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Sample records for great waters polychlorinated

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  3. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  4. A GIS-based tool for bioaccumulation risk analysis and its application to study polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes

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    Fernanda P. Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based tool named Arc-BEST (Bioaccumulation Evaluation Screening Tool to perform spatially distributed bioaccumulation risk analyses. Estimating bioaccumulation risk is important to help predict potentially adverse effects from contaminants on ecosystems and human health, which are key factors in the development of sound public policy. Arc-BEST is based on the BEST model in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BRAMS (Bioaccumulation Risk Assessment Modeling System software, released in 2012. It predicts concentration of concern contaminants in predators’ tissues from concentrations in organisms at the bottom of the food chain, and corresponding bioaccumulation factors. Additionally, it estimates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for humans that consume those species. The greatest contribution of Arc-BEST is that it enables the automated use of digital spatial data sets, which improves model creation speed, analysis and visualization of results, and comparison and cross-referencing with other geographic datasets. Furthermore, the model was improved to consider up to four trophic levels. The code is written in Python and is open-source. In this work Arc-BEST is used as part of a screening-level risk assessment process in order to identify hot spots where further studies and monitoring should be performed to ensure humans and ecosystems health. The tool is successfully applied to a case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where long-term effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is performed, based on measured concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, and local bioaccumulation factors from previous studies. Zebra mussels have a great filtration capacity and high bioconcentration rates, increasing the bioavailability of contaminants for predator species. PCBs concentrations in different-level predators are predicted. Furthermore, health risks for humans that consume sport fish are estimated for various

  5. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  6. Solid phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifazi, P.; Pierini, E.; Bruner, F. [Centro di Studio per la Chimica dell`Ambiente e le Tecnologie Strumentali Avanzate dell` Universita degli Studi di Urbino, Ist. di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    A study was carried out of the recovery by solid phase extraction of the eleven most toxic polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic acids. Experiments were performed using water polluted with a humic acid (sodium salt) concentration of 9-18 mg L{sup -1}. The effect of humic acids on the recoveries was noticeable, especially where the more chlorinated congeners were concerned. The effect was also evident with river water containing naturally dissolved humic acids. A method for destroying humic acids prior to extraction was applied. The recoveries after the destruction of humic acids were in the range of 90%, even in the case of river water, demonstrating the applicability of the method to real samples. (orig.)

  7. Geoarchaeology of water management at Great Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulas, Federica; Pikirayi, Innocent; Sagiya, Munyaradzi Elton

    In Africa, research on water management in urban contexts has often focussed rainfall, and the occurrence floods and droughts, whereas small-scale catchment systems and soil moisture regimes have received far less attention. This paper sets out to re-address the issue by examining the occurrence......, distribution and use of multiple water resources at the ancient urban landscape of Great Zimbabwe. Here, the rise and demise of the urban site have been linked to changing rainfall in the 1st mill. AD. Accordingly, rainfall shortages and consequent droughts eventually leading to the decline and abandonment...... of Great Zimbabwe at around 1550 AD. However, new research findings suggest a different scenario. Combining geoarchaeolological investigations, soil micromorphology and geochemistry with the study of historical sources and ethnographic records, new datasets indicate prolonged availability and diversified...

  8. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  9. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shu; Rodenburg, Lisa A.; Dachs, Jordi; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m 3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of ΣPCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m -2 d -1 . Annual fluxes of ΣPCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 μg m -2 yr -1 , corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of ΣPCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. - Investigation of the air-water exchange of PCBs in the Hudson River Estuary suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines undergo net volatilization

  10. Annual variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings at Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of five eggs or five nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in two randomly selected sets of five eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency, both statistically and qualitatively, for there to be less exposure in the second year compared to the first year.

  11. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  12. Studies on air and water pollution. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls and benzopyrene status report July 1977 - June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.; Cunanan, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical methodology developed for trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in water was described. The water sample was extracted with hexane and the extract passes through a florisil column. The cleaned extract was concentrated and then analyzed by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. The methodology has an efficiency of 85% recovery for PCB spiked at a concentration level of 1 ppm. Minimum detection limit obtained was 0.5 ppm PCB in water. A total of 27 water samples were collected and analyzed during the period January - June 1978. No PCB's were detected in the samples. (author)

  13. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

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    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  14. Effects of chain length, chlorination degree, and structure on the octanol-water partition coefficients of polychlorinated n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Bettina; Fromme, Hermann; Völkel, Wolfgang; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2011-04-01

    Log octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) of 40 synthesized polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) with different chlorination degrees were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In addition, log Kow values of a technical mixture namely Cereclor 63L as well as 15 individual in house synthesized C10, C11, and C12 chloroalkanes with known chlorine positions were estimated. Based on these results, the effects of chain length, chlorination degree, and structure were explored. The estimated log Kow values ranged from 4.10 (polychlorinated n-decanes with 50.2% chlorine content) to 11.34 (polychlorinated n-octacosanes with 54.8% chlorine content) for PCAs and from 3.82 (1,2,5,6,9,10-hexachlorodecane) to 7.75 (1,1,1,3,9,11,11,11-octachlorododecane) for the individual chloroalkanes studied. The results showed that log Kow value was influenced linearly at a given chlorine content by chain length, while a polynominal effect was observed in dependence on the chlorination degree of an alkane chain. Chlorine substitution pattern influenced markedly the log Kow value of chloroalkanes.

  15. Maternal exposure to Great Lakes sport-caught fish and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, but not polychlorinated biphenyls, is associated with reduced birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, M.G.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Kanarek, M.S.; Falk, C.M.; Steenport, D.M.; Draheim, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fish consumption may be beneficial for a developing human fetus, but fish may also contain contaminants that could be detrimental. Great Lakes sport-caught fish (GLSCF) are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), but the effects of these contaminants on birth outcome are not clear. To distinguish potential contaminant effects, we examined (1) whether the decrease over time in contaminant levels in GLSCF is paralleled by an increase in birth weight of children of GLSCF-consuming mothers and (2) the relation between maternal serum concentrations of these contaminants and birth weight. Mothers (n=511) were interviewed from 1993 to 1995, and maternal serum was collected from 1994 to 1995 (n=143). Potential confounders considered were child gender, maternal age at delivery, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy, maternal education level, maternal parity, and maternal breastfeeding. Children born during 1970-1977, 1978-1984, and 1985-1993 to mothers who ate more than 116 meals of GLSCF before pregnancy were, on average, 164 g lighter, 46 g heavier, and 134 g heavier, respectively, than children of mothers who ate no GLSCF before pregnancy (P trend=0.05). GLSCF-consuming mothers had higher serum PCB and DDE concentrations, but only increased DDE was associated with lower birth weight. The data suggest that fetal DDE exposure (as indicated by maternal serum DDE concentration) may decrease birth weight and that decreased birth weight effects associated with GLSCF consumption have decreased over time

  16. QSAR models for predicting octanol/water and organic carbon/water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Gao, S; Gan, Y; Zhang, Y; Ruan, X; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Shi, J

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationship modelling can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce experimental testing. In particular, some endpoints such as octanol-water (KOW) and organic carbon-water (KOC) partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are easier to predict and various models have been already developed. In this paper, two different methods, which are multiple linear regression based on the descriptors generated using Dragon software and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships, were employed to predict suspended particulate matter (SPM) derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of 209 PCBs. The predictive ability of the derived models was validated using a test set. The performances of all these models were compared with EPI Suite™ software. The results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory, and could provide feasible and promising tools for the rapid assessment of the SPM derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of PCBs.

  17. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-06-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  18. DIFFUSIVE EXCHANGE OF GASEOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ACROSS THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. (R825245)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved and gas-phase concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 46 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured at eight sites on the Chesapeake Bay at four different times of the year to estimate net diffusive air-water gas exchange rates. Gaseous PAHs ar...

  19. Evaluate prevailing climate change on Great Lakes water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:'In this paper, results of a comprehensive water mass balance modeling for the Great Lakes against prevailing and different anticipated climate change scenarios would be presented. Modeling is done in evaluating the changes in the lake storages and then changes in the lake's water level considering present condition, uncertainty and variability of climate and hydrologic conditions in the future. Inflow-outflow and consequent changes in the five Great Lake's storages are simulated for the last 30 years and then projected to evaluate the changes in the lake storages for the next 50 years. From the predicted changes in the lake storage data, water level is calculated using mass to linear conversion equation. Modeling and analysis results are expected to be helpful in understanding the possible impacts of the climate change on the Great Lakes water environment and preparing strategic plan for the sustainable management of lake's water resources. From the recent past, it is observed that there is a depleting trend in the lakes water level and hence there is a potential threat to lake's water environment and uncertainty of the availability of quality and quantity of water for the future generations, especially against prevailing and anticipated climate changes. For this reason, it is an urgent issue of understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on the Great Lake's water levels and storages. (author)

  20. Novel determination of polychlorinated naphthalenes in water by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukas, Athanasios I; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Calokerinos, Antony C

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development, optimization, and validation of a novel method for the determination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), using toluene as dopant. The mass spectra of PCN 52, 54, 66, 67, 73, and 75 were recorded in negative ionization. The base ions corresponded to [M-Cl+O](-), where M is the analyte molecule. A strategy, which includes designs of experiments, for the development, the evaluation, and the optimization of the LC-APPI-MS/MS methods is also described. Finally, a highly sensitive method with low instrumental limits of detection (LoDs), ranging from 0.8 pg for PCN 75 to 16 pg for PCN 54 on column, was validated. A Thermo Hypersil Green PAH (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column was used with acetonitrile/water/methanol as mobile phase. The method was applied for the determination of the selected PCNs in surface and tap water samples. A simple liquid-liquid extraction method for the extraction of PCNs from water samples was used. Method LoQs ranged from 29 ng L(-1), for PCN 73, to 63 ng L(-1), for PCN 54, and the recoveries ranged from 97 to 99%, for all congeners. This is the first LC-APPI-MS/MS method for the determination of PCNs in water samples.

  1. Impacts of channel morphology on residues and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment in Chahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-hua Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of channel morphology on the residues and ecological risks of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners in water and sediment were investigated in summer (July and autumn (September in the Chahe River, in Nanjing, China. The residual concentrations of tri-chlorobiphenyls (tri-CBs, PCB 18 and tetra-CBs (PCB 52 in water were significantly higher than those of penta-CBs to deca-CBs, and the average residual concentration of ∑PCBs (sum of 14 PCB congeners in summer was about six times higher than in autumn. However, the residues in sediment did not change significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that channel morphology and the corresponding environmental indices had significant impacts on PCB residues and their composition profiles in water and sediment. The overflow weir and lake-type watercourse may remarkably reduce the residual concentration and ecological risks of PCBs in water. The highest reduction percentages of the residual concentration and ecological risks of ∑PCBs induced by an overflow weir were 78% and 67%, respectively, and those induced by a lake-type watercourse were 36% and 70%, respectively. The watercourses with different channel morphologies were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in the following descending order: the natural ecological watercourse, vertical concrete watercourse, and vegetation-type riprap watercourse. However, they were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in sediment in the following descending order: the vertical concrete watercourse, vegetation-type riprap watercourse, and natural ecological watercourse.

  2. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  3. Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Bidari, Araz; Birjandi, Afsoon Pajand; Milani Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Assadi, Yaghoub

    2008-01-01

    A very simple and powerful microextraction procedure, the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), was used for the determination of the content of 10 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples, using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The appropriate amount of acetone (disperser solvent) and chlorobenzene (extraction solvent) at the microlevel volume was used for this procedure. The conditions for the microextraction performance were investigated and optimized. The optimized method exhibited a good linearity (R 2 > 0.996) over the studied range (0.005-2 μg L -1 ), illustrating a satisfactory precision level with R.S.D. values between 4.1% and 11.0%. The values of the detection limit (S/N = 3) were found to be lower than 0.002 μg L -1 . Furthermore, a large enrichment factor for the analytes (up to a 540-fold) was achieved in a very short time for only a 5.00-mL water sample. The effectiveness of the method towards real samples was tested by analyzing well, river and seawater samples. The relative recoveries of the well, river and seawater samples, which had been spiked with different levels of PCBs were equal to 92.0-114.0%, 97.0-102.0% and 96.0-103.0%, respectively. The attained results demonstrated that DLLME combined with GC-ECD was a fast and inexpensive technique for the PCBs determination in water samples

  4. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  5. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  6. Analysis of water, sediment and fish to detect contaminations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PVB) in the profile of the river Inde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwiening, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schuphan, I.

    1993-01-01

    Water, sediment and fish samples of the river Inde in the course from source to mouth were analysed for their contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (6 indicator-congeners). Analysis of the water samples showed no contents of PCB (detection limit: 10 ng/l). The resulting PCB concentration profile of the sediment showed at the upper part of the Inde uniform PCB values of 18 μg/kg dry weight sediment. In the middle part, after the tributary of an industrial influenced brook, the Vicht, the contents of PCB increased precipitously to about 110 μg/kg dry weight. In the further course - downstream near the mouth into the river Rur - the PCB contents in the sediment decreased steplike along a distance of about 20 km resulting in a level of 34 μg/kg dry weight. From the analysed fishes the brook trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) also showed PCB contents dependent on the position in the river where they were cought. In relation to muscle lipid content the averange values at the upper part of the river amounted to 6 mg/kg, in the middle part to ca 38 mg/kg and downstream to ca 8 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. Because of absence at some sampling points for the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) an analogues correlation could not be found. This fishes showed concentrations of PCB ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. (orig.) [de

  7. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ranid frogs and northern water snakes from a hazardous waste site and a contaminated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, L W; Noble, G P; Akins, J M; Stephens, M D; Cobb, G P

    2000-04-01

    Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated watershed and hazardous waste site located in Pickens County, South Carolina, contained significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (2.33 and 2.26 ppm, respectively) than those from a reference site (0.05 ppm). Green frogs (R. clamitans) from the two contaminated sites also accumulated higher levels of PCBs (2.37 and 3.88 ppm, respectively) than those from the reference site (0.02 ppm). No temporal variation was observed in PCB concentrations of bullfrogs or green frogs from the contaminated sites between 1992 and 1993. Levels of PCBs in the livers of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) were significantly higher in snakes from the contaminated watershed (13.70 ppm) than in those from the waste site (2.29 ppm) and two reference sites (2.50 and 1.23 ppm). When compared to frogs, significantly higher bioaccumulation occurred in water snakes from the contaminated watershed. No significant differences in PCB levels were found with respect to sex or body size (snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass) for frogs or snakes. PCBs were detected also in eggs of both frogs and snakes. Results of this study provide baseline data and document the bioaccumulation of PCB residues in frog and snake tissues; however, the significance of these tissue residues to reproduction, survival, growth/development, and population dynamics in contaminated habitats is unknown.

  8. Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shiliang; Wang, Zhenhua; Ding, Ning [Key Laboratory for Applied Technology of Sophisticated Analytical Instruments, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Elaine Wong, Y.-L. [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Chen, Xiangfeng, E-mail: xiangfchensdas@163.com [Key Laboratory for Applied Technology of Sophisticated Analytical Instruments, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Qiu, Guangyu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Dominic Chan, T.-W., E-mail: twdchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2016-09-14

    The adsorptive potential of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNSs) for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of pollutants was investigated for the first time. Seven indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target analytes. The adsorption of PCBs on the surface of the h-BNNSs in water was simulated by the density functional theory and molecular dynamics. The simulation results indicated that the PCBs are adsorbed on the surface by π–π, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions. The PCBs were extracted with an h-BNNS-packed SPE cartridge, and eluted by dichloromethane. Gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry working in the multiple reaction monitor mode was used for the sample quantification. The effect of extraction parameters, including the flow rate, pH value, breakthrough volume, and the ionic strength, were investigated. Under the optimal working conditions, the developed method showed low limits of detection (0.24–0.50 ng L{sup −1}; signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1), low limits of quantification (0.79–1.56 ng L{sup −1}; signal-to-noise ratio = 10:1), satisfactory linearity (r > 0.99) within the concentration range of 2–1000 ng L{sup −1}, and good precision (relative standard deviation < 12%). The PCBs concentration in environmental water samples was determined by the developed method. This results demonstrate that h-BNNSs have high analytical potential in the enrichment of pollutants. - Highlights: • The hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were synthesized. • The nanosheets were used as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction. • The h-BN demonstrates remarkable adsorption of PCBs from water samples. • The method was successfully applied in determination of PCBs in water samples.

  9. QSPR models for predicting generator-column-derived octanol/water and octanol/air partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Xuejie; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Octanol/water (K(OW)) and octanol/air (K(OA)) partition coefficients are two important physicochemical properties of organic substances. In current practice, K(OW) and K(OA) values of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are measured using generator column method. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models can serve as a valuable alternative method of replacing or reducing experimental steps in the determination of K(OW) and K(OA). In this paper, two different methods, i.e., multiple linear regression based on dragon descriptors and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, were used to predict generator-column-derived log K(OW) and log K(OA) values of PCBs. The predictive ability of the developed models was validated using a test set, and the performances of all generated models were compared with those of three previously reported models. All results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory and can thus be used as alternative models for the rapid assessment of the K(OW) and K(OA) of PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SOFIA/GREAT Discovery of Terahertz Water Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Güsten, Rolf; Kraus, Alex; Menten, Karl M.; Ricken, Oliver; Faure, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    We report the discovery of water maser emission at frequencies above 1 THz. Using the GREAT instrument on SOFIA, we have detected emission in the 1.296411 THz {8}27-{7}34 transition of water toward three oxygen-rich evolved stars: W Hya, U Her, and VY CMa. An upper limit on the 1.296 THz line flux was obtained toward R Aql. Near-simultaneous observations of the 22.23508 GHz {6}16-{5}23 water maser transition were carried out toward all four sources using the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. The measured line fluxes imply 22 GHz/1.296 THz photon luminosity ratios of 0.012, 0.12, and 0.83, respectively, for W Hya, U Her, and VY CMa, values that confirm the 22 GHz maser transition to be unsaturated in W Hya and U Her. We also detected the 1.884888 THz {8}45-{7}52 transition toward W Hya and VY CMa, and the 1.278266 THz {7}43-{6}52 transition toward VY CMa. Like the 22 GHz maser transition, all three of the THz emission lines detected here originate from the ortho-H2O spin isomer. Based upon a model for the circumstellar envelope of W Hya, we estimate that stimulated emission is responsible for ˜85% of the observed 1.296 THz line emission, and thus that this transition may be properly described as a terahertz-frequency maser. In the case of the 1.885 THz transition, by contrast, our W Hya model indicates that the observed emission is dominated by spontaneous radiative decay, even though a population inversion exists. GREAT is a development by the MPI für Radioastronomie and the KOSMA/Universität zu Köln, in cooperation with the MPI für Sonnensystemforschung and the DLR Institut für Planetenforschung.

  11. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  12. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  13. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  14. Ultrathin-shell boron nitride hollow spheres as sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meizhen; Xing, Hanzhu; Chen, Xiangfeng; Chen, Fan; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Zhao, Rusong; Cheng, Chuange

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride hollow spheres with ultrathin-shells were synthesized and used as sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction of aromatic pollutants at trace levels from environmental water samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target compounds. Sample quantification and detection were performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were optimized through response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed method achieved good linearity within the concentration range of 0.15-250 ng L(-1) PCBs, low limits of detection (0.04-0.09 ng L(-1), S/N=3:1), good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviation, spring waters were analyzed using the developed method. Results demonstrated that the hexagonal boron nitride-based material has significant potential as a sorbent for organic pollutant extraction from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations...... of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota....... The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities...

  16. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed great lakes water quality guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raucher, R.; Dixon, A.; Trabka, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Impact Analysis provides direction to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on minimum water quality standards and contains numerical water quality criteria for 32 pollutants as well as methodologies for the development of water quality criteria for additional pollutants discharged to these waters. It also provides guidance to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on antidegradation policies and standards and implementation procedures

  17. Cover crop biomass production and water use in the central great plains under varying water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water-limited environment of the semi-arid central Great Plains may not have potential to produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater wate...

  18. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative B Appendix B to Part 132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... Water Quality Initiative Methodology for Deriving Bioaccumulation Factors Great Lakes States and Tribes...

  20. Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction of ultra trace polychlorinated biphenyls in water prior to GC-ECD determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Chunpeng; Li, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion (MMSPD) assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied to extract ultra traces of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCBs in water were adsorbed by micro particles of magnetic bamboo charcoal and then transferred into the elution solvent. PCBs in the elution solvent of the MMSPD were further concentrated into trace volume extraction solvent of the DLLME procedure. Under optimized conditions, good linearity in the range of 0.2–100 ng L"−"1 was obtained with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9987. Based on a signal-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.05–0.1 ng L"−"1. These LODs are much lower than those of MMSPD or DLLME alone. Relative standard deviations are between 4.9–8.2 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in lake and river water. Relative recoveries were 85.5–117.4 % for the spiked environmental water samples. (author)

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... most cost effective pollution prevention and treatment techniques available, and minimizes the... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify... result in an increased loading of BCCs to surface waters of the Great Lakes System and for which...

  2. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. A solid-phase extraction method for analyzing trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has regulated emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fsin waste water of manufacturing facilities producing chlorinated compounds since 2009. As this regulation is expected to bereinforced in 2013 to 50 pg I-TEQ/L, a large sample volume is required for the analysis of trace amounts of PCDD/Fs in wastewater. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE is used to extract PCDD/Fs from aqueous samples; however, its low efficiency makes itinadequate for analyzing large sample volumes. Herein, we present a disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysisof dioxin at a part per quadrillion level in waste water. This SPE system contains airtight glass covers with a decompressionpump, which enables continuous semi-automated extraction. Small (0.5 L and large (7 L samples were extracted using LLE andSPE methods, respectively. The method detection limits (MDLs were 0.001−0.25 and 0.015−4.1 pg I-TEQ/L for the SPE andLLE methods, respectively. The concentrations of detected congeners with both methods were similar. However, the concentrationsof several congeners that were not detected with the LLE method were quantified using the SPE method

  5. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported ship-based micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  6. Occurrence, ecological risk assessment, and spatio-temporal variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water and sediments along River Ravi and its northern tributaries, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Sadef, Yumna; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Mahmood, Adeel; Qadir, Abdul; Aslam, Iqra; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-12-01

    Ecological risk assessment, spatio-temporal variation, and source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in surface sediments and water from River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Deg, Nullah Basantar, and Nullah Bein) in Pakistan. In total, 35 PCB congeners were analyzed along 27 sampling stations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The ∑ 35 PCB concentration ranged from 1.06 to 95.76 ng/g (dw) in sediments and 1.94 to 11.66 ng/L in water samples, with hexa-CBs and tetra-CBs as most dominant homologs in sediments and water matrixes, respectively. The ∑ 8 DL-PCB levels were 0.33-22.13 ng/g (dw) and 0.16-1.95 ng/L in sediments and water samples, respectively. The WHO-toxic equivalent values were ranged from 1.18 × 10 -6 to 0.012 ng/L and 1.8 × 10 -6 to 0.031 ng/g in water and sediments matrixes, respectively. The ecological risk assessment indicates considerable potential ecological risk during pre-monsoon season ([Formula: see text] = 95.17) and moderate potential ecological risk during post-monsoon season ([Formula: see text] = 49.11). The industrial and urban releases were recognized as key ongoing sources for high PCB levels in environment. Therefore, we recommend more freshwater ecological studies to be conducted in the study area and firm regulatory initiatives are required to be taken in debt to the Stockholm Convention, 2001 to cop up with PCB contamination on emergency basis.

  7. Polyaniline/cyclodextrin composite coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the analysis of trace polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A novel polyaniline/α-cyclodextrin (PANI/α-CD) composite coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel process for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in this work. The preparation reproducibility of the PANI/α-CD-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.3% to 3.7% (n=7) and 2.0% to 3.8% (n=7) for bar to bar and batch to batch, respectively. Based on it, a novel method of PANI/α-CD-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for the determination of trace PCBs in environmental waters. To obtain the best extraction performance for target PCBs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and ionic strength were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method for seven PCBs were in the range of 0.048-0.22 μg/L, and the RSDs were 5.3-9.8% (n=7, c=1 μg/L). Enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 39.8 to 68.4-fold (theoretical EF, 83.3-fold) for target analytes were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of seven target PCBs in Yangtze River water and East Lake water, and the recoveries were in the range of 73.0-120% for the spiked East Lake water samples and 82.7-121% for the spiked Yangtze River water samples, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  9. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  10. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of 226 Ra and 90 Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious

  11. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  12. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  13. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of Mexican Spotted and Great Horned Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Russell P. Balda; Rudy M. King

    1993-01-01

    We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Horned (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO2. g-1. h-1...

  14. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  15. Resuspension of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated field sediment: release to the water column and determination of site-specific K DOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carey L; Lohmann, Rainer; Burgess, Robert M; Perron, Monique M; Cantwell, Mark G

    2011-02-01

    Sediments from the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund site (Massachusetts, USA), contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were resuspended under different water column redox conditions: untreated, oxidative, and reductive. The partitioning of PCBs to the overlying water column was measured with polyethylene samplers and compared to partitioning without resuspension. Greater concentrations of total aqueous (freely dissolved + dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-associated) PCBs were found in all resuspended treatments for PCBs with mid-range K(OW)s, but no difference was observed in total aqueous concentrations among different redox conditions. The magnitude of increased concentrations depended on resuspension time and congener K(OW), but ranged from approximately one to eight times those found without resuspension. In a parallel study, DOC was flocculated and removed from smaller-scale NBH sediment resuspensions. In situ K(DOC)s were determined and used to calculate freely dissolved and DOC-associated fractions of the increase in total aqueous PCB concentrations due to resuspension. The importance of DOC-associated PCBs increased with increasing K(OW). In situ K(DOC)s were approximately one to two orders of magnitude greater than those calculated with a commonly used linear free energy relationship (LFER). The present study demonstrates that resuspension of contaminated sediments releases PCBs to the water column, of which a significant fraction are DOC-associated (e.g., 28, 65, and 90% for PCBs 28, 66, and 110, respectively). Results also imply that site-specific PCB K(DOC)s are superior to those calculated with generic LFERs. © 2010 SETAC.

  16. Distribution of fallout plutonium in the waters of the lower Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of fallout 239 240 Pu in the surface waters from all the Great Lakes were slightly lower in 1976 samples than in those from 1973. The same trend of higher concentrations in the surface waters of the upper lakes as in the surface waters of the lower lakes was observed for both years. In addition, the 239 240 Pu concentration in samples of deep water collected during the summer of 1976 was higher than in the surface waters but was similar to the surface water values of the 1973 spring samples. This observation is significant in that it suggests that the surface waters of all the Great Lakes undergo a seasonal decrease in plutonium concentration similar to that already observed in Lake Michigan

  17. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. DEPENDENCY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BIOACCUMULATION IN MYA ARENARIA ON BOTH WATER COLUMN AND SEDIMENT BED CHEMICAL ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the filter-feeding soft-shell clam Mya arenaria was evaluated at three sites near Boston (MA, USA) by assessing the chemical activities of those hydrophobic organic compounds (H...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  20. The Drakensberg Escarpment as the great supplier of water to South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, SJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available : Investigations of the Hydrologic Cycle in Alpine Environments: 1-41 The Drakensberg Escarpment as the great supplier of water to South Africa Taylor, SJ Ferguson, JHW Engelbrecht, Francois A Clark, VR Van Rensburg, S Barker, N ABSTRACT...

  1. Water-quality assessment of the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin- Polychlorinated biphenyls in common carp and walleye fillets, 1975-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Anderson, Jesse P.

    1998-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) fillets from rivers in the Upper Mississippi River Basin upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin are summarized. PCB concentrations in common carp and walleye fillets collected from rivers in the UMIS during 1975-95 by the Minnesota Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program (MFCMP) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) were analyzed. PCBs in fish tissue are of concern because PCBs are potentially toxic, teratogenic, and are linked to poor fetal development and endocrine disruption in fish and other animals including humans, that consume fish. This summary was part of an analysis of historical data for the Upper Mississippi River (UMIS) study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The UMIS study unit is a 47,000 square-mile basin that includes the drainage of the Mississippi River upstream of the outlet of Lake Pepin and encompasses the Twin Cities metropolitan area. PCB concentrations for individual samples at all sites ranged from 0.07 to 33.0 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) for common carp and from 0.07 to 9.8 mg/kg for walleye during 1975-95. During 1975-79 and 1980-87, 10 and 4 percent of walleye samples and 45 and 36 percent of common carp samples, respectively, exceeded the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guideline of 2 mg/kg PCB in fish tissue. PCB concentrations in individual common carp and walleye samples were below 2 mg/kg after 1987. Median PCB concentrations at individual sites and within stream segments were generally greatest in common carp and walleye from Mississippi River segments in the TCMA during 1975-79 and 1980-87. There was a significant difference among lipid-normalized PCB (LNPCB) concentrations in common carp, considering all stream segments combined, during all three time periods (1975-79, 1980-87, and 1988-95). LNPCB concentrations in common carp and walleye at

  2. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  3. The discharge of radioactive effluents from the nuclear power programme into western waters of Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is presented of the British nuclear power programme and the types of radioactive effluent that arise from the power stations and from the Windscale reprocessing plant. Routes by which these effluents could affect human populations, and radiation dose limits which have been laid down, are discussed. The discharge of permitted amounts of activity into western coastal waters of Great Britain, and the requirements for monitoring the discharges, are described. (U.K.)

  4. Bacterial pathogen gene abundance and relation to recreational water quality at seven Great Lakes beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Ryan J; Wijesinghe, Rasanthi U; Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Tucker, Taaja R; Riley, Stephen C

    2014-12-16

    Quantitative assessment of bacterial pathogens, their geographic variability, and distribution in various matrices at Great Lakes beaches are limited. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to test for genes from E. coli O157:H7 (eaeO157), shiga-toxin producing E. coli (stx2), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), Shigella spp. (ipaH), and a Salmonella enterica-specific (SE) DNA sequence at seven Great Lakes beaches, in algae, water, and sediment. Overall, detection frequencies were mapA>stx2>ipaH>SE>eaeO157. Results were highly variable among beaches and matrices; some correlations with environmental conditions were observed for mapA, stx2, and ipaH detections. Beach seasonal mean mapA abundance in water was correlated with beach seasonal mean log10 E. coli concentration. At one beach, stx2 gene abundance was positively correlated with concurrent daily E. coli concentrations. Concentration distributions for stx2, ipaH, and mapA within algae, sediment, and water were statistically different (Non-Detect and Data Analysis in R). Assuming 10, 50, or 100% of gene copies represented viable and presumably infective cells, a quantitative microbial risk assessment tool developed by Michigan State University indicated a moderate probability of illness for Campylobacter jejuni at the study beaches, especially where recreational water quality criteria were exceeded. Pathogen gene quantification may be useful for beach water quality management.

  5. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  6. Groundwater science relevant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Norman G.; Van Stempvoort, Dale

    2016-01-01

    When the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) was signed in 1972 by the Governments of Canada and the United States (the “Parties”) (Environment Canada, 2013a), groundwater was not recognized as important to the water quality of the Lakes. At that time, groundwater and surface water were still considered as two separate systems, with almost no appreciation for their interaction. When the GLWQA was revised in 1978 (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2012), groundwater contamination, such as that reported at legacy industrial sites such as those at Love Canal near the Niagara River, was squarely in the news. Consequently, the potential impacts of contaminated groundwater from such sites on Great Lakes water quality became a concern (Beck, 1979), and Annex 16 was added to the agreement, to address “pollution from contaminated groundwater” (Francis, 1989). However, no formal process for reporting under this annex was provided. The GLWQA Protocol in 1987 modified Annex 16 and called for progress reports beginning in 1988 (USEPA, 1988). The Protocol in 2012 provided a new Annex 8 to address groundwater more holistically (Environment 2 Canada, 2013b). Annex 8 (Environment Canada, 2013b) commits the Parties to coordinate groundwater science and management actions; as a first step, to “publish a report on the relevant and available groundwater science” by February 2015 (this report); and to “identify priorities for science activities and actions for groundwater management, protection, and remediation…” The broader mandate of Annex 8 is to (1) “identify groundwater impacts on the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (2) “analyze contaminants, including nutrients in groundwater, derived from both point and non-point sources impacting the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (3) “assess information gaps and science needs related to groundwater to protect the quality of the Waters of the Great Lakes

  7. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  8. Real-time water quality monitoring at a Great Lakes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Nevers, Meredith; Shively, Dawn; Spoljaric, Ashley; Otto, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used by the USEPA to establish new recreational water quality criteria in 2012 using the indicator bacteria enterococci. The application of this method has been limited, but resource managers are interested in more timely monitoring results. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of qPCR as a rapid, alternative method to the time-consuming membrane filtration (MF) method for monitoring water at select beaches and rivers of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Empire, MI. Water samples were collected from four locations (Esch Road Beach, Otter Creek, Platte Point Bay, and Platte River outlet) in 2014 and analyzed for culture-based (MF) and non-culture-based (i.e., qPCR) endpoints using Escherichia coli and enterococci bacteria. The MF and qPCR enterococci results were significantly, positively correlated overall (r = 0.686, p Water quality standard exceedances based on enterococci levels by qPCR were lower than by MF method: 3 and 16, respectively. Based on our findings, we conclude that qPCR may be a viable alternative to the culture-based method for monitoring water quality on public lands. Rapid, same-day results are achievable by the qPCR method, which greatly improves protection of the public from water-related illnesses.

  9. Optical detection of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncova, Gabriela; Berkova, Daniela; Burkhard, Jiri; Demnerova, Katerina; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we describe the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which is based on the measurement of changes of optical absorption at 400 nm of the medium in an aerobic bioreactor with immobilized cells Pseudomonas species 2. The rate of production, composition and the concentration of yellow intermediates are influenced by concentration and composition of PCB mixtures, concentration of cells and by the methods of immobilization. The method was applied in the detection of commercial mixture D103. It was found that the advantageous carriers were inorganic or organic-inorganic matrices, which sorbed PCBs and a cell outgrowth from their surface was low. In water contaminated with transformer oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons the detection limit is 10-2 gD103/kg. In transformer oil the upper limit for degradation of D103 by sodium dehalogenation (1.5 gD103 /kgoil) was determined also in the presence of the same concentration of trichloroethylene. The employment to of a liquid core waveguide spectrophotometer instead of a diode array spectrophotometer increased the sensitivity of the measurement of yellow intermediates by a factor of 100. An extrinsic fiber-optic sensor was used for in-situ measurement during biodegradation of PCBs in bioreactors.

  10. Water clarity of the Upper Great Lakes: tracking changes between 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, F.; Shuchman, R. A.; Sayers, M.; Fahnenstiel, G.; Henareh Khalyani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water clarity trends in three upper Great Lakes, Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, were assessed via satellite imagery from 1998 to 2012. Water attenuation coefficients (Kd490) from SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS satellites compared favorably with in situ measurements. Significant temporal and spatial trends and differences in Kd490 were noted within all three of the lakes. Lake-wide average Kd490 for Lake Superior did not exhibited any changes between 1998 and 2012. Annual Kd490 values for Lake Huron, however, showed a significant negative trend during the study period using both SeaWiFS and MODIS datasets. Similarly, annual Kd490 values of Lake Michigan declined between 1998 and 2010. Additionally, Kd490 trend for depths >90m in northern Lake Michigan reversed (increased) after 2007. Photic depth increased significantly in both Lake Michigan (≃5m), and Lake Huron (≃10m) when comparing annual Kd490 for pre- (1998-2001) and post-mussel (2006-2010). At seasonal level, significant decreases in Kd490 in lakes Michigan and Huron were mainly noted for the spring/fall/winter mixing periods. After current changes in water clarity, lake-wide photic depths in lakes Michigan and Huron superseded Lake Superior; thus, making Lake Superior no longer the clearest Great Lake. Combination of several factors (filtering activities of quagga mussels [Dreissena bugensis rostriformis], phosphorus abatement, climate change, etc.) are likely responsible for these large changes.

  11. Bacterial pathogen gene abundance and relation to recreational water quality at seven Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Ryan J.; Wijesinghe, Rasanthi U.; Fogarty, Lisa Reynolds; Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Riley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of bacterial pathogens, their geographic variability, and distribution in various matrices at Great Lakes beaches are limited. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to test for genes from E. coli O157:H7 (eaeO157), shiga-toxin producing E. coli (stx2), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), Shigella spp. (ipaH), and a Salmonella enterica-specific (SE) DNA sequence at seven Great Lakes beaches, in algae, water, and sediment. Overall, detection frequencies were mapA>stx2>ipaH>SE>eaeO157. Results were highly variable among beaches and matrices; some correlations with environmental conditions were observed for mapA, stx2, and ipaH detections. Beach seasonal mean mapA abundance in water was correlated with beach seasonal mean log10E. coli concentration. At one beach, stx2 gene abundance was positively correlated with concurrent daily E. coli concentrations. Concentration distributions for stx2, ipaH, and mapA within algae, sediment, and water were statistically different (Non-Detect and Data Analysis in R). Assuming 10, 50, or 100% of gene copies represented viable and presumably infective cells, a quantitative microbial risk assessment tool developed by Michigan State University indicated a moderate probability of illness for Campylobacter jejuni at the study beaches, especially where recreational water quality criteria were exceeded. Pathogen gene quantification may be useful for beach water quality management.

  12. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  13. Climatic change and variability: The effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortsch, L.

    1990-01-01

    Wetlands of Canada are disappearing at a rapid rate due to urban encroachment and agricultural land drainage. Climatic change may be another threat to their continued viability. Wetlands perform numerous functions such as providing wildlife habitat, enhancing water quality, providing recreation opportunities and supporting commercial activities. Impact scenarios of global warming on Great Lakes hydrology and wetland ecosystem response to water level changes are tabulated. Wetland response to lower annual water levels depends on the type of wetland, its geomorphology and bathymetry. Marshes and open water wetland adapt more readily to lower levels than swamps. Swamps are less resilient since trees cannot regenerate and colonize quickly. Enclosed and barrier beach wetlands are more prone to drying out and loosing wetland vegetation during low water periods. In open shoreline wetlands, the areal extent could increase if there is a gentle slope and other suitable conditions. Precambrian Shield wetlands are located in areas of irregular slope and rocky substrate, and would have fewer sites for successful colonization. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Diversity and Activity of Diazotrophs in Great Barrier Reef Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Furnas, Miles J; Carney, Richard L; McKinnon, A D; Seymour, Justin R

    2017-01-01

    Discrepancies between bioavailable nitrogen (N) concentrations and phytoplankton growth rates in the oligotrophic waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) suggest that undetermined N sources must play a significant role in supporting primary productivity. One such source could be biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation through the activity of "diazotrophic" bacterioplankton. Here, we investigated N 2 fixation and diazotroph community composition over 10° S of latitude within GBR surface waters. Qualitative N 2 fixation rates were found to be variable across the GBR but were relatively high in coastal, inner and outer GBR waters, reaching 68 nmol L -1 d -1 . Diazotroph assemblages, identified by amplicon sequencing of the nifH gene, were dominated by the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum , γ-proteobacteria from the Gamma A clade, and δ-proteobacterial phylotypes related to sulfate-reducing genera. However, diazotroph communities exhibited significant spatial heterogeneity, correlated with shifts in dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations. Specifically, heterotrophic diazotrophs generally increased in relative abundance with increasing concentrations of phosphate and N, while Trichodesmium was proportionally more abundant when concentrations of these nutrients were low. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of diazotroph community composition and N 2 fixation dynamics within the oligotrophic, N-limited surface waters of the GBR. Our observations highlight the need to re-evaluate N cycling dynamics within oligotrophic coral reef systems, to include diverse N 2 fixing assemblages as a potentially significant source of dissolved N within the water column.

  15. Assessment of compliance costs resulting from implementation of the proposed Great Lakes water quality guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, K.; Podar, M.; Snyder, B.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to develop an estimate of the incremental cost to direct dischargers resulting from the implementation of the proposed Great Lakes Water Quality Guidance (GLWQG). This estimate reflects the incremental cost of complying with permit requirements developed using the Implementation Procedures and water quality criteria proposed in the GLWQG versus permit requirements based on existing State water quality standards. Two secondary analyses were also performed, one to develop a preliminary estimate of the costs that would be incurred by indirect dischargers to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), and another to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the GLWQG. Finally, several sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of several major assumptions on the estimated compliance costs. To estimate compliance costs, permit limitations and conditions based on existing State water quality standards were compared to water quality-based limitations and conditions based on the proposed GLWQG criteria and Implementation Procedures for a sample of plants. The control measures needed to comply with the proposed GLWQG-based effluent limitations were evaluated. Individual plant compliance costs were estimated for these control measures based on information on treatment technology and cost analyses available in the literature. An overall compliance cost was projected from the sample based on statistical methods

  16. Cladophora in the Great Lakes: impacts on beach water quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhougstraete, M P; Byappanahalli, M N; Rose, J B; Whitman, R L

    2010-01-01

    Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

  17. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  19. Predicting soil-water partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls by desorption with methanol-water mixtures at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, M; Wilcke, W

    2001-06-01

    We evaluated a method to determine organic carbon-normalized soil-water partition coefficients (Koc) of 20 PAHs and 12 PCBs by desorption in the presence of a cosolvent (methanol fractions of 0.1-0.9) and at different temperatures (20-80 degrees C). The Koc values, the deviation factor from ideal sorption alpha, and the desorption enthalpies delta Hdes were estimated by nonlinear regression of log Koc on the methanol fractions and on T. The Koc values of individual compounds varied up to a factor of 100 among the studied 11 urban soils. The calculated alpha and delta Hdes of individual compounds varied considerably among the soils (coefficients of variation 5-20% and 20-30%, respectively), alpha increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the compounds. A sequential extraction with four temperature/methanol fraction combinations followed by a nonlinear regression allowed for the direct determination of the Koc, alpha, and delta Hdes. The use of less temperature/methanol fraction combinations requires a suitable estimation of alpha and delta Hdes, as their choice may change the obtained Koc values by up to a factor of 10. The proposed method is suitable for a routine determination of Koc values of PAHs and PCBs for small soil samples (2-6 g) and low concentrations (down to 0.3 mg kg-1 of sigma 20 PAHs and 1.2 micrograms kg-1 of sigma 12 PCBs).

  20. Satellite remote sensing for modeling and monitoring of water quality in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffield, S. R.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Barik, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Consistent and accurate monitoring of the Great Lakes is critical for protecting the freshwater ecosystems, quantifying the impacts of climate change, understanding harmful algal blooms, and safeguarding public health for the millions who rely on the Lakes for drinking water. While ground-based monitoring is often hampered by limited sampling resolution, satellite data provide surface reflectance measurements at much more complete spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we implemented NASA data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to build robust water quality models. We developed and validated models for chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity based on combinations of the six MODIS Ocean Color bands (412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667nm) for 2003-2016. Second, we applied these models to quantify trends in water quality through time and in relation to changing land cover, runoff, and climate for six selected coastal areas in Lakes Michigan and Erie. We found strongest models for chlorophyll-a in Lake Huron (R2 = 0.75), nitrogen in Lake Ontario (R2=0.66), phosphorus in Lake Erie (R2=0.60), and turbidity in Lake Erie (R2=0.86). These offer improvements over previous efforts to model chlorophyll-a while adding nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity. Mapped water quality parameters showed high spatial variability, with nitrogen concentrated largely in Superior and coastal Michigan and high turbidity, phosphorus, and chlorophyll near urban and agricultural areas of Erie. Temporal analysis also showed concurrence of high runoff or precipitation and nitrogen in Lake Michigan offshore of wetlands, suggesting that water quality in these areas is sensitive to changes in climate.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Methodology for the Development of Wildlife Criteria D Appendix D to Part 132 Protection of Environment... Development of Wildlife Criteria Great Lakes States and Tribes shall adopt provisions consistent with (as protective as) this appendix. I. Introduction A. A Great Lakes Water Quality Wildlife Criterion (GLWC) is the...

  2. The effects of river run-off on water clarity across the central Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, K E; Logan, M; Weeks, S; Brodie, J

    2014-07-15

    Changes in water clarity across the shallow continental shelf of the central Great Barrier Reef were investigated from ten years of daily river load, oceanographic and MODIS-Aqua data. Mean photic depth (i.e., the depth of 10% of surface irradiance) was related to river loads after statistical removal of wave and tidal effects. Across the ∼25,000 km(2) area, photic depth was strongly related to river freshwater and phosphorus loads (R(2)=0.65 and 0.51, respectively). In the six wetter years, photic depth was reduced by 19.8% and below water quality guidelines for 156 days, compared to 9 days in the drier years. After onset of the seasonal river floods, photic depth was reduced for on average 6-8 months, gradually returning to clearer baseline values. Relationships were strongest inshore and midshelf (∼12-80 km from the coast), and weaker near the chronically turbid coast. The data show that reductions in river loads would measurably improve shelf water clarity, with significant ecosystem health benefits. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  4. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  5. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  6. Implications of climate change for water resources in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several authors have suggested the following impacts of global warming for the Great Lakes region. The average annual warming is predicted by one model to be ca 4.5 degree C, slightly more in winter and slightly less in summer. Annual precipitation is projected to increase by ca 8% for points in the central and western basin, but to decrease by 3-6% for the eastern basin. Basin snowpack could be reduced by up to 100% and the snow season shortened by 2-4 weeks, resulting in a reduction of more than 50% in available soil moisture. Buoyancy-driven turnovers of the water column on four of the six lakes may not occur at all. Presently the phenomena occurs twice per year on all the lakes. Ice formation would be greatly reduced. Maximum ice cover may decline from 72-0% for Lake Superior, 38-0% for Lake Michigan, 65-0% for Lake Huron, 90-50% for Lake Erie and 33-0% for Lake Ontario. Net basin supplies would be reduced probably in the range 15-25% below the current mean value. Possible responses include integrated studies and research, better and continually updated information, assessment of public policies in the U.S. and Canada, enhanced private planning efforts, and increased global cooperation

  7. Can We Drink the Water? Data Sharing Lessons From the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Paige, K.; Slawecki, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) is one of 11 regional associations of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Over time, GLOS has built a reputation as a trusted data aggregator and resource for managers, policy makers and recreational boaters in the region. This was evidenced best when, in response to the 2014 Lake Erie harmful algal bloom event, local stakeholders including universities, state government, and municipal water managers turned to GLOS as a repository for sharing and finding data. The IOOS Certification process, required under the authority of the Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System Act of 2009 (ICOOS Act), further legitimizes these data assembly centers that serve as valuable coordinators of data for their regions.

  8. Phytotoxicity induced in isolated zooxanthellae by herbicides extracted from Great Barrier Reef flood waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C M; Brodie, J; Mueller, J F

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been limited evidence anthropogenically sourced pollution from catchments reaching corals of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In this study, freshly isolated zooxanthellae were exposed to polar chemicals (chiefly herbicides) extracted from water samples collected in a flood plume in the GBR lagoon. Photosynthetic potential of the isolated zooxanthellae declined after exposure to concentrated extracts (10 times) from all but one of the sampling sites. Photosynthetic potential demonstrated a significant positive relationship with the concentration of diuron in the concentrated extracts and a significant inverse relationship with salinity measured at the sampling site. This study demonstrates that runoff from land based application of herbicides may reduce photosynthetic efficiency in corals of inshore reefs in the GBR. The ecological impacts of the chemicals in combination with other potential stressors on corals remain unclear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Benthic Foraminifera as ecological indicators for water quality on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, Sven; Nobes, Kristie

    2008-07-01

    Benthic foraminifera are established indicators for Water Quality (WQ) in Florida and the Caribbean. However, nearshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and other Pacific regions are also subjected to increased nutrient and sediment loads. Here, we investigate the use of benthic foraminifera as indicators to assess status and trends of WQ on GBR reefs. We quantified several sediment parameters and the foraminiferan assemblage composition on 20 reefs in four geographic regions of the GBR, and along a water column nutrient and turbidity gradient. Twenty-seven easily recognisable benthic foraminiferan taxa (>63 μm) were distinguished. All four geographic regions differed significantly ( p turbid inner shelf towards clearer outer shelf reefs. A RDA separated symbiotic and aposymbiotic (heterotrophic) taxa. In addition, total suspended solid and water column chlorophyll a concentrations were negatively correlated, and optical depth and distance to the mainland were positively correlated, with the abundance of symbiont-bearing taxa. Several large foraminifera were identified as indicators for offshore, clear water conditions. In contrast, heterotrophic rotaliids and a species retaining plastids ( Elphidium sp.) where highly characteristic for low light, higher nutrient conditions. Application of the FORAM index to GBR assemblage composition showed a significant increase in the value of this index with increased distance from the mainland in the Whitsunday region ( r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001), and therefore with increasing light and decreased nutrient availability. We conclude that it will be possible to apply this index to GBR and possibly other Pacific reefs after some adaptations and additional experimental work on species-specific limiting factors.

  10. Variability of water properties in late spring in the northern Great South Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Limeburner, Richard

    Regional CTDIADCP surveys made in the northern Great South Channel (GSC) in late spring of 1988 and 1989 show different patterns of surface salinity in the extent of the freshwater plume east of Cape Cod. In April 1988, the surface plume was just beginning to form along the outer coast of Cape Cod, while 6 weeks later in the season in 1989, the minimum salinity was about 1.5 less, and a large pool of water fresher than 31.6 had pushed eastward over much of the northern GSC region. The difference in the amount of freshening between these two years is due primarily to the 6-week difference in the seasonal cycle and increased river discharge in 1989. The offshore spreading of the low-salinity plume was driven by the deeper circulation and upwelling-favorable winds. The distribution of Maine Intermediate Water (MIW) also significantly differed between April 1988 and June 1989. In April 1988, the seasonal thermocline was just beginning to form, and the spatial structure of MIW was relatively uniform. In June 1989, a narrow core of temperature minimum water (with T min in a range of 3.2-4.4°C) was found along the western flank of the northern GSC between 40 m and 120 m. This colder and fresher water spread to mix with the interior MIW as the core flowed southward into the central GSC. Hydrographic data plus satellite sea-surface temperature images showed a relatively permanent continuous thermal front (with a 10-km cross-isobath variation) along the eastern flank of Nantucket Shoals, across the northern shallow region of the GSC and along the northwestern flank of Georges Bank, which separated the well-mixed water over the shallow region of the GSC from stratified water in the center of the northern GSC. Comparison of the location of this front with theoretical predictions by LODER and GREENBERG [(1986) Continental Shelf Research, 6, 397-414] suggests that enhanced tidal mixing due to the spring-neap cycle is important in determining the relative balance between

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  12. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for human health criteria and values (January 1993 draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the human health criteria and values for the Great Lakes is the protection of humans from unacceptable exposure to toxicants from consumption of contaminated fish, drinking water and water related to recreational activities. Emphasis is on the protection of the individual in evaluating toxicity information and its application in the derivation of criteria and values

  13. Environmental Setting and Effects on Water Quality in the Great and Little Miami River Basins, Ohio and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrewer, Linda M.; Rowe, Gary L.; Reutter, David C.; Moore, Rhett C.; Hambrook, Julie A.; Baker, Nancy T.

    2000-01-01

    The Great and Little Miami River Basins drain approximately 7,354 square miles in southwestern Ohio and southeastern Indiana and are included in the more than 50 major river basins and aquifer systems selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Principal streams include the Great and Little Miami Rivers in Ohio and the Whitewater River in Indiana. The Great and Little Miami River Basins are almost entirely within the Till Plains section of the Central Lowland physiographic province and have a humid continental climate, characterized by well-defined summer and winter seasons. With the exception of a few areas near the Ohio River, Pleistocene glacial deposits, which are predominantly till, overlie lower Paleozoic limestone, dolomite, and shale bedrock. The principal aquifer is a complex buried-valley system of sand and gravel aquifers capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per min-ute. Designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a sole-source aquifer, the Buried-Valley Aquifer System is the principal source of drinking water for 1.6 million people in the basins and is the dominant source of water for southwestern Ohio. Water use in the Great and Little Miami River Basins averaged 745 million gallons per day in 1995. Of this amount, 48 percent was supplied by surface water (including the Ohio River) and 52 percent was supplied by ground water. Land-use and waste-management practices influence the quality of water found in streams and aquifers in the Great and Little Miami River Basins. Land use is approximately 79 percent agriculture, 13 percent urban (residential, industrial, and commercial), and 7 percent forest. An estimated 2.8 million people live in the Great and Little Miami River Basins; major urban areas include Cincinnati and Dayton, Ohio. Fertilizers and pesticides associated with agricultural activity, discharges from municipal and

  14. Developing and implementing the use of predictive models for estimating water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Corsi, Steven R.; Fuller, Lori M.; Harrison, John H.; Hayhurst, Brett A.; Lant, Jeremiah; Nevers, Meredith B.; Terrio, Paul J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive models have been used at beaches to improve the timeliness and accuracy of recreational water-quality assessments over the most common current approach to water-quality monitoring, which relies on culturing fecal-indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli.). Beach-specific predictive models use environmental and water-quality variables that are easily and quickly measured as surrogates to estimate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria or to provide the probability that a State recreational water-quality standard will be exceeded. When predictive models are used for beach closure or advisory decisions, they are referred to as “nowcasts.” During the recreational seasons of 2010-12, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with 23 local and State agencies, worked to improve existing nowcasts at 4 beaches, validate predictive models at another 38 beaches, and collect data for predictive-model development at 7 beaches throughout the Great Lakes. This report summarizes efforts to collect data and develop predictive models by multiple agencies and to compile existing information on the beaches and beach-monitoring programs into one comprehensive report. Local agencies measured E. coli concentrations and variables expected to affect E. coli concentrations such as wave height, turbidity, water temperature, and numbers of birds at the time of sampling. In addition to these field measurements, equipment was installed by the USGS or local agencies at or near several beaches to collect water-quality and metrological measurements in near real time, including nearshore buoys, weather stations, and tributary staff gages and monitors. The USGS worked with local agencies to retrieve data from existing sources either manually or by use of tools designed specifically to compile and process data for predictive-model development. Predictive models were developed by use of linear regression and (or) partial least squares techniques for 42 beaches

  15. Denitrification, anammox and fixed nitrogen removal in the water column of a tropical great lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur; Crowe, Sean A.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Llirós, Marc; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Michiels, Céline; Servais, Pierre; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Bouillon, Steven; Meysman, Filip; Veuger, Bart; Masilya, Pascal M.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borges, Alberto V.

    2013-04-01

    If rates of microbial denitrification in aquatic systems are poorly constrained, it is much more the case for tropical water bodies. Lake Kivu [2.50° S 1.59° S, 29.37° E 28.83° E] is one of the great lakes of the East African Rift. It is an oligotrophic lake characterized by anoxic deep waters rich in dissolved gases (methane and carbon dioxide) and nutrients, and by well oxygenated and nutrient-depleted surface waters. During the seasonally stratified rainy season (October to May), a nitrogenous zone characterized by the accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) is often observed in the lower layer of the mixolimnion. It results from nitrification of ammonium released by decaying organic matter. With the seasonal uplift of the oxygen minimum zone, the nitrogenous zone becomes anoxic and might be the most preferential area for fixed nitrogen (N) removal in Lake Kivu. Our work aimed at identifying and quantifying the processes of N losses by denitrification and/or anammox in the nitrogenous zone of the Lake Kivu water column. During 5 sampling campaigns (March 2010, October 2010, June 2011, February 2012 and September 2012), isotopic labelling experiments were used to quantify denitrification and anammox rates along vertical profiles at two pelagic stations of the main lake. Moreover, N2:Ar ratios were estimated during the September 2012 campaign, and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing was used to describe bacterial community composition during the last 2 campaigns. No bacteria related to organisms performing anammox was observed and labelling experiments failed to detect anammox at any locations and any depths. In Lake Kivu, denitrifying bacteria were mainly related to Denitratisoma and Thiobacillus genus. Significant denitrification rates were observed at several occasions, especially under the oxic-anoxic interface in the bottom of the nitracline. The annual average denitrification rate was estimated at ~150 μmoles N m-2 d-1. Denitrification was not the only

  16. Iodine and fluorine removal of the water using two synthetic adsorbents of great fixation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri G, M.; Badillo A, V. E.

    2012-10-01

    In this work is studied the affinity of two synthetic adsorbents of great fixation capacity, the alumina and the hydroxyapatite, as alternative for the removal of two halogens, iodine and fluorine of the water; the first of importance in the radioactive wastes management and the second of interest in public health. This study was carried out applying the technique of radioactive tracers, with 131 I and the radionuclide 18 F (it produced in the unit PET-cyclotron of the UNAM). The affinity of the synthetic adsorbents for the halogens is expressed in terms of the distribution coefficient and of the retention percent in function of the solution ph. The results obtained for the iodine and fluorine in the synthetic solids are markedly different; in the case of the iodine, the retention is worthless in the whole interval of studied ph while for the fluorine high distribution coefficient and fixation percentages are presented of until 100%. Also for the fluorine in hydroxyapatite high distribution coefficients and superiors are obtained in relation to those that are obtained in the alumina. In both solids the fluorine retention diminishes as the ph of the solution increases, what shows the competition with the hydroxyl ions for the active places in surface. (Author)

  17. Understanding Biophysical Interactions In The Great Barrier Reef Catchments: Better Landscape Management For Water Quality Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, E. N.; Wilkinson, S. N.; Bartley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment input to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon has had deleterious impacts on seagrass and coral ecosystems. The response of the Australian government has been to develop policies to: (i) reverse the impact of threats from sediments and nutrients, and improve water quality and aquatic health of the GBR lagoon; and (ii) to facilitate the uptake of sustainable farming and land management practices that deliver improved ecosystem services, by at least 30 per cent of farmers. The Reef2050 Long term sustainability plan aims to identify priority locations for on-ground investment of remediation options that will result in a reduction of constituent loads to the GBR. Recent sediment tracing studies indicate that subsoil from erosion features such as gullies and channel banks are the dominant contributors of sediment in the GBR catchments. Better control of gully and streambank erosion and restoration of riparian habitats are therefore necessary. Here we review the evidence for bank erosion in the GBR catchments and how scientific evidence on feedback relationships between climate- geochemistry-vegetation-landforms can be used to develop better guidelines for streambank and gully re-vegetation.

  18. Speckled eggs: water-loss and incubation behaviour in the great tit Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Gosler, Andrew G

    2006-10-01

    Many small passerine birds worldwide lay white eggs speckled with red, brown and black protoporphyrin pigment spots (maculation). Unlike some patterns of avian eggshell pigmentation which clearly serve a crypsis or signalling function, the ubiquity of maculation among passerines suggests that its origins lie in another function, not specific to any particular ecological or behavioural group. Elsewhere, we have presented evidence that protoporphyrin pigments serve a structural function related to eggshell thickness and calcium availability: eggshell maculation in the great tit Parus major increases with decreasing soil calcium levels, pigments demarcate thinner areas of shell, and both the pigment intensity and distribution are related to shell thickness. Here we show that maculation also affects the rate of water loss from the egg during incubation (approximately Mass Loss per Day or MLD, which is critical to egg viability), but not that of unincubated eggs. We also demonstrate, both by observation and experiment, that the effect of female incubation behaviour on MLD compensates in some way for variation in egg characteristics, and that differences between females in the degree of such compensation are related to differences in clutch maculation. Our results suggest that, while a principal function of maculation in this species may be to strengthen the eggshell, it may also reduce eggshell permeability when large amounts of pigment are used, and that this necessitates a behavioural adjustment from the female during incubation. We discuss these findings and make further testable predictions from our model.

  19. Determination of polydimethylsiloxane–water partition coefficients for ten 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene-related compounds and twelve polychlorinated biphenyls using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-water partition coefficients (Kpw) of ten DDT-related compounds were determined in pure water at 25 °C using commercial polydimethylsiloxane-coated optical fiber. Analyte concentrations were measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/full scan mass spectrometry (TD–GC/MSFS; fibers) and liquid injection-gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry (LI–GC/MSSIM; water). Equilibrium was approached from two directions (fiber uptake and depletion) as a means of assessing data concordance. Measured compound-specific log Kpw values ranged from 4.8 to 6.1 with an average difference in log Kpw between the two approaches of 0.05 log units (∼12% of Kpw). Comparison of the experimentally-determined log Kpw values with previously published data confirmed the consistency of the results and the reliability of the method. A second experiment was conducted with the same ten DDT-related compounds and twelve selected PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners under conditions characteristic of a coastal marine field site (viz., seawater, 11 °C) that is currently under investigation for DDT and PCB contamination. Equilibration at lower temperature and higher ionic strength resulted in an increase in log Kpw for the DDT-related compounds of 0.28–0.49 log units (61–101% of Kpw), depending on the analyte. The increase in Kpw would have the effect of reducing by approximately half the calculated freely dissolved pore-water concentrations (Cfree). This demonstrates the importance of determining partition coefficients under conditions as they exist in the field.

  20. Quantifying phenology metrics from Great Basin plant communities and their relationship to seasonal water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Sagebrush steppe is critical habitat in the Great Basin for wildlife and provides important ecosystem goods and services. Expansion of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) in the Great Basin has reduced the extent of sagebrush steppe causing habitat, fire, and...

  1. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  2. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  3. Intense Undular Bores on the Autumn Pycnocline of Shelf Waters of the Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, G. I.; Novotryasov, V. V.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.; Permyakov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of field observations of an internal undular bore that were performed in a coastal zone of constant depth in the Sea of Japan are presented. A hydrodynamic model of undular bores is discussed according to which the recorded disturbances of the water medium are an experimental prototype of strongly nonlinear (intense) internal undular bores on the pycnocline of shelf waters of Peter the Great Bay with an intensity close to the limit.

  4. Measured and simulated soil water evaporation from four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of soil water lost during stage one and stage two soil water evaporation is of interest to crop water use modelers. The ratio of measured soil surface temperature (Ts) to air temperature (Ta) was tested as a signal for the transition in soil water evaporation from stage one to stage two d...

  5. Estimating anthropogenic ecological water stress in the US great lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropocentric water resources management that prioritizes socio-economic growth can cause harmful ecological water stress by depriving aquatic ecosystems of the water needed to sustain habitats. It is important to better understand the impacts of water withdrawal by different economic sectors (e.g...

  6. Water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, A.; Larson, S.; Hug, B.; De Freitas, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a tool for documenting and monitoring water use benefits in the Great Barrier Reef catchments that allows temporal and spatial comparison along the region. Water, water use benefits and water allocations are currently receiving much attention from Australian policy makers and conservation practitioners. Because of the inherent complexity and variability in water quality, it is essential that scientific information is presented in a meaningful way to policy makers, managers and ultimately, to the general public who have to live with the consequences of the decisions. We developed an inexpensively populated and easily understandable water use benefit index as a tool for community-based monitoring of water related trends in the Great Barrier Reef region. The index is developed based on a comparative list of selected water-related indices integrating attributes across physico-chemical, economic, social, and ecological domains currently used in the assessment of water quality, water quantity and water use benefits in Australia. Our findings indicate that the proposed index allows the identification of water performance indicators by temporal and spatial comparisons. Benefits for decision makers and conservation practitioners include a flexible way of prioritization towards the domain with highest concern. The broader community benefits from a comprehensive and user-friendly tool, communicating changes in water quality trends more effectively.

  7. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  8. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  9. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2010-08-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such difference are unknown. We examined whether quagga mussel shell morphology could be induced by three environmental variables through developmental plasticity. We predicted that shallow-water conditions (high temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype typical of wild quagga mussels from shallow habitats, while deep-water conditions (low temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype present in deep habitats. We tested this prediction by examining shell morphology and growth rate of quagga mussels collected from shallow and deep habitats and reared under common-garden treatments that manipulated the three variables. Shell morphology was quantified using the polar moment of inertia. Of the variables tested, temperature had the greatest effect on shell morphology. Higher temperature (approximately 18-20 degrees C) yielded a morphotype typical of wild shallow mussels regardless of the levels of food quantity or water motion. In contrast, lower temperature (approximately 6-8 degrees C) yielded a morphotype approaching that of wild deep mussels. If shell morphology has functional consequences in particular habitats, a plastic response might confer quagga mussels with a greater ability than zebra mussels to colonize a wider range of habitats within the Great Lakes.

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Housatonic River and adjacent aquifer, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Frederick B.; Frimpter, Michael H.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are sorbed to the fine-grained stream-bottom sediments along the Housatonic River from Pittsfield, Massachusetts, southward to the Massachusetts-Connecticut boundary. The highest PCB concentrations, up to 140,000 micrograms per kilogram, were found in samples of bottom material from a reach of the river between Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lee, Massachusetts. Sediments in Woods Pond have been estimated to contain about 11,000 pounds of PCB's. Approximately 490 pounds per year of PCB's have also been estimated to move past the Housatonic River gaging station at Great Barrington. The distribution of hydraulic heads, water temperatures, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese in ground water shows that industrial water-supply wells in a sand and gravel aquifer adjacent to a stretch of the river called Woods Pond have been inducing ground-water recharge through the PCB-contaminated bottom sediments of the pond since late 1956. These data indicate that, at one location along the shore of the pond, the upper 40 feet of the aquifer contains water derived from induced infiltration. However, this induced recharge has not moved PCB's from the bottom sediments into a vertical section of the aquifer located 5 feet downgradient from the edge of Woods Pond. Samples taken at selected intervals in this section showed that no PCB's sorbed to the aquifer material or dissolved in the ground water within the detection limits of the chemical analyses.

  11. Paleoecology of a Northern Michigan Lake and the relationship among climate, vegetation, and Great Lakes water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R.K.; Jackson, S.T.; Thompson, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    We reconstructed Holocene water-level and vegetation dynamics based on pollen and plant macrofossils from a coastal lake in Upper Michigan. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that major fluctuations in Great Lakes water levels resulted in part from climatic changes. We also used our data to provide temporal constraints to the mid-Holocene dry period in Upper Michigan. From 9600 to 8600 cal yr B.P. a shallow, lacustrine environment characterized the Mud Lake basin. A Sphagnum-dominated wetland occupied the basin during the mid-Holocene dry period (???8600 to 6600 cal yr B.P.). The basin flooded at 6600 cal yr B.P. as a result of rising water levels associated with the onset of the Nipissing I phase of ancestral Lake Superior. This flooding event occured contemporaneously with a well-documented regional expansion of Tsuga. Betula pollen increased during the Nipissing II phase (4500 cal yr B.P.). Macrofossil evidence from Mud Lake suggests that Betula alleghaniensis expansion was primarily responsible for the rising Betula pollen percentages. Major regional and local vegetational changes were associated with all the major Holocene highstands of the western Great Lakes (Nipissing I, Nipissing II, and Algoma). Traditional interpretations of Great Lakes water-level history should be revised to include a major role of climate. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  12. Water resources data, Idaho, 2002; Volume 1. Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; Campbell, A.M.; O'Dell, I.; Beattie, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The two volumes of this report contain discharge records for 196 stream-gaging stations and 15 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 5 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 78 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 383 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  13. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  14. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  15. Diatoms as water quality indicators in the upper reaches of the Great ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All index scores showed the Great Fish River to be impacted, and showed significant correlations of diatom species abundance with pH, NO3-N, electrical conductivity, NH4-N and CaCO3. Analysis revealed EC and NO3-N as the main environmental drivers affecting diatom commnity composition, followed by pH and ...

  16. On the genesis and dynamics of mineral waters of Essentuki deposit in the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters on the basis of uranium isotope information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalov, P.I.; Tikhonov, A.I.; Kiselev, G.P.; Merkulova, K.I.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of the Great Region of Caucasian Mineral Waters are established and contribution of each source in the formation of this region is determined using the data on isotopic ratio and content of uranium in mineral waters. The investigation relies on the fact that 234 U/ 238 U radioactivity ratio used as a tracer in different for waters which drain the rocks with different content and distribution of uranium therein. The investigation results reveal the peculiarities of the geological history of the above region and can be used for predicting new deposits of mineral waters

  17. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  18. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 1: Present Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    There are two U.S. cement plants (Charlevoix and Alpena ) that supply all U.S. ports on the lakes. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes...Marquette, MI Brevort, MI Buffington, IN Alpena , MI Bay City, MI Cleveland, OH Ashtabula, OH Duluth, MN Munising, MI Charlevoix, MI Burns Harbor, IN...Manitowoc Pathfinder Calumet Alpena Total shown: 40,699,415 mt Total, all U.S. Vsls: 42,508,108 mt % ballast moved by top 5 vsls

  19. Summer watering patterns of mule deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: implications of differential use by individuals and the sexes for management of water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Andrew V; Larsen, Randy T; Whiting, Jericho C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs) on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  20. Summer Watering Patterns of Mule Deer in the Great Basin Desert, USA: Implications of Differential Use by Individuals and the Sexes for Management of Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V. Shields

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the abundance and distribution of free water can negatively influence wildlife in arid regions. Free water is considered a limiting factor for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus in the Great Basin Desert. Consequently, a better understanding of differential use of water by individuals and the sexes could influence the conservation and management of mule deer and water resources in their habitats. We deployed remote cameras at all known water sources (13 wildlife water developments and 4 springs on one mountain range in western Utah, USA, during summer from 2007 to 2011 to document frequency and timing of water use, number of water sources used by males and females, and to estimate population size from individually identified mule deer. Male and female mule deer used different water sources but visited that resource at similar frequencies. Individual mule deer used few water sources and exhibited high fidelity to that resource. Wildlife water developments were frequently used by both sexes. Our results highlight the differing use of water sources by sexes and individual mule deer. This information will help guide managers when siting and reprovisioning wildlife water developments meant to benefit mule deer and will contribute to the conservation and management of this species.

  1. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500–10,000 m3s−1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  2. A numerical model investigation of the impacts of Hurricane Sandy on water level variability in Great South Bay, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Vanessa C. C.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hapke, Cheryl J.

    2018-06-01

    Hurricane Sandy was a large and intense storm with high winds that caused total water levels from combined tides and storm surge to reach 4.0 m in the Atlantic Ocean and 2.5 m in Great South Bay (GSB), a back-barrier bay between Fire Island and Long Island, New York. In this study the impact of the hurricane winds and waves are examined in order to understand the flow of ocean water into the back-barrier bay and water level variations within the bay. To accomplish this goal, a high resolution hurricane wind field is used to drive the coupled Delft3D-SWAN hydrodynamic and wave models over a series of grids with the finest resolution in GSB. The processes that control water levels in the back-barrier bay are investigated by comparing the results of four cases that include: (i) tides only; (ii) tides, winds and waves with no overwash over Fire Island allowed; (iii) tides, winds, waves and limited overwash at the east end of the island; (iv) tides, winds, waves and extensive overwash along the island. The results indicate that strong local wind-driven storm surge along the bay axis had the largest influence on the total water level fluctuations during the hurricane. However, the simulations allowing for overwash have higher correlation with water level observations in GSB and suggest that island overwash provided a significant contribution of ocean water to eastern GSB during the storm. The computations indicate that overwash of 7500-10,000 m3s-1 was approximately the same as the inflow from the ocean through the major existing inlet. Overall, the model results indicate the complex variability in total water levels driven by tides, ocean storm surge, surge from local winds, and overwash that had a significant impact on the circulation in Great South Bay during Hurricane Sandy.

  3. Diving of great shearwaters (Puffinus gravis in cold and warm water regions of the South Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Ronconi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the most widespread seabirds in the world, shearwaters of the genus Puffinus are also some of the deepest diving members of the Procellariiformes. Maximum diving depths are known for several Puffinus species, but dive depths or diving behaviour have never been recorded for great shearwaters (P. gravis, the largest member of this genus. This study reports the first high sampling rate (2 s of depth and diving behaviour for Puffinus shearwaters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Time-depth recorders (TDRs were deployed on two female great shearwaters nesting on Inaccessible Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, recording 10 consecutive days of diving activity. Remote sensing imagery and movement patterns of 8 males tracked by satellite telemetry over the same period were used to identify probable foraging areas used by TDR-equipped females. The deepest and longest dive was to 18.9 m and lasted 40 s, but most (>50% dives were <2 m deep. Diving was most frequent near dawn and dusk, with <0.5% of dives occurring at night. The two individuals foraged in contrasting oceanographic conditions, one in cold (8 to 10°C water of the Sub-Antarctic Front, likely 1000 km south of the breeding colony, and the other in warmer (10 to 16°C water of the Sub-tropical Frontal Zone, at the same latitude as the colony, possibly on the Patagonian Shelf, 4000 km away. The cold water bird spent fewer days commuting, conducted four times as many dives as the warm water bird, dived deeper on average, and had a greater proportion of bottom time during dives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: General patterns of diving activity were consistent with those of other shearwaters foraging in cold and warm water habitats. Great shearwaters are likely adapted to forage in a wide range of oceanographic conditions, foraging mostly with shallow dives but capable of deep diving.

  4. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. Monitoring fresh water resources. [water quality of reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Processing and analysis of CCT's for numerous ground truth supported passes over Kansas reservoirs has demonstrated that sun angle and atmospheric conditions are strong influences on water reflectance levels as detected by ERTS-1 and can suppress the contributions of true water quality factors. Band ratios, on the other hand, exhibit very little dependence on sun angle and sky conditions and thus are more directly related to water quality. Band ratio levels can be used to reliably determine suspended load. Other water quality indicators appear to have little or no affect on reflectance levels.

  5. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  6. Ground-water quality in the carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin, Nevada and Utah, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Donald H.; Thiros, Susan A.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The carbonate-rock aquifer of the Great Basin is named for the thick sequence of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite with lesser amounts of shale, sandstone, and quartzite. It lies primarily in the eastern half of the Great Basin and includes areas of eastern Nevada and western Utah as well as the Death Valley area of California and small parts of Arizona and Idaho. The carbonate-rock aquifer is contained within the Basin and Range Principal Aquifer, one of 16 principal aquifers selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water- Quality Assessment Program.Water samples from 30 ground-water sites (20 in Nevada and 10 in Utah) were collected in the summer of 2003 and analyzed for major anions and cations, nutrients, trace elements, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, radon, and microbiology. Water samples from selected sites also were analyzed for the isotopes oxygen-18, deuterium, and tritium to determine recharge sources and the occurrence of water recharged since the early 1950s.Primary drinking-water standards were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in 30 water samples from the carbonate-rock aquifer. The maximum contaminant level was exceeded for concentrations of dissolved antimony (6 μg/L) in one sample, arsenic (10 μg/L) in eleven samples, and thallium (2 μg/L) in one sample. Secondary drinking-water regulations were exceeded for several inorganic constituents in water samples: chloride (250 mg/L) in five samples, fluoride (2 mg/L) in two samples, iron (0.3 mg/L) in four samples, manganese (0.05 mg/L) in one sample, sulfate (250 mg/L) in three samples, and total dissolved solids (500 mg/L) in seven samples.Six different pesticides or metabolites were detected at very low concentrations in the 30 water samples. The lack of VOC detections in water sampled from most of the sites is evidence thatVOCs are not common in the carbonate-rock aquifer. Arsenic values for water range from 0.7 to 45.7

  7. 40 CFR Appendix F to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Implementation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-specific modifications that result in less stringent criteria must be based on a sound scientific rationale... Handbook, Second Edition—Revised (1994). b. Less stringent site-specific modifications to chronic or acute...-specific criteria is provided in Chapter 3 of the U.S. EPA Water Quality Standards Handbook, Second Edition...

  8. Impact of forest fires on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in coastal waters of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Marco; Chandía, Cristian; Hernández, Aldo

    2016-12-15

    The relationship between the occurrence of forest fires in central Chile and the total concentration of dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) in nearby coastal waters was analyzed. The data for this analysis was obtained from a long-term environmental monitoring program (PROMNA) in the Bio-Bio Region. Quantification of PCDD/F was performed using HRGC/HRMS at the MSS laboratory in England. Between 2006 and 2014, peaks were observed in February 2007 and 2012. These concentration maxima coincided with major forest fires in the Bio-Bio Region and particularly with those in the Itata River Basin. The January 2012 fires generated an intense short-term response that was associated with atmospheric transport which increases medium toxicity furan-type congeners concentrations (TCDF, PCDF and HxCDF) and six months later a concentration increase of low toxicity dioxin-type congeners was observed (OCDD, HpCDD and HxCDD) coinciding with maximum winter river flow. These results suggest that forest fires near the coastal zone are responsible for increases in PCDD/F concentration observed in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial differences in hydrologic characteristics and water chemistry of a temperate coastal plain peatland: The Great Dismal Swamp, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.; Wurster, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial differences in hydrologic processes and geochemistry across forested peatlands control the response of the wetland-community species and resiliency to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Knowing these controls is essential to effectively managing peatlands as resilient wetland habitats. The Great Dismal Swamp is a 45,325 hectare peatland in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia and North Carolina, USA, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The existing forest-species distribution is a product of timber harvesting, hydrologic alteration by canal and road construction, and wildfires. Since 2009, studies of hydrologic and geochemical controls have expanded knowledge of groundwater flow paths, water chemistry, response to precipitation events, and characteristics of the peat. Dominant hydrologic and geochemical controls include (1) the gradual slope in land surface, (2) vertical differences in the hydraulic characteristics of the peat, (3) the proximity of lateral groundwater and small stream inflows from uplands, (4) the presence of an extensive canal and road network, and (5) small, adjustable-height dams on the canals. Although upland sources provide some surface water and lateral groundwater inflow to western parts of the swamp, direct groundwater recharge by precipitation is the major source of water throughout the swamp and the only source in many areas. Additionally, the proximity and type of upland water sources affect water levels and nutrient concentrations in canal water and groundwater. Where streams are a dominant upland source, variations in groundwater levels and nutrient concentrations are greater than where recharge by precipitation is the primary water source. Where upland groundwater is a dominant source, water levels are more stable. Because the species distribution of forest communities in the Swamp is strongly influenced by these controls, swamp managers are beginning to incorporate this knowledge into forest, water, and fire

  10. Vertically resolved concentration and liquid water content of atmospheric nanoparticles at the US DOE Southern Great Plains site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most prior field studies of new particle formation (NPF have been performed at or near ground level, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the vertical extent of NPF. To address this, we measured concentrations of 11–16 nm diameter particles from ground level to 1000 m during the 2013 New Particle Formation Study at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The measurements were performed using a tethered balloon carrying two condensation particle counters that were configured for two different particle cut-off diameters. These observations were compared to data from three scanning mobility particle sizers at the ground level. We observed that 11–16 nm diameter particles were generated at the top region of the boundary layer, and were then rapidly mixed throughout the boundary layer. We also estimate liquid water content of nanoparticles using ground-based measurements of particle hygroscopicity obtained with a Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and vertically resolved relative humidity (RH and temperature measured with a Raman lidar. Our analyses of these observations lead to the following conclusions regarding nanoparticles formed during NPF events at this site: (1 ground-based observations may not always accurately represent the timing, distribution, and meteorological conditions associated with the onset of NPF; (2 nanoparticles are highly hygroscopic and typically contain up to 50 % water by volume, and during conditions of high RH combined with high particle hygroscopicity, particles can be up to 95 % water by volume; (3 increased liquid water content of nanoparticles at high RH greatly enhances the partitioning of water-soluble species like organic acids into ambient nanoparticles.

  11. Vertically resolved concentration and liquid water content of atmospheric nanoparticles at the US DOE Southern Great Plains site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Hodshire, Anna L.; Ortega, John; Greenberg, James; McMurry, Peter H.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Hanson, Dave R.; Smith, James N.

    2018-01-01

    Most prior field studies of new particle formation (NPF) have been performed at or near ground level, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the vertical extent of NPF. To address this, we measured concentrations of 11-16 nm diameter particles from ground level to 1000 m during the 2013 New Particle Formation Study at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The measurements were performed using a tethered balloon carrying two condensation particle counters that were configured for two different particle cut-off diameters. These observations were compared to data from three scanning mobility particle sizers at the ground level. We observed that 11-16 nm diameter particles were generated at the top region of the boundary layer, and were then rapidly mixed throughout the boundary layer. We also estimate liquid water content of nanoparticles using ground-based measurements of particle hygroscopicity obtained with a Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and vertically resolved relative humidity (RH) and temperature measured with a Raman lidar. Our analyses of these observations lead to the following conclusions regarding nanoparticles formed during NPF events at this site: (1) ground-based observations may not always accurately represent the timing, distribution, and meteorological conditions associated with the onset of NPF; (2) nanoparticles are highly hygroscopic and typically contain up to 50 % water by volume, and during conditions of high RH combined with high particle hygroscopicity, particles can be up to 95 % water by volume; (3) increased liquid water content of nanoparticles at high RH greatly enhances the partitioning of water-soluble species like organic acids into ambient nanoparticles.

  12. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Mason, Sherri; Wilson, Stiv; Box, Carolyn; Zellers, Ann; Edwards, William; Farley, Hannah; Amato, Stephen

    2013-12-15

    Neuston samples were collected at 21 stations during an ~700 nautical mile (~1300 km) expedition in July 2012 in the Laurentian Great Lakes of the United States using a 333 μm mesh manta trawl and analyzed for plastic debris. Although the average abundance was approximately 43,000 microplastic particles/km², station 20, downstream from two major cities, contained over 466,000 particles/km², greater than all other stations combined. SEM analysis determined nearly 20% of particles less than 1 mm, which were initially identified as microplastic by visual observation, were aluminum silicate from coal ash. Many microplastic particles were multi-colored spheres, which were compared to, and are suspected to be, microbeads from consumer products containing microplastic particles of similar size, shape, texture and composition. The presence of microplastics and coal ash in these surface samples, which were most abundant where lake currents converge, are likely from nearby urban effluent and coal burning power plants.

  13. Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Leshkevich, George; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Flatico, Joseph; Prokop, Norman; Kojima, Jun; Anderson, Robert; Demers, James; Krasowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor suite to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie. The HABs are very dynamic events as they form, spread and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human health, fish and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. Because of this toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be continually monitored. This situation is well suited for aircraft based monitoring because the blooms are a very dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. High resolution satellite data is not suitable by itself because it will not give the temporal resolution due to the infrequent overpasses of the quickly changing blooms. A custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted on aT 34 aircraft have been used to obtain data on an algal bloom that formed in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2006. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary hyperspectral data of this event will be presented

  14. Doomed reservoirs in Kansas, USA? Climate change and groundwater mining on the Great Plains lead to unsustainable surface water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryStreamflow declines on the Great Plains of the US are causing many Federal reservoirs to become profoundly inefficient, and will eventually drive them into unsustainability as negative annual reservoir water budgets become more common. The streamflow declines are historically related to groundwater mining, but since the mid-1980s correlate increasingly with climate. This study highlights that progression toward unsustainability, and shows that future climate change will continue streamflow declines at historical rates, with severe consequences for surface water supply. An object lesson is Optima Lake in the Oklahoma Panhandle, where streamflows have declined 99% since the 1960s and the reservoir has never been more than 5% full. Water balances for the four westernmost Federal reservoirs in Kansas (Cedar Bluff, Keith Sebelius, Webster and Kirwin) show similar tendencies. For these four, reservoir inflow has declined by 92%, 73%, 81% and 64% respectively since the 1950s. Since 1990 total evaporated volumes relative to total inflows amounted to 68%, 83%, 24% and 44% respectively. Predictions of streamflow and reservoir performance based on climate change models indicate 70% chance of steady decline after 2007, with a ˜50% chance of failure (releases by gravity flow impossible) of Cedar Bluff Reservoir between 2007 and 2050. Paradoxically, a 30% chance of storage increase prior 2020 is indicated, followed by steady declines through 2100. Within 95% confidence the models predict >50% decline in surface water resources between 2007 and 2050. Ultimately, surface storage of water resources may prove unsustainable in this region, forcing conversion to subsurface storage.

  15. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, John; Windle, Jill

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers wanting to increase protection of the Great Barrier Reef from pollutants generated by agriculture need to identify when measures to improve water quality generate benefits to society that outweigh the costs involved. The research reported in this paper makes a contribution in several ways. First, it uses the improved science understanding about the links between management changes and reef health to bring together the analysis of costs and benefits of marginal changes, helping to demonstrate the appropriate way of addressing policy questions relating to reef protection. Second, it uses the scientific relationships to frame a choice experiment to value the benefits of improved reef health, with the results of mixed logit (random parameter) models linking improvements explicitly to changes in "water quality units." Third, the research demonstrates how protection values are consistent across a broader population, with some limited evidence of distance effects. Fourth, the information on marginal costs and benefits that are reported provide policymakers with information to help improve management decisions. The results indicate that while there is potential for water quality improvements to generate net benefits, high cost water quality improvements are generally uneconomic. A major policy implication is that cost thresholds for key pollutants should be set to avoid more expensive water quality proposals being selected.

  16. Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris D; Miao, Xiu-Sheng; Koenig, Brenda G; Struger, John

    2003-12-01

    Prescription and nonprescription drugs have been detected in rivers and streams in Europe and the United States. Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source of these contaminants, but few data exist on the spatial distribution of drugs in surface waters near STPs. Samples of surface water were collected in the summer and fall of 2000 at open-water sites in the lower Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake Erie), at sites near the two STPs for the city of Windsor (ON, Canada), and at sites in Hamilton Harbour (ON, Canada), an embayment of western Lake Ontario that receives discharges from several STPs. In a follow-up study in the summer of 2002, samples of surface water and final effluent from adjacent STPs were collected from sites in Hamilton Harbour and Windsor. In addition, surface water and STP effluent samples were collected in Peterborough (ON, Canada). All samples of surface water and STP effluents were analyzed for selected acidic and neutral drugs. In the survey of Hamilton Harbour and Windsor conducted in 2000, acidic drugs and the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine were detected at ng/L concentrations at sites that were up to 500 m away from the STP, but the hydrological conditions of the receiving waters strongly influenced the spatial distribution of these compounds. Drugs were not detected at open-water locations in western Lake Erie or in the Niagara River near the municipality of Niagara-on-the-Lake (ON, Canada). However, clofibric acid, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, and carbamazepine were detected in samples collected in the summer of 2000 at sites in Lake Ontario and at a site in the Niagara River (Fort Erie, ON, Canada) that were relatively remote from STP discharges. Follow-up studies in the summer of 2002 indicated that concentrations of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near the point of sewage discharge into the Little River (ON, Canada) STP were approximately equal to the concentrations in the final effluent from the STP. Caffeine and

  17. The great melting pot. Common sole population connectivity assessed by otolith and water fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Dierking, Jan; Pécheyran, Christophe; Bareille, Gilles; Blamart, Dominique; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the scale and importance of individual dispersion between populations and life stages is a key challenge in marine ecology. The common sole (Solea solea), an important commercial flatfish in the North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, has a marine pelagic larval stage, a benthic juvenile stage in coastal nurseries (lagoons, estuaries or shallow marine areas) and a benthic adult stage in deeper marine waters on the continental shelf. To date, the ecological connectivity among these life stages has been little assessed in the Mediterranean. Here, such an assessment is provided for the first time for the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean, based on a dataset on otolith microchemistry and stable isotopic composition as indicators of the water masses inhabited by individual fish. Specifically, otolith Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca profiles, and δ(13)C and δ(18)O values of adults collected in four areas of the Gulf of Lions were compared with those of young-of-the-year collected in different coastal nurseries. Results showed that a high proportion of adults (>46%) were influenced by river inputs during their larval stage. Furthermore Sr/Ca ratios and the otolith length at one year of age revealed that most adults (∼70%) spent their juvenile stage in nurseries with high salinity, whereas the remainder used brackish environments. In total, data were consistent with the use of six nursery types, three with high salinity (marine areas and two types of highly saline lagoons) and three brackish (coastal areas near river mouths, and two types of brackish environments), all of which contributed to the replenishment of adult populations. These finding implicated panmixia in sole population in the Gulf of Lions and claimed for a habitat integrated management of fisheries.

  18. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  19. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [sunglint, algal bloom, water temperature, upwelling, and turbidity of Great Lakes waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. (1) Sunglint effects over water can be expected in ERTS-1 images whenever solar elevations exceed 55 deg. (2) Upwellings were viewed coincidently by ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 in Lake Michigan on two occasions during August 1973. (3) A large oil slick was identified 100 km off the Maryland coast in the Atlantic Ocean. Volume of the oil was estimated to be least 200,000 liters (50,000 gallons). (4) ERTS-1 observations of turbidity patterns in Lake St. Clair provide circulation information that correlates well with physical model studies made 10 years ago. (5) Good correlation has been established between ERTS-1 water color densities and NOAA-2 thermal infrared surface temperature measurements. Initial comparisons have been made in Lake Erie during March 1973.

  20. Satellite-Derived Photic Depth on the Great Barrier Reef: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Water Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarla Weeks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Detecting changes to the transparency of the water column is critical for understanding the responses of marine organisms, such as corals, to light availability. Long-term patterns in water transparency determine geographical and depth distributions, while acute reductions cause short-term stress, potentially mortality and may increase the organisms’ vulnerability to other environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the optimal, operational algorithm for light attenuation through the water column across the scale of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia. We implemented and tested a quasi-analytical algorithm to determine the photic depth in GBR waters and matched regional Secchi depth (ZSD data to MODIS-Aqua (2002–2010 and SeaWiFS (1997–2010 satellite data. The results of the in situ ZSD/satellite data matchup showed a simple bias offset between the in situ and satellite retrievals. Using a Type II linear regression of log-transformed satellite and in situ data, we estimated ZSD and implemented the validated ZSD algorithm to generate a decadal satellite time series (2002–2012 for the GBR. Water clarity varied significantly in space and time. Seasonal effects were distinct, with lower values during the austral summer, most likely due to river runoff and increased vertical mixing, and a decline in water clarity between 2008–2012, reflecting a prevailing La Niña weather pattern. The decline in water clarity was most pronounced in the inshore area, where a significant decrease in mean inner shelf ZSD of 2.1 m (from 8.3 m to 6.2 m occurred over the decade. Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis determined the dominance of Mode 1 (51.3%, with the greatest variation in water clarity along the mid-shelf, reflecting the strong influence of oceanic intrusions on the spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity. The newly developed photic depth product has many potential applications for the GBR from water quality monitoring to analyses of

  1. Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    Attribution License (CCL), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... expectancy of electrical transformers that contain PCBs ... Convention for Protection of the Marine Environment of.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  3. Extensive summer water pulses do not necessarily lead to canopy growth of Great Basin and northern Mojave Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, K A; Donovan, L A; James, J J; Tiller, R L; Richards, J H

    2004-10-01

    Plant species and functionally related species groups from arid and semi-arid habitats vary in their capacity to take up summer precipitation, acquire nitrogen quickly after summer precipitation, and subsequently respond with ecophysiological changes (e.g. water and nitrogen relations, gas exchange). For species that respond ecophysiologically, the use of summer precipitation is generally assumed to affect long-term plant growth and thus alter competitive interactions that structure plant communities and determine potential responses to climate change. We assessed ecophysiological and growth responses to large short-term irrigation pulses over one to three growing seasons for several widespread Great Basin and northern Mojave Desert shrub species: Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Atriplex confertifolia, and A. parryi. We compared control and watered plants in nine case studies that encompassed adults of all four species, juveniles for three of the species, and two sites for two of the species. In every comparison, plants used summer water pulses to improve plant water status or increase rates of functioning as indicated by other ecophysiological characters. Species and life history stage responses of ecophysiological parameters (leaf N, delta15N, delta13C, gas exchange, sap flow) were consistent with several previous short-term studies. However, use of summer water pulses did not affect canopy growth in eight out of nine comparisons, despite the range of species, growth stages, and site conditions. Summer water pulses affected canopy growth only for C. nauseosus adults. The general lack of growth effects for these species might be due to close proximity of groundwater at these sites, co-limitation by nutrients, or inability to respond due to phenological canalization. An understanding of the connections between short-term ecophysiological responses and growth, for different habitats and species, is critical for determining the significance of

  4. Plant-water relationships in the Great Basin Desert of North America derived from Pinus monophylla hourly dendrometer records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Water is the main limiting resource for natural and human systems, but the effect of hydroclimatic variability on woody species in water-limited environments at sub-monthly time scales is not fully understood. Plant-water relationships of single-leaf pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla) were investigated using hourly dendrometer and environmental data from May 2006 to October 2011 in the Great Basin Desert, one of the driest regions of North America. Average radial stem increments showed an annual range of variation below 1.0 mm, with a monotonic steep increase from May to July that yielded a stem enlargement of about 0.5 mm. Stem shrinkage up to 0.2 mm occurred in late summer, followed by an abrupt expansion of up to 0.5 mm in the fall, at the arrival of the new water year precipitation. Subsequent winter shrinkage and enlargement were less than 0.3 mm each. Based on 4 years with continuous data, diel cycles varied in both timing and amplitude between months and years. Phase shifts in circadian stem changes were observed between the growing season and the dormant one, with stem size being linked to precipitation more than to other water-related indices, such as relative humidity or soil moisture. During May-October, the amplitude of the phases of stem contraction, expansion, and increment was positively related to their duration in a nonlinear fashion. Changes in precipitation regime, which affected the diel phases especially when lasting more than 5-6 h, could substantially influence the dynamics of water depletion and replenishment in single-leaf pinyon pine.

  5. Gaseous and Freely-Dissolved PCBs in the Lower Great Lakes Based on Passive Sampling: Spatial Trends and Air-Water Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Siyao; McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek C G; Helm, Paul A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-05-17

    Polyethylene passive sampling was performed to quantify gaseous and freely dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air and water of Lakes Erie and Ontario during 2011-2012. In view of differing physical characteristics and the impacts of historical contamination by PCBs within these lakes, spatial variation of PCB concentrations and air-water exchange across these lakes may be expected. Both lakes displayed statistically similar aqueous and atmospheric PCB concentrations. Total aqueous concentrations of 29 PCBs ranged from 1.5 pg L(-1) in the open lake of Lake Erie (site E02) in 2011 spring to 105 pg L(-1) in Niagara (site On05) in 2012 summer, while total atmospheric concentrations were 7.7-634 pg m(-3) across both lakes. A west-to-east gradient was observed for aqueous PCBs in Lake Erie. River discharge and localized influences (e.g., sediment resuspension and regional alongshore transport) likely dominated spatial trends of aqueous PCBs in both lakes. Air-water exchange fluxes of Σ7PCBs ranged from -2.4 (±1.9) ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition) in Sheffield (site E03) to 9.0 (±3.1) ng m(-2) day(-1) (volatilization) in Niagara (site On05). Net volatilization of PCBs was the primary trend across most sites and periods. Almost half of variation in air-water exchange fluxes was attributed to the difference in aqueous concentrations of PCBs. Uncertainty analysis in fugacity ratios and mass fluxes in air-water exchange of PCBs indicated that PCBs have reached or approached equilibrium only at the eastern Lake Erie and along the Canadian shore of Lake Ontario sites, where air-water exchange fluxes dominated atmospheric concentrations.

  6. Toxics release inventory: List of toxic chemicals within the polychlorinated alkanes category and guidance for reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA) requires certain facilities manufacturing, processing, or otherwise using listed toxic chemicals to report their environmental releases of such chemicals annually. On November 30, 1994 EPA added 286 chemicals and chemical categories. Six chemical categories (nicotine and salts, strychnine and salts, polycyclic aromatic compounds, water dissociable nitrate compounds, diisocyanates, and polychlorinated alkanes) are included in these additions. At the time of the addition, EPA indicated that the Agency would develop, as appropriate, interpretations and guidance that the Agency determines are necessary to facilitate accurate reporting for these categories. This document constitutes such guidance for the polychlorinated alkanes category.

  7. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  8. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  9. Biological effects-based tools for monitoring impacted surface waters in the Great Lakes: a multiagency program in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Blazer, Vicki; Collette, Timothy W.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jorgensen, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Mazik, Pat M.; Miller, David H.; Perkins, Edward J.; Smith, Edwin T.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.

  10. Effects of black carbon on bioturbination-induced benthic fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether carbonaceous geosorbents, such as black carbon (BC) affect bioturbation by benthic invertebrates, thereby possibly affecting sediment–water exchange of sediment-bound contaminants. Here, we assess the effects of oil soot on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mass transfer from

  11. Encapsulation of β-carotene within ferritin nanocages greatly increases its water-solubility and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingli; Bai, Guangling; Yang, Rui; Zang, Jiachen; Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-04-15

    Carotenoids may play a number of potential health benefits for human. However, their use in food industry is limited mostly because of their poor water-solubility and low thermal stability. Ferritins are widely distributed in nature with a shell-like structure which offers a great opportunity to improve the water-solubility and thermal stability of the carotenoids by encapsulation. In this work, recombinant human H-chain ferritin (rHuHF) was prepared and used to encapsulate β-carotene, a typical compound among carotenoids, by taking advantage of the reversible dissociation and reassembly characteristic of apoferritin in different pH environments. Results from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV/Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that β-carotene molecules were successfully encapsulated within protein cages with a β-carotene/protein molar ratio of 12.4-1. Upon such encapsulation, these β-carotene-containing apoferritin nanocomposites were water-soluble. Interestingly, the thermal stability of the β-carotene encapsulated within apoferritin nanocages was markedly improved as compared to free β-carotene. These new properties might be favourable to the utilisation of β-carotene in food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changing Land Use from Cotton to Bioenergy Crops in the Southern Great Plains: Implications on Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.

    2016-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Although first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol are available, second-generation biofuels are gaining importance because they don't directly compete with food production. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). While we believe there would be environmental benefits associated with this change in land use, their exact nature and magnitude have not been investigated for this region. The overall goal of the proposed study was to investigate the water and carbon (C) fluxes associated with the change in agricultural land use to biofuels-dominated cropping systems in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt region. Eddy covariance flux towers were established at selected producer fields (cotton, perennial grasses and biomass sorghum) in the Southern Great Plains region. The fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat between the surface and the atmosphere will be measured throughout the year. The results have demonstrated that the dynamics of C and water vapor fluxes for these agroecosystems were strongly affected by environmental variables, management factors, and crop phenology. Detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  13. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Freshwater Wind I, LLC, Youngstown, OH (United States); White, Stanley M [Stanley White Engineering LLC, Noank, CT (United States)

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project; Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE; Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie; Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs; Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations; Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging; Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System; Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt”; Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower; Developed Turbine, Plant Layout and O&M Strategies. The

  14. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide the technical information and rationale in support of the proposed procedures to determine bioaccumulation factors. Bioaccumulation factors, together with the quantity of aquatic organisms eaten, determine the extent to which people and wildlife are exposed to chemicals through the consumption of aquatic organisms. The more bioaccumulative a pollutant is, the more important the consumption of aquatic organisms becomes as a potential source of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Bioaccumulation factors are needed to determine both human health and wildlife tier I water quality criteria and tier II values. Also, they are used to define Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern among the Great Lakes Initiative universe of pollutants. Bioaccumulation factors range from less than one to several million

  15. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in young-of-the-year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dockum, Bruce W; Cleary, Thomas; Farrington, Cameron; Wieczorek, Daniel

    2013-07-15

    Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a PCB Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters. PCB concentrations in bluefish varied between different locations, and also among fish from a given location. A generally decreasing gradient in PCB concentrations was evident as the bluefish were collected away from the Superfund Site. The average sum of PCB concentrations were highest for bluefish collected in the Upper Harbor between Interstate-195 Bridge and Coggeshall Street Bridge (Upper Harbor), followed by bluefish in Lower Harbor from north of Popes Island Bridge (Lower Harbor), and bluefish from Outer Harbor south of Hurricane Barrier (Outer Harbor). The levels of PCBs in bluefish from Clarks Cove and PCBs in bluefish from Buzzards Bay were similar and lowest among all bluefish specimens analyzed in the present study. Pesticide concentrations were about one order of magnitude or lower than the PCB concentrations, and the gradient of pesticide concentrations generally followed the gradient of PCB concentrations. Some of the commonly detected pesticides in the order of decreasing concentrations included DDTs and metabolites, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan sulfate, and α-chlordane. Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the tissues of YOY bluefish from Clarks Cove. PCBs and lipids in the brain samples of YOY bluefish were generally numerically greater than PCBs in the liver samples, but these differences were not statistically significant. PCBs and lipids in hypaxial muscle samples were numerically greater than PCBs in epaxial muscle samples, although these two groups of tissues were not statistically different. Despite the higher susceptibility of lighter PCB homologs to geophysical and biogeochemical weathering processes, the relative dominance of lighter homologs

  16. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  17. Impacts of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change on water resources in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, S J

    1986-01-01

    Scenarios of CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change, based on models produced by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab (GFDL), were used to estimate future changes in water supply in the Great Lakes Basin. The major components of annual Net Basin Supply, surface runoff and lake evaporation, were estimated using the Thornthwaite water balance model and the mass transfer approach, respectively. Two scenarios were derived from each climatic change model, one based on present normal winds, the other assuming reduced wind speeds. A third scenario was derived from GFDL, using wind speeds generated by the GFDL model. Results varied from a decrease in Net Basin Supply of 28.9% for GISS-normal winds, to a decrease of 11.7% for GFDL-reduced wind speeds. All five scenarios projected decreases. These differences in projection will have to be considered when performing climate impact studies, since economic activities affected by lake levels would probably experience different impacts under these scenarios.

  18. Water towers of the Great Basin: climatic and hydrologic change at watershed scales in a mountainous arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change in the Great Basin will manifest through changes in the hydrologic cycle. Downscaled climate data and projections run through the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) produce time series of hydrologic response - recharge, runoff, actual evapotranspiration (AET), and climatic water deficit (CWD) - that directly affect water resources and vegetation. More than 50 climate projections from CMIP5 were screened using a cluster analysis of end-century (2077-2099) seasonal precipitation and annual temperature to produce a reduced subset of 12 climate futures that cover a wide range of macroclimate response. Importantly, variations among GCMs in summer precipitation produced by the SW monsoon are captured. Data were averaged within 84 HUC8 watersheds with widley varying climate, topography, and geology. Resultant time series allow for multivariate analysis of hydrologic response, especially partitioning between snowpack, recharge, runoff, and actual evapotranspiration. Because the bulk of snowpack accumulation is restricted to small areas of isolated mountain ranges, losses of snowpack can be extreme as snowline moves up the mountains with warming. Loss of snowpack also affects recharge and runoff rates, and importantly, the recharge/runoff ratio - as snowpacks fade, recharge tends to increase relative to runoff. Thresholds for regime shifts can be identified, but the unique topography and geology of each basin must be considered in assessing hydrologic response.

  19. Effectiveness of benthic foraminiferal and coral assemblages as water quality indicators on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S.; Thompson, A.; Schaffelke, B.

    2010-03-01

    Although the debate about coral reef decline focuses on global disturbances (e.g., increasing temperatures and acidification), local stressors (nutrient runoff and overfishing) continue to affect reef health and resilience. The effectiveness of foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages as indicators of changes in water quality was assessed on 27 inshore reefs along the Great Barrier Reef. Environmental variables (i.e., several water quality and sediment parameters) and the composition of both benthic foraminiferal and hard-coral assemblages differed significantly between four regions (Whitsunday, Burdekin, Fitzroy, and the Wet Tropics). Grain size and organic carbon and nitrogen content of sediments, and a composite water column parameter (based on turbidity and concentrations of particulate matter) explained a significant amount of variation in the data (tested by redundancy analyses) in both assemblages. Heterotrophic species of foraminifera were dominant in sediments with high organic content and in localities with low light availability, whereas symbiont-bearing mixotrophic species were dominant elsewhere. A similar suite of parameters explained 89% of the variation in the FORAM index (a Caribbean coral reef health indicator) and 61% in foraminiferal species richness. Coral richness was not related to environmental setting. Coral assemblages varied in response to environmental variables, but were strongly shaped by acute disturbances (e.g., cyclones, Acanthaster planci outbreaks, and bleaching), thus different coral assemblages may be found at sites with the same environmental conditions. Disturbances also affect foraminiferal assemblages, but they appeared to recover more rapidly than corals. Foraminiferal assemblages are effective bioindicators of turbidity/light regimes and organic enrichment of sediments on coral reefs.

  20. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

  1. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  2. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  3. Impacts of land-use change on the water cycle of urban areas within the Upper Great Lakes drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Niyogi, D.

    2006-12-01

    Urbanization is altering the global landscape at an unprecedented rate. This form of land cover/land-use change (LCLUC) can significantly reduce infiltration and runoff response times, and alter heat and water vapor fluxes, which can further alter surface-forced regional circulation patterns and modulate precipitation volume and intensity. Spatial patterns of future LCLUC are projected using the Land Transformation Model (LTM), enhanced to incorporate dynamic landcover, economics and policy using Bayesian Belief Networks (LTM- BBN). Different land use scenarios predicted by the LTM-BBN as well as a pre-development scenario are represented through the Unified Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) with an enhanced urban canopy model, embedded in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The coupled WRF-Noah LSM model will be used to investigate the connections between land-use, hydrometeorology and the atmosphere, through analysis of water and energy balances over several urbanized watersheds within the Upper Great Lakes region. Preliminary results focus on a single watershed, the White River in Indiana, which includes the city of Indianapolis. Coupled WRF-Noah simulations made using pre and post-development land use maps provide a 7 year climatology of convective storm morphology around the urban center. Precipitation and other meteorological variables from the WRF-Noah simulations are used to drive simulations of the White River watershed using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model. The VIC model has been modified to represent urban areas and has been calibrated for modern flow regimes in the White River watershed. Pre- and post-development VIC simulations are used to assess the impact of Indianapolis area infiltration changes. Finally, VIC model simulations utilizing projected land use change from 2005 through 2040 for the Indianapolis metropolitan area explore the magnitude of future hydrologic change, especially peak flow response

  4. Using prediction uncertainty analysis to design hydrologic monitoring networks: Example applications from the Great Lakes water availability pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of monitoring networks for resource-management decisions is becoming more recognized, in both theory and application. Quantitative computer models provide a science-based framework to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of existing and possible future monitoring networks. In the study described herein, two suites of tools were used to evaluate the worth of new data for specific predictions, which in turn can support efficient use of resources needed to construct a monitoring network. The approach evaluates the uncertainty of a model prediction and, by using linear propagation of uncertainty, estimates how much uncertainty could be reduced if the model were calibrated with addition information (increased a priori knowledge of parameter values or new observations). The theoretical underpinnings of the two suites of tools addressing this technique are compared, and their application to a hypothetical model based on a local model inset into the Great Lakes Water Availability Pilot model are described. Results show that meaningful guidance for monitoring network design can be obtained by using the methods explored. The validity of this guidance depends substantially on the parameterization as well; hence, parameterization must be considered not only when designing the parameter-estimation paradigm but also-importantly-when designing the prediction-uncertainty paradigm.

  5. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  6. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  7. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  8. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  9. Canada's Response to the Recommendations in the Tenth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality of the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Government of Canada and Ontario are currently renegotiating the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA). They are committed to restoring and maintaining the basin's chemical, physical and biological integrity and ensuring that it has a healthy, sustainable future. The COA has established a strategic framework for coordinated federal-provincial responsibilities regarding the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. This document presents responses to the recommendations of the International Joint Commission's (IJC) Tenth Biennial Report on how to improve the performance and effectiveness of government programs such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. According to the IJC, there are many challenges ahead, including: cleanup of Canadian Areas of Concern; controlling and preventing the further introduction of exotic species; mitigating the impact of rapid urban growth on environmental conditions throughout the basin; and reducing contaminants transported in the atmosphere over long distances to the Great Lakes. This document presented the government's responses to each of the following IJC recommendations regarding remedial action plans, threats to human health with respect to consumption of fish, contaminated sediment, airborne toxic substances, Great Lakes binational toxics strategy, land use, alien invasive species, and information and data management. IJC also recommended that indicators should be reported regarding whether the Great Lakes surface waters are suitable for drinking, swimming and whether fish are edible.

  10. D/N and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O in magmatic waters and gases of the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyailov, I A; Vetshtein, V E; Nikitina, L P; Artemchuk, V G [AN SSSR, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii. Inst. Vulkanologii; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov)

    1981-01-01

    Isotope content of magmatic gases and their condensates (magmatic waters) is studied on the basis of the Great Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka. The phenomenon of regular increase of deuterium content in magmatic water and protium content in gases is found out. It is supposed that this fact is conditioned by isotope fractionation during phase transitions in liquid-steam-gas system in the process of the formation of magmatic hearth and gas release from magma during eruption.

  11. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  12. The Effect of Reduced Water Availability in the Great Ruaha River on the Vulnerable Common Hippopotamus in the Ruaha National Park, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stommel

    Full Text Available In semi-arid environments, 'permanent' rivers are essential sources of surface water for wildlife during 'dry' seasons when rainfall is limited or absent, particularly for species whose resilience to water scarcity is low. The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius requires submersion in water to aid thermoregulation and prevent skin damage by solar radiation; the largest threat to its viability are human alterations of aquatic habitats. In the Ruaha National Park (NP, Tanzania, the Great Ruaha River (GRR is the main source of surface water for wildlife during the dry season. Recent, large-scale water extraction from the GRR by people upstream of Ruaha NP is thought to be responsible for a profound decrease in dry season water-flow and the absence of surface water along large sections of the river inside the NP. We investigated the impact of decreased water flow on daytime hippo distribution using regular censuses at monitoring locations, transects and camera trap records along a 104km section of the GRR within the Ruaha NP during two dry seasons. The minimum number of hippos per monitoring location increased with the expanse of surface water as the dry seasons progressed, and was not affected by water quality. Hippo distribution significantly changed throughout the dry season, leading to the accumulation of large numbers in very few locations. If surface water loss from the GRR continues to increase in future years, this will have serious implications for the hippo population and other water dependent species in Ruaha NP.

  13. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuikka, A.I., E-mail: anitat@student.uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T., E-mail: Matti.T.Leppanen@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Laboratories/Research and Innovation Laboratory, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Akkanen, J., E-mail: jarkko.akkanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sormunen, A.J., E-mail: Arto.Sormunen@mamk.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leonards, P.E.G., E-mail: pim.leonards@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hattum, B. van, E-mail: bert.vanhattum@deltares.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, L.A. van, E-mail: lavanvliet@hotmail.com [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); Brack, W., E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Smedes, F., E-mail: smedes@recetox.muni.cz [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); and others

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Methodologies for Development of Aquatic Life Criteria and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... If the acute toxicity of the material to aquatic animals has been shown to be related to a water... material to aquatic animals has been shown to be related to a water quality characteristic such as hardness... a material in the water column to which an aquatic community can be exposed briefly without...

  15. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  16. Evaluating the behavior of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds in Lake Superior using a dynamic multimedia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Perlinger, J. A.; Urban, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    Certain toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and semivolatile compounds known as atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or ASEPs are emitted into the environment by primary sources, are transported, deposited to water surfaces, and can be later re-emitted causing the water to act as a secondary source. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, a class of ASEPs, are of major concern in the Laurentian Great Lakes because of their historical use primarily as additives to oils and industrial fluids, and discharge from industrial sources. Following the ban on production in the U.S. in 1979, atmospheric concentrations of PCBs in the Lake Superior region decreased rapidly. Subsequently, PCB concentrations in the lake surface water also reached near equilibrium as the atmospheric levels of PCBs declined. However, previous studies on long-term PCB levels and trends in lake trout and walleye suggested that the initial rate of decline of PCB concentrations in fish has leveled off in Lake Superior. In this study, a dynamic multimedia flux model was developed with the objective to investigate the observed levelling off of PCB concentrations in Lake Superior fish. The model structure consists of two water layers (the epilimnion and the hypolimnion), and the surface mixed sediment layer, while atmospheric deposition is the primary external pathway of PCB inputs to the lake. The model was applied for different PCB congeners having a range of hydrophobicity and volatility. Using this model, we compare the long-term trends in predicted PCB concentrations in different environmental media with relevant available measurements for Lake Superior. We examine the seasonal depositional and exchange patterns, the relative importance of different process terms, and provide the most probable source of the current observed PCB levels in Lake Superior fish. In addition, we evaluate the role of current atmospheric PCB levels in sustaining the observed fish concentrations and appraise the need

  17. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  18. The effect of activated carbon on partitioning, desorption, and biouptake of native polychlorinated biphenyls in four freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2008-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of activated carbon amendment in four freshwater sediments from the Great Lakes (North America) areas of concern with a wide range of sediment geochemical characteristics (0.83-5.1% total organic carbon) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (0.33-84.7 microg/g). The work focused on understanding the impact of activated carbon amendment on PCB aqueous partitioning, PCB desorption characteristics, and PCB biouptake in a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus). The results showed that PCB aqueous equilibrium concentrations, rapid desorption fractions, and biouptake by the oligochaete were reduced after activated carbon amendment. Addition of activated carbon at a dose of 0.5-fold native organic carbon reduced PCB bioaccumulation by 42% for Niagara River sediment, 85% for Grasse River sediment, 74% for Milwaukee River sediment 1, and 70% for Milwaukee River sediment 2. A linear relationship was observed between log biota-sediment accumulation factor and the first 6-h desorption fractions for each PCB homologue for treated and untreated sediments. Water-lipid bioconcentration factors for PCB congeners were largely conserved after amendment with activated carbon. Our present results suggest that at steady state, changes in the aqueous PCB concentrations can be used to predict changes in PCB bioaccumulation in deposit-feeding organisms. Thus, use of advanced pore-water measurement techniques, such as solid-phase extraction passive samplers, may be suitable for long-term monitoring of treatment performance.

  19. Spatial distribution and trends of total mercury in waters of the Great Lakes and connecting channels using an improved sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, A.; Hill, B.; Klawunn, P.; Waltho, J.; Backus, S.; McCrea, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Environment Canada recently developed a clean method suitable for sampling trace levels of metals in surface waters. The results of sampling for total mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes between 2003 and 2009 give a unique basin-wide perspective of concentrations of this important contaminant and represent improved knowledge of mercury in the region. Results indicate that concentrations of total mercury in the offshore regions of the lakes were within a relatively narrow range from about 0.3 to 0.8 ng/L. The highest concentrations were observed in the western basin of Lake Erie and concentrations then declined towards the east. Compared to the offshore, higher levels were observed at some nearshore locations, particularly in lakes Erie and Ontario. The longer-term temporal record of mercury in Niagara River suspended sediments indicates an approximate 30% decrease in equivalent water concentrations since 1986. - Highlights: ► Basin-wide concentrations of total mercury in Great Lakes surface waters are provided for the first time. ► A clean sampling method is described, stressing isolation of the sample from extraneous sources of contamination. ► Sub-ng/L concentrations of total mercury are observed in most Great Lakes offshore areas. ► Concentrations in the western basin of Lake Erie are consistently the highest observed in the basin. ► The longer-term record of mercury in Niagara River suspended sediments indicates an approximate 30% decrease since 1986. - A new, clean sampling method for metals is described and basin-wide measurements of total mercury are provided for Great Lakes surface waters for the first time.

  20. Climate related projections on future water resources and human adaptation in the Great Ruaha River Basin in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liwenga, Emma; Pauline, Noah; Tumbo, Madaka

    - Temperatures will likely increase by 1-2 degrees by the middle of the century and 3-4 degrees by the end of the century. - A likely overall increase in precipitation and larger seasonal variation might lead to water related stress during a prolonged dry season and flood risks during the wet...... season. - The overall climate related effect on water resources is a status quo. - Increased rainy season rainfall offers opportunities for rain fed agriculture and water storage for hydro-power and irrigation. - Local governments are already effectively dealing with these climate related impacts...

  1. Effects of Land-use/Land-cover and Climate Changes on Water Quantity and Quality in Sub-basins near Major US Cities in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Barik, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land-cover change over time to urbanized, less permeable surfaces, leads to reduced water infiltration at the location of water input while simultaneously transporting sediments, nutrients and contaminants farther downstream. With an abundance of agricultural fields bordering the greater urban areas of Milwaukee, Detroit, and Chicago, water and nutrient transport is vital to the farming industry, wetlands, and communities that rely on water availability. Two USGS stream gages each located within a sub-basin near each of these Great Lakes Region cities were examined, one with primarily urban land-cover between 1992 and 2011, and one with primarily agriculture land-cover. ArcSWAT, a watershed model and soil and water assessment tool used in extension with ArcGIS, was used to develop hydrologic models that vary the land-covers to simulate surface runoff during a model run period from 2004 to 2008. Model inputs that include a digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat-derived land-use/land-cover (LULC) satellite images from 1992, 2001, and 2011, soil classification, and meteorological data were used to determine the effect of different land-covers on the water runoff, nutrients and sediments. The models were then calibrated and validated to USGS stream gage data measurements over time. Additionally, the watershed model was run based on meteorological data from an IPCC CMIP5 high emissions climate change scenario for 2050. Model outputs from the different LCLU scenarios were statistically evaluated and results showed that water runoff, nutrients and sediments were impacted by LULC change in four out of the six sub-basins. In the 2050 climate scenario, only one out of the six sub-basin's water quantity and quality was affected. These results contribute to the importance of developing hydrologic models as the dependence on the Great Lakes as a freshwater resource competes with the expansion of urbanization leading to the movement of runoff, nutrients, and sediments off the

  2. Landsat classification of surface-water presence during multiple years to assess response of playa wetlands to climatic variability across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-15

    To improve understanding of the distribution of ecologically important, ephemeral wetland habitats across the Great Plains, the occurrence and distribution of surface water in playa wetland complexes were documented for four different years across the Great Plains Landscape Conservation Cooperative (GPLCC) region. This information is important because it informs land and wildlife managers about the timing and location of habitat availability. Data with an accurate timestamp that indicate the presence of water, the percent of the area inundated with water, and the spatial distribution of playa wetlands with water are needed for a host of resource inventory, monitoring, and research applications. For example, the distribution of inundated wetlands forms the spatial pattern of available habitat for resident shorebirds and water birds, stop-over habitats for migratory birds, connectivity and clustering of wetland habitats, and surface waters that recharge the Ogallala aquifer; there is considerable variability in the distribution of playa wetlands holding water through time. Documentation of these spatially and temporally intricate processes, here, provides data required to assess connections between inundation and multiple environmental drivers, such as climate, land use, soil, and topography. Climate drivers are understood to interact with land cover, land use and soil attributes in determining the amount of water that flows overland into playa wetlands. Results indicated significant spatial variability represented by differences in the percent of playas inundated among States within the GPLCC. Further, analysis-of-variance comparison of differences in inundation between years showed significant differences in all cases. Although some connections with seasonal moisture patterns may be observed, the complex spatial-temporal gradients of precipitation, temperature, soils, and land use need to be combined as covariates in multivariate models to effectively account for

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  5. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extending along the ordinary high water mark between the northern and southern boundaries of Alpena County... Alpena into ports along the Michigan shore south of Forty Mile Point within 4 miles from shore and not...

  6. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  7. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  8. Calculating salt loads to Great Salt Lake and the associated uncertainties for water year 2013; updating a 48 year old standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Christopher L.; Angeroth, Cory E.

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of surface waters requires a robust understanding of spatiotemporal constituent loadings from upstream sources and the uncertainty associated with these estimates. We compared the total dissolved solids loading into the Great Salt Lake (GSL) for water year 2013 with estimates of previously sampled periods in the early 1960s.We also provide updated results on GSL loading, quantitatively bounded by sampling uncertainties, which are useful for current and future management efforts. Our statistical loading results were more accurate than those from simple regression models. Our results indicate that TDS loading to the GSL in water year 2013 was 14.6 million metric tons with uncertainty ranging from 2.8 to 46.3 million metric tons, which varies greatly from previous regression estimates for water year 1964 of 2.7 million metric tons. Results also indicate that locations with increased sampling frequency are correlated with decreasing confidence intervals. Because time is incorporated into the LOADEST models, discrepancies are largely expected to be a function of temporally lagged salt storage delivery to the GSL associated with terrestrial and in-stream processes. By incorporating temporally variable estimates and statistically derived uncertainty of these estimates,we have provided quantifiable variability in the annual estimates of dissolved solids loading into the GSL. Further, our results support the need for increased monitoring of dissolved solids loading into saline lakes like the GSL by demonstrating the uncertainty associated with different levels of sampling frequency.

  9. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in the health and biochemical condition of the coral Acropora tenuis along two water quality gradients on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Melissa M; Francis, David S; Fabricius, Katharina E; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2017-06-30

    This study explores how plasticity in biochemical attributes, used as indicators of health and condition, enables the coral Acropora tenuis to respond to differing water quality regimes in inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef. Health attributes were monitored along a strong and weak water quality gradient, each with three reefs at increasing distances from a major river source. Attributes differed significantly only along the strong gradient; corals grew fastest, had the least dense skeletons, highest symbiont densities and highest lipid concentrations closest to the river mouth, where water quality was poorest. High nutrient and particulate loads were only detrimental to skeletal density, which decreased as linear extension increased, highlighting a trade-off. Our study underscores the importance of assessing multiple health attributes in coral reef monitoring. For example, autotrophic indices are poor indicators of coral health and condition, but improve when combined with attributes like lipid content and biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining the sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls: evidence for the influence of microbially dechlorinated congeners from river sediment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J. [SUNYat Oswego, NY (United States); Bush, B.; Casey, A.; O' Keefe, P. [SUNY at Albany, School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Barnard, E.; Smith, B. [New York State Dept. of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States); Gilligan, E. [Syracuse Univ., Dept. of Civil an Environmental Engineering, NY (United States); Johnson, G. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, Dept, of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2000-07-01

    During sampling in 1993, elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls were discovered near three industrial facilities on the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation Reserve along the St. Lawrence River, straddling the Canadian-US. border. Volatilization of Aroclor 1248, which was used extensively at all three sites, was identified as the dominant source, augmented in a minor way by a dechlorinated source, presumably from river sediment and waters. These two sources were found to account for 80 per cent of the contamination. Further, it was established that at a small cove adjacent to an industrial landfill, summer concentrations of PCBs exceeded winter concentrations by a factor of 27. Observation showed the presence of similar congener-specific PCB patterns at all sample sites and an increase in the concentrations of chlorine to biphenyl ratios during the summer months. During the colder months PCB concentrations at all sites declined, nevertheless, PCB levels were still higher than those measured elsewhere in the Great Lakes region during the same time period. Results of this investigation suggest that atmospheric deposition from local contaminant sources can elevate concentrations in produce and vegetative matter, complicating exposure routes and bioaccumulation via modeling of food chain. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig.

  13. Influence of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestation Levels on Water Stress in Eastern Hemlocks within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Coots

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive mortality of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L. Carrière, resulting from infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae, has occurred throughout the eastern United States. Although imidacloprid treatment can reduce tree mortality, its effectiveness can be influenced by several factors including tree water stress. The relationship between water stress and infestation rates is unknown, and an understanding of these could greatly increase the efficiency of management for this invasive insect. The primary objective of this study was to assess water stress at three levels of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations. Water stress was measured monthly for 13 months in eastern hemlocks classified as <25%, 25%–75%, and >75% infested. The highest level of water stress was found in those trees with hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels greater than 75%. The lowest level of water stress was found in those trees with less than 25% hemlock woolly adelgid infestation levels. Knowledge of these effects can contribute to development of more effective chemical management strategies.

  14. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling.

  15. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  16. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  17. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  18. Analysis of changes in the utilization of thermal water and geothermal energy in the north great plain region (Northeastern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulcsár Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Probably, the most urgent problem of mankind in the 21st century to find a way to satisfy the energy demand of the world’s population - having reached seven billion people in 2011 - preferably from renewable sources, by endeavoring to apply environmentally sparing methods. From Hungary’s perspective, it is a goal of priority significance, as it is an area that is not abound in fossil energy resources, and thus becoming increasingly exposed to the energy policies of the producer countries. If Hungary, which has favorable endowments in the field of renewable energy resources, lays larger emphasis on the application and processing of environmental industry technologies, the economic vulnerability of the country can be mitigated. This study discusses the distribution of the utilization of geothermal energy and its carrying medium, thermal water among the sectors of the economy, as well as its changes over time, the utilization potentials of alternative energies in the northeastern region of Hungary. This region has outstanding facilities in the field of thermal water and geothermal energy resources, yet their utilization rate - with respect to the available thermal water capacities - is rather low. It is a consequence of the regulatory requirements posed on operators, high investment and maintenance costs, the general shortage of resources, the difficult situation of the industries and municipalities, as well as the fact that the solid and liquid media of energy storage lying at depths of thousands of meters, the methods and potentials of exploitations, their sustainability are not or are just partly known.

  19. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Detecting and monitoring agricultural vegetative water stress over large areas using LANDSAT digital data. [Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Green Number Index technique which uses LANDSAT digital data from 5X6 nautical mile sampling frames was expanded to evaluate its usefulness in detecting and monitoring vegetative water stress over the Great Plains. At known growth stages for wheat, segments were classified as drought or non drought. Good agreement was found between the 18 day remotely sensed data and a weekly ground-based crop moisture index. Operational monitoring of the 1977 U.S.S.R. and Australian wheat crops indicated drought conditions. Drought isoline maps produced by the Green Number Index technique were in good agreement with conventional sources.

  20. Water Quality and River Plume Monitoring in the Great Barrier Reef: An Overview of Methods Based on Ocean Colour Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Devlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong driver of water quality change in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR is the pulsed or intermittent nature of terrestrial inputs into the GBR lagoon, including delivery of increased loads of sediments, nutrients, and toxicants via flood river plumes (hereafter river plumes during the wet season. Cumulative pressures from extreme weather with a high frequency of large scale flooding in recent years has been linked to the large scale reported decline in the health of inshore seagrass systems and coral reefs in the central areas of the GBR, with concerns for the recovery potential of these impacted ecosystems. Management authorities currently rely on remotely-sensed (RS and in situ data for water quality monitoring to guide their assessment of water quality conditions in the GBR. The use of remotely-sensed satellite products provides a quantitative and accessible tool for scientists and managers. These products, coupled with in situ data, and more recently modelled data, are valuable for quantifying the influence of river plumes on seagrass and coral reef habitat in the GBR. This article reviews recent remote sensing techniques developed to monitor river plumes and water quality in the GBR. We also discuss emerging research that integrates hydrodynamic models with remote sensing and in situ data, enabling us to explore impacts of different catchment management strategies on GBR water quality.

  1. Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.B.; Conrad, S.H.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Miller, J.J.; Sully, M.J.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste in arid regions requires a thorough understanding of the occurrence of soil-water flux and recharge. Soil-water chemistry and isotopic data are presented from three deep vadose zone boreholes (> 230 m) at the Nevada Test Site, located in the Great Basin geographic province of the southwestern United States, to quantify soil-water flux and its relation to climate. The low water contents found in the soils significantly reduce the mixing of tracers in the subsurface and provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of climate variation on recharge in arid climates. Tracing techniques and core data are examined in this work to reconstruct the paleohydrologic conditions existing in the vadose zone well beyond the timescales typically investigated. Stable chloride and chlorine 36 profiles indicate that the soil waters deep in the vadose zone range in age from approximately 20,000 to 120,000 years. Secondary chloride bulges that are present in two of the three profiles support the concept of recharge occurring at or near the last two glacial maxima, when the climate of the area was considerably wetter and cooler. The stable isotopic composition of the soil water in the profiles is significantly more depleted in heavy isotopes than is modern precipitation, suggesting that recharge under the current climate is not occurring at this arid site. Past and present recharge appears to have been strongly controlled by surface topography, with increased incidence of recharge where runoff from the surrounding mountains may have been concentrated. The data obtained from this detailed drilling and sampling program shed new light on the behavior of water in thick vadose zones and, in particular, show the sensitivity of arid regions to the extreme variations in climate experienced by the region over the last two glacial maxima

  2. Analysis of polychlorinated n-alkanes in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F J; Parera, J; Galceran, M T

    2006-10-01

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), also known as chlorinated paraffins (CPs), are highly complex technical mixtures that contain a huge number of structural isomers, theoretically more than 10,000 diastereomers and enantiomers. As a consequence of their persistence, tendency to bioaccumulation, and widespread and unrestricted use, PCAs have been found in aquatic and terrestrial food webs, even in rural and remote areas. Recently, these compounds have been included in regulatory programs of several international organizations, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union. Consequently, there is a growing demand for reliable methods with which to analyze PCAs in environmental samples. Here, we review current trends and recent developments in the analysis of PCAs in environmental samples such as air, water, sediment, and biota. Practical aspects of sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and detection are covered, with special emphasis placed on analysis of PCAs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The advantages and limitations of these techniques as well as recent improvements in quantification procedures are discussed.

  3. Activated carbon immobilizes residual polychlorinated biphenyls in weathered contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has recently been shown to be effective in sequestering persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from aquatic sediments. Most studies have demonstrated significant reductions of POP concentrations in water and in aquatic organisms; however, limited data exist on the possibility of using AC to immobilize remaining POPs at terrestrial contaminated sites. Under greenhouse conditions, pumpkin ssp cv. Howden) were grown, and red wiggler worms () were exposed to an industrial contaminated soil containing a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e., Aroclors 1254 and 1260) treated with one of four concentrations of AC (0.2, 0.8, 3.1, and 12.5%) for 2 mo. The addition of AC to contaminated soils virtually eliminated the bioavailability of PCBs to the plant and invertebrate species. There were reductions in PCB concentrations of more than 67% in ssp and 95% in . These data suggest that AC could be included as part of comprehensive site closure strategy at PCB-contaminated sites. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    A regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and surrounding areas has been developed in support of the Great Lakes Basin Pilot project under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Availability and Use Program. The transient 2-million-cell model incorporates multiple aquifers and pumping centers that create water-level drawdown that extends into deep saline waters. The 20-layer model simulates the exchange between a dense surface-water network and heterogeneous glacial deposits overlying stratified bedrock of the Wisconsin/Kankakee Arches and Michigan Basin in the Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan; eastern Wisconsin; northern Indiana; and northeastern Illinois. The model is used to quantify changes in the groundwater system in response to pumping and variations in recharge from 1864 to 2005. Model results quantify the sources of water to major pumping centers, illustrate the dynamics of the groundwater system, and yield measures of water availability useful for water-resources management in the region. This report is a complete description of the methods and datasets used to develop the regional model, the underlying conceptual model, and model inputs, including specified values of material properties and the assignment of external and internal boundary conditions. The report also documents the application of the SEAWAT-2000 program for variable-density flow; it details the approach, advanced methods, and results associated with calibration through nonlinear regression using the PEST program; presents the water-level, drawdown, and groundwater flows for various geographic subregions and aquifer systems; and provides analyses of the effects of pumping from shallow and deep wells on sources of water to wells, the migration of groundwater divides, and direct and indirect groundwater discharge to Lake Michigan. The report considers the role of unconfined conditions at the regional scale as well as the influence of salinity on groundwater flow

  5. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  6. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (Ψ) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem Ψ (Ψ stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that Ψ stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and Ψ stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert.

  7. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  8. Tree ring δ18O reveals no long-term change of atmospheric water demand since 1800 in the northern Great Hinggan Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xuanwen; Zhao, Liangju; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Weizhen; Zhang, Qiuliang; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju

    2017-07-01

    Global warming will significantly increase transpirational water demand, which could dramatically affect plant physiology and carbon and water budgets. Tree ring δ18O is a potential index of the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and therefore has great potential for long-term climatic reconstruction. Here we developed δ18O chronologies of two dominant native trees, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica), from a permafrost region in the Great Hinggan Mountains of northeastern China. We found that the July-August VPD and relative humidity were the dominant factors that controlled tree ring δ18O in the study region, indicating strong regulation of stomatal conductance. Based on the larch and pine tree ring δ18O chronologies, we developed a reliable summer (July-August) VPD reconstruction since 1800. Warming growing season temperatures increase transpiration and enrich cellulose 18O, but precipitation seemed to be the most important influence on VPD changes in this cold region. Periods with stronger transpirational demand occurred around the 1850s, from 1914 to 1925, and from 2005 to 2010. However, we found no overall long-term increasing or decreasing trends for VPD since 1800, suggesting that despite the increasing temperatures and thawing permafrost throughout the region, forest transpirational demand has not increased significantly during the past two centuries. Under current climatic conditions, VPD did not limit growth of larch and pine, even during extremely drought years. Our findings will support more realistic evaluations and reliable predictions of the potential influences of ongoing climatic change on carbon and water cycles and on forest dynamics in permafrost regions.

  9. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H{sub 2} to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products.

  10. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  11. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  12. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Jim A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H 2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  13. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: A report on sediment, water, and fish tissue chemistry collected in 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Steven J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Banda, JoAnn; Bowman, Sarah R.; Brigham, Mark E.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Tucker, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being detected at low levels in surface waters and sediments across the United States, contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the Great Lakes Basin are not well characterized in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence. Additionally, although the detrimental effects of exposure to CECs on fish and wildlife have been documented for many CECs in laboratory studies, we do not adequately understand the implications of the presence of CECs in the environment. Based on limited studies using current environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals, however, risks to fish and wildlife are evident. As a result, there is an increasing urgency to address data gaps that are vital to resource management decisions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, is leading a Great Lakes Basin-wide evaluation of CECs (CEC Project) with the objectives to (a) characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CECs; (b) evaluate risks to fish and wildlife resources; and (c) develop tools to aid resource managers in detecting, averting, or minimizing the ecological consequences to fish and wildlife that are exposed to CECs. This report addresses objective (a) of the CEC Project, summarizing sediment and water chemistry data collected from 2010 to 2012 and fish liver tissue chemistry data collected in 2012; characterizes the sampling locations with respect to potential sources of CECs in the landscape; and provides an initial interpretation of the variation in CEC concentrations relative to the identified sources. Data collected during the first three years of our study, which included 12 sampling locations and analysis of 134 chemicals, indicate that contaminants were more frequently detected in sediment compared to water. Chemicals classified as alkyphenols, flavors/ fragrances, hormones, PAHs, and sterols had higher average detection frequencies in sediment compared to water, while the opposite was observed for pesticides

  14. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  15. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.; Nelson, K.G.; Everson, R.B.; Wong, T.K.; Philpot, R.M.; Tiernan, T.; Taylor, M.; Sunahara, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  16. Spatial trends, sources, and air-water exchange of organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes basin using low density polyethylene passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-08-19

    Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air-water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m(3). Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) at Lake Erie than Lake Ontario. A multiple linear regression implied that both cropland and urban areas within 50 and 10 km buffer zones, respectively, were critical parameters to explain the total variability in atmospheric concentrations. Freely dissolved OCP concentrations (nondetect to 114 pg/L) were lower than previously reported. Aqueous half-lives generally ranged from 1.7 to 6.7 years. Nonetheless, concentrations of p,p'-DDE and chlordanes were higher than New York State Ambient Water Quality Standards for the protection of human health from the consumption of fish. Spatial distributions of freely dissolved OCPs in both lakes were influenced by loadings from areas of concern and the water circulation patterns. Flux calculations indicated net deposition of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor-epoxide, and α- and β-endosulfan (-0.02 to -33 ng/m(2)/day) and net volatilization of heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor (0.0 to 9.0 ng/m(2)/day) in most samples.

  17. Organ distribution and food safety aspects of cadmium and lead in great scallops, Pecten maximus L., and Horse Mussels, Modiolus modiolus L., from Norwegian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Frantzen, Sylvia; Torkildsen, Lise; Maage, Amund

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the levels and organ distribution of the potentially harmful inorganic elements cadmium and lead in great scallops and horse mussels from unpolluted Norwegian waters. The scallops far exceeded the EU-limit for cadmium in bivalves when all soft tissues were analysed. When only muscle and gonad were included, however, the level of cadmium was acceptable, because cadmium accumulated in the digestive gland with a mean of 52 mg/kg ww (wet weight). In horse mussel, lead was the most problematic element and the concentration varied from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/kg ww with a mean of 3.7 mg/kg ww, exceeding the EU limit of 1.5 mg Pb/kg. The highest concentration of lead was found in the kidney with an average of 120 mg/kg ww and with a maximum value of 240 mg/kg ww. The kidney tissue accounted for approximately 94% of the lead burden in the horse mussel. In order to consume these bivalves, only muscle and gonad of great scallops should be used for consumption and the kidney of horse mussel should be removed prior to consumption.

  18. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  19. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl, trace element and metal residues in bird eggs from Salton Sea, California, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Anderson, T.W.; Crayon, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Salton Sea is a highly eutrophic, hypersaline terminal lake that receives inflows primarily from agricultural drainages in the Imperial and Coachella valleys. Impending reductions in water inflow at Salton Sea may concentrate existing contaminants which have been a concern for many years, and result in higher exposure to birds. Thus, waterbird eggs were collected and analyzed in 2004 and compared with residue concentrations from earlier years; these data provide a base for future comparisons. Eggs from four waterbird species (black-crowned night-heron [Nycticorax nycticorax], great egret [Ardea alba], black-necked stilt [Himantopus mexicanus], and American avocet [Recurvirostra Americana]) were collected. Eggs were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, and trace elements, with current results compared to those reported for eggs collected from the same species and others during 1985a??1993. The two contaminants of primary concern were p,pa??-DDE (DDE) and selenium. DDE concentrations in night-heron and great egret eggs collected from the northwest corner of Salton Sea (Whitewater River delta) decreased 91 and 95%, respectively, by 2004, with a concomitant increase in eggshell thickness for both species. Decreases in bird egg DDE levels paralleled those in tissues of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus ?? O. urolepis), an important prey species for herons and egrets. Despite most nests of night-herons and great egrets failing in 2004 due to predation, predicted reproductive effects based on DDE concentrations in eggs were low or negligible for these species. The 2004 DDE findings were in dramatic contrast to those in the past decade, and included an 81% decrease in black-necked stilt eggs, although concentrations were lower historically than those reported in night-herons and egrets. Selenium concentrations in black-necked stilt eggs from the southeast corner of Salton Sea (Davis Road) were similar in 1993 and 2004, with 4

  20. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  2. Development of a reference material for routine performance monitoring of methods measuring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selliah, S S; Cussion, S; MacPherson, K A; Reiner, E J; Toner, D

    2001-06-01

    Matrix-matched environmental certified reference materials (CRMs) are one of the most useful tools to validate analytical methods, assess analytical laboratory performance and to assist in the resolution of data conflicts between laboratories. This paper describes the development of a lake sediment as a CRM for polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs). The presence of DLPCBs in the environment is of increased concern and analytical methods are being developed internationally for monitoring DLPCBs in the environment. This paper also reports the results of an international interlaboratory study involving thirty-five laboratories from seventeen countries, conducted to characterize and validate levels of a sediment reference material for PCDDs, PCDFs and DLPCBs.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  5. Metabolic Pathways of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komancová, M.; Jurčová, Irena; Kochánková, L.; Burkhard, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 537ů543 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * biodegradation * aerobic bacteria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D.; Berghuis, Sietske A.; Visser, Theo J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct

  7. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  8. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  10. Photochemical of Polychlorinated biphenyl by the photolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure mercury lamp. The whole Lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling the temperature at 32 ± 2 °C. The Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by GC/ECD. The degradation of PCBs in terms of one, two and three lamp ...

  11. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  12. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  13. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  14. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  15. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  16. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  17. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  18. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  19. Pesticide presence in Great Lakes tributaries and comparison to ToxCast and other water quality benchmarks to screen for potential biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description:Pesticides are a broad category of current use chemicals that pose potential threats to aquatic organisms in and around the Great Lakes basin. In this study, we monitored for over 200 pesticides or their break down products in 16 major tributaries to the Great...

  20. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ... different locations covering the region that receives the majority of the industrial waste ... The analysis was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...

  1. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... compartments of the environment (soil, water, air.) (Wu et al., 1999, Jiang ... toxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain and their long-range ... they are used for fisheries, aquaculture, touristic and transport activities.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  3. Characterization of habitat and biological communities at fixed sites in the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, water years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested.High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites.Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species.Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  4. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  5. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  7. Great Lakes water quality initiative criteria documents for the protection of wildlife (proposed): DDT, mercury 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, S.; Nolt, C.; Goodman, B.; Stromborg, K.; Sullivan, J.

    1993-04-01

    The document outlines, for each category of contaminant listed in the title, the relevant literature, the calculation of mammalian wildlife value, the calculation of Avian Wildlife Value, and the Great Lakes Wildlife criterion

  8. The support for a purification of water contaminated with radioactivity, and problems of the radioactivity standard in an emergency situation at the stricken area 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake incurred severe situation, where lifeline was cut off due to the discharge of a large amount of radioactive substances. In particular, the supply of safe foods and drinking water in radiation-polluted areas is urgently required. The authors have been developing up to now Crystal Valley water purifier and CV-Rescue water purifier that can purify well-water unsuitable for drinking due to contamination with toxic substances and produce drinkable water with safety without anxiety. This paper introduces the processes, in which verification test was performed to confirm that the above purifiers can be used for the removal of radioactivity discharged from the Great East Japan Earthquake this time, the validity of these purifiers was clarified, and these purifiers have actually been used for supporting water supply. This paper especially points out that a problem exists in the various standards on radioactivity that were temporarily determined in face of emergency of radiation pollution due to the nuclear power station accident this time. In these standards, the temporary standard on radioactive iodine 131 in drinking water is too high compared with the standards of WHO and those of advanced countries like U.S.A. It also points out the problem that radioactive substances in drinking water have not been removed yet. (O.A.)

  9. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  10. Tissue deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in cats fed Atlantic Ocean bluefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, L G; Alo, D K; Scarlett, J M; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1991-07-01

    Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), a very popular marine sport fish caught in Atlantic coastal waters, contain significant levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since fish can be an appreciable portion of human and feline diets, a feeding study was conducted with cats fed exclusively bluefish for 86 days with determination of tissue concentrations of PCBs. The concentrations of PCBs in brain, liver, and fat were significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the fish-fed cats than in the control group using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The highest PCB levels were in fat, the median concentrations being 48 and 0.61 ppm (dry weight) in the fish-fed and control cats, respectively. The significance of the results is discussed.

  11. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  12. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  13. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  14. New policies and measures for saving a great manmade reservoir providing drinking water for 20 million people in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K H

    2000-01-01

    Water quality of the Paldang reservoir, the largest drinking water supply source in the Republic Korea provides raw water for about 20 million people living in Seoul Metropolitan area. Water quality has been deteriorating mainly due to improperly treated livestock waste and domestic wastewater discharged from motels, restaurants, and private homes. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) showed that the water quality of this reservoir has been identified as Class III must contain less than 6 ppm of BOD, which will require advanced purification treatment before it can be used as drinking water. The MOE also announced that this water source would no longer be potable unless wastewater in the catchment is treated efficiently. To protect drinking water resources, the MOE has set up comprehensive management. These programmes include new regulations, measures, land use planning and economic incentives.

  15. Future water availability in the largest freshwater Mediterranean lake is at great risk as evidenced from simulations with the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Tuba; Trolle, Dennis; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Thodsen, Hans; Erdoğan, Şeyda; Levi, Eti E; Filiz, Nur; Jeppesen, Erik; Beklioğlu, Meryem

    2017-03-01

    Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming. Therefore, implementation of strict water level management policies is required. In this study, an integrated modeling approach was used to predict the future water levels of Lake Beyşehir in response to potential future changes in climate and land use. Water level estimation was performed by linking the catchment model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with a Support Vector Regression model (ε-SVR). The projected increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation based on the climate change models led to an enhanced potential evapotranspiration and reduced total runoff. On the other hand, the effects of various land use scenarios within the catchment appeared to be comparatively insignificant. According to the ε-SVR model results, changes in hydrological processes caused a water level reduction for all scenarios. Moreover, the MPI-ESM-MR General Circulation Model outputs produced the most dramatic results by predicting that Lake Beyşehir may dry out by the 2040s with the current outflow regime. The results indicate that shallow Mediterranean lakes may face a severe risk of drying out and losing their ecosystem values in the near future if the current intensity of water abstraction is not reduced. In addition, the results also demonstrate that outflow management and sustainable use of water sources are vital to sustain lake ecosystems in water

  16. Specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Japanese common squid as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-01-01

    Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring organochlorines pollution in waters around Japan. - Organochlorines (OCs) representing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (DDT and its metabolites), CHLs (chlordane compounds), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in the liver of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the waters around Japan (Japan Sea and western North Pacific Ocean). Among OCs concentrations, PCBs (upto 5600 ng/g lipid wt.) were the highest, and those of other OCs were in the order of DDT> CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Studies on growth trend and seasonal variation of OCs in this species suggest a rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected, regardless of body-length and time of collection. These results indicate that Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring OCs pollution in waters around Japan. With regard to the geographical distribution of OCs in this species collected from waters around Japan, OCs concentrations in specimens from Japan Sea were higher than those from the Pacific Ocean. This result might reflect some existing of local pollution sources of OCs around Japan Sea, and slower water exchange between Japan Sea and open ocean

  17. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  18. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  19. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a river ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremle, G

    1997-03-01

    In the Emaan River, in southeast Sweden, contaminated sediment was a source of PCB, the largest deposits of it being found in a small lake connected to the river: lake Jaernsjoen, the sediment of which contained about 400 kg of PCB. The concentration of PCB in the water and in the fish was more elevated downstream from the lake than at upstream sites. Lake Jaernsjoen was cleaned up by dredging during 1993 and 1994. The dredged sediment, estimated to contain over 95% of the PCB in the lake, was deposited in a landfill. During the cleanup action, the concentration of PCB downstream from the lake did not become higher than before. The PCB concentration in the air around the landfill increased in the vicinity and during construction of the landfill. After closure of the landfill by a layer placed on top of it, the PCB concentration in the air fell to background levels. No increase in the PCB concentration in the ground water around the landfill as a result of the remedial action could be detected. In the summer of 1996, nearly two years after remediation had been completed, an investigation of the PCB concentration in the fish of the river system was conducted. This investigation was a repetition of one made in 1991, prior to remediation. It showed that after remediation the concentration of PCB in one-year old fish in Lake Jaernsjoen was halved. The concentration of PCB in fish upstream was also lower, probably because of the decrease in overall background contamination. 155 refs, 13 figs

  1. Forensic Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Furan Fingerprints to Elucidate Dechlorination Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Dewani, Yashika; Häggblom, Max M; Kerkhof, Lee J; Fennell, Donna E

    2017-09-19

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP data set) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) applied to the data set revealed a factor indicative of the microbial dechlorination of PCBs, and this factor also contained a variety of non-2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD/F congeners. These results suggest that dechlorination of PCDD/Fs at the lateral positions is facile if not preferred in these environments. The relative lack of tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDD/Fs suggested that dechlorination proceeds to PCDD/F congeners with less than four chlorines. The PMF results were confirmed by examining three samples that contained >90% PCB dechlorination products from the Fresh Kills Landfill and the Hudson River. Even without factor analysis, these samples demonstrated almost identical PCDD/F congener patterns. This study suggests that PCDD/Fs are reductively dechlorinated to nontoxic non-2,3,7,8 PCDD/F congeners in sewers and landfills as well as in the sediment of the Upper Hudson River.

  2. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  3. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  4. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  5. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  6. Plutonium and americum concentration along fresh water food chains of the Great Lakes, U.S.A. General summary of progress, 1975--1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, V.T.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported for studies on the distribution of long-lived transuranic nuclides and 137 Cs introduced into the Great Lakes by fallout deposits or in radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities. Emphasis is placed on the content of 137 Cs, 241 Am, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 244 Cm in plankton, fish, and sediments sampled in Lake Erie and Lake Ontario during 1975 and 1976

  7. Contrasting impacts of light reduction on sediment biogeochemistry in deep- and shallow-water tropical seagrass assemblages (Green Island, Great Barrier Reef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrameyer, Verena; York, Paul H; Chartrand, Kathryn; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael; Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Rasheed, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Seagrass meadows increasingly face reduced light availability as a consequence of coastal development, eutrophication, and climate-driven increases in rainfall leading to turbidity plumes. We examined the impact of reduced light on above-ground seagrass biomass and sediment biogeochemistry in tropical shallow- (∼2 m) and deep-water (∼17 m) seagrass meadows (Green Island, Australia). Artificial shading (transmitting ∼10-25% of incident solar irradiance) was applied to the shallow- and deep-water sites for up to two weeks. While above-ground biomass was unchanged, higher diffusive O 2 uptake (DOU) rates, lower O 2 penetration depths, and higher volume-specific O 2 consumption (R) rates were found in seagrass-vegetated sediments as compared to adjacent bare sand (control) areas at the shallow-water sites. In contrast, deep-water sediment characteristics did not differ between bare sand and vegetated sites. At the vegetated shallow-water site, shading resulted in significantly lower hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) levels in the sediment. No shading effects were found on sediment biogeochemistry at the deep-water site. Overall, our results show that the sediment biogeochemistry of shallow-water (Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymodocea rotundata and C. serrulata) and deep-water (Halophila decipiens) seagrass meadows with different species differ in response to reduced light. The light-driven dynamics of the sediment biogeochemistry at the shallow-water site could suggest the presence of a microbial consortium, which might be stimulated by photosynthetically produced exudates from the seagrass, which becomes limited due to lower seagrass photosynthesis under shaded conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of benzothiazole and alkylphosphates in water samples from the Great Lakes Drainage Basin by gas chromatography/atomic emission detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.F. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre; Sverko, E.; Maguire, R.J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    1996-06-01

    Centrifuged water extracts from large receiving water bodies were analyzed for heteroatom-containing compounds. Extracts from aqueous environmental samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/atomic emission detection for P-, S-, and N- containing compounds. The samples exhibited complex chromatographic traces. Benzothiazole, tri-n-butylphosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, tris({beta}-chloroisopropyl)phosphate and two isomers of this last chemical were detected in all archived water extracts collected from permanent sampling stations at Fort Erie, Niagara-on-the-Lake and Wolfe Island. The concentrations of the trialkylphosphates reported in this study were at least four orders of magnitude lower than concentrations of some other trialkylphosphates and triarylphosphates that cause acute toxicity to rainbow trout, water fleas, midge larvae and shrimp. Further work on trialkylphosphates is under way to assess their environmental distribution, their levels in industrial and municipal effluents and their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  10. Express Detection of Pentachlorophenol as Dioxins Precursor in Natural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalia S. Krikounova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid detection method for the pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP — polarization fluoroimmunoassay (PFIA — in the dynamic range of 10–9,000 ppb was developed. PCP may form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, making environmental monitoring of this compound an issue of great importance. In order to optimize the PFIA procedure, a number of fluorescein-labeled PCP derivatives and similar compounds (tracers were synthesized, and the influence of their structure on PFIA characteristics was studied. Also, two antisera were tested in developing PFIA for PCP. The developed method is highly specific for PCP and can be used for its determination in water samples at a level down to 10 ppb. Total time of the assay for 10 samples is about 7 min. The assay provides a useful and a highly practical screening tool for the processing of large numbers of samples and for the preliminary estimation of potential dioxins contamination in water resources.

  11. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants-Occurrence and emission from a landfill station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, N. Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebuehr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 80 000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10 000-18 000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g ΣPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. - From a municipal 2-ha landfill containing 10-18 tonnes of ΣPCB bound in polysulfide sealants, only 1 g per year escape to the surroundings

  13. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  14. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinoski, K.G.; Hoffman, E.B.; Smith, G.B.; Bowers, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 24 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 5 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 16 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  15. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 134 gaging stations; stage and contents for 16 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality for 16 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 10 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  16. Water resources data for California, water year 1979; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1979 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  17. Water resources data for California, water year 1978; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1979-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1978 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. These data, a contribution to the National water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  18. Water Resources Data for California, water year 1981: Vol. 1. Colorado River basin, Southern Great basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1982-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1981 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 169 gaging stations; stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 42 streams and 21 wells; water levels for 169 observation wells. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  19. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in the Great Lakes Basin, 2012: collection methods, analytical methods, quality assurance, and study data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Hansen, Donald S.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, JoAnn; Gefell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    In synoptic surveys of surface-water quality across the United States, a large group of organic chemicals associated with agricultural, household, and industrial waste have been detected. These chemicals are referred to collectively as chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) and include prescription drugs and antibiotics, over-the-counter medications, reproductive hormones, personal-care products, detergent metabolites, and flame retardants.

  20. Ni3S2 nanowires grown on nickel foam as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for water splitting with greatly practical prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Li, Jingwei; Luo, Jiaxian; Xu, Peiman; Wei, Licheng; Zhou, Dan; Xu, Weiming; Yuan, Dingsheng

    2018-06-01

    It is essential to synthesize low-cost, earth-abundant bifunctional electrocatalysts for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reactions (OER) for water electrolysis. Herein, we present a one-step sulfurization method to fabricate Ni3S2 nanowires directly grown on Ni foam (Ni3S2 NWs/Ni) as such an electrocatalyst. This synthetic strategy has several advantages including facile preparation, low cost and can even be expanded to large-scale preparation for practical applications. The as-synthesized Ni3S2 NWs/Ni exhibits a low overpotential of 81 and 317 mV to render a current density of 10 mA cm‑2 for the HER and OER, respectively, in 1.0 mol l‑1 KOH solution. The Ni3S2 NWs/Ni was integrated to be the cathode and the anode in the alkaline electrolyzer for overall water splitting with a current density of 10 mA cm‑2 afforded at a cell voltage of 1.63 V. More importantly, this electrolyzer maintained its electrocatalytic activity even after continual water splitting for 30 h. Owing to its simple synthesis process, the earth-abundant electrocatalyst and high performance, this versatile Ni3S2 NWs/Ni electrode will become a promising electrocatalyst for water splitting.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C E; Azeredo, A; Meire, R; Torres, J P [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito, Jr, J L; Malm, O [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  2. Increase deposition of organic matter, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, E. P; Mackie, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Biodeposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and cadmium by zebra mussels in the western basin of Lake Erie was investigated using sediment traps, and compared to natural rates of sedimentation. On a per unit area of organic matter, deposition rates by zebra mussels up to eight to ten times higher than natural rates of sedimentation were found. These results suggest that zebra mussels are altering contaminant movement in western Lake Erie. At the same time, it was also suggested that the net effect of biodeposition may not be as great as shown in this study since only the effects of zebra mussels on the flux of the contaminants was examined and the re-suspension factor was not considered. It was recommended that to better understand the overall effects of zebra mussels on contaminant dynamics in aquatic environments, future studies should incorporate the re-suspension factors. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil with a dispersion mixture of metallic calcium and calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Miyata, Hideaki; Kakeda, Mitsunori

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil with dispersion mixtures of metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) at different temperatures. In these experiments, naturally moisturized and contaminated soil (1.0 g [31 ppm PCBs]), CaO (dried 2.0 wt%), and metallic Ca (0.01 g [0.25 mmol]) were introduced into a stainless steel pressure reactor under 0.1 MPa N(2) gas. The mixtures were stirred magnetically and heated at 260, 280, and 300 °C, respectively. Soil treatment with metallic Ca and CaO under various temperature conditions is extremely effective for degrading existing PCBs. Decomposition resulted from dechlorination (DC). Initial moisture in soil acted as a hydrogen source during stirring. Soil moisture can be beneficial for hydrodechlorination in the presence of metallic Ca and CaO. Furthermore, metallic Ca and CaO can greatly increase the number of collisions and mutual refinement. Treatment at 260, 280, and 300 °C combined with metallic Ca and CaO is effective for the decomposition (approximately 95 % DC) of PCBs in soil under natural moisture conditions.

  4. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1985. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1985 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 150 gaging stations; stage and contents for 17 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 23 streams. Also included are 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, three miscellaneous measurement sites, and one waterquality partial-record station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Water resources data for California, water year 1980; Volume 1, Colorado River basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Volume 1 of water resources data for the 1980 water year for California consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lake and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 174 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 51 stations; water levels for 165 observation wells. Also included are 9 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  6. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 1. Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.; McConaughy, C.E.; Polinoski, K.G.; Smith, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 144 gaging stations; stage and contents for 15 lakes and reservoirs; watet quality for 21 streams. Also included are crest-stage partial-record stations, 3 miscellaneous measurement sites, and 5 water-quality partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Ballast Water Treatment, U.S. Great Lakes Bulk Carrier Engineering and Cost Study. Volume 2: Analysis of On-Board Treatment Methods, Alternative Ballast Water Management Practices, and Implementation Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    on discharge 3 CleanBallast Ballast Water Management System RWO Marine Water Technology 55 μm automatic back-flushing disc filter, electrolysis ...did not independently validate manufacturers’ claims. BWT technologies which apply electric current to ballast water ( electrolysis ) are affected by low...salinity prior to electrolysis , and the feed water must be preheated when the ballast water temperatures drop below 15 ºC. 1. Power Consumption

  8. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  9. Enhancing effect of spawning on elimination of a persistent polychlorinated biphenyl from female yellow perch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodicnik, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution and elimination of 2,5,2',5'-tetrachloro[14C]biphenyl (4-CB) were studied for 6 months after exposing sexually mature female yellow perch to the compound in water and transferring them to flowing 4-CB-free water. Perch that were exposed in January spawned in May, and the study was terminated in June. During the first 41/2 months after exposure, the t1/2 for whole-body elimination was 22 weeks, primarily by elimination of 4-CB from the viscera and carcass. During spawning, enhanced elimination (t1/2 less than 0.7 weeks) was due to the voiding of eggs containing 4-CB. After spawning, whole-body elimination returned to a slower rate (t1/2 = 16.3 weeks). Prior to the enhancement in 4-CB elimination rate during spawning, there was a redistribution of 4-CB residues within the body of the perch which was characterized by a transfer of 4-CB residues from primarily the carcass and viscera to eggs. Two weeks after exposure, 30% of the initial 4-CB body burden was distributed to the eggs, whereas just prior to spawning, about 50% was present in this tissue. These findings demonstrate that egg maturation and spawning result in a significant reduction in the body burden of a persistent polychlorinated biphenyl in a lean-fish species

  10. Photochemical oxidation of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkane mixtures using H2O2/UV and the photo-Fenton reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ken J. Friesen; Taha M. El-Morsi; Alaa S. Abd-El-Aziz

    2004-01-01

    The photochemical oxidation of a series of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkane (PCA) mixtures was investigated using H2O2/UV and modified photo-Fenton conditions (Fe3+/H2O2/UV) in both Milli-Q and lake water. All PCA mixtures, including chlorinated (Cl5 to Cl8) decanes, undecanes, dodecanes and tridecanes degraded in 0.02 M H2O2/UV at pH 2.8 in pure water, with 80±4% disappearance after 3 h of irradiation using a 300 nm light source. Degradation was somewhat enhanced under similar conditions...

  11. Water resources data for California, water year 1976; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1976 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic-data section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Water resources data for California, water year 1977; Volume 1: Colorado River Basin, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1978-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1977 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; records of water levels in selected observation wells; and selected chemical analyses of ground water. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Winchell Smith, Assistant District Chief for Hydrologic Data and Leonard N. Jorgensen, Chief of the Basic-Data Section. These data, a contribution to the National Water Data System, were collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  14. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  15. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  16. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.; Tew, Kwee S.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k u ) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K ow , and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  17. Paleohydrology of the southern Great Basin, with special reference to water table fluctuations beneath the Nevada Test Site during the late(?) Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Isaac Judah; Doty, Gene C.

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude of water-table rise during Pleistocene pluvial climates, and of the resultant shortening of groundwater flow path and reduction in unsaturated zone thickness, is mandatory for a technical evaluation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) or other arid zone sites as repositories for high-level or transuranic radioactive wastes. The distribution of calcitic veins filling fractures in alluvium, and of tufa deposits between the Ash Meadows spring discharge area and the Nevada Test Site indicates that discharge from the regional Paleozoic carbonate aquifer during the Late( ) Pleistocene pluvial periods may have occurred at an altitude about 50 meters higher than at present and 14 kilometers northeast of Ash Meadows. Use of the underflow equation (relating discharge to transmissivity, aquifer width, and hydraulic gradient), and various assumptions regarding pluvial recharge, transmissivity, and altitude of groundwater base level, suggest possible rises in potentiometric level in the carbonate aquifer of about -90 meters beneath central Frenchman Flat. During Wisconsin time the rise probably did not exceed 30 meters. Water-level rises beneath Frenchman Flat during future pluvials are unlikely to exceed 30 meters and might even be 10 meters lower than modern levels. Neither the cited rise in potentiometric level in the regional carbonate aquifer, nor the shortened flow path during the Late( ) Pleistocene preclude utilization of the NTS as a repository for high-level or transuranic-element radioactive wastes provided other requisite conditions are met as this site. Deep water tables, attendant thick (up to several hundred meter) unsaturated zones, and long groundwater flow paths characterized the region during the Wisconsin Stage and probably throughout the Pleistocene Epoch and are likely to so characterize it during future glacial periods. (USGS)

  18. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  19. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  20. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  1. Water resources data for California, water year 1975; Volume 1: Colorado River basin, southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1977-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1975 water year for California consist of records of streamflow and contents of reservoirs at gaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous sites; records of water quality including the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water; and records of water levels in selected observation wells. Records for a few pertinent streamflow and water-quality stations in bordering States are also included. The records were collected and computed by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey under the direction of Lee R. Peterson, district chief; Winchell Smith, assistant district chief for hydrologic data; and Leonard N. Jorgensen, chief of the basic data section. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  3. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  4. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 39 streamflow-gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  7. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations and 11 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 12 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  8. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 1: Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 7 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  9. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  10. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  11. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  12. The uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases: quantitative structure-activity relationships for hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Degao [Dalian University of Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China)

    2005-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), which relate the glucuronidation of hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) - catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) - to their physicochemical properties and molecular structural parameters, can be used to predict the rate constants and interpret the mechanism of glucuronidation. In this study, QSARs have been developed that use 23 semi-empirical calculated quantum chemical descriptors to predict the logarithms of the constants 1/K{sub m} and V{sub max}, related to enzyme kinetics. A partial least squares regression method was used to select the optimal set of descriptors to minimize the multicollinearity between the descriptors, as well as to maximize the cross-validated coefficient (Q{sup 2} {sub cum}) values. The key descriptors affecting log(1/K{sub m}) were E{sub lumo}- E{sub homo} (the energy gap between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital) and q{sub C}{sup -} (the largest negative net atomic charge on a carbon atom), while the key descriptors affecting log V{sub max} were the polarizability {alpha}, the Connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), and logP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient for octanol/water). From the results obtained it can be concluded that hydrophobic and electronic aspects of OH-PCBs are important in the glucuronidation of OH-PCBs. (orig.)

  13. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths/Development of technology to excavate geothermal resources in great depths (Designing whole development); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen kussaku gijutsu no kaihatsu (zentai kaihatsu sekkei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Technological development has been made on excavation of geothermal wells, which are dense, hard, and high in temperature and pressure, in developing geothermal resources in great depths. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. This fiscal year has performed the excavation test using an actual well to verify the reliability in practical use of the developed heat-resistant and durable bit. The test was executed by using a bit with a diameter of 8-1/2 inches in a ground bet having a maximum temperature of 300 degrees C in the Yamakawa geothermal field. As a result, good site evaluation was obtained that the wear and tear after lift-up showed no problems, and sufficient performance was verified in the drilling rate and durability. In addition, the low specific gravity cement for high temperature use that has been newly developed was given a cement mixing test to identify its workability at site and hardening properties, at a test well with a temperature of about 40 degrees C in the Okiri geothermal field. The actual well test was performed in a large-scale lost water occurred in a return well during an excavation by Nittestu-Kagoshima Geothermal Company. Effects were recognized in measures to prevent water loss. (NEDO)

  15. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls using mesoporous iron-based spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Linyan; Su, Guijin, E-mail: gjsu@rcees.ac.cn; Zhang, Aiqian; Shi, Yali; Xia, Chaobo; Lu, Huijie; Li, Liewu; Liu, Sha; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest activity in degradation of CB-209, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Hydroxyl species, organic acids, PCBs and chlorobenzenes were identified as products. • Three degradation reactions and one combination reaction competitively occurred. • Hydrodechlorination of CB-209 was more favored over Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} than NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Oxidation reaction of CB-209 was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: A series of mesoporous iron-based spinel materials were synthesized to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with CB-209 being used as a model compound. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), pore structure analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison of the dechlorination efficiencies (DEs) of the materials revealed that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest DE, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Newly produced polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes, hydroxyl species and organic acids were detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatograph. Identification of the intermediate products indicates that three degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination, the breakage of C-C bridge bond and oxidative reaction, accompanied by one combination reaction, are competitively occurring over the iron-based spinels. The relative amounts of produced three NoCB isomers were illustrated by the C-Cl BDEs of CB-209 at meta-, para- and ortho-positions, and their energy gap between HOMO and LUMO. The consumption of the reactive oxygen species caused by the transformation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} reaction system, and the existence of the highly reactive O{sub 2}{sup −}· species in the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} reaction system, could provide a reason why the oxidation reaction was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O

  16. Contamination profiles of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in foodstuff samples from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kurunthachalam, S; Ohi, Etsumasa; Takasuga, Takumi [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Iino, Fukuya; Nakanishi, Junko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) are group of chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax that contain 30 to 70% chlorine by weight. Large amounts of PCAs are widely used as plasticizers for vinyl chloride, lubricants, paints, and flame retardants and number of other industrial applications. Annual global production of PCAs is approximately 300 kilo tones, with a majority having medium-carbon-chain (C14-C19) length. According to the investigation made by Kagaku Kogyo Nippon-Sha, the annual consumption of PCAs in Japan was about 83,000 tons in between 1986-2001. Short-carbon-chain (C10-C13) has been placed on the Priority Substance List under Canadian Environmental Protection Act and on the Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Release Inventory in the USA due to its potential to act as tumor promoters in mammals. Data on environment levels of PCAs is meager, nevertheless, PCAs have been measured at relatively high concentrations in biota from Sweden, biota, sediment from Canada and marine biota and human milk from the Canadian Arctic. In our earlier study, we reported concentrations of short-chain PCAs from sewage treatment plant (STP) collected from Tama River, Tokyo and river water and sediment from Tokyo and Osaka. STP influent water contained greater shortchain PCAs concentrations than STP effluent. In addition, some river water and sediment samples contained detectable concentrations of short-chain PCAs, which was similar to other industrial countries. However, there is no study conducted to explore the contamination profiles of short-chain PCAs in human foodstuff samples. In the present study, we analyzed eleven foodstuff samples that were purchased from various supermarkets in order to know the short-chain PCAs concentrations in the foodstuff and possible human total daily intake (TDI) amounts.

  17. Trophic Magnification of PCBs and Its Relationship to the Octanol−Water Partition Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ15...

  18. Design of ANFIS Structures and GMDH Type-Neural Network for Prediction of Optimum Coagulant Dosage in Water Treatment Process Case Study: Great Water Treatment Plant in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Daghbandan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of surface water bodies as supply sources of drinking water and regarding the requirement for using different chemicals at various stages of water treatment processes, it is essential to investigate coagulant consumption in water treatment plants. Determination of the required dosage of coagulants used in the coagulation and flocculation unit is one of the most important decisions in water treatment operations. For this purpose, the jar test is generally used to determine the type and concentration of suitable coagulants in a water treatment plant. However, the test is rather time-consuming and unreliable due to the inaccurate results it yields. Instead, intelligent methods can be employed to overcome this shortcoming of the jar test. In this study, experimental data were collected over the period from 2011 to 2012 and further refined for study. Two non-linear models based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and GMDH-type neural networks were then developed and experimental results were used to determine the optimum poly-aluminium chloride dosage for use at Guilan water treatment plant. The effects of input parameters including temperature, pH, turbidity, suspended solids, electrical conductivity, and color were investigated on coagulant dosage. The ANFIS model was found to outperform the GMDH model in predicting the required poly-aluminium chloride dosage.

  19. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  1. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  2. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  3. Partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls into human cells and adipose tissues: evaluation of octanol, triolein, and liposomes as surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cristina L; van der Heijden, Stephan A; Wania, Frank; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2014-05-20

    Whereas octanol, triacylglycerides, and liposomes have all been proposed as surrogates for measuring the affinity of hydrophobic organic contaminants to human lipids, no comparative evaluation of their suitability exists. Here we conducted batch sorption experiments with polyoxymethylene passive samplers to determine the partition coefficients at 37 °C of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from water into (i) triolein (Ktriolein/water), (ii) eight types of liposomes (Kliposome/water), (iii) human abdominal fat tissues (KAFT/water) from seven individuals, and (iv) human MCF-7 cells cultured in vitro (Kcell/water). Differences between KAFT/water among individuals and between Kliposome/water among liposome types were very small and not correlated to structural attributes of the PCBs. Similarly, the length and degree of saturation of the phospholipid carbon chains, the headgroup, and the composition of the liposome did not affect the partitioning of PCBs into the studied liposomes. Whereas Kliposome/water values were similar to literature values of Koctanol/water adjusted to 37 °C, they both were lower than KAFT/water and Kcell/water by a factor of 3 on average. Partitioning of PCBs into triolein on the other hand closely mimicked that into human lipids, for which triolein is thus a better surrogate than either octanol or liposomes. Previously published polyparameter linear free energy relationships for partitioning from water into storage lipids and liposomes predicted the measured partition coefficients with a root-mean-square error of less than 0.15 log units, if the chosen equations and solute descriptors do not allow chlorine substitution in the ortho-position to influence the prediction. By guiding the selection of (i) a surrogate for the experimental determination and (ii) a method for the prediction of partitioning into human lipids, this study contributes to a better assessment of hydrophobic organic contaminant bioaccumulation in humans.

  4. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  5. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  6. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  7. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  9. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: a neuropsychologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual-spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies.

  10. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  11. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  13. Comparing Mini-Mental State Examination and Attention and Digit Span in elderly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kao-Chang; Huang, Po-Chang; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Ke, Der-Shin

    2010-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are known to affect central nervous functioning. In recent studies, elderly patients who have been exposed to these have been noted to have psychological deficits. There is little known about which test is sensitive to neurotoxins in cognitive evaluation. The objective of the present study was to compare the significance between selective psychological tests in cognitive assessment in PCB-laden elderly. A retrospective PCB/PCDF exposed cohort was observed. Exposed elderly aged ≥ 60 years and registered in Central Health Administration were enrolled, and similar age- and sex-matched subjects served as non-exposed controls. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Attention and Digit Span (ADS) were tested in both groups. Student's t-test, χ(2) -test and linear regression models were used for statistical analysis.  A total of 165 exposed patients and 151 controls were analyzed. The exposed group included 49% men, a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.4 years and an education level of 4.0 ± 3.9 years. The controls included 52% men, a mean age of 69.9 ± 5.5 years and an education level of 4.5 ± 3.2 years. There was no statistical difference in MMSE before and after adjusting for the confounding variables of age, sex and education (P= 0.16 vs P= 0.12). However, ADS-forward and ADS-total scores showed a significant decline in the exposed subjects (P= 0.0001 vs P= 0.001). Using a linear regression among stratified PCB and cognitive functioning (≤30 ppb; 31-89; ≥90), a dose effect was found at the medium (31-89 ppb) and high exposure (≧90 ppb) levels. Our observations showed attention and short-term memory were impaired in PCB-laden elderly patients. Higher exposure level showed lower cognitive functioning in ADS. The MMSE was insensitive to neurotoxins. The present study shows that the selective test has a decisive role in toxic-related cognitive assessments. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics

  14. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Gibson, Polly P.; Walters, David M.; Mills, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems.However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI,USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r2> 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged acrossall years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa lesseffective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1–9. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  15. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Gibson, Polly P; Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A

    2017-05-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI, USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r 2  > 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged across all years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa less effective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1278-1286. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in

  16. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  17. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  18. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Ohba, Takashi; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Because behavioral deficits associated with gestational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been a concern, we studied the developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a commercial mixture of PCBs, in mice. The PCB mixture (A1254; 0, 6, 18, and 54 mg/kg body weight) was administered to pregnant mice (C57BL/6Cr) every 3 days by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. Compared with the control, treatment with A1254 did not alter the maternal body weight during the gestation and lactation periods. The body weight of the offspring did not differ among treatments. To assess the effects on offspring following such exposure, physical and neurobehavioral development (i.e., pinna detachment, hair growth, eye opening, incisor eruption, grasp reflex, righting reflex, walking, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance) was observed before weaning. At PND 7, poor adult-like responses in negative geotaxis were observed in all exposed groups. When the offspring were at 8-week old, the PCB-treated (18 mg/kg body weight) mice showed a decreased walking speed in the open-field test, and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test. Spontaneous locomotion activity was not affected by PCB exposure at 9 weeks . These results showed that perinatal exposure to PCBs produces several behavioral alterations in mice. Although dose-dependent changes were not observed, the neurobehavioral effects such as a decreased walking speed in the open-field test and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test remained in adulthood after the seeming recovery from the transient delay in development before weaning.

  19. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  20. Contamination of freshwater fish from rivers Sava and Danube with polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, S.; Radicevic, T.; Spiric, A.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    During air strikes, in april 1999, Institute of meat hygiene and technology have begun examination of freshwater fish to establish the degree of contamination. The information about damaged industrial facilities and toxic waste that have been spilled were hard to find, and was unofficial and contradicts. Because of that, at the first time we collected samples from different locations, but after first results, we concentrated our attention on locations on river Danube downstream from Pancevo and on river Sava upstream from Belgrade, the locations indicated as environmental 'hot spots'. According to our experience, knowledge, equipment and analytical skills we have chosen to determine the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater fish species, since aquatic fauna might be used as indicator organisms for the evaluation of water pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls as contaminant of interest, have been chosen because large quantities of PCBs reached the soil and waste and ground waters from damaged transformers and capacitors, where they serve as dielectric fluids. Also, PCBs are highly toxic and due to their liposolubility and persistence, these compounds accumulate through food chain. In 1999, from April to December, we had collected 23 samples of different fish species on river Danube, downstream from Pancevo and 15 samples from locations on river Sava upstream from Belgrade. The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat and mg/kg fresh weight) were expressed as the sum of individual congeners (IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and as Aroclor 1260 (peaks were identified as a fingerprint pattern by comparison with Aroclor standards). The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat) are determined to evaluate the extent of contamination and concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fresh weight) indicate daily intake and help us to estimate the risk for human health. Residues of PCBs in the fat extracted from fish sample were analysed according to the USDA Analytical Chemistry Guidebook. Gas

  1. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  2. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  3. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  4. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  5. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  6. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  7. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  8. Water, Water Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  9. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  10. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  12. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson's disease neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I; Miller, Gary W; Pennell, Kurt D

    2012-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson's disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson's disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson's disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and laboratory studies

  13. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  14. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  16. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  18. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECT OF SOLVENTS IN WATER ON ELECTROCATALYTIC DECHLORINATION OF 2-CL BP AT A PALLADIUM MODIFIED GRANULAR-GRAPHITE ELECTRODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of soils and sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) usually involves use of organic solvents because PCBs have very limited solubility in water. The resulting liquids require further treatment to degrade these toxic contaminants. Catalytic and elec...

  20. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  1. Selection of polychlorinated plastics in plastic waste by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaki, H.; Shinozaki, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence method using a small source of 55 Fe was examined and found to be applicable for the selection of polychlorinated plastics from plastic waste in model areas in Tokyo designated for investigating their content in the waste. The weight ratios of soft and hard polychlorinated plastics to the total plastic waste estimated by this method were found to be 15.6% and 0.29% respectively. These values agree well with the results obtained with the Beilstein method. (author)

  2. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  3. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  4. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  5. Preliminary studies on photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins on soils surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobara, Y.; Ishihara, S.; Ohtsu, K.; Horio, T.; Endo, S.

    2002-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and di benzofurans (PCDFs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and widely distributed in air, water and soil. They are persistent in the environmental and accumulate in living organisms. Some of these compounds are extremely toxic and carcinogenic to animals and possible humans. The Occurrence of PCDDs/PCDFs in the environment originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources are not manufactured for commercial purposes. These toxic compounds, however, are formed as unintentional by-products from chemical impurities in various industrial processes involving chlorine or by burning organic matter in the presence of chlorine molecules. A significant portion of PCDDs accumulated in soils in Japanese paddy fields was shown to have originated from agrochemicals, especially pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitorofen (2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl-4-nitrophenyl ether, CNP). Their impurities of PCP were mostly highly chlorinated congeners, especially OCDD that currently remains to the level of 20,000 pg/g in paddy soils. Compounds such as PCDDs/PCDFs that absorbed UV/Vis light can react photochemically by reaching excited state through the direct absorption of light (direct photolysis) or by accepting energy from an excited donor molecule (sensitized photolysis). Reactions can also occur with reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, etc. formed from photochemical interactions with other organic molecules such as humic acids. Direct photolysis is the only mechanism for photolysis of organic chemicals in pure water and hydrocarbon solutions. However, PCDDs/PCDFs solubilities are extremely low in pure water. The low solubilities of these compounds in aqueous solution make photolysis experiments difficult. Therefore, in most previous studies of photolysis in aqueous solutions an acetonitrile/water mixture was used, furthermore, photolysis experiments were conducted through exposing

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  7. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Qin, Zhihui; Yang, Kai; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huang, Ronglang; Shi, Huixiang

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic

  8. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE FIELDS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Ivanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical three-dimensional model was developed by combining a physically complete block of circulation with modules of transport and transformation of detritus and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. This z-coordinate model has a horizontal resolution of 5 × 5 km, 45 vertical levels, and a step of 5 minutes. The model considers gravitational sedimentation and decomposition of detritus, as well as its deposition and erosion on the bottom. To calculate the transport and transformation of PCBs in the Sea, the model uses three state variables: the concentration of PCBs in solution, in detritus, and in the upper layer of sediment. It also considers sorption, desorption, and reversible flows of PCBs at the bottom.A 20-day model calculation was performed to simulate a potential accidental release of PCBs in the area of the Danube Delta in spring. The PCBs advection flows dominated and were comparable to the adsorption/desorption flows, while the diffusion fluxes were infinitesimal. Up to 20% of discharged PCBs were adsorbed by detritus in the first two days after the accident. There was a gradual accumulation of PCBs on the bottom; 16 days after the accident, 18% of the PCBs were bound to the sediments. The PCBs transport on detritus serves as a natural buffer mechanism that weakens the spread of PCBs in the sea. The paper analyzes the dynamics of PCB fields formed as a result of the application of an artificial active sorbent to minimize adverse effects on the ecosystem. An end-user oriented software application was developed; it allows forecasting the dynamics of potential releases of PCBs and planning counter-measures. A user-friendly interface allows tracking the field, visualizing the distribution of PCBs in the water column and sediments, and displaying the balance between dissolved and suspended phases.Key words: multidisciplinary model, PCB transport, adsorption, desorption, sediments

  9. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  11. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  12. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  13. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  14. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  16. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A.; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. - Highlights: • The monitoring system creation of the Moscow River is necessary. • The wastewater plant is the source of the river contamination with triclosan. • The Moscow River is contaminated with the low chlorinated biphenyls. • There is a background contamination of the Moscow River with phthalates. - The organic pollutants contamination levels of the Moscow River were investigated.

  17. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  18. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  19. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  1. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study,

  2. Preparation of plants containing bacterial enzyme for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Surá, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Szekeres, M.; Bancos, S.; Demnerová, K.; Sylvestre, M.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 309-313 ISSN 1018-4619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : transgenic plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos.

  4. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A. I.; Leppänen, M. T.; Akkanen, J.; Sormunen, A. J.; Leonards, P. E.G.; van Hattum, B.; van Vliet, L. A.; Brack, W.; Smedes, F.; Kukkonen, J. V.K.

    2016-01-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in

  5. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  6. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  7. Allee effect in polar bears: A potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Grimm, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1843 (2016), č. článku 20161883. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allee effect * polychlorinated biphenyls * polar bears * male reproduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  8. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, def...

  9. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  10. Mortality after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: a meta-analysis of two highly exposed cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-09-15

    Both Yucheng and Yusho were events of accidental exposure to highly doses of polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in Asian people. Mortality experiences caused by various diseases were reported in both cohorts with similar and dissimilar findings. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of two cohorts to reevaluate the effects of PCBs and PCDFs on major causes of mortalities. Two recently updated Yucheng and Yusho mortality studies were included. For selected diseases, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model only when heterogeneity (I(2)  > 50% and/or p value <0.10 by the Q test) was not found. A total of 1,803 Yucheng subjects (male, N = 830; female, N = 973) with 48,751 person-years of follow-up and 1,664 Yusho subjects (male, N = 860; female, N = 804) with 50,773 person-years are included. An increase in all-cause mortality (pooled SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, I(2)  = 0.0%), all cancers (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, I(2)  = 0.0%), lung cancer (pooled SMR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, I(2) =0.0%), heart disease (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, I(2)  = 43.4%) and hepatic disease (pooled SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, I(2)  = 0.0%) were found in pooled males. Significant elevation from liver cancer was found in pooled females (pooled SMR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6, I(2)  = 0.0%). This meta-analysis of Yucheng and Yusho cohorts showed similar elevation from all cancer, lung cancer, heart disease and hepatic disease mortalities in exposed men. Furthermore, a new finding of elevated liver cancer mortality in exposed women was identified. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  12. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  14. Quantitative SERS detection of low-concentration aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhi Yong; Liu, Xin; Chen, Y; Wu, Yucheng; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a simple label-free high-sensitive method for detecting low-concentration persistent organic pollutants and explosive materials. The proposed method combines surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and magnetomotive enrichment of the target molecules on the surface of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). This structure can be achieved through self-assembling integration of Ag NPs with ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres, forming a hybrid SERS nanoprobe with both optical and magnetic properties. Moreover, the magnetic response of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres can be used to dynamically modulate the optical property of Ag NPs through controlling their geometric arrangement on the substrate by applying an external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated from the full-wave numerical simulation results that the maximum electromagnetic field enhancement can be greatly increased by shortening the distance of neighboring Ag NPs and therefore resulting in an improved SERS detecting limit. More importantly, by using the prepared substrate, the SERS signals from organic pollution substances, i.e. aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, were quantitatively analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioaccumulation Patterns Of PCBs In A Temperate, Freshwater Food Web And Their Relationshop To The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism tropic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ

  16. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  17. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  18. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  19. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  20. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  1. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  2. Organic Matter Quality and Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, James

    1997-01-01

    ...). Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the interstitial water of the sediments provides the theoretical basis for the most...

  3. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  4. Deformity, Erosion, Lesion, and Tumor Occurrence, Fluctuating Asymmetry, and Population Parameters for Bluntnose Minnow (Pimephales notatus) as Indicators of Recovering Water Quality in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Burskey, Jacob L

    2016-02-01

    The Grand Calumet River is an industrial river and a Great Lakes Area of Concern in southwestern Lake Michigan, USA. Recovery end points require well-formulated designs to assess the use of occurrence of internal and external anomalies, fluctuating asymmetry, and population indicators to determine recovery from the water-quality Beneficial Use Impairments of fish tumors and deformities. A paired-watershed approach using three reaches within the study area was sampled weekly and separated into near- and far-field reaches, whereas the Little Calumet River, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, served as a control. Field-collected Pimephales notatus were inspected for occurrence of deformities, erosion, lesion, and tumor (DELT) anomalies, measured for body symmetry, and dissected to ascertain sex and the condition of internal organs. Morphometric measurements (p ≤ 0.000), internal organ conditions (p = 0.001), and sex ratios of the fish (p = 0.001) were significantly different between the control and P. notatus test populations. The near-field individuals had the highest incidence of DELT occurrence (70 %) followed by the far-field reaches at Roxana Marsh (45 %) and Kennedy Avenue (41.9 %). Morphometric analysis showed significant differences between body size and shape and age class structure between populations. No test-reach individual lived to reach age >2 years. Gonads and livers from Grand Calumet individuals were found to be blackened, ruptured, and decreased in thickness. None of the fish from test study reaches displayed sexual structure in a 1:1 ratio. High sediment-contaminant concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metals in the Grand Calumet River correlated (r (2) = 0.998) with decreased population fitness and decreased individual reproductive health.

  5. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  6. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; de Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  7. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; Boer, de J.

    2011-01-01

    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  8. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  9. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  10. The atmosphere as a source/sink of polychlorinated biphenyls to/from the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apell, Jennifer N.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Waterbodies polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause the air in the surrounding area to become PCB-contaminated. Conversely, when a waterbody is located in or near an urban area, the deposition of atmospheric PCBs may act as a low-level, ongoing source of PCB contamination to that water. Distinguishing these situations is necessary to be protective of human populations and to guide efforts seeking to cleanup such aquatic ecosystems. To assess the situation at the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW) Superfund site, low-density polyethylene passive samplers were deployed in the summer of 2015 to quantify freely dissolved water and gaseous air concentrations of PCBs thereby enabling estimates of the direction and magnitude of air-water exchange of PCB congeners. For the sum of the 27 PCB congeners, average concentrations were 220 pg/m 3 (95% C.I.: 80–610) in the air and 320 pg/L (95% C.I.: 110–960) in the water. The sum of air-water exchange fluxes of these PCB congeners was estimated to be 68 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 30–148) into the lower atmosphere, contrasting with the reported wet and dry depositional flux of only 5.5 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 1–38) from the air into the water. Therefore, the atmosphere was ultimately a sink of PCBs from the LDW Superfund site, at least under 2015 summertime conditions. However, we conclude that air-water exchange of PCBs is likely only a minor sink of PCBs from the LDW and only a minor source of contamination to the region's local atmosphere. - Highlights: • Passive samplers were used to estimate air and water concentrations. • At this site, PCBs were being transported from the water into the local atmosphere. • Air-water exchange was likely only a minor sink of PCBs for the LDW site. • The LDW was likely only a minor source of PCBs to the local atmosphere. - Air-water exchange of PCBs from the LDW Superfund site, calculated using passive sampler data, was determined to be a minor sink of PCBs from

  11. Geologic and Geophysicsal Studies of Natural Hazards and Risks in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Viktor; Motychko, Viktor; Slinchenkov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The area of the Gulf of Peter the Great is socially, economically and culturally one of the most important regions for the Russian Far East. At the same time, there have been reported palpable natural hazards, which pose a real threat to local infrastructure. Complex field team of the Gramaberg VNIIOkeangeologia institute carried out geological and geophysical studies of natural hazards in the water area and coastal zone of the gulf in the summer and autumn of 2012. The research program included - geodetic deformation monitoring of the coastal zone by the HDS 3000 Leica tachometer; - echo sounding of the underwater part of the coastal slope by the LCX-37C depth sounder equipped with active external 12-channel GPS Lowrance antenna LGC-3000; - high-frequency acoustic profiling by GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier with oscillator frequency of 12.2 kHz for the study of bottom sediments to a depth of 40 m; - hydromagnetic measurements by SeaSPY Marine Magnetics magnetometer for investigation of deep geological structure; - sonar measurements by GEO SM C-MAX, 325 kHz frequency emitters for studying seafloor features; - studies of the water column (sensing and sampling); - bottom sediment sampling. Analytic work was performed by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gamma spectrometry and included the following. For water - the content of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg in solution and in suspension, polycyclic aromatic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, oil, methane. For sediments - grade analysis, mineralogical analysis of sand, determination of Fe, Mn, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg content; identification of petroleum products, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the specific activity of Cs-137. As a result, a set of geological maps was composed: maps of pre-Quaternary and Quaternary rocks and deposits, lithological map, geomorphological map, map of engineering

  12. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  13. Radiological tracing for historical patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in creek ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    The marine sediments act like sink for most of the pollutants entering the aquatic environment. It becomes more critical in the case of creek ecosystem due to its landlocked and relatively stagnant nature. Various persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are brought into the creek in the form of dissolved and particulate fluxes from industrial effluents, sewerage discharge, urban runoff from the city, spillage, disposal and chemical weathering. PCBs cycle between sediment, water, air and soil. Studying the historical patterns of these toxic pollutants depositions in sediment cores have several applications. They throw light on the chronological inputs of the pollutants in the marine body. Natural radionuclides like 210 Pb act as tracers for determining the historical patterns of these pollutants in different sediment layers. Determining the activities of these radionuclides is useful for determining the age of sediment layers from the sedimentation rates. The unsupported 210 Pb activity of the Thane creek sediments was determined and modeled for assigning the age to different layers of the cores contaminated with PCBs. The unsupported activity of 210 Pb tracer was found to decrease with the increase in depth of the sediment layers. This pattern of the 210 Pb activity was used for determining the sedimentation rate and age of the core layers. The CRS model with 210 Pb activity traced the average sedimentation rate in Thane Creek to 0.67 cm/yr. This helped in labeling the age of formation of the deep core sediment layers. The vertical profile of different PCB congener concentrations in the core samples depicts a gradient from top to bottom, which indicates the influence of industrial contributions over the period. Peak concentrations for the congeners were observed at 13-24 depth, which indicates excessive loading of sediment with these compounds during 1970s (20-30 cm) which was the period of the maximum use and production of these

  14. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  15. Determination of vaporization enthalpies of polychlorinated biphenyls by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S; Chickos, J S; Welsh, W J

    2001-04-01

    The vaporization enthalpies of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls have been determined by correlation gas chromatography. This study was prompted by the realization that the vaporization enthalpy of the standard compounds used in previous studies, octadecane and eicosane, were values measured at 340 and 362 K, respectively, rather than at 298 K. Adjustment to 298 K amounts to a 7-8 kJ/mol increment in the values. With the inclusion of this adjustment, vaporization enthalpies evaluated by correlation gas chromatography are in good agreement with the values determined previously in the literature. The present results are based on the vaporization enthalpies of several standards whose values are well established in the literature. The standards include a variety of n-alkanes and various chlorinated hydrocarbons. The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for meta- and para-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls.

  16. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  17. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiangping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi [School of Life Sciences, SunYat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K{sub OW} (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web.

  19. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with {sup 13}C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log K{sub CD-Soil}) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) with r{sup 2} = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  20. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  1. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  2. Proinflammatory Adhesion Molecules Facilitate Polychlorinated Biphenyl–Mediated Enhancement of Brain Metastasis Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Eszter; Chen, Lei; András, Ibolya E.; Wrobel, Jagoda; Zhang, Bei; Pu, Hong; Park, Minseon; Eum, Sung Yong; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that cause vascular inflammation and facilitate the development of brain metastases. The crucial event in metastasis formation is adhesion of blood-borne tumor cells to the vascular endothelium, followed by their transcapillary migration. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of PCB118-induced brain metastasis formation at the blood-brain barrier level with the focus on tumor cell adhesion to the brain endotheli...

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and fem...

  4. Importance of Passive Diffusion in the Uptake of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Phagotrophic Protozoa†

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Farrington, John W.; Moffett, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments we...

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  6. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  7. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  8. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  9. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, L.E.; Miller, M.C.; Engman, J.; Evans, R.L.; Koch, R.W.; Brence, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fish sampling by electroshocking in the Great Miami River above and below the Fernald sit was designed to determine changes in the health of the fish community compared to the previous nine years and to collect samples for uranium analysis in fish filets. This document contains information describing the findings of this program. Topics discussed include: physical and chemical parameters, species richness, species diversity, and water analysis

  10. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake...... and microbial degradation accounted for 34.2 % and 65.8 % of total PCBs using PMF, and PMF revealed that natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals accounted for 38.1 % and 61.8 %, respectively. CA indicated that some toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd, In, Tl, and Hg) were associated with Ca–Na–Mg minerals......, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some fundamental solutions were proposed to protect the DWSA....

  12. Decontamination of Wastewater Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, P.; Demnerová, K.; Maléterová, Ywetta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2004), s. 131-138 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : decontamination * hydrogen peroxide * underground water Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2004

  13. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environment is suffering severe contamination as a result of various uncontrolled activities of man and chemicals in the biosphere. This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, which if left unchecked will be detrimental to man and other ...

  14. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, ... basic structure of PCB according to Wiegel and Wu. (2000), is as shown in Figure. 1. ..... inability to understand the interaction between complex chemicals in addition to physical and ...

  15. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  16. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  19. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D and D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D and D

  20. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  2. Power station for producing hydrogen and oxygen under pressure by electrolysis of water at great depth, then transformation into energy by propulsion of the two gases and combustion of their mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imberteche, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of water distillation and electric power accumulation systems. First, by modifying the gas exhaust orifice of the reactor, the steam emerging from it is recovered, transformed into water and its properties used. Second, the power station's possibility of accumulating energy and releasing it as desired is employed [fr

  3. Variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of plant biomass and its relationship to water-use efficiency at the leaf- and ecosystem-scales in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lawrence B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the carbon (δ(13) Cm ) and oxygen (δ(18) Om ) isotope composition of C3 plant tissue provide important insights into controls on water-use efficiency. We investigated the causes of seasonal and inter-annual variability in water-use efficiency in a grassland near Lethbridge, Canada using stable isotope (leaf-scale) and eddy covariance measurements (ecosystem-scale). The positive relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values for samples collected during 1998-2001 indicated that variation in stomatal conductance and water stress-induced changes in the degree of stomatal limitation of net photosynthesis were the major controls on variation in δ(13) Cm and biomass production during this time. By comparison, the lack of a significant relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values during 2002, 2003 and 2006 demonstrated that water stress was not a significant limitation on photosynthesis and biomass production in these years. Water-use efficiency was higher in 2000 than 1999, consistent with expectations because of greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and lower leaf ci /ca during the drier conditions of 2000. Calculated values of leaf-scale water-use efficiency were 2-3 times higher than ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency, a difference that was likely due to carbon lost in root respiration and water lost during soil evaporation that was not accounted for by the stable isotope measurements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  5. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  6. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  7. Dry deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holsen, T.M.; Noll, K.E.; Shiping Liu, Wenjhy Lee

    1991-01-01

    The PCB dry deposition flux was measured in Chicago with a greased, Mylar-covered smooth plate with a sharp leading edge pointed into the wind. The dry deposition flux of PCBs in Chicago averaged 3.8 μg/m 2 ·day between May and November 1989 and 6.0 μg/m 2 ·day for May and June 1990. A comparison of the PCB flux measured in Chicago to an estimated nonurban PCB flux shows that the flux of PCBs is up to 3 orders of magnitude higher in urban areas than in nonurban areas, indicating that Chicago and other urban areas near the Great Lakes must be considered as major source terms for deposition of PCBs into the lakes. The distribution of atmospheric PCBs between the gas and particle phase and the size distribution of particle-phase PCBs were also measured. The airborne PCB concentration as measured by the Noll rotary impactor (NRI) A stage (particles with aerodynamic diameters of > 6.5 μm) was higher in Chicago (0.94 ng/m 3 ) than in Los Angeles (0.52 ng/m 3 ), as was the mean particle-phase PCB concentration (47 vs 21 μg/g). PCBs were found to be associated with all sizes of atmospheric particles; however, their particle mass normalized concentration decreased with increasing particle size. PCBs associated with particles, particularly coarse particles, represented a significant fraction of the total PCB dry deposition flux even though PCBs in the ambient air were present primarily in the gas phase

  8. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  10. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision

  12. A comparison of the radioactivity levels in the coastal waters between the great wall and Zhongshan stations in Antarctica and the Pohai, Huanghai, east China and south China seas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinxing

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants between the Great Wall and Zhongshan Stations in Antarctica and the four seas (i.e. the Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea) in China shows that in general the radioactivity levels in the coastal sediments and plants in Antarctica are lower than those in the four seas in China. The contents of the total β in the sediments decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of East China Sea, South China Sea, Pohai Sea, Huanghai Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively, but the contents of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and the total β in marine plants decrease from higher to lower in amount in the order of Daya Bay in the South China Sea, Hanzhou Bay in the East China Sea and the Great Wall Bay in Antarctica successively. The results show that the contamination levels of radioactivity, especially the artificial radioactive contamination in the Antarctic coastal area are far lower than those in China Coastal area, with the remarkable exception of 137 Cs

  13. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  14. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  15. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  16. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  17. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  18. Detection of Surface-Linked Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindzevicius, Tomas; Barten, Jan; Vorobiev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved procedure for analytical detection of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrate was utilized to concentrate PCB molecules within an area of high electromagnetic fields through...... formation of microsized nanopillar clusters, and consequently, so-called “hot spots” can be formed. In order to improve PCB detection limit, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) compounds were chemically modified with a – SCH3 (PCB77-SCH3) group. Experimental and numerical analysis of vibrational modes...

  19. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective......% CI = 2-17%), respectively, of giving birth to a boy. In conclusion, maternal exposure to ΣPCB, DDE and methylmercury was associated with a slightly increased secondary sex ratio. The impact of paternal exposures could not be taken into account and deserves attention....

  20. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  2. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs.

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron......ZVI showed encouraging tendencies and a base is thus formed for further optimization towards a new method for remediation of PCB polluted soils....... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...

  4. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in bluefish before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, W J; Corneliussen, P E; Laski, R R; Vannelli, J J

    1989-01-01

    Similar levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and fat were found in 20 correlated uncooked and cooked (baked) bluefish fillets. Fillets averaged 2.5 ppm PCBs as Aroclor 1254 (whole basis) before cooking; after cooking, with the oil drippings and skin discarded, the average PCB level was 2.7 ppm. Although PCBs, lipophilic pesticides, and fat were lost along with oil drippings and skin that were discarded after cooking, the moisture loss in the fillets during cooking compensated for these weight losses almost completely. After the fillets were cooked and the oil drippings and skin were discarded, the PCB content of the fillets was 27% lower on the average.

  5. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incineration facility for radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls and other wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The statement assesses the environmental impacts associated with the construction of an incineration facility and related support facilities for the disposal of hazardous organic waste materials (including PCBs) which are contaminated with trace quantities of low-assay enriched uranium. The proposed action includes the incineration facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee and storage, packaging, and shipping facilities at the Gaseous Diffusion Plants in Paducah, KY, and Portsmouth, OH; hazardous organic wastes from these plants and from the Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratories would be shipped to the proposed incineration facility. Impacts assessed include the effects of the project on air and water quality, on socioeconomic conditions, on public and occupational health and safety, and on ecology. Additionally, the statement presents an assessment of the potential impacts from accidents at the incineration facility or during transportation of the waste materials to the facility. The major impact identified was the potential for short-term occupational exposure to high concentrations of PCBs in smoke during the worst credible accident; mitigation of this impact will be addressed during the final design of the proposed facility. Alternatives which were assessed include no action, chemical destruction processes, and alternative transportation routes; all would have greater adverse impact or would increase the risk of an accident with the potential for adverse impact. The alternatives of commercial disposal, alternative sites, multiple incinerators, and alternative modes were eliminated from detailed analysis either because they are not feasible or because preliminary analysis showed that they would have clearly more adverse impact upon the environment than the proposed action

  7. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreiem, Anne; Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  10. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Armitage, James M; Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-14

    A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations. Lifetime exposures to four PCB congeners in 6128 participants from NHANES 1999-2004 are simulated using the ACC-Human model supplied with individualized input parameters obtained from NHANES questionnaires (e.g., birth year, sex, body mass index, dietary composition, reproductive behavior). Modeled and measured geometric mean PCB-153 concentrations in NHANES participants of 13.3 and 22.0 ng g -1 lipid, respectively, agree remarkably well, although lower model-measurement agreement for air, water, and food suggests that this is partially due to fortuitous error cancellation. The model also reproduces trends in the measured data with key factors such as age, parity and sex. On an individual level, 62% of all modeled concentrations are within a factor of three of their corresponding measured values (Spearman r s = 0.44). However, the model attributes more of the inter-individual variability to differences in dietary lipid intake than is indicated by the measured data. While the model succeeds in predicting levels and trends on the population level, the accuracy of individual-specific predictions would need to be improved for refined exposure characterization in epidemiological studies.

  11. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  12. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  13. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  14. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. © 2013.

  15. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N.; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ 15 N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  16. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K.S.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ 25 PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m −3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ 25 PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  17. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-04-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontova, Elena A.; Mamontov, Alexander A.; Tarasova, Eugenia N.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu.; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  20. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds

  1. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: patrizi@lens.unifi.it [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  2. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  3. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  4. The Great Books and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  5. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  6. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  7. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  8. Development of hot water utilizing power plants in fiscal 1999. Development of technology to collect geothermal resources in great depths (Development of technology to produce geothermal resources in great depths); 1999 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu / shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop geothermal resources, research and development has been performed on the production technologies for the deep-seated geothermal resources, such as pressure, temperature, flow speed and density (PTSD) logging technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In the actual well test on the developed D-probe, it was verified that the probe operates normally under high temperature environment (342 degrees C) which exceeds the measurement limit of conductive cables (315 degrees C). In developing the PTC monitoring technology, the downhole sampler was improved, and a test was performed in the actual hole in the Hijiori area in Yamagata Prefecture. As a result, collection of hot water of about 900 mL has become possible. In developing the high-temperature tracer monitoring technology, simulation was performed keeping in mind charging the tracer into the Hijiori geothermal area, whereas specifications for charging and collecting the tracer were determined. In developing the scale monitoring technology, experiments were carried out on the fluid systems under deep geothermal conditions by using scale forming devices, by which it was indicated that silica is the important scale constituent. (NEDO)

  9. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Field application of activated carbon amendment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ghosh, Upal; Kennedy, Alan J; Grossman, Adam; Ray, Gary; Tomaszewski, Jeanne E; Smithenry, Dennis W; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2009-05-15

    We report results on the first field-scale application of activated carbon (AC) amendment to contaminated sediment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The test was performed on a tidal mud flat at South Basin, adjacent to the former Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA. The major goals of the field study were to (1) assess scale up of the AC mixing technology using two available, large-scale devices, (2) validate the effectiveness of the AC amendment at the field scale, and (3) identify possible adverse effects of the remediation technology. Also, the test allowed comparison among monitoring tools, evaluation of longer-term effectiveness of AC amendment, and identification of field-related factors that confound the performance of in-situ biological assessments. Following background pretreatment measurements, we successfully incorporated AC into sediment to a nominal 30 cm depth during a single mixing event, as confirmed by total organic carbon and black carbon contents in the designated test plots. The measured AC dose averaged 2.0-3.2 wt% and varied depending on sampling locations and mixing equipment. AC amendment did not impact sediment resuspension or PCB release into the water column over the treatment plots, nor adversely impactthe existing macro benthic community composition, richness, or diversity. The PCB bioaccumulation in marine clams was reduced when exposed to sediment treated with 2% AC in comparison to the control plot Field-deployed semi permeable membrane devices and polyethylene devices showed about 50% reduction in PCB uptake in AC-treated sediment and similar reduction in estimated pore-water PCB concentration. This reduction was evident even after 13-month post-treatment with then 7 months of continuous exposure, indicating AC treatment efficacy was retained for an extended period. Aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations and PCB desorption showed an AC-dose response. Field-exposed AC after 18 months

  11. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  12. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Dam, ten G.; Bruggen, van Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6

  14. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl rhizoremediation by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 derivatives, using a Sinorhizobium meliloti nod system to drive bph gene expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villacieros, M.; Whelan, C.; Macková, Martina; Molgaard, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, M.; Lloret, J.; Cárcer de, D.; Oruezábal, R. I.; Bolanos, L.; Macek, Tomáš; Karlson, U.; Dowling, D. N.; Martín, M.; Rivilla, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 5 (2005), 2687-2694 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:5thFW(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00101; European Commission(XE) BIO4-CT97-2227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  16. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Lazorchak; Michael B. Griffith; Marc Mills; Joseph Schubauer-Berigan; Frank McCormick; Richard Brenner; Craig Zeller

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological...

  17. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins - Consequences for longterm neurological and cognitive development of the child. A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, ER

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs) and dioxins are environmental pollutants. Calculated on a body weight basis, prenatally as well as postnatally through breast-feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential

  18. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  19. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  20. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.