WorldWideScience

Sample records for great ormond street

  1. Lifetime Costs and Outcomes of Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot Compared to Natural Progression of the Disease: Great Ormond Street Hospital Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rachael Maree; Isaac, Mark; Frigiola, Alessandra; Blundell, David; Brown, Kate; Bull, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart disease that requires surgical repair without which survival through childhood is extremely rare. The aim of this paper is to use data from the mandatory follow-up of patients with Tetralogy of Fallot to model the health-related costs and outcomes over the first 55-years of life. Method A decision analytical model was developed to establish costs and outcomes for patients up to 55 years after diagnosis and first repair of Tetralogy of Fallot compared to natural progression. Data from Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) centres that follow up Tetralogy of Fallot patients and Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH), London, United Kingdom (UK) medical records was used to establish the cost and effectiveness of current interventions. Data from a Czech cohort was used for the natural, no intervention condition. Results The average cost per patient of a repair for Tetralogy of Fallot was £26,938 (SE = £4,140). The full life time cost per patient, with no discount rate, was £65,310 (95% CI £64,981–£65,729); £56,559 discounted (95% CI £56,159–£56,960). Patients with a repair had an average of 35 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) per patient over 55 years undiscounted and 20.16 QALYs discounted. If the disorder was left to take its natural course, patients on average had a total of 3 QALYs per patient with no discount rate and 2.30 QALYs discounted. Conclusion A model has been developed that provides an estimate of the value for money of an expensive repair of a congenital heart disease. The model could be used to test the cost-effectiveness of making amendments to the care pathway. PMID:23533645

  2. Ormonde

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This is a cycle of poems presented alongside personal and historical archives to chart the 1947 journey of SS Ormonde, the first post-WW2 ship (followed within a year by the Almanzora and the more famous Empire Windrush) to carry significant numbers of immigrants from Jamaica to the UK. On board was the poet’s father; his daughter writes poignantly of his and his fellow passengers’ hopes and aspirations, and the issues they faced. Alongside poems written in voices ranging from a stowaway to a...

  3. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis and Ormond's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacl, G.M.; Bino, M.; Salomon, F.; Risti, B.; Marincek, B.

    1995-01-01

    Two cases of thoracic periaortal fibrosis as a manifestation of retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease) are shown on CT and MRI. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis can result in an inflammatory aneurysmo with chronic dissection. Manifestation of thoracic periaortal fibrosis may typically occur intermittently over decades. (orig.) [de

  4. The great problems are in the street : a phenomonology of men's stranger intrusions on women in public spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Fiona Vera

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes new and unique evidence to the limited body of empirical literature on men’s stranger intrusion in public space, commonly termed ‘street harassment’, through a transdisciplinary study bringing a philosophical framework to the study of violence against women and girls (VAWG). Analysis of 50 women’s accounts given during a three stage research process is presented, alongside the development of a theoretical framework combining feminist approaches to VAWG with the gendere...

  5. Ormond's disease or secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis? An overview of retroperitoneal fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckmann, M.; Uder, M.; Kuefner, M.A.; Heinrich, M.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen (Germany). Radiologisches Inst.

    2009-04-15

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis represents a rare inflammatory disease. About two thirds of all cases seem to be idiopathic (= Ormond's disease). The remaining one third is secondary and may be ascribed to infections, trauma, radiation therapy, malignant diseases, and the use of certain drugs. Up to 15 % of patients have additional fibrotic processes outside the retroperitoneum. The clinical symptoms of retroperitoneal fibrosis are non-specific. In sonography retroperitoneal fibrosis appears as a retroperitoneal hypoechoic mass which can involve the ureters and thus cause hydronephrosis. Intravenous urography and MR urography can demonstrate the typical triad of medial deviation and extrinsic compression of the ureters and hydronephrosis. CT and MRI are the modalities of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. The lesion typically begins at the level of the fourth or fifth lumbar vertebra and appears as a plaque, encasing the aorta and the inferior vena cava and often enveloping and medially displacing the ureters. In unenhanced CT, retroperitoneal fibrosis appears as a mass that is isodense with muscle. When using MRI, the mass is hypointense in T1-weighted images and of variable intensity in T2-weighted images according to its stage: it may be hyperintense in early stages, while the tissue may have a low signal in late stages. After the administration of contrast media, enhancement is greatest in the early inflammatory phase and minimal in the late fibrotic phase. Dynamic gadolinium enhancement can be useful for assessing disease activity, monitoring response to treatment, and detecting relapse. To differentiate retroperitoneal masses, diffusion-weighted MRI may provide useful information. (orig.)

  6. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  7. Publication productivity of neurosurgeons in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Fiona A; Akram, Harith; Hyam, Jonathan A; Kitchen, Neil D; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-04-01

    Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual departments were contacted for an up-to-date list of consultant (attending) neurosurgeons practicing in these departments. Scopus was used to determine the h-index and m-quotient for each neurosurgeon. Indices were measured by surgeon and by departmental mean and total. Additional information was collected about the surgeon's sex, title, listed superspecialties, higher research degrees, and year of medical qualification. Data were analyzed for 315 neurosurgeons (25 female). The median h-index and m-quotient were 6.00 and 0.41, respectively. These were significantly higher for professors (h-index 21.50; m-quotient 0.71) and for those with an additional MD or PhD (11.0; 0.57). There was no significant difference in h-index, m-quotient, or higher research degrees between the sexes. However, none of the 16 British neurosurgery professors were female. Neurosurgeons who specialized in functional/epilepsy surgery ranked highest in terms of publication productivity. The 5 top-scoring departments were those in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge; St. George's Hospital, London; Great Ormond Street Hospital, London; National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London; and John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. The h-index is a useful bibliometric marker, particularly when comparing between studies and individuals. The m-quotient reduces bias toward established researchers. British academic neurosurgeons face considerable challenges, and women remain underrepresented in both clinical and academic neurosurgery in Britain and Ireland.

  8. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  9. Street outreach with no streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Bruce; Peters, Heather

    2005-01-01

    A street nurse position in the rural and small-town interior of British Columbia has been addressing the needs of street-involved or otherwise marginalized client populations by bringing healthcare services to wherever those clients are, rather than waiting for the clients to seek care. The primary reason for a street outreach approach is that marginalized populations face a variety of barriers to accessing traditional healthcare services--barriers such as homelessness, mental health problems, criminal involvement, lack of transportation, lack of ability to pay for prescriptions, lack of specialized or knowledgeable providers and provider discrimination. In the rural street nurse program, the target population includes the usual street nurse populations of illegal drug users and sex trade workers, which are more hidden in small communities than in larger urban centres, creating the community denial that is a barrier to healthcare access. Yet another barrier is the co-locaton of services common in small communities, where public health clinics might share a building with police services, making marginalized clients reluctant to attend clinics. The rural street nurse collaborates with public health nurses and other care providers (mental health workers, social workers, etc) with collegial advice and support, making and receiving referrals, and generally assisting one another--the street nurse through his rapport with the marginalized individuals and the others with their specialized knowledge. Rural street services are delivered whereverthe clientsfeel comfortable: a school, a drop-in centre, a mall, a youth centre or simplythe street. Services provided include sexually transmitted infection testing, chlamydia treatments, pregnancy testing emergency contraception pills and assistance with filling out forms for financial support. Accordingly, the street nurse's truck is equipped as a mobile treatment centre and office, with a cellphone and a stock of testing and

  10. Street as Public Space - Measuring Street Life of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Normah; Ayu Abdullah, Yusfida; Hamdan, Hazlina

    2017-10-01

    Kuala Lumpur has envisioning in becoming World Class City by the year 2020. Essential elements of form and function of the urban environment are streets. Streets showcase the community and connect people. It’s one of the most comfortable social environment that provides aesthetical and interaction pleasure for everyone. Classified as main shopping streets in the local Kuala Lumpur urban design guidelines, Jalan Masjid India (JMI) has its uniqueness of shopping experience and social interaction. This conceptual paper will study the physical and cultural characteristics of the street that will generate the street character by mapping its original characters. The findings will focus on strengthening the methodology applied to promote improvements in evaluating it as a great public space. Results will also contribute to understanding the overall site context, the street connectivity, and urban dynamics. This paper is part of a larger study that addresses on transforming the sociability of public space.

  11. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  12. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  13. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  14. Self-rostering can improve work-life balance and staff retention in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Renee; Holme, Annie

    2018-03-08

    Renee Barrett, Staff Nurse, ITU, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, renee.barrett@gosh.nhs.uk , and Annie Holme, Lecturer, King's College London, look at how e-rostering can benefit health organisations and staff.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moving components from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell for recycling. MYO5B gene mutations ... atrophy Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (3 links) Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh Great Ormond Street Hospital for ...

  16. Epidemiology of Status Epilepticus in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence, etiology, seizure characteristics, and outcome in childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE are reviewed by researchers from Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, and the Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

  17. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  18. 46th Street pilot street lighting project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their : environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than : standard high-pressure sodium street...

  19. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  20. Intelligent street lighting clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, R.; Jovanovic, N.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in dynamic street lighting introduce new functionality for control and maintenance of the street lighting infrastructure. Vital elements in this infrastructure are the powerful controlling devices that control separate groups of light poles and collect information from the system. For

  1. Street-art

    OpenAIRE

    Rybnikářová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the street-art and graffiti phenomenon. The theoretical research is focused on presenting the essence and character of this art style, while also watching it from socio-cultural point of view and observing it in context of art history. The theoretical study is followed by the didactical part of thesis, where I present possibilities of using the street-art theme in art education programs in the school setting. My thesis is concluded with a discussion of a practica...

  2. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  3. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, H.N.; Njoka, M.

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  4. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  5. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  6. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  7. Street Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Streets for the United States. The Streets layer contains all roads plus all Road Network attributes such as direction of travel, lanes, dividers, speed...

  8. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  9. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  10. Smart street lighting management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, S.; Annunziato, M. [Energy New Technologies and Sustainable Economic Development Agency ENEA, Rome (Italy); Moretti, F. [Automation and Computer Science Department, University & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we propose a new street lighting energy management system in order to reduce energy consumption. The key idea we want to accomplish is that of 'energy on demand' meaning that energy, in this case light, is provided only when needed. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to have a reliable demand model, which in the case of street lighting turns out to be a traffic flow rate forecasting model. In order to achieve this goal, several methods on the 1-h prediction have been compared and the one providing the best results is based on artificial neural networks. Moreover, several control strategies have been tested and the one which gave the best energy savings is the adaptive one we carried out. Experimentation has been carried out on real data and the study shows that with the proposed approach, it is possible to save up to 50 % of energy compared to no regulation systems.

  11. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Popa; A. Marcu

    2012-01-01

    Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of th...

  12. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    can lead to a stronger channel flow in street canyons and improve the air quality. The octagon intersections are favorable for air flowing through the lateral openings and improve the channel flows. The oblique intersections can also greatly improve the street ventilations, mainly due to the enhanced air flows through the lateral openings and the increased turbulent diffusion through the street roofs.

  13. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  14. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  15. Glucocorticoids for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and other centers in the UK, conducted a prospective longitudinal study across 17 neuromuscular centers in the UK of 360 boys aged 3-15 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were treated with daily or intermittent (10 days on/10 days off prednisolone for a mean duration of 4 years.

  16. Hippocampal Abnormalities after Prolonged Febrile Convulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volume and T2 relaxation times were determined in an MRI study of 14 children with prolonged febrile convulsions (PFC who were investigated, 1 within 5 days of a PFC, and 2 at follow-up 4-8 months after the acute study, at the Institute of Child Health, University College, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  17. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  18. Tourette Syndrome: A Training Day for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Uttom; Christie, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a Tourette syndrome training day for teachers facilitated by members of the Tic Disorders Clinic at Great Ormond Street Hospital in England. The day provided a mix of information giving and discussion of current practice. Outcomes of the day are related to professional knowledge and experience. (Contains references.) (CR)

  19. NEW ASPECTS OF CHILD CARE*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the social field of child care the Children Act of 1948 marked a major ... Better methods for the prevention of ... t the hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, there is an ... With modern drugs to control infection and with more children ...

  20. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...

  1. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  2. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  3. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  4. A street rubbish detection algorithm based on Sift and RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiPeng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a street rubbish detection algorithm based on image registration with Sift feature and RCNN. Firstly, obtain the rubbish region proposal on the real-time street image and set up the CNN convolution neural network trained by the rubbish samples set consists of rubbish and non-rubbish images; Secondly, for every clean street image, obtain the Sift feature and do image registration with the real-time street image to obtain the differential image, the differential image filters a lot of background information, obtain the rubbish region proposal rect where the rubbish may appear on the differential image by the selective search algorithm. Then, the CNN model is used to detect the image pixel data in each of the region proposal on the real-time street image. According to the output vector of the CNN, it is judged whether the rubbish is in the region proposal or not. If it is rubbish, the region proposal on the real-time street image is marked. This algorithm avoids the large number of false detection caused by the detection on the whole image because the CNN is used to identify the image only in the region proposal on the real-time street image that may appear rubbish. Different from the traditional object detection algorithm based on the region proposal, the region proposal is obtained on the differential image not whole real-time street image, and the number of the invalid region proposal is greatly reduced. The algorithm has the high mean average precision (mAP).

  5. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  6. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  7. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  8. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  9. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  10. Mean Streets: An analysis on street level pollution in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The overarching objective of this study is to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in particulatematter concentration (PM 2.5) along crowded streets in New York City. Due to their fine size and lowdensity PM 2.5 stays longer in the atmosphere and could bypass human nose and throat and penetratedeep in to the lungs and even enter the circulatory system. PM 2.5 is a by-product of automobilecombustion and is a primary cause of respiratory malfunction in NYC. The study would monitor streetlevel concentration of PM2.5 across three different routes that witness significant pedestrian traffic;observations will be conducted along these three routes at different time periods. The study will use theAirBeam community air quality monitor. The monitor tracks PM 2.5 concentration along with GPS, airtemperature and relative humidity. The surface level concentration monitored by AirBeam will becompared with atmospheric concentration of PM 2.5 that are monitored at the NOAA CREST facility onCCNY campus. The lower atmospheric values will be correlated with street level values to assess thevalidity of using of lower atmospheric values to predict street level concentrations. The street levelconcentration will be compared to the air quality forecasted by the New York Department ofEnvironment Conservation to estimate its accuracy and applicability.

  11. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ellen Lambert; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK). Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that virtual reality

  12. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  13. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention ampersand Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980's. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation's environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990's as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry

  14. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  15. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  16. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  17. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  18. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not… (1099) David Thore Gravesen, Peter Hornbæk Frostholm ECER 2016, 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research, Session: 14 SES 10 A When picking leaves of a marguerite, whilst doing the “she loves me, she loves me not” game, you....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... milieu. With a criminal gang-like behavior (Hoeben & Weerman 2013; Hviid 2007; Rasmussen 2012) involving petty crime and violence, one would think the group members would be indifferent towards their schooling and future careers. This was not the case. The informants proved to be very aware...

  19. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  1. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  2. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  3. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  4. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P G [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1996-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  5. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  6. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  7. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  8. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    OpenAIRE

    D.V.Pushpa Latha; K.R.Sudha; Swati Devabhaktuni

    2013-01-01

    Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to des...

  9. [Street prostitution and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishøy, Torben; Ishøy, Pelle Lau; Olsen, Lis Raabaek

    2005-09-26

    Street-based prostitution accounts for 10% of the prostitution activity in Denmark, mainly involving female drug addicts. We studied a group of women with a common history of substance abuse and their comparative psychosocial characteristics, correlated with whether they had previously been a prostitute or not. Their psychic symptoms were evaluated and compared with those of controls. 27 females receiving maintenance treatment for substance abuse completed a questionnaire dealing with their social background, substance abuse profile, and history of sexual abuse and prostitution, as well as their current health status, including SCL-90. The scores were compared to those of a control group of an age- and gender-matched Danish standard population. Neglect in childhood and adulthood corresponded to international findings. 14 of the women had previous sex-trading experience, and early use of heroin and cocaine was a predictor for starting a career in prostitution. The SCL-90 scores for the dimensions of somatization and depression were significantly higher for drug-abusing women in general than in the control group. The scores of drug-abusing former prostitutes were similarly significantly higher on most of the dimensions except the hostility dimension when compared to those of drug-abusing women who had never been involved in prostitution. Rape and domestic violence were characteristic phenomena among drug-abusing prostitutes (p prostitution. Various psychosocial stress factors among street-based prostitutes indicate the need for broader psychiatric approaches in Danish drug addiction maintenance programmes.

  10. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  11. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  12. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  13. [Investigation of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in street dusts in urban Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Li, Ying-Xia; Shi, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Jing-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigated the contamination levels of heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dusts in different functional areas in urban Beijing. Results show that the mean concentrations of Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in street dusts in Beijing are 710 ng/g, 307 ng/g, 85.0 microg/g, 78.3 microg/g, 41.1 microg/g, 69.6 microg/g and 248.5 microg/g, respectively, which are significantly lower than those in most cities around the world and Shenyang, Shanghai in China. The mean concentration of Sigma 16PAHs in street dusts in Beijing is 0.398 microg/g, which is also lower than those of Handan, Tianjin and Shanghai. Non-parametric Friedman test demonstrates significant differences of heavy metal contents on street dusts from different functional zones. Street dusts in residential area and parks have lower heavy metal and PAHs concentrations than the street dusts from areas of high traffic density. The concentrations of heavy metals follow the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Hg, which is consistent with the situation in other cities around the world. The geoaccumulation index analysis shows that street dust in urban Beijing is moderately polluted by Cd, Zn and Cu, little polluted by Cr and Pb and practically unpolluted by Ni. The contamination levels of Sigma 16PAHs on street dusts vary greatly in different functional zones with parks little polluted, residential areas moderately to strongly polluted and traffic related areas strongly polluted to extremely polluted. Mass loading of heavy metals and PAHs is largely associated with street dusts of size range < 300 microm. Therefore, the urban sweeping vehicles should update the dust sweeping devices to remove not only the fine particle but also the coarser particles.

  14. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  15. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  16. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  17. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  18. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  19. Road and Street Centerlines, Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created to maintain the location of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created...

  20. Assessment of Analytic Morphograph CF-1 manufactured by Kent Laboratory Services Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    DHSS assessment reports, prepared by St Lawrence Hospital, Chepstow and the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street are presented for the Analytic Morphograph CF-1. This machine converts the central principle of morphanalysis - the Fixed Relations Theory - into clinical practice by producing radiographs and photographs of the human head which are universally related in three dimensions. Both technical and clinical aspects of the equipment's performance are examined. (U.K.)

  1. Dysphonia secondary to traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli, L.; Bray, D.; Eze, N.; Hartley, B. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Airway compromise due to paediatric intubation injuries is well documented; however, intubation injuries may also cause severe voice disorders. We report our experience and review the world literature on the voice effects of traumatic paediatric intubation. Case series: We report five cases of children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children who suffered traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold at the time of, or secondary to, endotracheal intubation. All children had sig...

  2. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  3. Hygiene practices among street food vendors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    giene regulations to keep street food save for consumers. Journal of Medical ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294 ... authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike .... (50%) school food vendors sampled in Konongo.

  4. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  5. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  6. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  7. Modelling Pollutant Dispersion in a Street Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N. Ben; Garbero, V.; Salizzoni, P.; Lamaison, G.; Soulhac, L.

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes a further step in the analysis of the performances of a street network model to simulate atmospheric pollutant dispersion in urban areas. The model, named SIRANE, is based on the decomposition of the urban atmosphere into two sub-domains: the urban boundary layer, whose dynamics is assumed to be well established, and the urban canopy, represented as a series of interconnected boxes. Parametric laws govern the mass exchanges between the boxes under the assumption that the pollutant dispersion within the canopy can be fully simulated by modelling three main bulk transfer phenomena: channelling along street axes, transfers at street intersections, and vertical exchange between street canyons and the overlying atmosphere. Here, we aim to evaluate the reliability of the parametrizations adopted to simulate these phenomena, by focusing on their possible dependence on the external wind direction. To this end, we test the model against concentration measurements within an idealized urban district whose geometrical layout closely matches the street network represented in SIRANE. The analysis is performed for an urban array with a fixed geometry and a varying wind incidence angle. The results show that the model provides generally good results with the reference parametrizations adopted in SIRANE and that its performances are quite robust for a wide range of the model parameters. This proves the reliability of the street network approach in simulating pollutant dispersion in densely built city districts. The results also show that the model performances may be improved by considering a dependence of the wind fluctuations at street intersections and of the vertical exchange velocity on the direction of the incident wind. This opens the way for further investigations to clarify the dependence of these parameters on wind direction and street aspect ratios.

  8. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...

  9. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  10. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  11. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    The ST Division informs you that the control and maintenance of the carpark and street lighting will be carried out during the next few weeks. These lightings work normally by photocells but during these tests they will be turned on zone by zone during the day. So we ask the users not to be surprised to see the street lighting on during the day and thank them for their comprehension. ST-FM Group

  12. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  13. Universal design characteristic on themed streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun IR; Indriastjario; Wijayanti

    2017-12-01

    People around the world can access the streets to fulfil their daily activities regardless of their gender, age, and abilities. The streetscape is an urban public space which is built to facilitate the basic needs of people as social being. The themed street is an urban streetscape designed and built in detail with a theme or special purpose in an of urban development process. Universal design facilitates the full range of human diversity as physical appearance, perception, cognitive abilities, sizes, and shapes. By designing for the diversity, the specialized streets become more functional and user-friendly. The purpose of this study is to examine several design characteristics of themed streets in several countries from three different continents using universal design principles for giving proper directions to develop more user-friendly streets. Literature review and case study were used as research methods. The literature review was extracted and compiled from manuscripts, streetscape design books, and from universal design principles. Furthermore, the constructed theory were used to examine the case studies of themed streets. The findings indicated that themed streets’ character design were strongly influenced by local cultural aspect even though the basic guidelines were universal design principles; the resumed design direction can be suggested universal along with the richness of local aspects.

  14. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  15. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  16. StreetMekka - Ledelse af Københavns nye streetkulturhus

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelstrup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Street culture is spreading out through the streets of Denmark and in the summer of 2009 the City of Copenhagen will open up an indoor street culture facility called StreetMekka. Moving street culture from its natural concrete habitat to a communal facility presents challenges. The City of Copenhagen has made official guideline for the StreetMekka facility to follow, but the free and self organized street culture is not an easy thing to keep within guidelines. This master thesis discusses fro...

  17. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  18. A Study on Evaluation for Street Space using AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    小塚, みすず; 許, 彦; 川本, 義海; 本多, 義明

    2004-01-01

    Street space is an important public area which forms the framework of city space. In addition, from the view of the traffic functions, street space also plays a role to support people's activities performed in city. This paper examines the evaluations of street space among the cities of Fukui (Japan), Toyota (Japan) and Suzhou (China). Therefore, a questionnaire has been carried out and actual conditions of street space are grasped. In addition street functions were evaluated with the AHP met...

  19. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  20. The social world of street children : street children's peer friendship, group life and subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre, Kaleab

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the street children’s social world, focusing on their peer friendship, group life, and street subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study shows how street children’s peer friendship, street group, and subculture are part and parcel of children’s quest for survival in the street in the absence of guardians conventionally considered as responsible for the provision and protection of children. The main perspective of the study is grounded in the p...

  1. Street Children as M arginal People: The Relationship between Life History and Social Networks on the Street

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHARITKUL, Juthathip

    2007-01-01

    This paper assumes that street children are victims of socioeconomic development policy. As a consequence of the street life experience, children are labeled as street children by society and their way of their life is different from ordinary children, thus pushing them to become marginalized people. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Street Children phenomenon, and especially to study the relationship between their life history and personal networks on the street. The focus is to...

  2. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  3. A numerical study of diurnally varying surface temperature on flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-03-01

    The impacts of the diurnal variation of surface temperature on street canyon flow pattern and pollutant dispersion are investigated based on a two-dimensional street canyon model under different thermal stratifications. Uneven distributed street temperature conditions and a user-defined wall function representing the heat transfer between the air and the street canyon are integrated into the current numerical model. The prediction accuracy of this model is successfully validated against a published wind tunnel experiment. Then, a series of numerical simulations representing four time scenarios (Morning, Afternoon, Noon and Night) are performed at different Bulk Richardson number (Rb). The results demonstrate that uneven distributed street temperature conditions significantly alters street canyon flow structure and pollutant dispersion characteristics compared with conventional uniform street temperature assumption, especially for the morning event. Moreover, air flow patterns and pollutant dispersion are greatly influenced by diurnal variation of surface temperature under unstable stratification conditions. Furthermore, the residual pollutant in near-ground-zone decreases as Rb increases in noon, afternoon and night events under all studied stability conditions.

  4. Spatial distribution assessment of particulate matter in an urban street canyon using biomagnetic leaf monitoring of tree crown deposited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Jelle; Stokkaer, Ines; Snauwaert, Lies; Samson, Roeland

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biomagnetic monitoring of tree leaves has proven to be a good estimator for ambient particulate concentration. This paper investigates the usefulness of biomagnetic leaf monitoring of crown deposited particles to assess the spatial PM distribution inside individual tree crowns and an urban street canyon in Ghent (Belgium). Results demonstrate that biomagnetic monitoring can be used to assess spatial PM variations, even within single tree crowns. SIRM values decrease exponentially with height and azimuthal effects are obtained for wind exposed sides of the street canyon. Edge and canyon trees seem to be exposed differently. As far as we know, this study is the first to present biomagnetic monitoring results of different trees within a single street canyon. The results not only give valuable insights into the spatial distribution of particulate matter inside tree crowns and a street canyon, but also offer a great potential as validation tool for air quality modelling. Highlights: ► Spatial distribution of tree crown deposited PM was evaluated. ► SIRM values decrease exponentially with height. ► Azimuthal effects were observed at wind exposed sides of the street canyon. ► Edge and canyon trees seem to be exposed differently. ► Biomagnetic monitoring offers a great potential as validation of air quality models. -- Biomagnetic leaf monitoring provides useful insights into the spatial distribution of particulates inside individual tree crowns and an urban street canyon in Ghent (Belgium)

  5. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  6. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  7. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  8. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  9. Street children of India -- a glimpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S

    1994-01-01

    In India, 90% of street children are working children with regular family ties who live with their families, but are on the streets due to poverty and their parents' unemployment. The remaining 10% are either working children with few family ties who view the streets as their homes or abandoned and neglected children with no family ties. The National Policy for Children established in 1974 emphasizes the provision of equal opportunities for the development to all children during their growing years. Policy stresses programs to maintain, educate, and train destitute children and orphans. Policy is also to protect children against neglect, cruelty, and exploitation, but this is only on paper. An UNICEF study found that almost 40,000 children die every day in developing countries, 25% of whom are in India. Studies in some major cities indicate that the street children in India are of moderate health status, suffering from various chronic diseases and undernourishment. They are deprived of all health programs, but seem to prefer government hospitals in case of dire need. Street children often have to pay for water. Almost 97% in Calcutta, 99% in Bangalore, and 90% in Madras reported having no access to toilet and bathing facilities; 83% in Kanpur, however, had access to such facilities. Nothing has been heard in recent years of the National Children's Board established in 1975. Apparently the board has gradually waned. Various schemes were planned in 1992 by the Union Welfare Ministry in association with UNICEF. Extending extra health facilities, establishing nutrition programs, providing vocational training, protecting children from abuse, distributing dry-food polypacks, providing night shelters, providing ration cards, and creating bathing and toilet facilities would go far in improving the quality of life and the future of street children in India.

  10. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  11. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as respectably a musical and a spatial phenomenon. Such studies – from each their perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are specifically developed and heard in the context of the city. Investigating...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  12. Citygml and the Streets of New York - a Proposal for Detailed Street Space Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.

  13. Estimating city-level travel patterns using street imagery: A case study of using Google Street View in Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Goel

    Full Text Available Street imagery is a promising and growing big data source providing current and historical images in more than 100 countries. Studies have reported using this data to audit road infrastructure and other built environment features. Here we explore a novel application, using Google Street View (GSV to predict travel patterns at the city level.We sampled 34 cities in Great Britain. In each city, we accessed 2000 GSV images from 1000 random locations. We selected archived images from time periods overlapping with the 2011 Census and the 2011-2013 Active People Survey (APS. We manually annotated the images into seven categories of road users. We developed regression models with the counts of images of road users as predictors. The outcomes included Census-reported commute shares of four modes (combined walking plus public transport, cycling, motorcycle, and car, as well as APS-reported past-month participation in walking and cycling.We found high correlations between GSV counts of cyclists ('GSV-cyclists' and cycle commute mode share (r = 0.92/past-month cycling (r = 0.90. Likewise, GSV-pedestrians was moderately correlated with past-month walking for transport (r = 0.46, GSV-motorcycles was moderately correlated with commute share of motorcycles (r = 0.44, and GSV-buses was highly correlated with commute share of walking plus public transport (r = 0.81. GSV-car was not correlated with car commute mode share (r = -0.12. However, in multivariable regression models, all outcomes were predicted well, except past-month walking. The prediction performance was measured using cross-validation analyses. GSV-buses and GSV-cyclists are the strongest predictors for most outcomes.GSV images are a promising new big data source to predict urban mobility patterns. Predictive power was the greatest for those modes that varied the most (cycle and bus. With its ability to identify mode of travel and capture street activity often excluded in routinely carried out

  14. 76 FR 336 - Notice of NEPA Public Scoping Meeting Information for the Great Lakes and Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... site: Use the Web comment function found at http://www.glmris.anl.gov ; NEPA Scoping Meeting: USACE is... Street, Ypsilanti, MI. 8. Tuesday, February 8, 2011: National Great Rivers Museum (Adjacent to Melvin...

  15. Street Food Environment in Maputo (STOOD Map): a Cross-Sectional Study in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelormini, Marcello; Damasceno, Albertino; Lopes, Simão António; Maló, Sérgio; Chongole, Célia; Muholove, Paulino; Casal, Susana; Pinho, Olívia; Moreira, Pedro; Padrão, Patrícia; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-08-05

    Street food represents a cultural, social, and economic phenomenon that is typical of urbanized areas, directly linked with a more sedentary lifestyle and providing a very accessible and inexpensive source of nutrition. Food advertising may contribute to shaping consumers' preferences and has the potential to drive the supply of specific foods. The purpose of this study is to characterize the street food offerings available to the urban population of Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique, and the billboard food advertising in the same setting. People selling ready-to-eat foods, beverages, or snacks from venues such as carts, trucks, stands, and a variety of improvised informal setups (eg, shopping carts, trunks of cars, sides of vans, blankets on the sidewalk, etc) will be identified in the district of KaMpfumu. We will gather information about the actual food being sold through direct observation and interviews to vendors, and from the billboard advertising in the same areas. A second phase of the research entails collecting food samples to be analyzed in a specialized laboratory. The street food environment will be characterized, overall and according to socioeconomic and physical characteristics of the neighborhood, using descriptive statistics and spatial analysis. The study protocol was approved by the National Committee for Bioethics for Health in Mozambique. Data collection, including the identification of street food vending sites and billboard advertising, started on October 20, 2014, and lasted for 1 month. The collection of food samples took place in December 2014, and the bromatological analyses are expected to be concluded in August 2015. The district of KaMpfumu is the wealthiest and most urbanized in Maputo, and it is the area with the highest concentration and variety of street food vendors. The expected results may yield important information to assess the nutritional environment and the characteristics of the foods to which a great majority of

  16. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  17. Wall Street sours on nuke plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Wall Street has been threatening to join the antinuclear campaign for years as construction lead times and costs grew and the financial condition of utilities building reactors deteriorated. With nuclear plant cancellations, licensing problems, quality-assurance breakdowns, and elevated costs, stock prices have dropped causing unrest among utility investors

  18. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of automation has resulted in the development of “smart” systems for a variety of different applications. One such application is street lighting which still mostly uses very primitive methods of maintenance. The use...

  19. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  20. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  1. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF STREET FOOD CONSUMERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diet of people living in low- and middle-income countries ... market for SF consumers in Cape Town. However, most ... beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers ... many street-food items sold are unhealthy ...... going children in lower-income groups, who may ... The dangers of regular consumption of sugar-.

  2. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  3. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  4. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  5. Agnosia for streets and defective root finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information. (author)

  6. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  7. Travel Time Estimation on Urban Street Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kajalić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of service (LOS is used as the main indicator of transport quality on urban roads and it is estimated based on the travel speed. The main objective of this study is to determine which of the existing models for travel speed calculation is most suitable for local conditions. The study uses actual data gathered in travel time survey on urban streets, recorded by applying second by second GPS data. The survey is limited to traffic flow in saturated conditions. The RMSE method (Root Mean Square Error is used for research results comparison with relevant models: Akcelik, HCM (Highway Capacity Manual, Singapore model and modified BPR (the Bureau of Public Roads function (Dowling - Skabardonis. The lowest deviation in local conditions for urban streets with standardized intersection distance (400-500 m is demonstrated by Akcelik model. However, for streets with lower signal density (<1 signal/km the correlation between speed and degree of saturation is best presented by HCM and Singapore model. According to test results, Akcelik model was adopted for travel speed estimation which can be the basis for determining the level of service in urban streets with standardized intersection distance and coordinated signal timing under local conditions.

  8. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  9. Streets? Where We're Going, We Don't Need Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2007 Google Street View started as a project to provide 360-degree imagery along streets, but in the decade since has evolved into a platform through which to explore everywhere from the slope of everest, to the middle of the Amazon rainforest to under the ocean. As camera technology has evolved it has also become a tool for ground truthing maps, and provided scientific observations, storytelling and education. The Google Street View "special collects" team has undertaken increasingly more challenging projects across 80+ countries and every continent. All of which culminated in possibly the most ambitious collection yet, the capture of Street View on board the International Space Station. Learn about the preparation and obstacles behind this and other special collects. Explore these datasets through both Google Earth and Google Expeditions VR, an educational tool to take students on virtual field trips using 360 degree imagery.

  10. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The bulk of the smuggled cigarettes are sold by street vendors, many of them women and children, ... and its implications for government revenue;; identify the reasons why people sell on the streets; and, ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  11. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... street, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Among the .... Street youth: In this study, youth is defined as the people ... factors that influence sexual behaviours of ... means of preventing pregnancy. Condom ...

  12. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  13. Determinant attributes in the purchase decision: a study on street food establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Loriato, Hannah Nicchio; Pelissari, Anderson Soncini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The importance of the attributes of a product can vary greatly according to the different consumers, thus we start from the idea that there are different degrees of importance in relation to the attributes and that this importance influences the buying decision. The purpose of this study is to identify which attributes are key in the buying decision-making process for consumers in making buying decisions in establishments that sell street food. It is a study of both qualitative and q...

  14. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  15. Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic factors in Oyo town, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Contemporary life-styles have made street foods to be an important meal option in Nigeria. They contribute ... Nutrition education is suggested for people to make a better choice of nourishing street foods.

  16. Psychosocial profile of institutionalised street children in Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The phenomenon of street children in Egypt constitutes a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of institutionalised street children in Alexandria, to compare the prevalence of substance abuse and conduct disorder between street children and school children, and to identify ...

  17. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.0%), part-time driving (9.5%) and car washing (5.0%) were the commonest types of work. Of those still schooling, 41.6% had no form of part-time work on the streets. None of the street children lived on the street with 65% still living with parents.

  19. Assessing Urban Streets Network Vulnerability against Earthquake Using GIS - Case Study: 6TH Zone of Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar, A.

    2017-09-01

    Great earthquakes cause huge damages to human life. Street networks vulnerability makes the rescue operation to encounter serious difficulties especially at the first 72 hours after the incident. Today, physical expansion and high density of great cities, due to narrow access roads, large distance from medical care centers and location at areas with high seismic risk, will lead to a perilous and unpredictable situation in case of the earthquake. Zone # 6 of Tehran, with 229,980 population (3.6% of city population) and 20 km2 area (3.2% of city area), is one of the main municipal zones of Tehran (Iran center of statistics, 2006). Major land-uses, like ministries, embassies, universities, general hospitals and medical centers, big financial firms and so on, manifest the high importance of this region on local and national scale. In this paper, by employing indexes such as access to medical centers, street inclusion, building and population density, land-use, PGA and building quality, vulnerability degree of street networks in zone #6 against the earthquake is calculated through overlaying maps and data in combination with IHWP method and GIS. This article concludes that buildings alongside the streets with high population and building density, low building quality, far to rescue centers and high level of inclusion represent high rate of vulnerability, compared with other buildings. Also, by moving on from north to south of the zone, the vulnerability increases. Likewise, highways and streets with substantial width and low building and population density hold little values of vulnerability.

  20. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  1. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  2. ASSESSING URBAN STREETS NETWORK VULNERABILITY AGAINST EARTHQUAKE USING GIS – CASE STUDY: 6TH ZONE OF TEHRAN

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rastegar

    2017-01-01

    Great earthquakes cause huge damages to human life. Street networks vulnerability makes the rescue operation to encounter serious difficulties especially at the first 72 hours after the incident. Today, physical expansion and high density of great cities, due to narrow access roads, large distance from medical care centers and location at areas with high seismic risk, will lead to a perilous and unpredictable situation in case of the earthquake. Zone # 6 of Tehran, with 229,980 population ...

  3. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Street Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  4. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  6. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  7. Vermeer's The Little Street: a precise location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Grijzenhout

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2015, Frans Grijzenhout published his sensational findings regarding the likely location of Johannes Vermeer’s ‘little street’ (The Little Street. After consulting a variety of sources, including the ‘The Ledger of Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ from 1666–1667, he had reached the conclusion that the famous painting by Vermeer must have been based on the houses and two intervening passageways that in Vermeer’s day stood on Vlamingstraat, an unassuming canal in the eastern part of Delft, where numbers 40 and 42 stand today. He had also ascertained that one of Vermeer’s aunts, Ariaentgen Claes van der Minne, was the occupant of 42 Vlamingstraat at that time. Several authors have since produced material indicating that Vermeer painted the right-hand house in Little Street ‘from life’: the house was, it now appears, observed and reproduced in meticulous detail. The same can now be confirmed for other aspects, such as the colour used for the painted shutters and the recesses for wind hooks in the sill of the window of the righthand house. Philip Steadman has rightly pointed to an apparent discrepancy of four feet (c. 1.25 m. between the details in the aforementioned ‘Ledger of the Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ and the actual spatial situation at 40 Vlamingstraat. This difference can be traced back to the fact that the gateway provided access to both front and back houses. Accordingly, the owners of both front and back houses would have been taxed on the width (four feet of the passageway. Given what we know about the meticulous precision with which the Ledger was compiled in the case of 42 Vlamingstraat, it is inconceivable that the authors of the register for number 40 should have made a mistake. A spatial rendering based on an earlier perspective study of The Little Street, corresponds surprisingly well, and in some respects in detail, with the cadastral and other information we

  8. [Homeless on the streets of Copenhagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, M

    1994-05-16

    A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.

  9. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  10. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  11. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  12. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  13. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  14. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  15. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.

  16. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  17. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  18. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  19. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  20. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  1. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  2. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectator...

  3. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  4. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  5. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  6. Re-entrained road dust PM10 emission from selected streets of Krakow and its impact on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacki Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were conducted according to the U.S. EPA methodology (AP 42 Fifth Edition. Two variants of sample collection were applied: from the road surface including the area at the curb (4 streets and from the road surface alone (1 street. The estimates of resuspended road dust emission as well as the reference values derived from the U.S. EPA guidelines were used to assess the impact of this emission on the PM10 levels in the air at the location of one of the analysed streets. This assessment was conducted using the CALINE4 mathematical model. The study showed that the PM10 emissions from the re-entrained road dust can be responsible for up to 25 % in the winter and 50 % in the summer of the total PM10 concentrations in the air near the roads.

  7. Re-entrained road dust PM10 emission from selected streets of Krakow and its impact on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacki, Marek; Mazur, Marian; Oleniacz, Robert; Rzeszutek, Mateusz; Szulecka, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research studies conducted in various parts of the world confirm that PM10 concentrations in urban air depend to a great extent on the resuspension processes of the dust deposited on the road surface. The paper presents the results of the study related to the determination of the re-entrained PM10 emissions from four selected streets of Krakow (Southern Poland) together with the assessment of its impact on air quality. Examined streets are characterised by different traffic intensity (from 500 to over 20 000 vehicles per day) and individual vehicle structure. Dust material sampling and estimation of the PM10 emission were conducted according to the U.S. EPA methodology (AP 42 Fifth Edition). Two variants of sample collection were applied: from the road surface including the area at the curb (4 streets) and from the road surface alone (1 street). The estimates of resuspended road dust emission as well as the reference values derived from the U.S. EPA guidelines were used to assess the impact of this emission on the PM10 levels in the air at the location of one of the analysed streets. This assessment was conducted using the CALINE4 mathematical model. The study showed that the PM10 emissions from the re-entrained road dust can be responsible for up to 25 % in the winter and 50 % in the summer of the total PM10 concentrations in the air near the roads.

  8. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  9. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  10. Smart street lighting : The advantages of LED street lighting and a smart control system in Uppsala municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Inga; Gidén Hember, Amanda; Wallerström, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how LED street lights and a smart street light control system can reduce the energy consumption, costs and in extension the CO2 equivalents in a geographically delimited area. In 2015 the municipality of Sala installed LED armatures connected to a smart control system in the whole municipality. The smart control system enables for instance adjustment of the light intensity at specific times during the day and a supervision of the street light ...

  11. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  12. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  13. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  14. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  15. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  16. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals......, their professional knowledge, and their policy predispositions. Our main contribution is an unpacking of the political and managerial influences on caseworkers’ policy emphases. We find direct effects and, more notably, indirect effects that operate on the influence of caseworkers’ perceptions of policy goals...

  17. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  18. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  19. Introduction. Street Art: Iconoclasm and Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Bianchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the night of May 12, 2016 the street artist Blu, armed with a roller and some grey paint, set out to paint over all the works he had done in the city of Bologna. In this intent, the following day also, he was helped by activists from the community centers, his own collaborators and ordinary citizens united in an informal community that upheld his cause. Many others gathered either to celebrate this rite of destruction or to complain in disbelief, but in any case, to watch as it happened. Attention centered particularly on #OccupyMordor, a large mural that dominated the XM24 (an occupied social community center in the Bolognina district which had previously been a focus when citizens mobilized to protect it from new building projects that envisaged the destruction of the building (July 2013.

  20. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  1. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  2. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  3. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this, the still schooling street children in this study may likely have gravitated to the streets due to the lack of recreational facilities to keep youths occupied after school hours in the rural areas. As at the time of study, no amusement parks, cinemas and other recreational places exists in the Local Government Area. It is known.

  4. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  5. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  6. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  7. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  8. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  9. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exist many locations in which street children are found: public spheres such as markets, bus stops, car parks, garages, street corners, and under the bridges .... attributes of space such as form, pattern and aspect and are descriptive in ...

  10. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  11. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  12. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  13. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study noted that street food business in the Tamale Metropolis was women dominated (76%). Majority of vendors (78%) were aged 20-39 years. Public toilets (pit latrines) were accessible to all vending sites. Though high number of street food vendors had some form of formal education (66%) and knowledge of food ...

  14. Detecting Themed Streets Using a Location Based Service Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsuk Ji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various themed streets have recently been developed by local governments in order to stimulate local economies and to establish the identity of the corresponding places. However, the motivations behind the development of some of these themed street projects has been based on profit, without full considerations of people’s perceptions of their local areas, resulting in marginal effects on the local economies concerned. In response to this issue, this study proposed a themed street clustering method to detect the themed streets of a specific region, focusing on the commercial themed street, which is more prevalent than other types of themed streets using location based service data. This study especially uses “the street segment” as a basic unit for analysis. The Sillim and Gangnam areas of Seoul, South Korea were chosen for the evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed method. By comparing trade areas that were sourced from a market analysis report by a reliable agent with the themed streets detected in this study, the experiment results showed high proficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  16. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  17. Poverty alleviation from the perspective of street vendors in Lesoth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine from the perspective of street vendors how they are fighting poverty and the extent of winning this endemic cankerworm. The findings of this paper are informed by a study carried in 2007 on poverty and street vendors in Lesotho. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used ...

  18. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. ... while instances of violence against women are partly linked to land ... by poor street design, and to develop people-centred alternatives.

  19. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  20. Quality Analysis of Open Street Map Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, Q.; Hu, Q.; Zhou, M.

    2013-05-01

    Crowd sourcing geographic data is an opensource geographic data which is contributed by lots of non-professionals and provided to the public. The typical crowd sourcing geographic data contains GPS track data like OpenStreetMap, collaborative map data like Wikimapia, social websites like Twitter and Facebook, POI signed by Jiepang user and so on. These data will provide canonical geographic information for pubic after treatment. As compared with conventional geographic data collection and update method, the crowd sourcing geographic data from the non-professional has characteristics or advantages of large data volume, high currency, abundance information and low cost and becomes a research hotspot of international geographic information science in the recent years. Large volume crowd sourcing geographic data with high currency provides a new solution for geospatial database updating while it need to solve the quality problem of crowd sourcing geographic data obtained from the non-professionals. In this paper, a quality analysis model for OpenStreetMap crowd sourcing geographic data is proposed. Firstly, a quality analysis framework is designed based on data characteristic analysis of OSM data. Secondly, a quality assessment model for OSM data by three different quality elements: completeness, thematic accuracy and positional accuracy is presented. Finally, take the OSM data of Wuhan for instance, the paper analyses and assesses the quality of OSM data with 2011 version of navigation map for reference. The result shows that the high-level roads and urban traffic network of OSM data has a high positional accuracy and completeness so that these OSM data can be used for updating of urban road network database.

  1. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  2. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  3. The Education Rights of Street-Involved Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grover

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of certain key aspects of the practical and legal situation of street-involved children globally. The inadequate protection of these children under both domestic and international law is addressed. The diversity of the population of street-involved children is considered as is the fact that this group is composed of both legally stateless and de facto stateless children. The relationship of street involvement to child labor, various health risks and victimization is discussed. The educational needs of older street-involved children are addressed including their right to participate in decision-making regarding aspects of educational service design and delivery. The overall objective of this paper is to encourage those who are involved in, or could impact upon educational policy to include street-involved children in their educational planning implementation and advocacy efforts.

  4. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  5. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  6. Road and Street Centerlines, StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was created to show the names of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was...

  7. Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Research Trends in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Singh Sehra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap (OSM, based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA to help identify the emerging research trends in OSM. An extensive corpus of 485 academic abstracts of papers published during the period 2007–2016 was used. Five core research areas and fifty research trends were identified in this study. In addition, potential future research directions have been provided to aid geospatial information scientists, technologists and researchers in undertaking future OSM research.

  8. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  9. Street-side vehicle detection, classification and change detection using mobile laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Vallet, Bruno; Schindler, Konrad; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Statistics on street-side car parks, e.g. occupancy rates, parked vehicle types, parking durations, are of great importance for urban planning and policy making. Related studies, e.g. vehicle detection and classification, mostly focus on static images or video. Whereas mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are increasingly utilized for urban street environment perception due to their direct 3D information acquisition, high accuracy and movability. In this paper, we design a complete system for car park monitoring, including vehicle recognition, localization, classification and change detection, from laser scanning point clouds. The experimental data are acquired by an MLS system using high frequency laser scanner which scans the streets vertically along the system's moving trajectory. The point clouds are firstly classified as ground, building façade, and street objects which are then segmented using state-of-the-art methods. Each segment is treated as an object hypothesis, and its geometric features are extracted. Moreover, a deformable vehicle model is fitted to each object. By fitting an explicit model to the vehicle points, detailed information, such as precise position and orientation, can be obtained. The model parameters are also treated as vehicle features. Together with the geometric features, they are applied to a supervised learning procedure for vehicle or non-vehicle recognition. The classes of detected vehicles are also investigated. Whether vehicles have changed across two datasets acquired at different times is detected to estimate the durations. Here, vehicles are trained pair-wisely. Two same or different vehicles are paired up as training samples. As a result, the vehicle recognition, classification and change detection accuracies are 95.9%, 86.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Vehicle modelling improves not only the recognition rate, but also the localization precision compared to bounding boxes.

  10. The survival of the great financial journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira CALVO GUTIÉRREZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the economic international journalism has had in the Anglo-Saxon groups Dow Jones (USA and Pearson (Great Britain, publishers of The Wall Street and Financial Times respectively, his big world models. Nevertheless, the new century has brought enormous convulsions to the sector, to the newspapaers of elite and big agencies specialized in economic information as Reuters, Thomson or Bloomberg. To the battle in Internet, there add the expansion of the informative economic power and the changes of mentality of the companies and of the audiences. All this has derived in a fierce war led by the big leaders who, with more than one century of tradition someones, have been object of sales or mergers, financial indispensable operations to be able to adapt to the new times. The aim of this article is to analyze the path of the great economic journalism, with special dedication to two fronts: one, to know how these neswspapers of elite are positioned in the network; other one, the dilemma between continuing being a journalism of quality, rigorous, cosmopolitan and expensive of supporting, or to change towards an ideological, gruesome journalism or amarillista that, since in other specialities, also has spread between the financial journalism

  11. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  12. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  13. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  14. Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, P; Zetina, A; Tapia, M; Ortiz, C; Soto, I C

    1996-06-01

    This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.

  15. ASSESSING URBAN STREETS NETWORK VULNERABILITY AGAINST EARTHQUAKE USING GIS – CASE STUDY: 6TH ZONE OF TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rastegar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Great earthquakes cause huge damages to human life. Street networks vulnerability makes the rescue operation to encounter serious difficulties especially at the first 72 hours after the incident. Today, physical expansion and high density of great cities, due to narrow access roads, large distance from medical care centers and location at areas with high seismic risk, will lead to a perilous and unpredictable situation in case of the earthquake. Zone # 6 of Tehran, with 229,980 population (3.6% of city population and 20 km2 area (3.2% of city area, is one of the main municipal zones of Tehran (Iran center of statistics, 2006. Major land-uses, like ministries, embassies, universities, general hospitals and medical centers, big financial firms and so on, manifest the high importance of this region on local and national scale. In this paper, by employing indexes such as access to medical centers, street inclusion, building and population density, land-use, PGA and building quality, vulnerability degree of street networks in zone #6 against the earthquake is calculated through overlaying maps and data in combination with IHWP method and GIS. This article concludes that buildings alongside the streets with high population and building density, low building quality, far to rescue centers and high level of inclusion represent high rate of vulnerability, compared with other buildings. Also, by moving on from north to south of the zone, the vulnerability increases. Likewise, highways and streets with substantial width and low building and population density hold little values of vulnerability.

  16. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  17. Street vending and informal economy: Survey data from Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lina M; Estrada, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    This data brief describes data collected in Cali, Colombia about the economic dynamic and socioeconomic conditions of street vendors in the city. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in two populated sites in terms of formal and informal commerce in the city. We present the methodology followed in the study, location of street vending sites and type of data collected to approximate to the economic dimension of street vending. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, life satisfaction, business operation and characteristics, income and expenses, official license for operation. This information is linked to the publication (Martinez et al., 2017) [1].

  18. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  19. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  20. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  1. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  2. Common dental features and craniofacial development of three siblings with Ter Haar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K; Pabla, R; Hay, N; Ayliffe, P

    2014-02-01

    Ter Haar syndrome is a rare genetic syndrome with <30 cases reported worldwide. There is nothing within the published literature regarding the dental development and dental features of these patients. This case series examines three patients with Ter Haar syndrome and tracks their dental development and identifies common dental and skeletal features. All three patients received dental treatment and regular follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital Dental Department. These patients have many common dental and craniofacial features which poses the question as to whether these features are due to Ter Haar syndrome.

  3. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  4. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    behaviour certainly affects everyone's quality of life, gives a visitor a bad first impression and .... sex, education level, occupation, effects of littering, etc.). Levels of .... creams, bananas, junk food, etc) along the streets than older people, as the.

  5. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  6. Procedures for waste management from street sweeping and stormwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Street sweeping and storm water system cleaning activities are conducted regularly by ODOT to comply with NPDES permit requirements and to ensure roadway safety. Once collected, these materials are classified as solid waste and require cost-effective...

  7. demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-14

    May 14, 2012 ... Teaching Hospital Nnewi,. Anambra State .... formed consent obtained before interview. A semi- structured .... obtaining a higher education if given the opportunity. Another 18 .... differences in Brazilian street youth's family ...

  8. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly ..... incidents, which were widely reported in the media, spurred many dis- ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist.

  9. Evaluation of complete streets policy implementation by metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the last ten years, communities around the country have begun to implement comprehensive reforms : designed to ensure that roadway users of all ages and abilities can safely utilize the transportation system. : This complete streets policy frame...

  10. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  11. Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamic street children's program in Mzuzu Malawi – using a developmental ... dynamics of parentchild, parent-parent and child-parent-environment; life-events; ... of child and adolescent development, and how they can influence the child's ...

  12. Characterization of Residuals Collected from Street Sweeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Street sweeping is a routine roadway maintenance activity conducted by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). It also provides an added benefit as a non-structural stormwater best management practice implemented by VDOT to meet total maxim...

  13. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  14. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  15. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, João Carlos de Castro; Martello, Felipe; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Armitage, Richard A; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects and

  16. The relationship between high street footfall, attraction and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, CD

    2016-01-01

    The three critical measures of retail performance are often suggested to be “location, location, location”. However this generalisation, like many others in the literature, is of little practical use without underpinning empirical evidence. At a time when high streets find themselves under pressure from emerging omni-channel shopping behaviours, now more than ever retail managers need reliable performance benchmarks and comparators. We report findings from a mass observation of high street sh...

  17. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined...

  18. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  20. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  1. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  2. Simulation of wind-driven dispersion of fire pollutants in a street canyon using FDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesic, Dusica J; Blagojevic, Milan Dj; Zivkovic, Nenad V

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in urban areas attracts great attention due to increasing pollutant emissions and their negative effects on human health and environment. Numerous studies, such as those by Mouilleau and Champassith (J Loss Prevent Proc 22(3): 316-323, 2009), Xie et al. (J Hydrodyn 21(1): 108-117, 2009), and Yassin (Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(6): 3975-3988, 2013) focus on the air pollutant dispersion with no buoyancy effect or weak buoyancy effect. A few studies, such as those by Hu et al. (J Hazard Mater 166(1): 394-406, 2009; J Hazard Mater 192(3): 940-948, 2011; J Civ Eng Manag (2013)) focus on the fire-induced dispersion of pollutants with heat buoyancy release rate in the range from 0.5 to 20 MW. However, the air pollution source might very often be concentrated and intensive, as a consequence of the hazardous materials fire. Namely, transportation of fuel through urban areas occurs regularly, because it is often impossible to find alternative supply routes. It is accompanied with the risk of fire accident occurrences. Accident prevention strategies require analysis of the worst scenarios in which fire products jeopardize the exposed population and environment. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of wind flow on air pollution and human vulnerability to fire products in a street canyon. For simulation of the gasoline tanker truck fire as a result of a multivehicle accident, computational fluid dynamics large eddy simulation method has been used. Numerical results show that the fire products flow vertically upward, without touching the walls of the buildings in the absence of wind. However, when the wind velocity reaches the critical value, the products touch the walls of the buildings on both sides of the street canyon. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and soot decrease, whereas carbon dioxide concentration increases with the rise of height above the street canyon ground level. The longitudinal concentration of the pollutants inside the street

  3. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  4. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  5. Do suburban residents want to pay for wide streets? a survey on consumer preference and ability to afford towards wide street and on-street parking in American suburbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All local governments in the U.S. set the street minimum width and cross-section design for local : neighborhood streets. Because local streets typically require no more than two traffic lanes (approx. 20 feet : wide), a minimum width of 26 feet or w...

  6. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Danilova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  7. Identification on the street: A field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim; Memon, Amina; Roberts, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identification procedures employed and prosecution decisions. A street identification was the most frequent identification procedure, being attempted in 22.7...

  8. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  9. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  10. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A nove...

  11. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  12. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  13. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  14. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  15. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  16. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  19. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  20. A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei

    2011-04-01

    Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.

  1. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  2. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tracy E; Cubbin, Catherine; Parmenter, Barbara; Medina, Ashley V; Lee, Rebecca E

    2010-03-12

    This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1) all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core) were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring); all residential segments in the core were compared with (2) 75% (3) 50% and (4) 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  3. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Chris; Brajkovich-Payne, Roza; Dwight, Emily; Ahmad Fauzul, Ayob; Burton, Madeleine; Carleton, Olivia; Cook, Julie; Deroles, Charlotte; Faulkner, Ruby; Furniss, Mary; Herewini, Anahera; Huband, Daymen; Jones, Nerissa; Kim, Cho Wool; Li, Alice; Lu, Jacky; Stanley, James; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2016-05-26

    Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV) as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 %) were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 %) were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98) for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96) for using GSV. GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more 'footpath views') and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  4. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  5. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  6. Spatial Character Analysis of Streets as Public Spaces: The Case of Izmit Hurriyet and Cumhuriyet Street, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbayraktar, Mehtap; Pekdemir, Merve; Mırzaliyeva, Gumru

    2017-10-01

    The word “public” was first used to refer to the theatre audience in France in the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, it turned into the meaning of “public space incorporating a large variety of people and composed of acquaintances and strangers”. The concepts of publicity, public space, and public realm have been studied and described by many researchers in the course of time. These descriptions show the development of public space as well. In the very general sense, public spaces are areas of personal and social happiness; collective living spaces of the society; areas of expression of natural and cultural variety; and key elements providing a ground for the establishment of an identity. In the United Nations’ report on public spaces, public space is addressed under six groups: 1. The spaces we intensely used in our daily life; 2. Green open public spaces; 3. Public activity spaces which users can go in without any difficulty, are open to public, and are under protection; 4. Public sector realm (social agreements in which the people are represented, contribute to collective goods, and trust in the administrators elected); 5. City as a public space; 6. Cyberspace. As cities grow, public spaces transform and diversify. Attempts are made to meet the changing needs through types of space developed. However, the character of the existing public spaces, the distribution of open spaces and parks and their inadequacy, the destruction of public space, and the things that are required to be done stand as important issues to be addressed. One of the public spaces going through transformation are streets which we intensely use in our daily life. In general, streets are defined as roads with buildings on both sides in settlements such as provinces and districts whose boundaries are determined by neighbouring buildings. Some researchers have defined streets based on their social functions. According to them, streets are meeting spaces; spaces to deal with

  7. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  8. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  9. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  10. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF WIDE-BASE GOOGLE STREET VIEW PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boussias-Alexakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  11. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  12. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  13. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  14. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  15. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet. https://www.google.com/streetview/https://www.google.com/expeditions/

  16. Determinants attributes in purchase decision: a study in establishments commercialize street food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Nicchio Loriato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The attributes of a product can vary greatly in the importance they have for different consumers, and from the idea that there are different degrees of importance in relation to the attributes and importance that influence the buying decision. The purpose of this study is to identify which attributes are crucial for consumers in making buying decisions in establishments that sell street food. It is a study of both qualitative and quantitative nature. In the qualitative phase was conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 customers and analyzed using content analysis.It was carried out one survey, applying 200 questionnaires, to survey data for quantitative phase . The analysis of this quantitative phase was carried out using Excel and SPSS, with the use of multivariate statistical techniques. The results indicated that the service offered is the construct considered crucial to the customers' buying decision. In addition, this study enables the spread of this research scope in the country and contributes to the entrepreneurs in the street food sector seeking strategies to keep themselves firmly in the market.

  17. Actual car fleet emissions estimated from urban air quality measurements and street pollution models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmgren, F.; Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O.; Ziv, A.

    1999-01-01

    A method to determine emissions from the actual car fleet under realistic driving conditions has been developed. The method is based on air quality measurements, traffic counts and inverse application of street air quality models. Many pollutants are of importance for assessing the adverse impact of the air pollution, e.g. NO 2 , CO, lead, VOCs and particulate matter. Aromatic VOCs are of special great concern due to their adverse health effects. Measurements of benzene, toluene and xylenes were carried out in central Copenhagen since 1994. Significant correlation was observed between VOCs and CO concentrations, indicating that the petrol engine vehicles are the major sources of VOC air pollution in central Copenhagen. Hourly mean concentrations of benzene were observed to reach values of up to 20 ppb, what is critically high according to the WHOs recommendations. Based on inverse model calculation of dispersion of pollutants in street canyons, an average emission factor of benzene for the fleet of petrol fuelled vehicles was estimated to be 0.38 g/km in 1994 and 0.11 in 1997. This decrease was caused by the reduction of benzene content in Danish petrol since summer 1995 and increasing percentage of cars equipped with three-way catalysts. The emission factors for benzene for diesel-fuelled vehicles were low

  18. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  19. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  20. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Motion picture (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    The Social Network : Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the cofounder who was later squeezed out of the business. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Now out of prison but still disgraced by his peers, Gordon Gekko works his future son-in-law, an idealistic stock broker, when he sees an opportunity to take down a Wall Street enemy and rebuild his empire.

  1. The 2nd Generation Street Children (SGSC) in Accra: Developing Teaching Strategies to Enhance Positive Learning Outcomes in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Alhassan Abdul-Razak; Abosi, Okechuwu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana is witnessing an increasing number of 2nd generation street children (SGSC) living in the street of Accra, the capital city as a result of many factors including teenage pregnancy among street girls, ethnic conflicts and rural-urban migration. Street presents enormous risks to street children; they are excluded from safe-family environment,…

  2. How Feasible is Multiple Time Point Web-Based Data Collection with Individuals Experiencing Street Homelessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Moss, Shadiya L

    2017-02-01

    frequency of computer use and education-both positive associations. This pilot study suggests that collecting longitudinal data online may be feasible with a subpopulation of persons experiencing homelessness. We suspect that participant follow-up rates using web-based data collection methods have the potential to exceed follow-up rates using traditional in-person interviews. If this population of persons experiencing street homelessness can be successful with this method of data collection, perhaps other disenfranchised, difficult-to-track, or difficult-to-reach populations could be followed using web-based data collection methods. Local governments are striving to decrease the "digital divide," providing free or greatly discounted wi-fi connectivity as well as mobile computer lab access to low-income geographic areas. These actions, in combination with increased smart phone ownership, may permit vulnerable populations to connect and communicate with investigators.

  3. Warner Bros. and Its First Two Great Depression Musicals:Changing the Form and Reflecting the Times

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This working paper analyses the production, content, public reaction and significance of the first two Warner Bros. Great Depression Musicals (this term was created by later scholars). "42nd Street" and "Gold Diggers of 1933," both released in the first half of 1933 during some of the direst months of the Great Depression, artistically and financially rejuvenated the previously failing genre of the film musical. They both featured extravagant highly cinematic dance numbers created by Busby Be...

  4. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  5. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  6. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  7. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  8. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  9. Selecting reference cities for i-Tree Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    The i-Tree Streets (formerly STRATUM) computer program quantifies municipal forest structure, function, and value using tree growth and geographic data from sixteen U.S. reference cities, one for each of sixteen climate zones. Selecting the reference city that best matches a subject city is problematic when the subject city is outside the U.S., lays on the border...

  10. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  11. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The street child in rural communities differs from the urban ... higher risk of getting involved in hard drug use and/ or peddling8. ..... school hours in the rural areas. As at the ... their attention and energy while under supervision of.

  12. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  13. What information do Karman streets offer to flow sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: otarakanyeti@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  14. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  15. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  16. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  17. 75 FR 35478 - Funding Opportunity; Street Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... services will be carried out. D. Training: Grantees must provide initial and periodic training to staff... supervision by appropriately trained senior staff; and Back-up personnel for on-street staff. F. Positive... social contribution; (D) Independence and control over one's life; and (E) Closeness in interpersonal...

  18. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  19. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  20. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  1. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  2. Blossoms in the Dust: Street Children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Jean-Pierre

    For many African children today, the grim realities of everyday life are far removed from models of education based on traditional wisdom. Part of an attempt to draw the attention of a wide public to the situation of street children, this book focuses on the educational aspects of a problem from which no country is spared. The book focuses…

  3. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  4. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  5. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  6. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...

  7. Demographic trends in Claremont California’s street tree population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie S. van Doorn; E. Gregory McPherson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify street tree population dynamics in the city of Claremont, CA. A repeated measures survey (2000 and 2014) based on a stratified random sampling approach across size classes and for the most abundant 21 species was analyzed to calculate removal, growth, and replacement planting rates. Demographic rates were estimated using a...

  8. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  9. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  10. Book review : Street Architecture: Work by Hans van der Heijden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    The recently published book Street Architecture is the result of a collaboration between Karin Templin, currently pursuing a PhD in architecture at the University of Cambridge, and Hans van der Heijden, an Amsterdam-based architect of mainly urban renewal projects and residential architecture. The

  11. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  12. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  13. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also

  14. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  15. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  16. Street level bureaucracy and the dilemmas of private entities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that they a pose threat to government's efforts, government sometimes moves to curtail their power of discretion and autonomy. Street-level bureaucrats are rational and activate mechanisms to escape government control. This study examines the coping mechanisms of the Ghana Private Road Transport Union ...

  17. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  18. Seri Rama: converting a shadow play puppet to Street Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, D B A

    2012-01-01

    Shadow puppet plays, a traditional Malaysian theater art, is slowly losing its appeal to adolescents, who prefer computer games. To help reverse this decline, the authors incorporated the traditional Seri Rama character into the Street Fighter video game. Using modeling, texturing, and animation, they developed a 3D Seri Rama prototype. Users can control Seri Rama with a PlayStation game controller.

  19. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  20. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  1. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  2. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in grilled chicken from street vendors and retail outlets in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-López, A; Cantú-Ramírez, R C; Garza-González, E; Ruiz-Tolentino, L; Tellez-Luis, S J; Rivera, G; Bocanegra-García, V

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed a total of 70 grilled chicken samples bought randomly from street vendors and retail outlets in the city of Reynosa, Mexico, to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli (Shiga toxin producing and enterotoxin producing), Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria spp., and Campylobacter spp. using microbiological methods and PCR detection of bacterial sequences. Of the 70 samples, 27 (38.5%) were from retail outlets and 43 (61.4%) from street vendors. All specimens were negative by both microbiological and molecular methods for Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin 2 of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, lt of enterotoxin-producing E. coli, and st enterotoxin, and all were negative for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni by PCR. Of the samples studied, 49 (70%) had undetectable levels of the foodborne pathogens studied with the methods used. In the remaining 21 (30%) specimens, at least one pathogen was isolated or detected, with E. coli being the pathogen most frequently isolated and with two samples bearing the hlyA gene. We found no statistical difference in bacterial prevalence between retail and street vendor samples. The presence of pathogens in grilled chicken is an important public health risk because of the great demand for and daily consumption of this product in this region.

  3. The propagation of sound in narrow street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, K. K.; Li, K. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses an important problem of predicting sound propagation in narrow street canyons with width less than 10 m, which are commonly found in a built-up urban district. Major noise sources are, for example, air conditioners installed on building facades and powered mechanical equipment for repair and construction work. Interference effects due to multiple reflections from building facades and ground surfaces are important contributions in these complex environments. Although the studies of sound transmission in urban areas can be traced back to as early as the 1960s, the resulting mathematical and numerical models are still unable to predict sound fields accurately in city streets. This is understandable because sound propagation in city streets involves many intriguing phenomena such as reflections and scattering at the building facades, diffusion effects due to recessions and protrusions of building surfaces, geometric spreading, and atmospheric absorption. This paper describes the development of a numerical model for the prediction of sound fields in city streets. To simplify the problem, a typical city street is represented by two parallel reflecting walls and a flat impedance ground. The numerical model is based on a simple ray theory that takes account of multiple reflections from the building facades. The sound fields due to the point source and its images are summed coherently such that mutual interference effects between contributing rays can be included in the analysis. Indoor experiments are conducted in an anechoic chamber. Experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions to establish the validity and usefulness of this simple model. Outdoor experimental measurements have also been conducted to further validate the model. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  4. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  5. [Who told you to grow old and live on the streets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella; Marcolan, João Fernando; Rosa, Anderson da Silva; Fernandes, Flávia Saraiva Leão; Raizer, Milena Veiga

    2010-06-01

    This qualitative case study is part of another study: Aging, health and work. The objective of this excerpt was to identify the meaning of aging on the streets for the elderly living on the street. The subjects' statements were analyzed under the light of the following themes: history of aging and history of life on the streets. It was understood that the streets are usually a hostile environment for the elderly. It does not guarantee the basic life conditions, affecting the mental health of people who are forced to live on the streets, particularly the elderly. The street does not offer any way out and, together with to the life conditions of the elderly living on the streets leads to the gradual loss of self-esteem, significantly affecting self-care. In addition to these issues, we found that compromised functional capacity puts the life/survival of the elderly living on the streets at risk.

  6. Redesigning Main Streets in Small Communities: The Viagra of Transportation Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...

  7. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  8. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  9. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  10. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Clews

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. Methods The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. Results A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 % were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 % were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98 for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96 for using GSV. Conclusions GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more ‘footpath views’ and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  11. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoveller Jean A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS. We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4% were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0% reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4% reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07. Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14 and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18. Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81. Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings.

  12. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  13. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  14. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect

  15. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  16. Beyond discourse and competence : Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable 'agents'. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  17. Beyond discourse and competence: Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable ‘agents’. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  18. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception, on the part of South African society, is that street children are a major social menace. Yet the reality is that, street children are a vulnerable group that suffer both psychological and physical violence including sexual abuse. This qualitative study investigated the social experiences of street children in ...

  19. Bridging the "Widest Street in the World": Reflections on the History of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For at least a half century, education reformers have quipped that 120th Street in New York City, the street that separates Teachers College from the rest of Columbia University, "is the widest street in the world." Underlying this quip is the belief that Columbia's liberal arts faculty members regularly dismiss the child-centered educational…

  20. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13631-000] Main Mill Street..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications March 1, 2010. On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  1. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food ... such as South Africa be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an 'easy-to-enter' business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are acceptable.

  2. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  3. Space Livability of Street Vendors in Simpang Lima Public Space, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjajanti, R.; Wahyono, H.

    2018-02-01

    Street vendors in Semarang have been growing rapidly and uncontrolled. They always use public space such as public roads, sidewalks, parks and fields as trading locations. The street vendors’ activities in the public space are considered as the cause of declining on environmental quality and aesthetics of the city. All these years, the government often evicted the street vendors than organized and provides adequate space for them. As one of the actual urban activities, the street vendors’ activities should be accommodated by the government and the location for them is managed in the urban spatial plan. Street vendors need spaces which livable and suitable to their activities’ requirements, has a relationship with users (street vendors’ doers and consumers) and the activities of street vendors themselves. Research on the aspect of space for street vendors is still less in quantity, whereas space for them is an urgent matter for the government in managing their activities. This study aims to identify the livability of space based on the street vendors’ behavior in their location. This research used descriptive quantitative method with questionnaires and GIS as the mapping tool for street vendors’ location. The result of the research shows that the livability of street vendor space is based on the activity of street vendors (type of merchandise, trading places’ size, trade place assessment, space dimension, trading time, duration and period) and space conditions (access, natural elements, safety and parking space).

  4. Characteristics of flow and reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of aspect ratio defined as the ratio of building height to street width on the dispersion of reactive pollutants in street canyons were investigated using a coupled CFD-chemistry model. Flow characteristics for different aspect ratios were analyzed first. For each aspect ratio, six emission scenarios with different VOC-NOX ratios were considered. One vortex was generated when the aspect ratio was less than 1.6 (shallow street canyon). When the aspect ratio was greater than 1.6 (deep street canyon), two vortices were formed in the street canyons. Comparing to previous studies on two-dimensional street canyons, the vortex center is slanted toward the upwind building and reverse and downward flows are dominant in street canyons. Near the street bottom, there is a marked difference in flow pattern between in shallow and deep street canyons. Near the street bottom, reverse and downward flows are dominant in shallow street canyon and flow convergence exists near the center of the deep street canyons, which induces a large difference in the NOX and O3 dispersion patterns in the street canyons. NOX concentrations are high near the street bottom and decreases with height. The O3 concentrations are low at high NO concentrations near the street bottom because of NO titration. At a low VOC-NOX ratio, the NO concentrations are sufficiently high to destroy large amount of O3 by titration, resulting in an O3 concentration in the street canyon much lower than the background concentration. At high VOC-NOX ratios, a small amount of O3 is destroyed by NO titration in the lower layer of the street canyons. However, in the upper layer, O3 is formed through the photolysis of NO2 by VOC degradation reactions. As the aspect ratio increases, NOX (O3) concentrations averaged over the street canyons decrease (increase) in the shallow street canyons. This is because outward flow becomes strong and NOX flux toward the outsides of the street canyons increases

  5. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  6. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  7. Weathering of radiocaesium contamination on urban streets, walls and roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations in Russia have emphasised the significance of dose contributions from contamination on urban streets and roof pavings, and, typically to a lesser extent, walls in the urban environment. The crucial factor determining the magnitude of these contributions is the retention of the contamination by the different types of urban surface. Since the Chernobyl accident, a series of long-term field studies has been carried out on urban streets, walls and roofs, to examine the weathering processes of 137 Cs on the various surface types. The derived time-functions are applied to estimate resultant long-term doses to inhabitants of an urban centre. The paper highlights the effect on caesium retention of surface material characteristics

  8. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  9. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  10. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.

  12. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  13. From charity to caring: Nightingale's experience at Harley Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Lake, Karen; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale has been the subject of numerous biographies and topical studies since she became a public figure during the Crimean War of 1854-1856. However, both the biographical and the topical literature have given little emphasis to the fourteen months of Nightingale's superintendency at The Establishment for Gentlewomen During Illness located on Harley Street, London. Thematic analysis of primary documents including Nightingale's Quarterly Reports to the Governors of her Nursing Home and the recently identified found Minutes of the Ladies' Committee of the Establishment of Gentlewomen During Illness were utilized to identify specific themes considered essential to Nightingale's professional and philosophical development. Harley Street proved to be the catalyst of opportunity that later launched her into the public view as a visionary through which she was to develop nursing as a profession and promote nursing as a legitimate route for women's education and employment.

  14. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  15. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  16. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  17. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2004-01-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the authors addresses a study of six cases of urban street networks characterised by diff...

  18. City of San Francisco, California street tree resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Street trees in San Francisco are comprised of two distinct populations, those managed by the city’s Department of Public Works (DPW) and those managed by private property owners with or without the help of San Francisco’s urban forestry nonprofit, Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF). These two entities believe that the public’s investment in stewardship of San Francisco...

  19. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such food, and also automobile emission exhaust smoke that pollutes the street atmosphere, the very place where such food is prepared or kept ready to consume. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain. This source of lead toxicity, however, is one aspect of the health hazards that has not been widely explored. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among general population, both consumers and vendors, regarding a very common but often overlooked source of heavy metal contamination. METHODOLOGY Lead was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of food with 98% Nitric acid. RESULTS This present study measures the level of lead in various commonly consumed street vended food items across the streets of Kolkata, India, and shows that the range of its level is much higher than the WHO recommended level of lead in food materials. The level also has close association with the food colorant used. In conclusion, the gross lack of awareness among the general population, both at the vendor and the consumer level, regarding this particular health hazard related to the food they consume on a regular basis, needs to be addressed as a serious issue, and personal safety measures should be undertaken.

  20. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  1. Masculinity in Majma: An Ethnography of Street Healing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Anam, Mujibul

    2010-01-01

    Based on empirical research in peri-urban areas in Dhaka, this thesis took the form of an anthropological enquiry into the forms of sexuality popularized by street-canvassers and their advertisement and sale of male potency medicines in Bangladesh. The field study raises as well as explores questions regarding male sexuality and sexual health problems. This study has demonstrated, using ethnographic data, one of the multiple ways in which males’ sexual health problems are being understood and...

  2. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, L.; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Coherent structures * line source * pollution flux measurements * street canyon * wind tunnel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2016

  3. LES of flow in the street canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler Josef; Fuka Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  4. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler Josef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  5. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  6. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...... of lighting solutions under test. Initial data suggests a 75% reduction in energy usage from use of LED luminaries combined with traffic monitoring systems could be achievable....

  7. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  8. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Soares; F.C. Rego; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that urban trees produce various types of benefits and costs. The computer tool i-Tree STRATUM helps quantify tree structure and function, as well as the value of some of these tree services in different municipalities. This study describes one of the first applications of STRATUM outside the U.S. Lisbon’s street trees are dominated by Celtis australis...

  9. Suicide and history of childhood trauma among street youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Qi, Jiezhi; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Street youth represent a marginalized population marked by early mortality and elevated risk for suicide. It is not known to what extent childhood abuse and neglect predispose to suicide in this difficult-to-study population. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide during adolescence and young adulthood among street youth. From October 2005 to November 2007, data were collected for the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of 495 street-recruited youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Self-reported attempted suicide in the preceding six months was examined in relation to childhood abuse and neglect, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), using logistic regression. Overall, 46 (9.3%) youth reported a suicide attempt during the preceding six months. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were highly prevalent, with 201 (40.6%) and 131 (26.5%) of youth reporting history of each, respectively. Increasing CTQ score was related to risk for suicide attempt despite adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.45 per standard deviation increase in score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.91). Use of snowball sampling may not have produced a truly random sample, and reliance on self-report may have resulted in underreporting of risk behaviors among participants. Moreover, use of cross-sectional data limits the degree to which temporality can be concluded from the results of this study alone. There exists a strong and graded association between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide among street youth, an otherwise 'hidden' population. There is a need for effective interventions that not only prevent maltreatment of children but also aid youth at increased risk for suicide given prior history of trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  11. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  12. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  13. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.

  14. Formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamemoto, Kyoji

    1976-01-01

    A series of theoretical analysis were made on the mechanism of the formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets appearing behind a pair of two long bars placed perpendicularly to uniform flow. In the first part, the flow model used for this study is explained. It was assumed that two pairs of vortex sheets having the same interval (h) were placed at the distance of g in non-viscous flow. Then small disturbance was given to the flow, and the behavior of the vortex sheets in course of time was analyzed by solving a set of linear simultaneous differential equations. Eight fundamental modes of small displacement were obtained as the independent solutions of the equations. The fundamental modes and the associated parameters are presented. In the second part, a set of non-linear differential equations were derived by substituting the vortex sheets with vortex streets with finite intensity. The set of equations were solved numerically. The results of numerical solutions for various conditions are presented. Main conclusions drawn from this study are that the condition of the existence of two pairs of vortex sheets is g/h >= 1, and that the mutual interference between two pairs of vortex streets becomes conspicuous for g/h <= 2. Some discussions made by other researchers and the author are also presented at the end of this paper. (Aoki, K.)

  15. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  16. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  17. The great exterminator of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, D

    1992-05-30

    Time is running out. Major contributors to declines in the health of Brazilian children, particularly street children, are the international debt crisis, the reverse flow of capital from the South to the North, and economic adjustment policies. There are medical consequences and an ecological debt. There is a question about the merits of having the poor pay for the folly of bad, past government decisions. All the major charities campaigned against repayment of debt. Banks are only exposed to 3% of their total assets in Third World debt, and are receiving tax relief for non repayment. Austerity programs have meant cuts in health and education, and diversion of food, wages, and welfare to producing exports in order to repay the debt. The message is earn more and spend less. The poor are hit the hardest, particularly by rising food prices. Diseases which were though to be eradicated are coming back. After decades of economic advances, countries are slipping back into mass poverty. Cuts in food subsidies or health care and family planning affect women and overpopulation. Land is being usurped from peasant farmers and tropical forests destroyed; urbanization has led to abandonment of 8 million children on the streets. The 1989 Brady plan suggests trading commercial debt for lower priced bonds which could be purchased by big business or even by the country itself. The deals tend to be complex. So far only 6 countries have benefited. Another proposal is English Prime Minister John Major's Trinidad Terms of September 1990, which is directed to low income country debtors. In December 1991 the UK cancelled 50% of the debt to the poorest countries over the next 3 years. The US and Australia have set up rescheduling agreements. World Bank debt is still in question. Commercial banks should also make an offer of relief. It is suggested that doctors unite in an organization called Physicians Against International Debt-PAID to lobby banks, governments, and the international

  18. Trees as environmental modifier to improve street canyon for pedestrian activities in Muscat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhayer, Wael A.; Shaaban, Awni K.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Street shading efficiency is a function of orientation and profile proportion of its height to width. Under high sun altitude conditions, minimization of solar irradiance within the urban environment may often be a significant criterion in urban design. This reduction in solar irradiance achieved when the obstruction angle is large (high H/W ratio, H=height, W=width). High H/W values often lessen the solar access to streets. The horizontal sprawl of Muscat region is an example of low H/W ratio represented the remarkable challenge that causes the lack of shading rates in the urban street. This characteristic proliferates the negative impact on the pedestrian activities in the urban street. This research aims to improve the morphology of the street to promote the pedestrian behavior. The amendment based on suggesting different configurations of trees to increase effective shading of the urban street in Muscat. The street canyon abstracted into a virtual elongated channel formed of floor and walls of equal heights on both sides. Four street orientations (E/W, N/S, NE/SW, NW/SE) and three H/W ratio (0.5,1 and 2) are considered sufficient representative of street typologies. A mathematical model developed for calculation of shading efficiency of each street canyon. The trees assumed in this study as canyon's modifier to adjust the low H/W ratio of a street canyon to a higher one. Local trees and other plants in Muscat were studied concerning their morphology. The analysis selected two case study in Muscat to investigate the shading performance of their street canyons subsequently propose the modifications to improve it. The research concluded that the suggested changes of the street canyon by using a particular type of trees could increase the H/W ratio of street canyon significantly.

  19. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    The EU Air Quality Directive requires Member States to perform Air Quality Monitoring in order to assess ambient air quality for compliance checking with air quality limit values (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:en:PDF). This monitoring needs to include......) developed at AU; the revised version OSPM includes new features like inhomogeneous distribution of the traffic on different lanes, slope of the street etc (see e.g. Ottosen et al. (2015)). An additional goal for the project is to explore the applicability of low-cost electrochemical sensors for describing...... to get more detailed information about the traffic flow and its diurnal pattern, manual traffic counts have been performed over 24 hours. In addition a video camera has been installed on the roof of a building next to the street during the monitoring campaign. Measurements are carried out using passive...

  20. Do changes to the local street environment alter behaviour and quality of life of older adults? The 'DIY Streets' intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Curl, Angela; Aspinall, Peter; Alves, Susana; Zuin, Affonso

    2014-07-01

    The burden of ill-health due to inactivity has recently been highlighted. Better studies on environments that support physical activity are called for, including longitudinal studies of environmental interventions. A programme of residential street improvements in the UK (Sustrans 'DIY Streets') allowed a rare opportunity for a prospective, longitudinal study of the effect of such changes on older adults' activities, health and quality of life. Pre-post, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in locations across England, Wales and Scotland; participants were aged 65+ living in intervention or comparison streets. A questionnaire covered health and quality of life, frequency of outdoor trips, time outdoors in different activities and a 38-item scale on neighbourhood open space. A cohort study explored changes in self-report activity and well-being postintervention. Activity levels were also measured by accelerometer and accompanying diary records. The cross-sectional surveys showed outdoor activity predicted by having a clean, nuisance-free local park, attractive, barrier-free routes to it and other natural environments nearby. Being able to park one's car outside the house also predicted time outdoors. The environmental changes had an impact on perceptions of street walkability and safety at night, but not on overall activity levels, health or quality of life. Participants' moderate-to-vigorous activity levels rarely met UK health recommendations. Our study contributes to methodology in a longitudinal, pre-post design and points to factors in the built environment that support active ageing. We include an example of knowledge exchange guidance on age-friendly built environments for policy-makers and planners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Smokefree signage at children's playgrounds: Field observations and comparison with Google Street View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Although there is global growth in outdoor smokefree areas, little is known about the associated smokefree signage. We aimed to study smokefree signage at playgrounds and to compare field observations with images from Google Street View (GSV). We randomly selected playgrounds in 21 contiguous local government areas in the lower North Island of New Zealand, all of which had smokefree playground policies. Field data were collected on smokefree signage along with dog control signage to allow for comparisons. The sensitivity and specificity of using GSV for data collection were calculated. Out of the 63 playgrounds studied, only 44% (95% CI: 33%-57%) had any smokefree signage within 10 m of the playground equipment. The mean number of such signs was 0.8 per playground (range: 0 to 6). Sign size varied greatly from 42 cm 2 up to 2880 cm 2 ; but was typically fairly small (median = 600 cm 2 ; ie, as per a 20 × 30 cm rectangle). Qualitatively the dog signs appeared to use clearer images and were less wordy than the smokefree signs. Most playground equipment (82%), could be seen on GSV, but for these settings the sensitivity for identifying smokefree signs was poor at 16%. Yet specificity was reasonable at 96%. The presence and quality of smokefree signage was poor in this sample of children's playgrounds in this developed country setting. There appears to be value in comparing smokefree signage with other types of signage (eg, dog control signage). Google Street View was not a sensitive tool for studying such signage.

  2. Actual situation analyses of rat-run traffic on community streets based on car probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Yuki; Matsuo, Kojiro; Sugiki, Nao

    2017-10-01

    Lowering of so-called "rat-run" traffic on community streets has been one of significant challenges for improving the living environment of neighborhood. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively grasp the actual situation of rat-run traffic by the traditional surveys such as point observations. This study aims to develop a method for extracting rat-run traffic based on car probe data. In addition, based on the extracted rat-run traffic in Toyohashi city, Japan, we try to analyze the actual situation such as time and location distribution of the rat-run traffic. As a result, in Toyohashi city, the rate of using rat-run route increases in peak time period. Focusing on the location distribution of rat-run traffic, in addition, they pass through a variety of community streets. There is no great inter-district bias of the route frequently used as rat-run traffic. Next, we focused on some trips passing through a heavily used route as rat-run traffic. As a result, we found the possibility that they habitually use the route as rat-run because their trips had some commonalities. We also found that they tend to use the rat-run route due to shorter distance than using the alternative highway route, and that the travel speeds were faster than using the alternative highway route. In conclusions, we confirmed that the proposed method can quantitatively grasp the actual situation and the phenomenal tendencies of the rat-run traffic.

  3. Wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon: CFD evaluation of street configuration and envelope design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Mak, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    an urban context, this study investigates the wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction using CFD method. Four aspect ratios (AR) of the street canyon, from 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0, are investigated to examine the influence...

  4. The street school Srikandi as an empowerment model of humane education for the street girls of non halfway house in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, RRN; Yani, MT; Imron, A.

    2018-01-01

    The street children have not had a solid emotional mental, however they must deal into the life of street that harsh, competitive and tend to affect negatively for their personality development. Their where abouts on the street is not motivated by family economic factor only, but it is also influenced by the disharmony of role and function of family rules and social environment influences. The street children empowerment that had been conducted by the halfway house does not run effectively. This research was aimed to identify problems faced by the street girls, to describe the efforts to overcome the problems faced by the street girls, and also developing the empowerment model for the street girls in Surabaya who do not stay in the halfway house. This research used qualitative method. The problems are often experienced by the street girls, for instance violence. Besides, imitative behavior arises as a respond towards behavior that happened to them. The parents also play role in the process of social control. The empowerment model that is designed is the educational empowerment through revitalization of family rules. Moreover, life skills education has to be strengthened to improve the welfare standard of living.

  5. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Cumber

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  6. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  7. Parametric laws to model urban pollutant dispersion with a street network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, L.; Salizzoni, P.; Mejean, P.; Perkins, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    This study discusses the reliability of the street network approach for pollutant dispersion modelling in urban areas. This is essentially based on a box model, with parametric relations that explicitly model the main phenomena that contribute to the street canyon ventilation: the mass exchanges between the street and the atmosphere, the pollutant advection along the street axes and the pollutant transfer at street intersections. In the first part of the paper the focus is on the development of a model for the bulk transfer street/atmosphere, which represents the main ventilation mechanisms for wind direction that are almost perpendicular to the axis of the street. We then discuss the role of the advective transfer along the street axis on its ventilation, depending on the length of the street and the direction of the external wind. Finally we evaluate the performances of a box model integrating parametric exchange laws for these transfer phenomena. To that purpose we compare the prediction of the model to wind tunnel experiments of pollutant dispersion within a street canyon placed in an idealised urban district.

  8. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  9. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Pinelo

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street orientation towards the development of a comfortable microclimate for pedestrians in Bahrain. Increasing walkability is a global agenda to address issues such as a) transportation, b) energy consumption, c) health, and d) air pollution, all of which are topics of the sustainability agenda. Thermal comfort is one of the pre-requisites for walkability. In warm climates, this is a challenging goal. Street design is paramount for pedestrian comfort in warm climates. The roles of street orientation and aspect ratio are of particular importance as they determine the intake of solar radiation into the urban canyon. We investigate the state of affairs in Bahrain, by measuring the frequency with which the street orientations E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE, currently occur. Research suggests that the street orientation E-W presents the lesser performance for mitigating the effects of heat gain. The ideal grid orientation would, therefore, be N-S, and NE-SW - NW-SE, avoiding street segments with E-W orientation. A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%), the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  10. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  11. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  12. The Great Books and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  13. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  14. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  15. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  16. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues.

  17. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

  18. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

  19. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  20. STREET FIGHTER DE LAS CALLES A LOS ENFRENTAMIENTOS EN LINEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Garfias Frías

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se enfoca en las relaciones lúdicas que se dan a través del videojuego como mediador entre los usuarios. Específicamente se enfoca en la manera en que los videojugadores construyen rituales en torno a Street Fighter, una de las sagas de videojuegos de peleas cuerpo a cuerpo, más importantes de la industria. El punto central es ver cómo se manifiesta este fenómeno en entornos físicos como los locales de maquinitas y cómo se dio el cambio a los enfrentamientos en entornos virtuales.

  1. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  2. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  3. Street navigation using visual information on mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Høilund, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites....... Furthermore, they only give the position of a person and not the object of his attention, which is just as important for localization based services. In this paper we introduce a system using mobile phones built-in cameras for navigation and localization using visual information in accordance with the way we...

  4. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  5. The levels and patterns of resilience among male street children in Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Kidd, Sean A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to identify the factors affecting resilience among street children. The study used a convenience sample of 366 male street children aged 14-17 years in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The levels of resilience among the street children were mostly moderately low-low (54.1%), followed by low (29.0%), and moderately high-high resilience (16.9%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the pre-street factors of education, economic constraint in the family, as well as experiencing and witnessing domestic violence were associated with resilience, with associated street characteristics being drug abuse, experiencing and witnessing violence on street, access to prevention services, and political involvement.

  6. The Code of the Street and Violent Versus Property Crime Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeeley, Susan; Wilcox, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals who adopt values in line with the code of the street are more likely to experience violent victimization (e.g., Stewart, Schreck, & Simons, 2006). This study extends this literature by examining the relationship between the street code and multiple types of violent and property victimization. This research investigates the relationship between street code-related values and 4 types of victimization (assault, breaking and entering, theft, and vandalism) using Poisson-based multilevel regression models. Belief in the street code was associated with higher risk of experiencing assault, breaking and entering, and vandalism, whereas theft victimization was not related to the street code. The results suggest that the code of the street influences victimization broadly--beyond violence--by increasing behavior that provokes retaliation from others in various forms.

  7. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modelling of pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroney, Robert N. [Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO (United States); Pavageau, Michel; Rafailidis, Stilianos; Schatzmann, Michael [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The University of Hamburg initiated a wind tunnel study of car exhaust dispersion from street canyons in an urban environment to investigate how pollution dispersion is affected by street geometry. Particular emphasis at the beginning of this work was put on the design of a line source to represent traffic exhaust. Pollution dispersion was studied in two dimensions (i.e., infinite-length streets were assumed). The case of an isolated street canyon in open country was examined first. The same street canyon geometry was subsequently studied in an urban environment, i.e., with additional canyons of similar geometry upstream and downstream of the test street. The dynamic and dispersion characteristics of the flow in the two cases were quite different. In the canyon amidst open country we observed better canyon ventilation than in the urban roughness case

  8. The ratio of effective building height to street width governs dispersion of local vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Nico; Tan, Si; Venkatram, Akula

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of data collected in street canyons located in Hanover, Germany and Los Angeles, USA, suggests that street-level concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants can be estimated with a model that assumes that vertical turbulent transport of emissions dominates the governing processes. The dispersion model relates surface concentrations to traffic flow rate, the effective aspect ratio of the street, and roof level turbulence. The dispersion model indicates that magnification of concentrations relative to those in the absence of buildings is most sensitive to the aspect ratio of the street, which is the ratio of the effective height of the buildings on the street to the width of the street. This result can be useful in the design of transit oriented developments that increase building density to reduce emissions from transportation.

  9. Impromptu: great impromptu speaking is never just impromptu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlah A. Nawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Great impromptu speaking, reciting and singing are never just an isolated impromptu act. It is the result of endless practice to perfect performance that can then be given impromptu. One of the main objectives of learning English as a Second Language (ESL is to be able to speak English impromptu, not just on the stage or in front of an audience but also in a casual meeting, on the street or during a formal meeting in a board-room. In fact to be able to speak “impromptu” should be the Holy Grail of teaching and learning ESL, more important than reading, writing and listening. So how come it is not given the priority it deserves – and how come it seems such a difficult goal? We believe it is because teachers and learners neglect to emphasize and practice the key to learning impromptu speaking. That key we believe is practice, practice and more practice. We can remember songs from our kindergarten years and we can still sing them because we practiced, practiced and practiced them. We believe that the teaching of ESL often overlooks the critical importance of lots of practice to create depth of learning and that creative methods of practicing need to be taught and practiced in ESL courses until such methods become deeply habitual, in fact they become a new personal paradigm. If our students aim to become great at ESL, they, too, must take continuous never-ending practice to heart.

  10. “Jones-ing” for a Solution: Commercial Street Surveillance and Privacy Torts in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    While street surveillance technologies such as Google Street View are deployed with no discriminatory intent, there is selective scrutiny applied to the published imagery by the anonymous crowd. Disproportionately directed at women and members of ethnic minority groups, this scrutiny means the social risks of street surveillance are not equal. This paper considers the possibility of invasion of privacy actions in tort brought against the commercial service provider as a possible solution. Ana...

  11. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF BUOYANCY ON FLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN STREET CANYONS

    OpenAIRE

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Pulvirenti, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Britter, Rex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, the effect of buoyancy on flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We consider a neutral boundary layer approaching a 3D street canyon assuming a wind direction perpendicular to the street canyon. The Boussinesq hypothesis for incompressible fluids is chosen for modelling buoyancy. We distinguish three cases: leeward, ground and windward wall heating. Thermal effects on both the flow ...

  13. Passive control potentials of trees and on-street parked cars in reduction of air pollution exposure in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhijith, K.V.; Gokhale, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the passive-control-potentials of trees and on-street parked cars on pedestrian exposure to air pollutants in a street canyon using three-dimensional CFD. Since, according to some studies trees deteriorate air quality and cars parked roadside improve it, the combine as well as separate effects of trees and on-street parked cars have been examined. For this, different tree canopy layouts and parking configurations have been developed and pedestrian exposure for each has been analysed. The results showed, for example, tree crown with high porosity and low-stand density in combination with parallel or perpendicular car parking reduced the pedestrian exposure considerably. - Highlights: • Trees and on-street parked cars can manipulate pollutant levels in street canyons. • Low stand density trees with 0° or 90° car parking reduce pedestrian exposure. • Trees with medium crown, high porosity, low stand density reduce pollutant levels. - This study investigated the combination of trees and on-street parked cars to manipulate pollutant levels in urban street canyons to reduce pedestrian exposure

  14. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  15. Neglected populations: safeguarding the health of street-involved children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Twum, Jo-Ann; Wasan, Kishor M

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the health of street-involved children is a growing public health challenge. These children are vulnerable, neglected, and rarely a priority for basic service providers and governments. Sizable populations of street-involved children are present in major urban areas worldwide and current trends in urbanization suggest these populations will grow in the coming years. Although migration offers employment and training opportunities, the health and wellbeing of children is negatively impacted by their interactions with the streets. However, systemic barriers may also prevent these children from achieving an adequate health status. The situation of street-involved children in Ghana, West Africa will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerová, R; Janour, Z

    2009-09-01

    The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon.

  17. Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted of 8,535 students in grades 6–10 from 180 schools across Canada who completed the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. Street connectivity was measured in a 5 km circular buffer around these schools using established geographic information system measures. Physical activity performed outside of school hours was assessed by questionnaire, and multi-level regression analyses were used to estimate associations with street connectivity after controlling for several covariates. Compared to students living in the highest street connectivity quartile, those in the second (relative risk = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.35, third (1.25, 1.13–1.37, and fourth (1.21, 1.09–1.34 quartiles were more likely to be physically active outside of school. In conclusion, youth in neighbourhoods with the most highly connected streets reported less physical activity outside of school than youth from neighbourhoods with less connected streets. Relationships between street connectivity and physical activity reported in this national study are in the opposite direction to those previously observed for active transportation in adult populations.

  18. Influence of cetane improvers on the air quality in an urban street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration distributions of NO x , PM, HC and CO in an urban street canyon have been estimated using a two-dimensional air quality numerical model based on the k-e turbulent model and the atmospheric convection diffusion equation when various cetane improvers were used in diesel fuels. A wind vortex can be found within the street canyon, and the pollutants emitted from the bottom of the street canyon tend to follow the course of the wind field, moving circularly. The addition of cetane improvers can improve the air quality in a street canyon, all of the pollutants were found to decrease with increasing cetane number. (Author)

  19. Analyzing Street Art to Present the Heritage of George Town, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehelham Sadatiseyedmahalleh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Street art comprises all kinds of art developed in public locations. This form of art has spread to all heritage streets in George Town, the capital of Penang Island, which is also a known UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, instead of its heritage, food, and interesting past life and structure, the rapid multiplication of street art in George Town has created a new and unusual art that attracts tourists. Street art has spread to small roads and heritage streets in the city. This art increases the awareness of spectators by introducing them to the rich history of these streets and inducing a lively concept in the inner city of George Town. Accordingly, the impact of iron rod sculptures and murals, which comprises approximately 90% of street art in George Town, were determined to explore and identify the effects of this street art on this world heritage site. The findings were obtained from 263 out of 306 questionnaires accomplished by tourists in George Town. The results confirm that tourists prefer murals over iron rod sculptures. Iron rod sculptures are designed to tell the history of the street, whereas murals are designed to create aesthetic value. The findings indicated that similar to iron rod sculptures, more control should be exercised on the subjects of murals.

  20. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development of a Street-in-Grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2016-04-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemical-transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport at spatial scales greater than 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is based on the general formulation of the SIRANE model and consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. The street-canyon component calculates the mass transfer velocity at the top of the street canyon (roof top) and the mean wind velocity within the street canyon. The estimation of the mass transfer velocity depends on the intensity of the standard deviation of the vertical velocity at roof top. The effect of various formulations of this mass transfer velocity on the pollutant transport at roof-top level is examined. The street-intersection component calculates the mass transfer from a given street to other streets across the intersection. These mass transfer rates among the streets are calculated using the mean wind velocity calculated for each street and are balanced so that the total incoming flow rate is equal to the total outgoing flow rate from the intersection including the flow between the intersection and the overlying atmosphere at roof top. In the default option, the Leighton photostationary cycle among ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) is used to represent the chemical reactions within the street network. However, the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the pollutant concentrations increases when the nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations are low. To account for the possible VOC influence on street-canyon chemistry, the CB05 chemical kinetic mechanism, which includes 35 VOC model species, is implemented in this street-network model. A sensitivity study is conducted to assess the uncertainties associated with the use of

  1. LED Street Lighting Solutions: Flagstaff, Arizona as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Dark-sky protection in Flagstaff, Arizona extends back to 1958, with the first ordinance in the City banning advertising floodlights. The current ordinance, adopted in 1989, is comprehensive and has played a critical role in maintaining the quality of the night sky for astronomy, tourism, public enjoyment, and other purposes. Flagstaff, like many communities around the world, is now working on a transition from legacy bulb-based technology to LED for its outdoor lighting. The City, Lowell Observatory, the U. S. Naval Observatory, and the Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition have been working intensively for two years to identify an LED-based street lighting solution that will preserve the City's dark skies while meeting municipal needs. We will soon be installing test fixtures for an innovative solution incorporating narrow-band amber LED and modest amounts of low-CCT white LED. In this talk, I will review the types of LEDs available for outdoor lighting and discuss the plans for Flagstaff's street lighting in the LED era, which we hope will be a model for communities worldwide.

  2. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  3. HIV among the street dwellers of Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Agudelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the prevalence of HIV among the street dwellers of the city of Medellin (Colombia as well as their socio-demographic characteristics in order to deepen the understanding of the problems faced by this vulnerable group. Methodology: a cross-sectional study was conducted in which HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were determined. Data was processed using the SPSS 8.0 software, and the bivariate analysis was conducted using statistical methods. Results: a survey was conducted on 230 street dwellers, 69.6% of which were men. The average age was 38 ± 10.9 years, and HIV prevalence was 7.8%. This prevalence was 10% for men and 2.9% for women. The rate of infected individuals was 12% for those aged 25 to 34, 11% for individuals aged 55, and 8% for those aged 18 to 24. Additionally, 41% of men and 30% of women had correct beliefs regarding HIV transmission. Discussion: the prevalence value of 7.8%, shows that HIV infections in Colombia are concentrated in populations in a state of exclusion, stigma, and discrimination. This value also shows a need for actions targeting vulnerable groups.

  4. Four rules for taking your message to Wall Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, A

    2001-05-01

    Managers fail to communicate effectively with Wall Street for all sorts of reasons. But neglecting the investment community--particularly the analysts whose opinions shape the market and whose recommendations often make or break a company's share price--can knock the most carefully conceived and brilliantly executed strategy off course. The companies that struggle the most with providing good information to analysts are those in rapidly evolving industries, where the gap between traditional performance metrics and economic realities is at its widest. In these industries, a company's strategy and the variables that govern its performance can change radically in a short time. What's more, the metrics used to report performance often fail to capture the drivers of value in today's information economy. Few accounting measures are helpful when it comes to assessing the intangible assets--knowledge, skilled employees, and so forth--on which many of today's fastest-growing companies build their strategies. According to Amy Hutton, an associate professor at Harvard Business School, there are four basic rules for clear communications with Wall Street. First, make sure that your company's financial reporting reflects your strategy as closely as possible. Second, popularize the nonfinancial metrics that best predict--and flatter--the performance of your businesses. Third, appoint managers with recognized credibility to your strategic operations. Finally, cultivate the market experts who cover the industries in which you seek to compete. Hutton shows how AOL successfully followed these rules as it significantly changed its strategic direction and competitive arena.

  5. Microbial Hazards of Street-Vended Grilled Chicken Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Patricia Azanza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.

  6. Work of grief over infancy in street adolescents in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amana Evelyne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period that is marked by an identity crisis which is itself a consequence of the balance-unsettling puberty transformations following the earlier resolution of the oedipal complex. Balance will be once again activated after the latency period. These transformations trigger others on the affective level (emotional, bonds to earlier objects. A crisis in the social bond can also be observed through this questioning of norms along with family and social values. These different crises contributing to identity construction are "developmental tasks" typical in subjects who actually go through this period; hence they constitute an important process of maturation. The subject can however face difficulties fulfilling those tasks. The article engages this challenge of grieving the passing infancy with its particular symbols as experienced by some adolescents in their responsibility to work out new symbols. In fact, every developmental crisis should, according to Wallon (1963, mediate the passing to the next stage. It is therefore manageable. In the special case of adolescents in the street, the persistence of the crisis characterized by anti-social behaviors specific to this population is nothing else but the difficulty in letting go of the symbols of infancy. This argument about the ‘grieving over infancy’ or mourning of infancy draws on works such as Nasio (2004; Delvenne Nicolis (2007; Marteaux (2008 and Franceschini (2012. The results collected through interviews and observations show the persistence in ‘street adolescents’ of behaviors unfavorable to the realization and reorganization of identity.

  7. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  8. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded.

  9. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542

  10. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  11. Developing an indicators plan and software for evaluating Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An app to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service was developed. This app is based on a Plan of Indicators that can be used to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service of Santander municipality. Specific methodologies for calculating and evaluating 59 indicators have been developed to obtain information regarding the status of the different elements of the service. The Plan of Indicators has been applied to Santander city. The app was designed to address, but is not limited to, the following goals: i to obtain, store and calculate information regarding the above indicators and ii to disseminate the results of the status of the elements of the Service to the public sector. The app that was developed can provide a quick view of the results obtained for each indicator in each district, which is useful for making an appropriate diagnosis of the city’s cleanliness and is the first step in the decision making and Service optimisation processes. Detailed results for the Street Cleanliness Index are shown for each district of Santander city. The Street Cleanliness Index values are also related to the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services parameters. Pearson correlation coefficient results suggest that an inverse relationship between the Street Cleanliness Index values and the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services/population density ratio exists (R2 = −0.63. The results show that Street Cleanliness Index worst values exist for those districts that have a lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density parameter. The results are useful for designing and optimising the Street Cleanliness Service. For the decision making process, resources should be allocated where necessary, which seems to be those districts with lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density ratios.

  12. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  13. Learning and the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Bullard, James B.; Singh, Aarti

    2009-01-01

    We study a stylized theory of the volatility reduction in the U.S. after 1984 - the Great Moderation - which attributes part of the stabilization to less volatile shocks and another part to more difficult inference on the part of Bayesian households attempting to learn the latent state of the economy. We use a standard equilibrium business cycle model with technology following an unobserved regime-switching process. After 1984, according to Kim and Nelson (1999a), the variance of U.S. macroec...

  14. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  15. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  16. What killed Alexander the Great?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    The cause of the death of the Macedonian King, Alexander the Great, at Babylon in 323 BC has excited interest and conjecture throughout the ages. The information available in the surviving ancient sources, none of which is contemporaneous, has been reviewed and compared with modern knowledge as set out in several well-known recent surgical texts. The ancient sources record epic drinking by the Macedonian nobility since at least the time of Phillip II, Alexander's father. Alexander's sudden illness and death is likely to have resulted from a surgical complication of acute alcoholic excess.

  17. Commanders of the Great Victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Dmitriyevich Borshchov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The honorary title of «commander» as well as the «admiral» is granted to a military or naval figure on the basis of public recognition of his personal contribution to the success of actions. Generals are usually individuals with creative thinking, the ability to foresee the development of military events. Generals usually have such personality traits as a strong will and determination, rich combat experience, credibility and high organizational skills. In an article dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the Soviet victory in the Great War examines the experience of formation and practice of the most talent-ed Soviet military leaders.

  18. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  19. Studying The Great Russian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Torkunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article revises an established view of Russian Revolution as two separate events - February Revolution and October Revolution. The author supports the concept of the «Great Russian Revolution», which unites these two events in a single process of revolutionary development. The author draws attention to the following advantages of the concept under consideration. First, it conceptualizes the revolution as a process contingent of a local and global historical context. In this sense, the revolution is presented as the transition of society to the modern stage of development, meaning the transition to modernity. Second, revolutionary events in Russia are considered from the point of view of the evolution of the spatial and socioeconomic distribution and rearrangement of key social groups: peasantry, elites, national and ethnic minorities. Third, it takes into account the personal factor in the revolutionary events, the influence of individual personalities on escalation or the reduction of socio-political tensions. Fourth, it draws attention to the fact that revolutions imply the use of various forms of political violence. Each revolution is characterized by a unique correlation of forms and intensity of political violence. Finally, it gives a normative assessment of the Revolution, encouraging a national discussion on the results and consequences of this great event.

  20. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

  1. Evaluation of the Street Pollution Model OSPM for Measurements at 12 Streets Stations Using a Newly Developed and Freely Available Evaluation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Brandt, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) has been evaluated in comparison with continuous half-hourly measurements over a multi-year period for five permanent street monitor stations that constitute part of the Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme as well as with pass......In the present work, the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) has been evaluated in comparison with continuous half-hourly measurements over a multi-year period for five permanent street monitor stations that constitute part of the Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme as well...... the observations well, especially for the most recent years, while for NO2 the model over-predicts in two cases. The explanation for this over-prediction is believed to be uncertainties in the traffic or emission input data, but also in model parameters, and the representativeness of the urban background data may....... OSPM calculations for nine streets with passive sampler measurements were conducted as ‘blind test’ i.e. without knowing the measured values. OSPM calculations were in good agreement with the measurements for seven out of nine street sections. Refinements of the input data lead to a significant...

  2. Impacts of Street-Visible Greenery on Housing Prices: Evidence from a Hedonic Price Model and a Massive Street View Image Dataset in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Street greenery is a component of urban green infrastructure. By forming foundational green corridors in urban ecological systems, street greenery provides vital ecological, social, and cultural functions, and benefits the wellbeing of citizens. However, because of the difficulty of quantifying people’s visual perceptions, the impact of street-visible greenery on housing prices has not been fully studied. Using Beijing, which has a mature real estate market, as an example, this study evaluated 22,331 transactions in 2014 in 2370 private housing estates. We selected 25 variables that were classified into three categories—location, housing, and neighbourhood characteristics—and introduced an index called the horizontal green view index (HGVI into a hedonic pricing model to measure the value of the visual perception of street greenery in neighbouring residential developments. The results show that (1 Beijing’s homebuyers would like to reside in residential units with a higher HGVI; (2 Beijing’s homebuyers favour larger lakes; and (3 Beijing’s housing prices were impacted by the spatial development patterns of the city centre and multiple business centres. We used computer vision to quantify the street-visible greenery and estimated the economic benefits that the neighbouring visible greenery would have on residential developments in Beijing. This study provides a scientific basis and reference for policy makers and city planners in road greening, and a tool for formulating street greening policy, studying housing price characteristics, and evaluating real estate values.

  3. Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

  4. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  5. Occupy Wall Street: From Representation to Post-Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tormey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to assess something as recent and dynamic as Occupy Wall Street (OWS presents problems for political analysts. There is always a danger that by the time one has written in judgement the event-movement will have morphed into something quite different. For this reason alone we need to be careful about offering too definitive a judgment on what it represents, about what we think is new in the phenomenon as well as what we think presents linkages to the past. On the one hand, OWS is still in the process of becoming-something . On the other hand, though, we can see the outline of more or less familiar characteristics that might help orientate us towards something that is being greeted as a new departure.

  6. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  7. A Plea for a Child-Centered Approach in Research with Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Argues that street children's public image does not consider root causes of homelessness or children's perceptions. Notes that the relationship of children to urban life is seldom analyzed, and that references to street girls commonly link them to prostitution. Advocates a more child-centered, participatory approach to research and discusses…

  8. 75 FR 45011 - MainStreet Savings Bank, FSB, Hastings, MI; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision MainStreet Savings Bank, FSB, Hastings, MI... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for MainStreet Savings Bank, Hastings, Michigan...

  9. Effects of trees on the dilution of vehicle exhaust emissions in urban street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the natural ventilation and air quality of urban street canyons with trees, boundary layer wind tunnel studies at a small-scale model have been performed. Concentrations in street canyons with a tracer gas emitting line source at the ground level and one row of trees arranged

  10. quality and sustainability of urban street lighting: a study of warri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The results of the model and the actual measurement of the Street light that was taken for some time ... telecommunication networks, electricity generation/ ... system is a valuable investment because it enhances .... performance of street lighting, [14], [15], [16] and ... on an assessment of the effectiveness of luminaire of.

  11. Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.

  12. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon

  13. In-depth analysis of the situation of working street children in St. Petersbourg 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, S

    2001-01-01

    Based on a survey of more than 1,000 street children conducted in August-September 2000 in Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation, analyses the working and social conditions of street children, the causes of child work and the role of regional government and nongovernmental organizations in protection of children's rights.

  14. Safety Assessment of Donkwa – An Indigenous Maize-Peanut Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donkwa is a maize-peanut based street-vended snack commonly consumed in Nigeria and other West African countries. Donkwa is produced from the mixture of roasted-ground peanut and maize with or without addition of pepper, which is then moulded into small shapes. The safety of the street-vended donkwa, which ...

  15. Street greenery and its physical and psychological impact on outdoor thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Lenzholzer, S.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the benefits of street greenery for creating thermally comfortable streetscapes in moderate climates. It reports on investigations on the impact of street greenery on outdoor thermal comfort from a physical and psychological perspective. For this purpose, we examined nine

  16. Temporo-spatial gait parameters during street crossing conditions: a comparison between younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Edgar R; Lim, Hyun-Hwa; Brunt, Denis; Hallal, Camilla Z; Kinsey, Laura; Errington, Lisa; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Most traffic accidents involving pedestrians happen during street crossing. Safe street crossing by older adults requires complex planning and imposes high cognitive demands. Understanding how street crossing situations affect younger and older adults' gait is important to create evidence-based policies, education and training. The objective of this study was to develop and test a method to evaluate temporo-spatial gait parameters of younger and older adults during simulated street crossing situations. Twenty-two younger (25±2 years old) and 22 older adults (73±6 years old) who lived independently in the community completed 3 walking trials at preferred gait speed and during simulated street crossing with regular and with reduced time. There were significant differences between groups (pstreet crossing walking speed was higher than their preferred speed (pstreet crossing resulted in significant and progressive gait changes. The methods developed and tested can be used to (1) evaluate if people are at risk of falls and accidents during street crossing situations, (2) to compare among different groups, and (3) to help establish appropriate times for older pedestrians to cross streets safely. The current time to cross streets is too short even for healthy older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Faeco-oral parasitic infection in street food vendors in Tamale, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor environmental sanitation, personal and food hygiene practices of food vendors are major causes of street food contamination and outbreak of foodborne illness. The unregulated and rapid growth of the street food industry in the Tamale Metropolis with its associated health risk calls for strict public health surveillance to ...

  18. 77 FR 5585 - Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29939; File No. 812-13982] Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. and Mason Street Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application January 30, 2012... instruments. Applicants: Northwestern Mutual Series Fund, Inc. (``Company'') and Mason Street Advisors, LLC...

  19. CURB-BASED STREET FLOOR EXTRACTION FROM MOBILE TERRESTRIAL LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile terrestrial laser scanners (MTLS produce huge 3D point clouds describing the terrestrial surface, from which objects like different street furniture can be generated. Extraction and modelling of the street curb and the street floor from MTLS point clouds is important for many applications such as right-of-way asset inventory, road maintenance and city planning. The proposed pipeline for the curb and street floor extraction consists of a sequence of five steps: organizing the 3D point cloud and nearest neighbour search; 3D density-based segmentation to segment the ground; morphological analysis to refine out the ground segment; derivative of Gaussian filtering to detect the curb; solving the travelling salesman problem to form a closed polygon of the curb and point-inpolygon test to extract the street floor. Two mobile laser scanning datasets of different scenes are tested with the proposed pipeline. The results of the extracted curb and street floor are evaluated based on a truth data. The obtained detection rates for the extracted street floor for the datasets are 95% and 96.53%. This study presents a novel approach to the detection and extraction of the road curb and the street floor from unorganized 3D point clouds captured by MTLS. It utilizes only the 3D coordinates of the point cloud.

  20. Drugs, Guns, and Disadvantaged Youths: Co-Occurring Behavior and the Code of the Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea N.; Lo, Celia C.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by Anderson's theory of the code of the street, this study explored social mechanisms linking individual-level disadvantage factors with the adoption of beliefs grounded in the code of the street and with drug trafficking and gun carrying--the co-occurring behavior shaping violence among young men in urban areas. Secondary data were…

  1. 77 FR 73916 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... against hazardous conditions created by repair work on the S99 Alford Street Bridge across the Mystic... navigation area that was promulgated to protect the public against hazardous conditions created by repair... restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Mystic River beneath the S99 Alford Street Bridge...

  2. Investigating the Utility of the Film "War Zone" in the Prevention of Street Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne A.; Cook, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Street harassment, the act of sexual harassment by strangers in public, is a common experience shared by many women. This paper reports the first experimental evaluation of the impact of a popular documentary-style film, "War Zone," on men's attitudes toward street harassment and empathy for women who experience it. The sample was an ethnically…

  3. The balance of planting and mortality in a street tree population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2013-01-01

    Street trees have aesthetic, environmental, human health, and economic benefits in urban ecosystems. Street tree populations are constructed by cycles of planting, growth, death, removal and replacement. The goals of this study were to understand how tree mortality and planting rates affect net population growth, evaluate the shape of the mortality curve, and assess...

  4. Microbial Quality, Nutritional Knowledge and Food Hygienic Practices among Street Food Vendors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, B.; Vasantha Devi, K. P.; Sivakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since all categories of people from different socio-economic sectors purchase street foods; the street foods should not only be cheap but also hygienic and rich in nutrition. The investigators with their nutrition knowledge had an urge to study the nutrition knowledge of the vendors, whether the foods prepared are nutritionally sound or not?, are…

  5. The Lives of Sesame Street: The Impact of Foreclosures on Young Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Danne E.; Shin, Minsun

    2009-01-01

    While significant attention has been paid to Wall Street investors and families impacted by the current subprime mortgage crisis in the USA, the lives of Sesame Street are minimally discussed. Children and their families are enduring a variety of consequences of foreclosures. The consequences can be hugely disruptive to the approximately 2 million…

  6. India : Energy-Efficient Street Lighting--Implementation and Financing Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    There has been a clear need for energy-efficient (EE) technologies that can be applicable in the municipal street lighting sector. The objective of this manual is to support the preparation and implementation of street lighting projects in India, using performance contracting and other public private partnership-based delivery approaches. This manual draws upon global best practices, inclu...

  7. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Esther; Hossain, Rosa; Pardo, Jordi Pardo; Veras, Mirella M S; Chakraborty, Kabita; Harris, Holly; Martin, Anne J

    2013-07-01

    behaviours or substance use. A meta-analysis was conducted for some outcomes though it was not possible for all due to differences in measurements between studies. Other outcomes were evaluated narratively. We included 11 studies evaluating 12 interventions from high income countries. We did not find any sufficiently robust evaluations conducted in low and middle income countries (LMICs) despite the existence of many relevant programmes. Study quality overall was low to moderate and there was great variation in the measurement used by studies, making comparison difficult. Participants were drop-in and shelter based. We found no consistent results on a range of relevant outcomes within domains of psychosocial health, substance misuse and sexual risky behaviours despite the many measurements collected in the studies. The interventions being evaluated consisted of time limited therapeutically based programmes which did not prove more effective than standard shelter or drop-in services for most outcomes and in most studies. There were favourable changes from baseline in outcomes for most particpants in therapy interventions and also in standard services. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies and equity data were inconsistently reported. No study measured the primary outcome of reintegration or reported on adverse effects. The review discussion section included consideration of the relevance of the findings for LMIC settings. Analysis across the included studies found no consistently significant benefit for the 'new' interventions compared to standard services for street-connected children and young people. These latter interventions, however, have not been rigorously evaluated, especially in the context of LMICs. Robustly evaluating the interventions would enable better recommendations to be made for service delivery. There is a need for future research in LMICs that includes children who are on the streets due to urbanisation, war or migration and who may be

  8. Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Harbich, Loyde V.; Labaki, Lucila C.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Among several urban design parameters, the height-to-width ratio (H/W) and orientation are important parameters strongly affecting thermal conditions in cities. This paper quantifies changes in thermal comfort due to typical urban canyon configurations in Campinas, Brazil, and presents urban guidelines concerning H/W ratios and green spaces to adapt urban climate change. The study focuses on thermal comfort issues of humans in urban areas and performs evaluation in terms of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), based on long-term data. Meteorological data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation over a 7-year period (2003-2010) were used. A 3D street canyon model was designed with RayMan Pro software to simulate the influence of urban configuration on urban thermal climate. The following configurations and setups were used. The model canyon was 500 m in length, with widths 9, 21, and 44 m. Its height varied in steps of 2.5 m, from 5 to 40 m. The canyon could be rotated in steps of 15°. The results show that urban design parameters such as width, height, and orientation modify thermal conditions within street canyons. A northeast-southwest orientation can reduce PET during daytime more than other scenarios. Forestry management and green areas are recommended to promote shade on pedestrian areas and on façades, and to improve bioclimate thermal stress, in particular for H/W ratio less than 0.5. The method and results can be applied by architects and urban planners interested in developing responsive guidelines for urban climate issues.

  9. Communicating Flood Risk with Street-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Matthew, R.; Houston, D.; Cheung, W. H.; Karlin, B.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Luke, A.; Contreras, S.; Goodrich, K.; Feldman, D.; Basolo, V.; Serrano, K.; Reyes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world face significant and growing flood risks that require an accelerating adaptation response, and fine-resolution urban flood models could serve a pivotal role in enabling communities to meet this need. Such models depict impacts at the level of individual buildings and land parcels or "street level" - the same spatial scale at which individuals are best able to process flood risk information - constituting a powerful tool to help communities build better understandings of flood vulnerabilities and identify cost-effective interventions. To measure understanding of flood risk within a community and the potential impact of street-level models, we carried out a household survey of flood risk awareness in Newport Beach, California, a highly urbanized coastal lowland that presently experiences nuisance flooding from high tides, waves and rainfall and is expected to experience a significant increase in flood frequency and intensity with climate change. Interviews were completed with the aid of a wireless-enabled tablet device that respondents could use to identify areas they understood to be at risk of flooding and to view either a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood map or a more detailed map prepared with a hydrodynamic urban coastal flood model (UCI map) built with grid cells as fine as 3 m resolution and validated with historical flood data. Results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the UCI and FEMA maps at communicating the spatial distribution of flood risk, gender differences in how the maps affect flood understanding, and spatial biases in the perception of flood vulnerabilities.

  10. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  11. Crossing Behaviour of Pedestrians Along Urban Streets in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bargi Walid A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road crossings are considered as an unavoidable part of walking in which the desirable route of pedestrians interacts with vehicles. These interactions may expose the pedestrians to risks or delays. In Malaysia, road accident statistics show that pedestrian casualties are fairly high. Inappropriate gap acceptance when pedestrians cross roads is a main contributing element to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop realistic models for pedestrian road crossing behaviour using the regression technique for mid-block street crossing. A choice model was produced to capture the decision making process of pedestrians whereas rejected or accepted vehicular gaps was based on the discrete choice theory. Gap acceptance data under real mix traffic conditions was collected using video camera on a typical unsignalised two lane one way urban street section in the city center of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The lognormal regression model developed for the crossing behaviour model shows that traffic speed, pedestrian waiting time, gender, crossing distance, age group, frequency of attempts and pedestrian number are the significant factors which are able to predict 77.0% of variance or changes in accepted gap size at 0.05 significance level. Higher traffic speed, lower waiting time, being a male, wider crossing distance, older age group, lower frequency of attempts and higher number of pedestrian were found to influence pedestrians to accept a bigger gap size. The binary logistic regression developed for the crossing choice model was found to be influenced by traffic speed, driver yield, pedestrian number and age group. Furthermore, lower traffic speed, willingness of drivers to slow down, more pedestrian crossings at the same time and a younger age group lead to a higher chance or probability of crossing roads. The model was validated again using 100 isolated samples and an accuracy of 98% was obtained compared to the calibrated

  12. Analysis of the Vortex Street Generated at the Core-Bypass Lip of a Jet-Engine Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, José; Legrand, Mathieu; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.; Lecuona, Antonio

    The reduction of the noise generated by jet-engine aircrafts is of growing concern in the present society. A better understanding of the aircraft noise production and the development of predictive tools is of great interest. Within this framework, the CoJeN (Coaxial Jet Noise) European Project includes the measurement of the flow field and the noise generated by typical turbofan jet-engine nozzles. One of the many aspects of interest is the occasional presence of acoustic tones of a defined frequency, symptomatic of the presence of quasiperiodic coherent structures within the flow. This chapter analyzes the characteristics of a vortex street in the core-bypass lip of one of the nozzles under study. The measurements were made by means of advanced PIV techniques within the above-mentioned project.

  13. Street children: “Running from” or “running to”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. le Roux

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The street child phenomenon presents a complex issue resulting from a diversity of integrated factors. The problem should therefore preferably be explained and addressed holistically. A search of available literature on street children clearly indicates that street children per se are not the primary problem. The phenomenon o f street children is merely a symptom of a problem underlying the intolerable situation of these children's family and community lives. In this article it is explained that the street child phenomenon is thus symptomatic of contemporary twentieth century conditions. "Running from " and “running to " are in fact intereffective tendencies or reactions to a complicated polarised society: two sides of a common coin.

  14. AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE WALKING ENVIRONMENT IN A MEGACITY: CASE STUDY OF VALIASR STREET, TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Motamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High air pollution, car dependency, and increasing statistics of obesity and cardiovascular diseases are growing issues in the mega city of Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Therefore, investigating the quality of walkability as an effective solution for these issues in Valiasr Street, the longest street of Middle East and one of the key vena of Tehran, becomes significant. Research shows that despite the attempts of executed projects, the majority of implemented actions in this street were not in accordance with services of its pedestrian facilities. Even in some cases, they may threaten the walking environment. This paper discusses not only the physical features of Valiasr Street but it also considers the consequences of policies and municipal decisions in light of walkability criteria. Using walkability indexes from various scholars, this study seeks to investigate the level of walkability in Valiasr Street through field observation and mapping by trained observers/ auditors.

  15. Experiences of street harassment and associations with perceptions of social cohesion among women in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Campos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8% of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0.46; 95%CI:0.69,-0.22. Conclusions. Findings indicate reducing street harassment may have important implications for improving women’s perceived social cohesion and their safety in Mexico City.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Denver Radium Site Streets, Colorado, March 1986. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Denver Radium Site Streets is located in Denver, Colorado. The operable unit is comprised of eight street segments in the Cheesman Park area and one segment in the upper downtown area. The nine contaminated street segments are owned by the City and County of Denver and extend approximately 4.5 miles through largely residential areas. The Denver Radium Site Streets contain a 4- to 6-inch layer of radium-contaminated asphalt. The contaminated layer is underlain by compacted gravel road base and is usually overlain by 4 to 12 inches of uncontaminated asphalt pavement. There is an estimated 38,500 cubic yards of contaminated material covering approximately 832,000 square feet. The selected remedial action for the site includes: leaving the contaminated material in place; improving institutional controls; and removing any contaminated material excavated during routine maintenance, repair, or construction activities in the affected streets to a facility approved for storage or disposal of contaminated material

  17. The Great Hedge of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxham, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great Hedge of India', a 3 700 kilometre-long hedge installed by the British customs to safeguard the colonial salt tax system and avoid salt smuggling totally faded from both memory and records (e.g. maps) in less than a century. Roy Moxham found traces of the hedge in a book footnote and searched it for several years until he found its meagre remains. The speaker wrote a book about this quest. He said that this story reveals how things disappear when they are no longer useful and, especially, when they are linked to parts of history that are not deemed particularly positive (the hedge was a means of colonial power)

  18. Gypsum karst in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Great Britain the most spectacular gypsum karst development is in the Zechstein gypsum (late Permian mainly in north-eastern England. The Midlands of England also has some karst developed in the Triassic gypsum in the vicinity of Nottingham. Along the north-east coast, south of Sunderland, well-developed palaeokarst, with magnificent breccia pipes, was produced by dissolution of Permian gypsum. In north-west England a small gypsum cave system of phreatic origin has been surveyed and recorded. A large actively evolving phreatic gypsum cave system has been postulated beneath the Ripon area on the basis of studies of subsidence and boreholes. The rate of gypsum dissolution here, and the associated collapse lead to difficult civil engineering and construction conditions, which can also be aggravated by water abstraction.

  19. Great-Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel

    2004-01-01

    From 23 to 25 November 2004 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Twenty five companies will present their latest technology at the "Great-Britain at CERN" exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperatures technologies, particles detectors and telecommunications. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions, The British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturer's Association There follows : the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm 1 Accles & Pollock 2 A S Scientific Products Ltd 3 C...

  20. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  1. The origin of 'Great Walls'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2009-01-01

    A new semi-analytical model that explains the formation and sizes of the 'great walls' - the largest structures observed in the universe is suggested. Although the basis of the model is the Zel'dovich approximation it has been used in a new way very different from the previous studies. Instead of traditional approach that evaluates the nonlinear density field it has been utilized for identification of the regions in Lagrangian space that after the mapping to real or redshift space (depending on the kind of structure is studied) end up in the regions where shell-crossing occurs. The set of these regions in Lagrangian space form the progenitor of the structure and after the mapping it determines the pattern of the structure in real or redshift space. The particle trajectories have crossed in such regions and the mapping is no longer unique there. The progenitor after mapping makes only one stream in the multi-stream flow regions therefore it does not comprise all the mass. Nevertheless, it approximately retains the shape of the structure. The progenitor of the structure in real space is determined by the linear density field along with two non-Gaussian fields derived from the initial potential. Its shape in Eulerian space is also affected by the displacement field. The progenitor of the structure in redshift space also depends on these fields but in addition it is strongly affected by two anisotropic fields that determine the pattern of great walls as well as their huge sizes. All the fields used in the mappings are derived from the linear potential smoothed at the current scale of nonlinearity which is R nl = 2.7 h −1 Mpc for the adopted parameters of the ΛCDM universe normalized to σ 8 = 0.8. The model predicts the existence of walls with sizes significantly greater than 500 h −1 Mpc that may be found in sufficiently large redshift surveys

  2. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe Combined Immunodeficiency National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah Great Ormond ...

  4. Built environmental factors and adults' travel behaviors: Role of street layout and local destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Owen, Neville; Cole, Rachel; Mavoa, Suzanne; Oka, Koichiro; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-03-01

    Street layout is consistently associated with adults' travel behaviors, however factors influencing this association are unclear. We examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors: walking for transport (WT) and car use; and, the extent to which these relationships may be accounted for by availability of local destinations. A 24-h travel diary was completed in 2009 by 16,345 adult participants of the South-East Queensland Household Travel Survey, Australia. Three travel-behavior outcomes were derived: any home-based WT; over 30min of home-based WT; and, over 60min of car use. For street layout, a space syntax measure of street integration was calculated for each Statistical Area 1 (SA1, the smallest geographic unit in Australia). An objective measure of availability of destinations - Walk Score - was also derived for each SA1. Logistic regression examined associations of street layout with travel behaviors. Mediation analyses examined to what extent availability of destinations explained the associations. Street integration was significantly associated with travel behaviors. Each one-decile increment in street integration was associated with an 18% (95%CI: 1.15, 1.21) higher odds of any home-based WT; a 10% (95%CI: 1.06, 1.15) higher odds of over 30min of home-based WT; and a 5% (95%CI: 0.94, 0.96) lower odds of using a car over 60min. Local destinations partially mediated the effects of street layout on travel behaviors. Well-connected street layout contributes to active travel partially through availability of more local destinations. Urban design strategies need to address street layout and destinations to promote active travel among residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of street children in Cameroon: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumber, Samuel N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. Aim To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. Objectives To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. Materials and methods The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. Results The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. Conclusion As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children. PMID:28155316

  6. Density and diversity of OpenStreetMap road networks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjia Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap is a geographic information platform designed to provide real-time updates and user-generated content related to its freely available global map, and it is one of the most widely used examples of volunteered geographic information, a technique associated with so-called neogeography. This paper, based on the data from China’s OpenStreetMap road network in May 2014, taking 340 prefecture-level cities in China as its study area, presents the geometric-related (road density and attribute-related (type diversity spatial patterns of the OpenStreetMap road network, and explores their relationship. The results are as follows. (1 The distribution of OpenStreetMap road density in Shenzhen, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Macao predominantly obeys a “positive skewness distribution”. OpenStreetMap data for eastern China shows a higher overall and circular structure. In central China, there are noticeable discrepancies in the road density, whereas in western China, the road density is low. (2 The OpenStreetMap road diversity shows a normal distribution. The spatial pattern for the so-called “Hu Huanyong line” was broken by the effect of diplomatic and strategic factors, showing a high diversity along the peripheral border, coastal cities, and core inland cites. (3 China’s OpenStreetMap is partitioned into four parts according to road density and diversity: high density and high diversity; low density and low diversity; high density and low diversity; and low density high diversity. (4 The OpenStreetMap geographical information-collection process and mechanism were analyzed, demonstrating that the road density reflects the preponderance of traffic in the real world. OpenStreetMap road diversity reflects the road-related geographic information demand and value, and it also reflects the interests of users toward to OpenStreetMap geographical information.

  7. The lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Myburgh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of daily abuse and hardship on the streets lead to poor mental health in children living on the streets, resulting in them choosing ineffective and self-destructive coping strategies that impact their physical health and overall sense of wellbeing. The facilitation of the mental health of children living on the streets who are subjected to daily threats to their survival is thus crucial. Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore and describe the lived experiences of children living on the streets of Hillbrow, Johannesburg. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample was selected through a temporary shelter in Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa and consisted of 14 male children living on the streets. Data were collected using drawings, in-depth phenomenological interviews and field notes. The central interview opening statement was: ‘Tell me about your life on the street’. Results: The results obtained indicated that children living on the streets are threatened, exploited and exposed to physical, sexual and emotional abuse on a daily basis by the community, the authorities and other street dwellers. This leads to feelings of sadness, fear, anxiety, misery, despair, hopelessness, helplessness and suicide ideation, which in turn lead to drug abuse and criminal activities. In contrast, positive feelings of sympathy for other children living on the streets emerged and these children also displayed perseverance, resilience and a striving for autonomy. Conclusion: Street life exposes children to a variety of experiences, both positive and negative. A striving after autonomy is clearly depicted by these children, who are able to tap into a range of responses, both on- and off-street.

  8. Characteristic, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems of Street Adolescent in Bandung October–December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nurfitriani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Street adolescents were psychosocial problem that increased in number each year and was worsened by their low-moral subculture-value that could cause them more vulnerable in having emotional and behavioral problems. This study aims to describe the characteristics, emotional and behavioral problems of the street adolescent in Bandung. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in October–December 2012. From 22 shelters in Bandung, two shelters (RPA GANK and Pesantren Kolong Nurul Hayat were selected and organized into 4 areas: Cihampelas, ‘Samsat’, Laswi Street and Kiaracondong. A hundred-seven street adolescents aged 11 to 16 years were participated in this study. They were divided into small groups and filled in the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Indonesian version of standardized Strength and Difficulty Questionnaires (SDQ. Only 100 questionnaires were filled in completely. Data were analyzed using frequency tabulation and bar chart Results: Sixty-five percent were boys, 53% were aged 11–13 years, and 53% were students, 76% related to more than one sibling, still lived with their families (81%, and had parents. Their parents had low educational background, had job, and implemented authoritative parenting pattern (41%. In becoming street adolescent, 63% were caused by their own motivation, 81% were children on street, and 55% had lived in the street more than 5 years. Approximately 27% of street adolescents were rated as abnormal on the total difficulty score. Conclusion: Street adolescent in Bandung still have emotional and behavioral problems, which mostly were boys, in the early adolescence stage, school student, had more than one sibling, permissive parenting pattern, and lived in the street for more than 5 years.

  9. Great 3 - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    National Register LYLE MANSION - Carondelet Park ". O’FALLON PARK BOATHOUSE, O’Fallon Park Pending for National Register S.S. ADMIRAL (Excursion Boat...Street in Haskell Park, Alton MIDDLETOWN HISTORIC ISTRICT, roughly bounded by Broadway, Market, Alton, Franklin, Common, Liberty, Humboldt , and Plum...IOld Cathedral (1834), St. Louis Landmark (SLL) # 3 Chatillon Demenil Mansion (1849-1863), SLL # 5 Century Public Library (1907-1912), SLL # 19 [Lyle

  10. 76 FR 38408 - Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) for HUD's Fiscal Year 2011 HOPE VI Main Street Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... traditional central business district or ``Main Street'' area by replacing unused commercial space in... areas; 2. Preserve historic or traditional architecture or design features in Main Street areas; 3...

  11. 76 FR 59151 - Announcement of Funding Awards; HOPE VI Main Street Grant Program, Fiscal Year (FY) 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... central business district or ``Main Street'' area by replacing unused commercial space in buildings with... historic or traditional architecture or design features in Main Street areas; (3) enhance economic...

  12. Metodika výuky moderního tanečního stylu street dance

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation is mainly targeted to all street dance lectors and teachers but is also for another people who are concerned about street dance education. Dissertation is writting about a street style history and is focused on creation of my own methodology proposal for an education of this style. Kids are really enjoying a lessons of street dance and the kind and level of this emjoyment is done by their age and level of performance.

  13. Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sijia; Guo, Jiankang; Wheeler, Stephen; Kan, Liyan; Che, Shengquan

    2014-12-01

    Reducing airborne particulate matter (PM), especially PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 μm or less), in urban street canyons is critical to the health of central city population. Tree-planting in urban street canyons is a double-edged sword, providing landscape benefits while inevitably resulting in PM2.5 concentrating at street level, thus showing negative environmental effects. Thereby, it is necessary to quantify the impact of trees on PM2.5 dispersion and obtain the optimum structure of street trees for minimizing the PM2.5 concentration in street canyons. However, most of the previous findings in this field were derived from wind tunnel or numerical simulation rather than on-site measuring data. In this study, a seasonal investigation was performed in six typical street canyons in the residential area of central Shanghai, which has been suffering from haze pollution while having large numbers of green streets. We monitored and measured PM2.5 concentrations at five heights, structural parameters of street trees and weather. For tree-free street canyons, declining PM2.5 concentrations were found with increasing height. However, in presence of trees the reduction rate of PM2.5 concentrations was less pronounced, and for some cases, the concentrations even increased at the top of street canyons, indicating tree canopies are trapping PM2.5. To quantify the decrease of PM2.5 reduction rate, we developed the attenuation coefficient of PM2.5 (PMAC). The wind speed was significantly lower in street canyons with trees than in tree-free ones. A mixed-effects model indicated that canopy density (CD), leaf area index (LAI), rate of change of wind speed were the most significant predictors influencing PMAC. Further regression analysis showed that in order to balance both environmental and landscape benefits of green streets, the optimum range of CD and LAI was 50%-60% and 1.5-2.0 respectively. We concluded by suggesting an optimized tree-planting pattern and

  14. Evaluación del desempeño de modelos de dispersión de contaminantes aplicados a cañones urbanos Evaluation of the performance of atmospheric dispersion models applied to urban street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Venegas

    2012-06-01

    nearby building, wind speed and direction data registered at the roof of the nearby building and traffic flow in the street. Each model performance was evaluated for leeward, windward and intermediate wind directions. Results obtained with the STREET model considering the empirical constant k=7 (default value, underestimated observed concentrations. A better performance of the STREET model was obtained with k= 12.1. The STREET-BOX model gave acceptable results for leeward and intermediate wind directions. The results of this model showed great differences with observed windward concentration values. In general, the concentrations estimated by OSPM and AEOLIUS showed the best agreement with observed values.

  15. The heart and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, V.

    1985-01-01

    Heart disease is the fifth most common cause of death in infants and children (preceded by anoxic and hypoxic conditions, gross congenital malformations, accidental death, and immaturity). Of all the cardiac lesions, congenital heart disease (CHD) makes up the gross majority, accounting for approximately 90% of all cardiac deaths. Approximately two-thirds of all infants who die from CHD do so within the first year of life; of these, approximately one-third die within the first month. The most common cause of death in the first month is hypoplastic left heart syndrome and lesions associated with it, i.e., aortic atresia/critical aortic stenosis and mitral atresia/critical mitral stenosis. Severe coarctation of the aorta (coarctation syndrome) and transposition of the great arteries are the other most important causes of death in this age group. CHD occurs as a familial condition in approximately 1-4% of cases; ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, and atrial septal defect are particularly common forms. Parental age plays an important role, with a significantly increased risk of CHD in infants of mothers over 39 years of age. Patent ductus arteriosus is more prevalent in firstborn children, particularly those born prematurely to young mothers. Environmental factors, such as exposure to teratogenic agents, have also been shown to increase the incidence of CHD. Children with various syndromes also have increased incidence of CHD. Down syndrome is a classic example, as are other trisomies

  16. Tipping Points, Great and Small

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Foster

    2010-12-01

    The Forum by Jordan et al. [2010] addressed environmental problems of various scales in great detail, but getting the critical message through to the formulators of public policies requires going back to basics, namely, that exponential growth (of a population, an economy, or most anything else) is not sustainable. When have you heard any politician or economist from anywhere across the ideological spectrum say anything other than that more growth is essential? There is no need for computer models to demonstrate “limits to growth,” as was done in the 1960s. Of course, as one seeks more details, the complexity of modeling will rapidly outstrip the capabilities of both observation and computing. This is common with nonlinear systems, even simple ones. Thus, identifying all possible “tipping points,” as suggested by Jordan et al. [2010], and then stopping just short of them, is impractical if not impossible. The main thing needed to avoid environmental disasters is a bit of common sense.

  17. 75 FR 62718 - Disclosure for Asset-Backed Securities Required by Section 943 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Putting Banks in Hole,'' Wall Street Journal (Mar. 8, 2010) (noting that most mortgages put back to... Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 943 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  18. The role of street foods in the dietary pattern of two low-income groups in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't H.; Hartog, den A.P.; Mwangi, A.M.; Mwadime, R.K.N.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of street food consumption of people living in low-income settlements in Nairobi and the role of street foods in their daily diet and to reveal why people consume street foods rather than home-prepared foods. Setting, subjects and methods: A cross-sectional

  19. The Health and Well-Being of Neglected, Abused and Exploited Children: The Kyiv Street Children Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Michael; Koshyl, Vira; Roganov, Oleksandr; Mikhailichenko, Kateryna; Gorbova, Irina; Pottage, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To report on the backgrounds and physical and emotional well-being of street children using two street shelters in Kyiv, Ukraine. This study is important because personal accounts of street children may highlight individual or family factors that are associated with vulnerability for and risk of poor mental health, and these could have…

  20. 75 FR 51429 - Definitions Contained in Title VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... comments. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act... requirements. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public Law No. 111-203, 124 Stat...