animals respond to predation risk is generally considered predictable from species life-history and natural-history traits, but rigorous tests of these predictions remain scarce. We report on a large-scale playback experiment with a forest bird community that addresses two questions: (i) does perceived predation risk shape the richness and composition of a breeding bird community? And (ii) can species life-history and natural-history traits predict prey community responses to different types of predation risk? On 9 ha plots, we manipulated cues of three avian predators that preferentially prey on either adult birds or offspring, or both, throughout the breeding season. We found that increased perception of predation risk led to generally negative responses in the abundance, occurrence and/or detection probability of most prey species, which in turn reduced the species richness and shifted the composition of the breeding bird community. Species-level responses were largely predicted from the key natural-history trait of body size, but we did not find support for the life-history theory prediction of the relationship between species' slow/fast life-history strategy and their response to predation risk.

  13. Physical activity during pregnancy: predictors of change, perceived support and barriers among women at increased risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja; Aittasalo, Minna; Raitanen, Jani; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Kujala, Urho M; Luoto, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the predictors of change in intensity-specific leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy, and the perceived support and barriers of LTPA in Finnish pregnant women at increased risk of gestational diabetes. The study population consisted of 399 pregnant women who participated in a randomized controlled trial aiming to prevent gestational diabetes. Evaluation of LTPA was based on a self-report at baseline, 26-28, and 36-37 weeks' gestation. Data on predictors of change, perceived support and barriers were collected with questionnaires and from the maternity cards. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between the variables. The average weekly minutes of light-intensity LTPA were 179 at baseline, 161 at 26-28 weeks' gestation, and 179 at 36-37 weeks' gestation. The corresponding minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA were 187, 133 and 99. At 26-28 weeks' gestation, the strongest predictors for light-intensity LTPA were meeting the PA recommendations prior to pregnancy, having polytechnic education and working part-time, while having a physically active spouse prior to pregnancy was the strongest predictor for moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA. The people and/or factors that encouraged women to LTPA the most were the spouse, a child, other family members and weather, whereas tiredness, nausea, perceived health, work and lack of time restricted their LTPA the most. The strongest predictors for maintaining LTPA during pregnancy were pre-pregnancy LTPA, education, working part-time and a spouse's LTPA. Most common barriers were perceived health, work and lack of time.

  14. Perceived neighborhood partner availability, partner selection, and risk for sexually transmitted infections within a cohort of adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A; Chung, Shang-En; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    This research examined the association between a novel measure of perceived partner availability and discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics as well as trajectories of ideal partner preferences and perceptions of partner availability over time. A clinic-recruited cohort of adolescent females (N = 92), aged 1619 years, were interviewed quarterly for 12 months using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants ranked the importance of characteristics for their ideal main sex partner and then reported on these characteristics for their current main partner. Participants reported on perceptions of availability of ideal sex partners in their neighborhood. Paired t-tests examined discordance between ideal and actual partner characteristics. Random-intercept regression models examined repeated measures. Actual partner ratings were lower than ideal partner preferences for fidelity, equaled ideal preferences for emotional support and exceeded ideal preferences for social/economic status and physical attractiveness. Discordance on emotional support and social/economic status was associated with sex partner concurrency. Participants perceived low availability of ideal sex partners. Those who perceived more availability were less likely to be ideal/actual discordant on fidelity [OR = .88, 95% CI: .78, 1.0]. Neither ideal partner preferences nor perceptions of partner availability changed over 12 months. Current main sex partners met or exceeded ideal partner preferences in all domains except fidelity. If emotional needs are met, adolescents may tolerate partner concurrency in areas of limited partner pools. Urban adolescent females who perceive low availability may be at increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) because they may be more likely to have nonmonogamous partners. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Online Shopping and Moderating Role of Innovativeness and Perceived Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rizwan; Hamna Sultan; Sadia Parveen; Shumaila Nawaz; Samreen Sattar; Maryam Sana

    2013-01-01

    Time and trend wait for none. We are no more in Stone Age. It is 2012, Glass Age, where time is money, so better skips the malls and start online shopping. The basis of this revision is to discover the influence of different variables on future intention of online shopping and the perception of people about online shopping as how people perceive shopping via internet by using technology. This research offers insight into the consumer’s attitude. The outcomes have very significant effects on s...

  16. Risk Aversion: As Perceived by U.S. and Swedish Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    marginalized traditional morality . (Furedi 1997, 153f) The value of risk aversion means to not put people at risk and to regulate behavior. The main...difference compared to traditional morality lies in the individualistic orientation of risk aversion (Furedi 1997, 163) Ulrich Beck German Professor of...that distinguishes one group of people from another (Hofstede 2005, 3ff). Studying differences in culture demands a position of cultural relativism

  17. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived Risk Influence on the Consumer Attitude to Private Labels in the Product’s Life Cycle Growth Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between purchasing risk associated with private labels and consumer attitudes towards private labels in different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle. The first part of the paper is devoted to a brief literature review of the relevant constructs. The second part describes the research and summarizes its results. Descriptive research was conducted on the Croatian market relating to private labels in three different product categories in the growth stage of the product life cycle: liquid soap, chocolate and facial care products. The results confirm negative correlation between perceived risk and attitudes towards private labels in all analysed categories.

  19. Knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff in higher learning institutes: The role of trust and perceived risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse knowledge sharing behaviour among non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. This research focuses on the mediation impact of perceived risk on trust and knowledge sharing behaviour. The research also proposes actions that can be taken by higher learning institutions to enhance trust among the staff in order to create a knowledge sharing environment at the workplace. This research applied confirmatory factor analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to evaluate the proposed measurement model and proved the research hypotheses. The findings from the research show that perceived risk plays a strong mediating role between trust and knowledge sharing behaviour among the non-academic staff of higher learning institutions. The SEM analysis also confirmed that the research model shows a good fit. This research highlights issues concerning knowledge sharing practices among non-academic staff and provides some recommendations to the managers to address these issues. The researchers agreed that more research needs to be done in this area as there are aspects that are yet to be explored. The findings of this research serve to add to the literature on knowledge sharing focussing on non-academic staff of higher learning institutions.

  20. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  1. Giving in to Group Pressure: The Impact of Socialization and Risk on Perceived Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Katharine A.; Platania, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The current study applies the perspective of decision theory to understanding how choices are made in an in-group setting involving social pressure and risk. Two hundred sixty-one undergraduate students provided assessments of consequences associated with illegally consuming alcohol in different environments with differing degrees of risk. In…

  2. Perceived risk and benefit of nuclear waste repositories: four opinion clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Stauffacher, Michael; Krütli, Pius

    2013-06-01

    Local public resistance can block the site-selection process, construction, and operation of nuclear waste repositories. Social science has established that the perception of risks and benefits, trust in authorities, and opinion on nuclear energy play important roles in acceptance. In particular, risk and benefit evaluations seem critical for opinion formation. However, risks and benefits have rarely been studied independently and, most often, the focus has been on the two most salient groups of proponents and opponents. The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the often-neglected majority of people holding ambivalent or indifferent opinions. We used cluster analysis to examine the sample (N = 500, mailed survey in German-speaking Switzerland) in terms of patterns of risk and benefit perception. We reveal four significantly different and plausible clusters: one cluster with high-benefit ratings in favor of a repository and one cluster with high-risk ratings opposing it; a third cluster shows ambivalence, with high ratings on both risk and benefit scales and moderate opposition, whereas a fourth cluster seems indifferent, rating risks and benefits only moderately compared to the ambivalent cluster. We conclude that a closer look at the often neglected but considerable number of people with ambivalent or indifferent opinions is necessary. Although the extreme factions of the public will most probably not change their opinion, we do not yet know how the opinion of the ambivalent and indifferent clusters might develop over time. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Risks versus benefits of medication use during pregnancy : What do women perceive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bianca; Bijlsma, Maarten J; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina Cm; Morssink, Leonard P; van Puijenbroek, Eugene; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Hak, Eelko; de Vries, Tjalling W

    2018-01-01

    Background: Understanding perception of risks and benefits is essential for informed patient choices regarding medical care. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of risks and benefits of 9 drug classes during pregnancy and associations with women's characteristics. Methods:

  4. Actual and perceived collision risk for bird strikes at Namibian airports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Namibia's two major airports, Hosea Kutako International and Eros (domestic), 117 bird strike collision incidents were recorded between 2006 and 2010. A risk assessment, which included a proposed risk weighting methodology, was conducted at Hosea Kutako and Eros airports, which estimated the probability of an ...

  5. Impact of Perceived Risk and Friend Influence on Alcohol and Marijuana Use among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianos, Ashley L.; Rosen, Brittany L.; Montgomery, LaTrice; Barry, Adam E.; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of Adolescent Health Risk Behavior Survey data (N=937), examining associations between lifetime alcohol and marijuana use with intrapersonal (i.e., risk perceptions) and interpersonal (e.g., peer approval and behavior) factors. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses contend students reporting lifetime…

  6. Adolescents' perceived risk and personal experience with natural disasters: an evaluation of cognitive heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G

    1996-02-01

    Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.

  7. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Zoë M; Schnippel, Kathryn; Sharp, Alana

    2016-01-01

    Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context. We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing. Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p informal settlement households (β1 = 0.021, p = 0.136, R2 = 0.014). These analyses reveal that the set of characteristics identified by the Global Plan as defining key populations do not adequately predict

  8. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L; Delamater, Paul L; Boules, Caroline R; Upperman, Crystal R; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2015-12-04

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change's health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change-due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards-already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents' climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  9. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen L.; Delamater, Paul L.; Boules, Caroline R.; Upperman, Crystal R.; Mitchell, Clifford S.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126). We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages. PMID:26690184

  10. Vulnerable Populations Perceive Their Health as at Risk from Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Akerlof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is already taking a toll on human health, a toll that is likely to increase in coming decades. The relationship between risk perceptions and vulnerability to climate change’s health threats has received little attention, even though an understanding of the dynamics of adaptation among particularly susceptible populations is becoming increasingly important. We demonstrate that some people whose health will suffer the greatest harms from climate change—due to social vulnerability, health susceptibility, and exposure to hazards—already feel they are at risk. In a 2013 survey we measured Maryland residents’ climate beliefs, health risk perceptions, and household social vulnerability characteristics, including medical conditions (n = 2126. We paired survey responses with secondary data sources for residence in a floodplain and/or urban heat island to predict perceptions of personal and household climate health risk. General health risk perceptions, political ideology, and climate beliefs are the strongest predictors. Yet, people in households with the following characteristics also see themselves at higher risk: members with one or more medical conditions or disabilities; low income; racial/ethnic minorities; and residence in a floodplain. In light of these results, climate health communication among vulnerable populations should emphasize protective actions instead of risk messages.

  11. Determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection: population-based observations in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangala, Sheila Monde

    2008-01-01

    Background Perception of risk of HIV infection has been suggested to be an important area of study as it can be an assumed to be an indicator of one’s understanding of susceptibility to HIV infection and a precursor to behavioral change, which could determine future decision making regarding risk taking. Studies that have examined perception of HIV risk and its determinants still remain limited. Zambia is among the worst affected countries by the HIV pandemic in the sub-Sahara African r...

  12. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Risk perception and perceived self-efficacy of deaf and hard-of-hearing seniors and young adults in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Alina; Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Neuhauser, Linda

    The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults. The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90). Significant differences were found between Deaf/HH young adults and seniors in both the sources of self-efficacy and risk perception and their attitudes toward preparedness. All groups demonstrated high resilience. Deaf/HH young professionals expressed more concern about their risk in an emergency than Deaf/HH college students. Alternately, the risk perception of Deaf/HH older adults was often rooted in their past experiences (survival of past emergencies, inaccessibility of communications during drills). Policy implications include the need to dedicate more resources to increasing accessibility and relevance of emergency communications technology for Deaf/HH populations. This could help increase adaptability before, during, and after emergencies among all groups of Deaf/HH people, particularly among young Deaf/HH professionals.

  14. Call to claim your prize: Perceived benefits and risk drive intention to comply in a mass marketing scam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Liu, Pi-Ju; Hanoch, Yaniv; Xi, Patricia M; Klapatch, Lukas

    2018-06-01

    Mass marketing scams extract an enormous toll, yet the literature on scams is just emerging. In Experiment 1, 211 adults reviewed a solicitation and rated their intention of contacting an "activation number" for a prize. Scarcity and authority were manipulated. Many (48.82%) indicated some willingness to contact to "activate" the winnings. Intention of responding was inversely related to the perception of risk (b = -.441, p < .001) and positively associated with perception of benefits (b = .554, p < .001), but not with the experimental condition. In Experiment 2, 291 adults were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions (low, medium, or high activation fee), and were asked to report willingness to contact. Activation fees decreased intent to contact, but percentages remained high (25.70%), with higher perception of risk reducing contact rates (b = -.581, p < .001), and benefit perception increasing intent to contact (b = .381, p < .001). Our studies indicate that consumers are responding to perceived risks and benefits in their decision-making, regardless of persuasion elements used by scammers. In summary, our studies find that consumers with lower levels of education and high perception of benefits are at increased risk for mass marketing scams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The impact of intensity on perceived risk from unconventional shale gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livy, Mitchell R; Gopalakrishnan, Sathya; Klaiber, H Allen; Roe, Brian E

    2018-07-15

    The recent boom in the extraction of natural gas from subsurface shale deposits due to advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies has raised concern around environmental risks. Reliable measures of how residents view these risks are therefore a necessary first step in evaluating policies that regulate the industry through risk mitigation measures. We conduct a choice experiment targeting residents in an area of Ohio with significant shale drilling activity, and find that households are willing to pay to avoid high intensities of shale development and truck traffic. Our analysis presents new policy-relevant evidence of preferences associated with unconventional shale gas reserves, and highlights the tradeoffs between activity intensity at each site and the number of sites in aggregate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, George David

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease. DESIGN: A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We obtained individual....... REVIEW METHODS: Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models...... versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (

  17. How professionals perceive types of risk in public service innovation: Reports from Copenhagen municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timeus, Krista; Ricard, Lykke Margot

    The paper addresses two questions; what do professionals working in the public administration understand by ‘risk’ in relation to their work on innovation?; and how do these professionals understand their own role in managing risks of innovation? The paper takes an inductive approach and focuses....... In the last five years, Copenhagen municipality has implemented programmes and partnerships for innovation, especially in social services, such as a new ‘innovation house’ to coordinate the municipality’s innovation strategy across all administrative departments. This context makes it a suitable case to study...... on individuals, namely, professionals in Copenhagen municipality working on public services innovation. Such innovation includes new services or new methods of service delivery. Although all types of innovation include some risk, in public services, risks are exacerbated by the vulnerability of many users...

  18. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  19. Combined and Relative Effect Levels of Perceived Risk, Knowledge, Optimism, Pessimism, and Social Trust on Anxiety among Inhabitants Concerning Living on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongjun; Guo, Zengli; Zhou, Li; Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Qinfeng; Zhu, Huike

    2016-11-02

    This research aims at combined and relative effect levels on anxiety of: (1) perceived risk, knowledge, optimism, pessimism, and social trust; and (2) four sub-variables of social trust among inhabitants concerning living on heavy metal contaminated soil. On the basis of survey data from 499 Chinese respondents, results suggest that perceived risk, pessimism, optimism, and social trust have individual, significant, and direct effects on anxiety, while knowledge does not. Knowledge has significant, combined, and interactive effects on anxiety together with social trust and pessimism, respectively, but does not with perceived risk and optimism. Social trust, perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism have significantly combined effects on anxiety; the five variables as a whole have stronger predictive values than each one individually. Anxiety is influenced firstly by social trust and secondly by perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism. Each of four sub-variables of social trust has an individual, significant, and negative effect on anxiety. When introducing four sub-variables into one model, trust in social organizations and in the government have significantly combined effects on anxiety, while trust in experts and in friends and relatives do not; anxiety is influenced firstly by trust in social organization, and secondly by trust in the government.

  20. The effect of perceived risks on the demand for vaccination: results from a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Z Sadique

    Full Text Available The demand for vaccination against infectious diseases involves a choice between vaccinating and not vaccinating, in which there is a trade-off between the benefits and costs of each option. The aim of this paper is to investigate these trade-offs and to estimate how the perceived prevalence and severity of both the disease against which the vaccine is given and any vaccine associated adverse events (VAAE might affect demand. A discrete choice experiment (DCE was used to elicit stated preferences from a representative sample of 369 U.K. mothers of children below 5 years of age, for three hypothetical vaccines. Cost was included as an attribute, which enabled estimation of the willingness to pay for different vaccines having differing levels of the probability of occurrence and severity of both the infection and VAAE. The results suggest that the severity of the health effects associated with both the diseases and VAAEs exert an important influence on the demand for vaccination, whereas the probability of these events occurring was not a significant predictor. This has important implications for public health policy, which has tended to focus on the probability of these health effects as the main influence on decision making. Our results also suggest that anticipated regrets about the consequences of making the wrong decision also exert an influence on demand.

  1. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk in computed tomography examinations in some selected CT facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    The effective dose and cancer risk were determined for patients undergoing seven different types of CT examinations in two CT facilities in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. The two facilities, namely; the Diagnostic Centre Ltd and Cocoa Clinic were chosen because of their significant patient throughput. The effective dose was from patient data namely age, sex, height, weight and technique factors; namely scan length, KVp (Kilovolts peak), mAs (milliamperes per second) and CTDIv from the control console of the CT machines. The effective dose was also estimated using the dose length product (DLP) and k Coefficients which is the anatomic region specific conversion factors. The cancer risk for each patient for a particular examination was determined from the effective dose, age and sex of each patient with the help of BEIR VII. In all, a total number of 800 adult patients with 400 from each of the two CT facilities were compiled. From Diagnostic Centre Ltd, the average effective dose was 5.61mSv in the range of 1.41mSv to 13.34mSv with average BMI of 26.19kg/m 2 in the range of 16.90kg/m 2 to 48.28kg/m 2 for all types of examinations. The average cancer risk was 0.0458 Sv - 1 for 400 patients in the range of 0.0001 Sv - 1 to 0.3036 Sv -1 compared with a population of 900 patients undergoing CT examination per year. From Cocoa Clinic, the average effective dose was 3.91MSv in the range of 0.54mSv to 27.32mSv with an average BMI of 25.59 kg/m 2 in the range of 17.18kg/m 2 to 35.34kg/m 2 and the average cancer risk was 0.0371 Sv - 1 in the range of 0.0001 Sv - 1 and 0.7125 Sv -1 . Some of the values were within the range of values of typical for typical effective dose for CT examinations reported by the ICRP. It was evident from this study that the variations in scanning parameters had significant impact on the effective doses to patient for similar CT examinations among the two facilities.(au)

  2. High perceived discrimination and no family support increase risk of poor quality of life in gender dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surilena Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Among the 106 MtF gender dysphoric individuals of Sanggar Swara Jakarta with an age range of 18-45 years, 78.3% had no family support, 64.1% no peer support, 62.3% high perception discrimination, 64.1% low self-esteem, 36% extreme family relations, 44.3% depression, 59.4% anxiety, 35.8% stress and 62.3% poor quality of life. Employment, perception of discrimination, self-esteem, family support, and anxiety were significantly associated with quality of life (p<0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that perceived discrimination (Odds Ratio=13.89; 95% CI: 5.89-11.99, and family support (Odds Ratio=29.11; 95% CI: 2.45-8.21 were significantly associated with quality of life. Conclusion High perceived discrimination and no family support increase the risk of poor quality of life in MtF gender dysphoric individuals. These findings suggest the need for prevention and intervention of stigmatization and discrimination that should have a special focus on families with MtF gender dysphoric individuals.

  3. Perceived Risk of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer among Adolescent Women in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jung Lin, MSN, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Participants lacked a comprehensive understanding of cervical cancer prevention and were not aware of their susceptibility to HPV infection. Adolescent women rarely obtained HPV-related information from healthcare professionals. Appropriate education strategies should be developed and conducted by healthcare professionals to reduce the risk of cervical cancer threat from adolescence.

  4. Education and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: Potential Mechanisms Such as Literacy, Perceived Constraints, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Rudd, Rima E.; Martin, Laurie T.; Nandi, Arijit; Wilhelm, Aude; Buka, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Education is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; however the mechanisms are poorly understood. The study objectives were to evaluate the extent to which rarely measured factors (literacy, time preference, sense of control) and more commonly measured factors (income, depressive symptomatology, body mass index) in…

  5. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  6. Assessing perceived health risks of climate change : Canadian public opinion 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This paper discussed a survey conducted to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of Canadians in relation to climatic change. A total of 1600 telephone surveys were conducted with a broad range of age groups. The study showed that climate change is considered by many Canadians to pose a significant threat at both local and global levels. Evidence of climate change has been noted in many communities. However, relatively few Canadians understand how climate change may impact human health. While many Canadians associated climatic change with air pollution hazards and ozone depletion, most Canadians were not aware of the potential negative health impacts related to changes in disease vectors, extreme weather events, and coastal flooding. The strongest awareness and concern about health impacts were expressed by Canadians concerned about global warming. Individuals with chronic health conditions were more likely to be attuned to the potential health impacts of climatic change. Seniors viewed climate change as a longer term problem. Only 10 per cent of Canadians viewed global warming as a major health risk. Sixty-nine per cent of Canadians believed that global warming was happening, while 63 per cent attributed climate change to human activity. Nearly half of all respondents believed that an extreme weather disaster would affect their community during the course of their lifetime. The report suggested that marketing or communications campaigns should build public awareness of the health risks associated with direct or proximal environmental risks. Information about health risks should be specific, and communications should be tailored to age cohorts. Television and print media should be used to build awareness of the health risks of climate change. Provincial concerns related to climatic change were also outlined. tabs., figs

  7. Transphyseal ACL Reconstruction in Skeletally Immature Patients: Does Independent Femoral Tunnel Drilling Place the Physis at Greater Risk Compared With Transtibial Drilling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Lakomkin, Nikita; Fabricant, Peter D; Lawrence, J Todd R

    2016-06-01

    Most studies examining the safety and efficacy of transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for skeletally immature patients utilize transtibial drilling. Independent femoral tunnel drilling may impart a different pattern of distal femoral physeal involvement. To radiographically assess differences in distal femoral physeal disruption between transtibial and independent femoral tunnel drilling. We hypothesized that more oblique tunnels associated with independent drilling involve a significantly larger area of physeal disruption compared with vertically oriented tunnels. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We analyzed skeletally immature patients aged between 10 and 15 years who underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction utilizing an independent femoral tunnel drilling technique between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2011. These patients were matched with a transtibial technique cohort based on age and sex. Radiographic measurements were recorded from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and postoperative radiographs. Ten patients in each group were analyzed. There were significant differences between independent drilling and transtibial drilling cohorts in the estimated area of physeal disruption (1.64 vs 0.74 cm(2); P drilling technique disrupt a larger area of the distal femoral physis and create more eccentric tunnels compared with a transtibial technique. As most studies noting the safety of transphyseal ACL reconstruction have utilized a central, vertical femoral tunnel, surgeons should be aware that if an independent femoral tunnel technique is utilized during transphyseal ACL reconstruction, more physeal tissue is at risk and tunnels are more eccentrically placed across the physis when drilling at more horizontal angles. Prior studies have shown that greater physeal involvement and eccentric tunnels may increase the risk of growth disturbance.

  8. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  9. Smoking among Patients in Substance Use Disorders Treatment: Associations with Tobacco Advertising, Anti-tobacco Messages and Perceived Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K.; Le, Thao; Andrews, K. Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. Objective We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. Method Patients (N=1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded, adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness and perceived health risks. Results Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR= 13). Participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p=0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (padvertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. Conclusion The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements, and lower perception of health-related, smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population. PMID:27314450

  10. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-12-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', which was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message-framing research for the better part of two decades and has enduring appeal to researchers and practitioners. It has found its way into several health communication handbooks and is communicated to the general public. The present article examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis anew by providing a review of the health message-framing literature. In spite of its ongoing appeal, we conclude that the hypothesis has severe theoretical flaws. In addition, we find that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and inconsistent. It seems that, in applying prospect theory's tenets to a health-promotion context, some of the theory's key aspects have been lost in translation. At the close of the article, we offer a research agenda for the future, arguing that, above all, new methodology is needed to bring the message-framing literature further.

  11. Smoking among patients in substance use disorders treatment: associations with tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco messages, and perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barbara K; Le, Thao; Andrews, K Blakely; Pramod, Sowmya; Guydish, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Although tobacco control efforts have contributed to an overall decline in smoking, individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to smoke at high rates and remain targets of advertising to vulnerable groups, including those with mental health disorders and SUDs. We examined associations of tobacco advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and health-risk perception with smoking status and cigarettes-per-day (CPD) in a national sample of SUD treatment patients. The patients (N = 1,113) in 24 programs chosen randomly, stratified by program type, from among publicly funded adult treatment programs within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network completed surveys of smoking, advertising exposure and receptivity, anti-tobacco message awareness, and perceived health risks. Current smokers (77.9% of the sample) smoked a daily median of 10 cigarettes (IQR = 13). The participants reporting daily advertising exposure were 1.41 times more likely to be smokers (p = 0.019) than others. Those highly receptive to advertising were 2.34 times more likely to be smokers (p advertising was 11.1% (95% CI: 2.8%-20.0%) higher than for smokers with low/moderate advertising receptivity. Anti-tobacco message awareness was not associated with smoking status or CPD. The high rate of smoking among SUD treatment patients is associated with daily exposure and high receptivity to tobacco advertisements and lower perception of health-related smoking risks. Tobacco control efforts should target this vulnerable population.

  12. A Data-Driven Evaluation of the Stop TB Global Partnership Strategy of Targeting Key Populations at Greater Risk for Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë M McLaren

    Full Text Available Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care. To achieve operational targets, the global health community needs effective, low cost, and large-scale strategies for identifying key populations. Using South Africa as a test case, we assess the feasibility and effectiveness of targeting active case finding to populations with TB risk factors identified from regularly collected sources of data. Our approach is applicable to all countries with TB testing and census data. It allows countries to tailor their outreach activities to the particular risk factors of greatest significance in their national context.We use a national database of TB test results to estimate municipality-level TB infection prevalence, and link it to Census data to measure population risk factors for TB including rates of urban households, informal settlements, household income, unemployment, and mobile phone ownership. To examine the relationship between TB prevalence and risk factors, we perform linear regression analysis and plot the set of population characteristics against TB prevalence and TB testing rate by municipality. We overlay lines of best fit and smoothed curves of best fit from locally weighted scatter plot smoothing.Higher TB prevalence is statistically significantly associated with more urban municipalities (slope coefficient β1 = 0.129, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.133, lower mobile phone access (β1 = -0.053, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.089, lower unemployment rates (β1 = -0.020, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.048, and a lower proportion of low-income households

  13. MODEL LOYALITAS PELANGGAN PADA PERBANKAN MIKRO: PERCEIVED RISK SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliyanto Suliyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of relationship marketing on customer satisfaction andswitching cost, to analyze the effect of cutomer satisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customerloyalty, and to analyze percieved risk as a moderation variable on causal relationship between cutomersatisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customer loyalty. The samples were mikro bankingconsumers in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga and Banjarnegara. The sample size in this study were 120respondents. Sampling was done by purposive sampling method. Analytical tool used were the sub-group regressionanalysis and Chow test.The results of this study were that relationship marketing had positive effect oncustomer satisfaction and switching cost, cutomer satisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost hadpositive effect on customer loyalty and, percieved risk moderated the relationship between cutomer satisfaction,relationship marketing and switching cost on customer loyalty.

  14. Managing perceived operational risk factors for effective supply-chain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Cheickna

    2014-12-01

    This research is part of a large scale comprehensive mathematical and empirical modeling investigation projects aimed at developing a better understanding of supply-chain risk management by offering a comprehensive framework including theoretical elements and empirical evidence based on managers' perception of improved organizational level of preparedness to safeguard against the threats of disruptions, delays and stoppage in the supply chain. More specifically, this paper reports the empirical investigation conducted using 92 companies in several eastern USA regions involved in international trades with global supply chains. Among the 56 general hypotheses investigated, the results support that managers strive to balance their control and decision impacts to mold their responses to risk factors with knowledge of the extent of cost consequences as stated in previous research. However, the results also propose new findings which significantly vary from previous research reports.

  15. Model Loyalitas Pelanggan Pada Perbankan Mikro: Perceived Risk Sebagai Variabel Moderasi

    OpenAIRE

    Suliyanto, Suliyanto; Adi, Pramono Hari; Jati, Eling Purwanto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of relationship marketing on customer satisfaction andswitching cost, to analyze the effect of cutomer satisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customerloyalty, and to analyze percieved risk as a moderation variable on causal relationship between cutomersatisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customer loyalty. The samples were mikro bankingconsumers in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga and Banjarnegara. The ...

  16. MODEL LOYALITAS PELANGGAN PADA PERBANKAN MIKRO: PERCEIVED RISK SEBAGAI VARIABEL MODERASI

    OpenAIRE

    Suliyanto Suliyanto; Pramono Hari Adi; Eling Purwanto Jati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of relationship marketing on customer satisfaction andswitching cost, to analyze the effect of cutomer satisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customerloyalty, and to analyze percieved risk as a moderation variable on causal relationship between cutomersatisfaction, relationship marketing and switching cost on customer loyalty. The samples were mikro bankingconsumers in Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga and Banjarnegara. The ...

  17. The GREAT-ER model in China: Evaluating the risk of both treated and untreated wastewater discharges and a consideration to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    As a result of rapid economic development, the production and usage of chemicals in China has risen significantly. This has resulted in China's environment becoming degraded. The Chinese government has attempted to ease these problems with significant investment towards upgrading the wastewater network. These efforts have initially focused upon large cities; progressing towards smaller populations within the most recent 5 year plan. However rural populations were largely overlooked, ~90% of rural settlements do not have treatment facilities for their wastewater. The next (13th) five year plan is a great opportunity to improve upon wastewater infrastructure. This transition is particularly important and it is essential for the government to prioritise settlements to provide treatment facilities and to improve water quality in receiving waters. This study focuses upon the use of a catchment model in order make progress towards this goal. A reliable model which can capture the complexity of the catchment is needed, but one without complexity in itself, in order for it to be developed and validated without an excessive requirement for data. The Geo-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) model is a catchment-scale stochastic-deterministic GIS model. It is primarily used for higher-tier chemical risk assessment. Emissions are from point source only and are calculated based upon population and calculated emission rates per capita. Dilution and transportation are determined using low-flow statistics within each stretch; calculated based upon catchment soil and topographic properties. Removal of the contaminant can occur prior to emission and in-stream. The lowest tier methodology applies a simple 1st-order removal rate and a flat percentage removal for in-stream and sewage treatment work removal respectively. The data requirements are relatively low, although still challenging for many situations. Many authors have reported reasonable

  18. Perceived vulnerability moderates the relations between the use of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol use and consequences among high-risk young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tracey A; Fairlie, Anne M; Litt, Dana M; Waldron, Katja A; Lewis, Melissa A

    2018-06-01

    Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N = 400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Comparing knowledge and perceived risk related to the human papilloma virus among Australian women of diverse sexual orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Carr, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The study compared levels of awareness of human papilloma virus (HPV) as a sexually transmissible infection (STI) between women of different sexual orientations. It also examined self-reported risk factors for HPV infection, perceived level of personal risk, and willingness to have the HPV vaccine. Recruitment occurred through community sampling and data was collected using a self-completion questionnaire. A convenience sample of 349 women completed the questionnaire in early 2007, 309 were sexually active; 47.6% had lifetime sexual partners of both genders, 26.9% had only male partners, and 25.5% had only female partners. Women with partners of both genders were more likely to have ever had a pap test but were also more likely to report an abnormal result (OR 3.19) than women with only male partners. Only 68% of the sample had heard of HPV and women with partners of both genders were significantly more likely to be aware than women with only male partners (OR 2.56). Forty-four per cent did not know how HPV was transmitted and less than half correctly identified HPV-associated clinical problems, with no differences according to gender of partners. The majority of women had risk factors for HPV, however, few felt personally at risk. The very low personal risk perception for HPV, particularly among women who have female and male sexual partners, suggests the need for targeted education for this group regarding HPV transmission and prevention. Health promotion regarding HPV should be broadened to specifically include information about HPV as an STI between women.

  20. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  1. Perceived psychological pressure at work, social class, and risk of stroke: a 30-year follow-up in Copenhagen male study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole S; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status. Thirty-year follow-up of 4943 middle-aged men without cardiovascular disease. In the higher social classes (I, II, and III), perceived regular exposure to psychological work pressure was common and a significant predictor of stroke; almost 10% of the stroke events could be attributed to this exposure in the higher social classes; among lower social classes (IV and V), perceived psychological pressure was no predictor at all. Regular psychological work pressure is a highly prevalent and independent risk factor for stroke among men in higher social classes. In contrast, no association to stroke risk was found among low social class men.

  2. Parental Influence on Drinking Behaviors at the Transition to College: The Mediating Role of Perceived Friends' Approval of High-Risk Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William

    2016-07-01

    This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.

  3. F227. PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAUMA OCCURRING DURING ADOLESCENCE IS ASSOCIATED WITH AN INCREASED RISK OF GREATER WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN EARLY PSYCHOSIS PATIENTS INDEPENDENTLY OF MEDICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda, Luis; Levier, Axel; Golay, Philippe; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Vandenberghe, Frederik; Delacretaz, Aurélie; Glatard, Anaïs; Dubath, Céline; Do, Kim Q; Eap, Chin B; Conus, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    present in 32% of the sample. No differences between groups were found at baseline in terms of BMI or WC. Late-Trauma patients, when compared to Non-Trauma patients showed greater WCs during the follow-up (p=0.012). No differences between Early or Late-Trauma patients and Non-Trauma patients were found in any of the other outcome measures during the follow up. Baseline BMI and treatment duration were significantly associated with the level of BMI and WC during the follow up. None of the other potential confounding factors were significantly associated with the outcome measures during the follow up. Discussion Exposition to trauma during adolescence in EP patients is associated with a higher risk of greater WC during the early phase of the disease, independently of the medication intake, depression and other confounding factors. Specific preventive measures should be addressed in these patients in order to reduce the risk of obesity. Depending on the timing of traumatic exposure, different developmental mechanisms may underlie this differential possible impact on WC. Further studies on interactions between central consequences of traumatism and metabolic syndrome are warranted.

  4. How do consumers perceive differences in risk across nicotine products? A review of relative risk perceptions across smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, nicotine replacement therapy and combustible cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoli, Christine D; Fong, Geoffrey T; Mays, Darren; Hammond, David

    2017-03-01

    To systematically review the literature regarding relative risk perceptions (RRPs) across non-combustible nicotine products. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published up to October 2014. Of the 5266 records identified, articles not published in English that did not quantitatively assess RRPs across categories of non-combustible nicotine products were excluded, yielding 55 records. One reviewer extracted measures and findings of RRPs for product comparisons of smokeless tobacco (SLT), e-cigarettes (ECs) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to one another, and to combustible cigarettes (CCs). A total of 157 samples from 54 studies were included in the analyses. The accuracy of RRPs differed based on the products being compared: although the accuracy of RRPs was variable across studies, substantial proportions of respondents reported inaccurate beliefs about the relative harmfulness of SLT versus CCs, as well as of ECs versus NRT. In addition, in most studies, respondents did not know the relative harmfulness of SLT versus NRT. In contrast, respondents in many studies correctly perceived NRT and ECs as less harmful than CCs. Cigarette smokers and users of non-combustible nicotine products tended to correctly perceive the relative harmfulness of products more often than non-users. Measures used to assess RRPs varied across studies, with different approaches characterised by certain strengths and limitations. The highly variable and context-specific nature of non-combustible nicotine product RRPs have direct implications for researchers and present several challenges for policymakers working with modified risk products, including issues of measurement, health risk communication and behaviour change. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Living in the context of poverty and trajectories of breast cancer worry, knowledge, and perceived risk after a breast cancer risk education session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate how living in neighborhoods with high levels of poverty (while controlling for personal income) impacts personal characteristics, which in turn impacts retention of breast cancer risk knowledge and changes in worry and perceived risk. The data from this project come from a larger, National Cancer Institute-funded study that included a pretest, a breast cancer risk education session, a posttest, the option of an individualized risk assessment via the Gail Model and three follow-up phone calls over the next 9 months. The percent of individuals living below poverty in the community in which the participant resided was predictive of the personal characteristics assessed, and these characteristics were predictive of changes in breast cancer worry and knowledge across time. Differentiation of self and monitoring, two of the individual characteristics that seem to allow people to process and use information to make "rational" decisions about health care, seem to be impacted by the necessity for adaptation to a culture of poverty. Thus, as a health care community, we need to tailor our messages and our recommendations with an understanding of the complex intersection of poverty and health care decision making. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  7. Perceived Discrimination as a Risk Factor for Use of Emerging Tobacco Products: More Similarities Than Differences Across Demographic Groups and Attributions for Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jennifer B

    2018-01-17

    Perceived discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking and other substance use among members of disadvantaged minority groups. However, most studies have focused on a single minority group, have not considered the individual's attribution for the discrimination, and have not considered emerging tobacco products. This study examined the associations between perceived discrimination and use of six tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, and smokeless tobacco) in a diverse sample of 1,068 adults in the United States. Participants were recruited on Amazon's Mechanical Turk and participated in an online survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and use of each tobacco product. Interactions between discrimination and demographic characteristics, and between discrimination and perceived reasons for discrimination, were evaluated. Controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination was a risk factor for current use of five of the six tobacco products. These associations were consistent across racial/ethnic groups and regardless of the individual's attribution for the reason for the discrimination. Results indicate that perceived discrimination is a risk factor for the use of multiple tobacco products, and that this association is not limited to particular demographic groups or types of discrimination. Public health programs could potentially reduce tobacco-related disease by teaching healthier ways to cope with discrimination.

  8. Climate change-related risks and adaptation strategies as perceived in dairy cattle farming systems in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajer Amamou

    Full Text Available The perception of risks due to climate change by farmers and the measures they take to address those risks are of paramount importance in policy-making if the implementations of targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies are to be economically and environmentally sustainable. This study focused on Tunisian dairy farmers’ perceptions of the risks and the actions taken to cope with changes attributable to climate change. Using a bottom-up approach, 566 surveys were carried out randomly among dairy farmers throughout Tunisia. A total of 70 diagnostic variables relating to farm characteristics, resources, management, performances and profit, in addition to climate change risk perception and adaptation strategies, were identified and analyzed. Using multivariate statistical analysis, four dairy farming groups were identified. The largest proportions of farmers belonged to the two above-ground dairy systems: without utilized agricultural areas; and with non-dairy utilized agricultural areas (Clusters 1 and 2. A minority of farmers belonged to medium-sized and large farms that specialized in milk production (Clusters 3 and 4 and has access to sufficient land, water and capital resources. In all the clusters, almost all the farmers perceived that the greatest impact of climate change would be on cow performance and forage production. The attitudes of the farmers towards adaptation to climate change are associated with farm typology. They focused mainly on increasing water capacity for livestock and crop production and improving livestock and housing conditions. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders in efforts to develop policies for farm management practices that address climate change and can be adapted to the country’s diverse farming systems. Keywords: Dairy farming system, Typology, Adaptation, Climate change

  9. Perceived determinants of cardiovascular risk management in primary care: disconnections between patient behaviours, practice organisation and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntink, E; Wensing, M; Klomp, M A; van Lieshout, J

    2015-12-15

    Although conditions for high quality cardiovascular risk management in primary care in the Netherlands are favourable, there still remains a gap between practice guideline recommendations and practice. The aim of the current study was to identify determinants of cardiovascular primary care in the Netherlands. We performed a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals and patients with established cardiovascular diseases or at high cardiovascular risk. A framework analysis was used to cluster the determinants into seven domains: 1) guideline factors, 2) individual healthcare professional factors, 3) patient factors, 4) professional interaction, 5) incentives and recourses, 6) mandate, authority and accountability, and 7) social, political and legal factors. Twelve healthcare professionals and 16 patients were interviewed. Healthcare professionals and patients mentioned a variety of factors concerning all seven domains. Determinants of practice according to the health care professionals were related to communication between healthcare professionals, patients' lack of knowledge and self-management, time management, market mechanisms in the Dutch healthcare system and motivational interviewing skills of healthcare professionals. Patients mentioned determinants related to their knowledge of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, medication adherence and self-management as key determinants. A key finding is the mismatch between healthcare professionals' and patients' views on patient's knowledge and self-management. Perceived determinants of cardiovascular risk management were mainly related to patient behaviors and (but only for health professionals) to the healthcare system. Though health care professionals and patients agree upon the importance of patients' knowledge and self-management, their judgment of the current state of knowledge and self-management is entirely different.

  10. Perceived stress and risk of colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Kristensen, T S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the relationship between stress and risk of primary colorectal cancer in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 6488 women and 5426 men were included in the study. The participants were...... there was no clear relationship between stress and colorectal cancer in men....... asked about intensity and frequency of stress at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until the end of 2000 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Less than 0.1% was lost to follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First time incidence of primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: During follow-up 162 women and 166 men...

  11. Changes in the Perceived