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Sample records for great egrets wood

  1. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  2. Subchronic effects of methylmercury on plasma and organ biochemistries in great egret nestlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Frederick, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, high concentrations of mercury have been found in wading birds in Florida, USA. Great egret (Ardea alba) chicks (2 weeks old) were dosed orally daily with the equivalent of 0, 0.5, or 5 ug/g Hg as methylmercury chloride in the diet for up to 12 weeks. Weakness of the legs or paralysis occurred in all high-dosed birds. Geometric mean blood Hg concentrations were 0.17, 10.3, and 78.5 ug/g (wet wt), respectively. Mercury concentrations for organs (ug/g wet wt), including brain (0.22, 3.4, and 35, respectively), liver (0.34, 15.1, 138, respectively), and kidney (0.28, 8.1, and 120, respectively), increased in a dose-dependent manner. Total glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity was significantly lower in the plasma, brain, liver, and kidney of the high-dosed group. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity increased with mercury treatment, whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity decreased. Four other plasma chemistries were decreased significantly in the high-dosed group and included uric acid, total protein, albumin, and inorganic phosphorus. Lipid peroxidation increased in liver (low and high dose) and brain (high dose). Tissue changes in concentrations of reduced thiols included decreased total thiols and protein-bound thiols in liver, decreased protein-bound thiols in kidney, and increased GSH in kidney and brain. Activities of GSH S-transferase and oxidized glutathione reductase increased in liver. In kidney, GSH S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities increased with mercury dose. These findings, including apparent compensatory changes, are compared to other Hg studies where oxidative stress was reported in egrets, herons, and diving ducks in the field and mallards in the laboratory.

  3. Temporal trends (1989–2011) in levels of mercury and other heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egrets nesting in Barnegat Bay, NJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    There is an abundance of data for levels of metals from a range of species, but relatively few long-term time series from the same location. In this paper I examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from fledgling great egrets (Ardea alba) collected at nesting colonies in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey from 1989 to 2011. The primary objectives were to test the null hypotheses that (1) There were no temporal differences in metal levels in feathers of fledgling great egrets, and (2) Great egrets nesting in different areas of Barnegat Bay (New Jersey) did not differ in metal levels. There were significant yearly variations in levels of all heavy metals in feathers of fledgling great egret, but levels decreased significantly from 1989 to 2011 only for lead (1470 ppb to 54.3 ppb), cadmium (277 ppb to 30.5 ppb), and manganese (only since 1996; 2669 ppb to 329 ppb)). Although mercury levels decreased from 2003–2008 (6430 ppb to 1042 ppb), there was no pattern before 2003, and levels increased after 2008 to 2610 ppb in 2011. Lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese and mercury were higher in feathers from great egrets nesting in the northern part of the bay, and selenium was highest in feathers from mid-bay. The lack of a temporal decline in mercury levels in feathers of great egrets is cause for concern, since the high levels in feathers from some years (means as high as 6430 ppb) are in the range associated with adverse effects (5000 ppb for feathers). -- Highlights: ► Metals were monitored in feathers of great egrets from Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. ► Levels of cadmium and lead decreased significantly from 1989–2011. ► Mercury levels in feathers from great egrets did not decline from 1989–2011. ► Metal levels were generally higher in great egrets and black-crowned night heron feathers than in snowy egrets

  4. POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubirt, Madison M; Hanson, Larry A; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Ford, Lorelei; Lemmons, Scott; Fioranelli, Paul; Cunningham, Fred L

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that is ubiquitous in freshwater and slightly brackish aquatic environments and infects fish, humans, reptiles, and birds. Recent severe outbreaks of disease in commercial channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture ponds have been associated with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain (VAH), which is genetically distinct from less-virulent strains. The epidemiology of this disease has not been determined. Given that A. hydrophila infects birds, we hypothesized that fish-eating birds may serve as a reservoir for VAH and spread the pathogen by flying to uninfected ponds. Great Egrets (Ardea alba) were used in this transmission model because these wading birds frequently prey on farmed catfish. Great Egrets that were fed VAH-infected catfish shed VAH in feces demonstrating their potential to spread VAH.

  5. Effects of mercury on health and first-year survival of free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, M S; Williams, G E; Frederick, P C; Spalding, M G

    1999-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations have a negative impact on the health and survival of nestling and juvenile free-ranging great egrets (Ardea albus) from southern Florida. During 1994, when health and survival was monitored in a cohort of young birds with naturally variable concentrations of Hg, packed cell volume was positively correlated with blood Hg concentrations, and high Hg concentration in blood was not related to the probability of surviving during the first 10.5 months of life. During 1995, 70 first-hatched great egret chicks were included in a Hg field-dosing experiment to compare the effects of elevated Hg on health and survival. Birds were dosed while in the nest orally every 2.5 days for 15 days with 0.5 mg of methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) for an estimated intake of 1.54 mg MeHgCl/kg food intake. These birds were compared with controls, which received an estimated 0.41 mg MeHgCl/kg food. No differences were observed in health parameters or in the probability of surviving during the first 8 months of age between egrets that were dosed with Hg and those that were not. A likely explanation for the lack of any effects on health and survival between both groups could be that chicks at this age were eliminating most of the dietary Hg through the production of new feathers.

  6. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G.; Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  7. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  8. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  9. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  10. A white pelican and egrets in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A white pelican and several small egrets rest on the bank of a pond in in the waters of the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. White pelicans inhabit marshy lakes and along the Pacific and Texas coasts. They winter from Florida and southern California south to Panama, chiefly in coastal lagoons. They are frequently seen flying in long lines, flapping and sailing in unison, but also ride rising air currents to soar gracefully in circles. The range of the egret includes southern and eastern states, Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  11. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of Herons and Egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the composition of nestling regurgitations collected during 3 breeding seasons, fish were the most important prey group for Great Egrets (Ardea alba: N = 200 nest-day samples; aggregate percent biomass [APB] = 73.4%), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula: N = 115; APB = 91.4%), and Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor. N = 68; APB = 97.3%). For Little Blue Herons (E. caerulerr. N = 57), grass shrimp (Palaemoneles paludosus; APB = 39.7%) ranked higher in overall importance than all fishes combined (APB = 36.5%). Dietary overlap, as measured by Schoener's Similarity Index, was greatest between Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons (77%) and lowest between Tricolored Herons and Little Blue Herons (30%). Diet diversity, as measured by Shannon's Index, was highest for Great Egrets (2.04), intermediate for Snowy Egrets (1.71) and Tricolored Herons (1.68), and lowest for Little Blue Herons (1.60). Great Egrets ate a wider variety of fish species and sizes, especially larger fishes, and more crayfish than the other species. Little Blue Herons ate fewer fish and more grass shrimp and insects, and ate smaller forage fishes than Tricolored Herons but similar-sized fish as Snowy Egrets. The coarse-scale trophic composition of Snowy Egret and Tricolored Heron diets did not differ significantly, but Tricolored Herons ate larger forage fishes than Snowy Egrets. Pronounced interannual and intercolony variation in diet composition suggested that Great Egrets and Little Blue Herons switched prey types as hydrologic conditions and habitat availability changed. Conversely, lack of such variation suggested that Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons adjusted their foraging tactics to ensure contin-ued encounters with preferred prey despite changing habitat conditions. These results are generally consistent with other published data, help confirm some generalizations about foraging strategies and patterns of niche differentiation among these ecologically similar species, and have implications for

  12. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  13. Microhabitat use by three species of egret (Pelecaniformes, Ardeidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP. Pinto

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: Cocoi heron (Ardea cocoi, Great egret (Ardea alba, and Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis, in wetlands of southern Brazil. Ardea alba and A. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level. Conversely, B. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. Relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correlated with the occurrence of these species and supported the plasticity of B. ibis and its predominance in drier habitats.

  14. Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of young egrets and herons from Hong Kong and Szechuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

    1993-09-01

    Several species of herons and egrets frequently nest in colonies in areas where humans also concentrate. Since the birds feed on intermediate-sized fish that themselves concentrate pollutants, they can be used not only to assess the levels of contaminants in avian tissues but as indicators of contaminants in the environment. The concentration of heavy metals and selenium in the breast feathers of fledgling black-crowned night herons Nycticorax nycticorax and Chinese pond herons Ardeola bacchus from the Tu Jing Yan heronry outside Chengdu, Szechuan Province in China; and from fledgling black-crowned night heron, little egret Egretta garzetta, great egret Egretta alba and cattle egret Bubulcus ibis from the Mai Po heronry in Hong Kong, were determined. Breast feathers were also collected from adult great egrets in Hong Kong. Adult great egrets had significantly higher levels of all heavy metals than did young great egrets. There were no significant interspecific differences in metal levels among the young at Szechuan China, except for chromium (pond herons had higher levels). There were significant differences among the young nesting at Hong Kong for all metals examined. Great egrets had lower, and night herons had higher, levels of lead than the other young. Night herons also had the highest levels of cadmium, manganese, and selenium compared to the other young. Great egret chicks had the lowest mercury levels, while little egret had the highest levels. Lead levels for all the birds in both Hong Kong and Szechuan were among the highest in the world, and this was attributed to the continued use of leaded gasoline.

  15. Greatly reduced emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The strong support for biomass energy in the Norwegian wood-processing industry during the last 10-15 years has contributed greatly to a considerable reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. The potential for further reductions is primarily linked with the use of oil and involves only a few works. Oil can be replaced by other fuels, and process-technical improvements can reduce the emissions. According to prognoses, emissions will go on decreasing until 2007, when the total emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry will be about 13 per cent less than in 1998. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) amounts to 90 per cent of the total emission, the remaining parts being methane (CH 4 ) from landfills and dumps, and small amounts of N 2 O

  16. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour on Cattle Egret numbers and distribution. Cattle Egrets ... Egret activity was classified as stationary, flying, foraging, or vigilant, while large mammal activity was .... ivLev v.s. 1961. Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes.

  17. WOOD CELLULAR DENDROCLIMATOLOGY: TESTING NEW PROXIES IN GREAT BASIN BRISTLECONE PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ziaco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dendroclimatic proxies can be generated from the analysis of wood cellular structures, allowing for a more complete understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control the climatic response of tree species. Century-long (1870-2013 time series of anatomical parameters were developed for Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D.K. Bailey by capturing strongly contrasted microscopic images through a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. Environmental information embedded in wood anatomical series was analyzed in comparison with ring-width series using measures of empirical signal strength. Response functions were calculated against monthly climatic variables to evaluate climate sensitivity of cellular features (e.g. lumen area; lumen diameter for the period 1950-2013. Calibration-verification tests were used to determine the potential to generate long climate reconstructions from these anatomical proxies. A total of eight tree-ring parameters (two ring-width and six chronologies of xylem anatomical parameters were analyzed. Synchronous variability among samples varied among tree-ring parameters, usually decreasing from ring width to anatomical features. Cellular parameters linked to plant hydraulic performance (e.g. tracheid lumen area and radial lumen diameter showed empirical signal strength similar to ring-width series, while noise was predominant in chronologies of lumen tangential width and cell-wall thickness. Climatic signals were different between anatomical and ring-width chronologies, revealing a positive and temporally stable correlation of tracheid size (i.e. lumen and cell diameter with monthly (i.e. March and seasonal precipitation. In particular, tracheid lumen diameter emerged as a reliable moisture indicator and was then used to reconstruct total March-August precipitation from 1870 to 2013. Wood anatomy holds great potential to refine and expand dendroclimatic records by allowing estimates of plant physiological

  18. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  19. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pavlidou, V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Olinto, A V [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brown, C [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fields, B D [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background.

  20. Population studies of the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, J M; Pavlidou, V; Olinto, A V; Brown, C; Fields, B D

    2007-01-01

    The third EGRET catalog contains a large number of unidentified sources. Current data allows the intriguing possibility that some of these objects may represent a new class of yet undiscovered gamma-ray sources. By assuming that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of objects, we constrain the allowed Galactic abundance and distribution of various classes of gamma-ray sources using the EGRET data set. Furthermore, regardless of the nature of the unidentified sources, faint unresolved objects of the same class contribute to the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. We investigate the potential contribution of these unresolved sources to the extragalactic gamma-ray background

  1. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  2. Unbinned likelihood analysis of EGRET observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.

    2000-01-01

    We present a newly-developed likelihood analysis method for EGRET data that defines the likelihood function without binning the photon data or averaging the instrumental response functions. The standard likelihood analysis applied to EGRET data requires the photons to be binned spatially and in energy, and the point-spread functions to be averaged over energy and inclination angle. The full-width half maximum of the point-spread function increases by about 40% from on-axis to 30 degree sign inclination, and depending on the binning in energy can vary by more than that in a single energy bin. The new unbinned method avoids the loss of information that binning and averaging cause and can properly analyze regions where EGRET viewing periods overlap and photons with different inclination angles would otherwise be combined in the same bin. In the poster, we describe the unbinned analysis method and compare its sensitivity with binned analysis for detecting point sources in EGRET data

  3. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered.

  4. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered

  5. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CATTLE EGRET Percy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egrets first breed at two years of age, and that mortality- rates of 37 and 25 per cent apply to first-year and older birds respectively, then, it will be necessary for each pair of breeders, if all second-year and older birds breed once a year, to raise an average of 1,1 young to fledging to replace the number of adults dying that ...

  6. Further remarks concerning the Little Egret complex in East Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little Egret-like birds that occur in Africa have been the subject of debate for decades, and remain ... morph birds are always present. ii) Bill shape and colour: Little Egret has a long, narrow, straight, black bill compared ... appeared identical with the all-white garzetta, led Hancock & Kushlan (1984) to the hypothesis that they ...

  7. Maximum entropy analysis of EGRET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.; Strong, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    EGRET data are usually analysed on the basis of the Maximum-Likelihood method \\cite{ma96} in a search for point sources in excess to a model for the background radiation (e.g. \\cite{hu97}). This method depends strongly on the quality of the background model, and thus may have high systematic unce...... uncertainties in region of strong and uncertain background like the Galactic Center region. Here we show images of such regions obtained by the quantified Maximum-Entropy method. We also discuss a possible further use of MEM in the analysis of problematic regions of the sky....

  8. Aspidoscelis deppii (Black-bellied Racerunner). Predation by Great Egrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert P.; Whatton, James F.; Gebhard, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    Aspidoscelis deppii) is widely distributed from Veracruz and Michoacan, Mexico to Costa Rica (Köhler et al. 2006. The Amphibians and Reptiles of El Salvador. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Florida. 238 pp.). Neotropical lizards are abundant and common prey to all classes of terrestrial vertebrates, and bird predation of lizards is well known.

  9. Constraints on Galactic populations from the unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Brown, Carolyn; Olinto, Angela V.; Fields, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    A significant fraction of the sources in the third EGRET catalog have not yet been identified with a low-energy counterpart. We evaluate the plausibility of a Galactic population accounting for some or all of the unidentified EGRET sources by making the simple assumption that galaxies similar to the Milky Way host comparable populations of gamma-ray emitters. Rather than focusing on the properties of a specific candidate emitter, we constrain the abundance and spatial distribution of proposed Galactic populations. We find that it is highly improbable that the unidentified EGRET sources contain more than a handful of members of a Galactic halo population, but that current observations are consistent with all of these sources being Galactic objects if they reside entirely in the disk and bulge. We discuss the additional constraints and new insights into the nature of Galactic gamma-ray emitting populations that GLAST is expected to provide

  10. Virulence of H5N1 Influenza Virus in Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus Ibis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for insect control in households. In this study, six Cattle Egrets were experimentally infected intranasally with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) A/duck/Vietnam/40D/04 (H5N1) to investigate a possible epidemiologic role for Cattle Egrets in outbreaks of H5N1 AI in Vietnam. The Cattle Egrets were...

  11. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions wi...

  12. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis interactions with large mammals in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis are globally widespread, their ecology is not fully understood. Surveys of the species were undertaken in November 2012, and April 2013, in Lake Manyara National Park, Manyara Ranch, and outside the two protected areas. We investigated the effects of host identity, habitat type and host ...

  13. Unidentified EGRET sources and their possible Fermi counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapin, A R; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Larin, D S

    2017-01-01

    Unidentified EGRET sources from 3EG catalog have been analyzed. Preliminary data analysis has shown at least 23 of these sources coincide with those in 3FGL Fermi catalogue within 1, 2 and 3 sigma error intervals of the coordinates and fluxes. Their properties are discussed in the presented work. Even 3-sigma difference allows supposing sources similarity because of more than 3-sigma distinctions in values of fluxes between identified EGRET sources and their Fermi counterparts. For instance, the coincidence between 3EG J1255-0549 and 3FGL J1256.1-0547 was reported in Fermi catalogues 1FGL, 2FGL, 3FGL. However, these sources fluxes (in units of 10 −8 photons × cm −2 × s −1 ) in the energy band E > 100 MeV were 179.7 ± 6.7 (3EG), 44.711 ± 0.724 (3FGL), 53.611 ± 0.997 (2FGL) and 67.939 ± 1.861 (1FGL). Such effect was observed for sufficient portion of identified EGRET sources. It could cause by troubles of particles identification by Fermi/LAT trigger system. Very often charged particles recognized as gamma-quanta because of wrong backsplash analysis. Nevertheless, gammas counts as charged particles due analogous reason and rejected during ground data processing. For example, it appears as geomagnetic modulation presence on gamma-quanta count rate latitudinal profiles in energy band E > 20 MeV. (paper)

  14. The foraging behaviour of herons and egrets on the Magela Creek flood plain, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recher, H.F.; Holmes, R.T.

    1982-03-01

    Five species of diurnal herons are common on the Magela Creek flood plain and forage along the edges of natural and artifical waterbodies both inside and outside the Ranger Uranium Project Area. The species of heron differ in the kinds and sizes of prey they take, their foraging location, degree of sociality and foraging behaviour. Because it takes relatively large fish, the Great Egret, E. alba, is most likely to be affected by any contamination of the aquatic environment by heavy metals or radionuclides. The Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus is also abundant on the flood plain and probably feeds on large fish and frogs. The other herons take smaller or immature prey or hunt mostly in terrestrial habitats and are therefore less likely to be affected by contamination of the aquatic environment

  15. Optimal foraging of little egrets and their prey in a foraging game in a patchy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M W; Abramsky, Z; Kotler, B P; Rosenzweig, M L; Alteshtein, O; Vasserman, G

    2013-03-01

    We explored the behavioral game between a predator, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), and a prey, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), in a laboratory theater containing three fish pools. We tested the hypotheses that the egrets maximize their total capture success by responding to the fish's antipredatory behavior and that the behaviors of both players respond adaptively to the density distribution of fish among the pools. One experiment presented egrets with 15 fish per pool. The second experiment used a heterogeneous environment: pools 1, 2, and 3 had 10, 15, and 20 fish, respectively. Within each pool, fish could move between a safe, covered microhabitat and a risky, open microhabitat. Only the risky habitat had food, so fish were trading off food and safety by allocating the time spent in the two habitats. Egrets spent more total time in pools with more fish and returned to them sooner. Egrets maximized the number of fish they captured by following the matching rule of the ideal free distribution. The fish used the risky but productive habitat 65% of the time during experiments without egrets, but only 9% during experiments with 15 fish and egrets present somewhere in the theater. In addition, with egrets present, fish fine-tuned their behavior by reducing their use of the risky habitat as the egrets increased the frequency of their visits.

  16. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  17. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  18. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  19. The nature of the EGRET source 3EG J1621+8203

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.; Stern, D.; Halpern, J.; Mirabal, N.; Gotthelf, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    We present broad-band observations of 3EG J1621+8203 in an effort to understand the nature of this source. We have examined X-ray images of the field from the ROSAT PSPC, ROSAT HRI, and ASCA GIS to search for a possible counterpart to the EGRET source. We find several faint X-ray point sources in the gamma-ray error circle. Preliminary analysis indicates that most of the point sources correspond to stars or to faint radio sources. Of the nearly 40% identified sources in the 3EG Catalog, the vast majority are blazars, but there is no blazer candidate in the error circle of 3EG J1621+8203. Of the notable objects in the EGRET error circle, one is the bright FR I radio galaxy NGC 6251 at a redshift of 0.0249. If NGC 6251 is the counterpart to the EGRET source 3EG J1621+8203, then it would be the second radio galaxy to be detected by EGRET. The first was Centaurus A. Cen A provided the first clear evidence of the detection above 100 MeV of an AGN with a large-inclination jet. If the identification with NGC 6251 is correct, the apparent gamma-ray luminosity of 3EG J1621+8203 is lower than that of other EGRET blazars; just as in the case of Cen A

  20. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Statistics, and Unidentified EGRET Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadigaroglu, I.-A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1995-08-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high-energy γ-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of γ-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also shows that many of the unidentified EGRET plane sources should be pulsars and predicts the γ-ray fluxes of known radio pulsars. The contribution of unresolved pulsars to the background flux in the EGRET band is found to be ˜5%.

  1. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, David N; Drew, Mark L; Contreras, Cindy; Roset, Kimberly; Mora, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  2. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  3. A Search for EGRET/Radio Pulsars in the ETA Carina Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Our analysis of EGRET data for the radio pulsar PSR B1046-58, which lies it the Eta Carina region of the Galaxy, was highly successful, resulting in the discovery of strong evidence for gamma-ray pulsations from this source. This work was published in the Astrophysical Journal. Additional support for the association was published in a companion paper in which an analysis of the X-ray counterpart to PSR B1046-58 was done, and we showed that it was the only possible counterpart to the gamma ray source within the EGRET error box.

  4. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  5. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  6. Isolation of Salmonella spp. in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcio A; Fernandes, Érika F S T; Santana, Sandra C; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Barros, Mércia R; Vilela, Sineide M O; Reis, Eliane M F; Mota, Rinaldo A; Silva, Jean C R

    2018-03-03

    The growth of the population of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha constitutes a threat to public health and biological diversity because of their competition with and predation on native species and the possibility of transmission of pathogens to human beings, livestock and native wildlife. The aim here was to search for, isolate and identify serovars of Salmonella in clinically healthy local cattle egrets. Cloacal swabs were obtained from 456 clinically healthy cattle egrets of both sexes and a variety of ages. The swabs were divided into 51 pools. Six of these (11.7%) presented four serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: Salmonella serovar Typhimurium; Salmonella serovar Newport; Salmonella serovar Duisburg; and Salmonella serovar Zega. One sample was identified as S. enterica subspecies enterica O16:y:-. Results in this study suggest that cattle egrets may be reservoirs of this agent on Fernando de Noronha and represent a risk to public health and biological diversity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. The increasingly urban status of the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are even books on urban bird-watching (e.g. Milne 2006, which includes .... By 2014, the total numbers of Cattle Egret nests found in Kampala had reached just ... It is possible therefore that sharing nesting trees confers some benefit.

  8. The heron that laid the golden egg: metals and metalloids in ibis, darter, cormorant, heron, and egret eggs from the Vaal River catchment, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schyff, V; Pieters, R; Bouwman, H

    2016-06-01

    Metal pollution issues are afforded the highest priority in developing countries. Only one previous study has addressed metals in African bird eggs. We determined the concentration of metals and metalloids in bird eggs from four sites in the Vaal River catchment (VRC) of South Africa to provide data on the current situation. We analysed 16 pools of 77 heron, ibis, darter, egret, and cormorant eggs for 18 metals and metalloids using ICP-MS. We found high concentrations of gold (Au), uranium (U), thallium (Tl), and platinum (Pt) in Grey Heron eggs from Baberspan. Great white egrets from Bloemhof Dam had high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Multivariate analyses revealed strong associations between Au and U, and between palladium (Pd) and Pt. The toxic reference value (TRV) for Hg was exceeded in seven pools. Selenium exceeded its TRV in one pool; in the same pool, copper (Cu) reached its TRV. Compared with other studies, VRC bird eggs had high concentrations of contaminants. Based on these high concentrations, human health might be at risk as Grey Herons and humans share similar food and are therefore exposed to the same contaminants.

  9. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  10. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  11. EGRET Unidentified Source Radio Observations and Performance of Receiver Gain Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinuma, Kotaro; Asuma, Kuniyuki; Kuniyoshi, Masaya; Matsumura, Nobuo; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Kida, Sumiko; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Ichikawa, Hajime; Sawano, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Naoya; Suzuki, Shigehiro; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Yu; Daishido, Tsuneaki

    2006-01-01

    Last year, we have developed the receiver gain calibration system by using Johnson-Nyquist noise, for accuracy flux measurement, because we have been starting radio identification program of transient radio sources, blazars and radio counterpart of The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) unidentified γ-ray sources in Waseda Nasu Pulsar Observatory. It is shown that there are a few low correlation data between receiver gain and ambient temperature around receiver for anything troubles of receiver, because we can detect gain and ambient temperature through a day by developed system. Estimated fluctuations of daily data of steady sources decrease by removing low correlation data before analysing. As the result of our analysis by using above system, radio counterpart of EGRET identified source showed fading light-curve for a week

  12. Calibration and adjustment of the EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The coincidence/time-of-flight system of the energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) on NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of two layers of sixteen scintillator tiles. These tiles are paired into 96 coincidence telescopes. Valid coincidence and time-of-flight values (indicating downward moving particles) from one of these telescopes are two of the requirements for an EGRET event trigger. To maximize up-down discrimination, variations in the mean timing value of the telescopes must be minimized. The timing values of the 96 telescopes are not independent, hence they cannot be individually adjusted to calibrate the system. An iterative approach was devised to determine adjustments to the length of the photomultiplier signal cables. These adjustments were made directly in units of time using a time domain reflectometry technique, by timing the reflection of a fast pulse from the unterminated end of eable, and observing the charge in signal propagation time as the length of the cable was shortened. Two constant fraction discriminators, a time-to-amplitude converter and a pulse height analyzer were used for these measurements. Using this direct time measuring approach, the timing values for the 96 EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight telescopes were adjusted with an FWHM variation of less than 450 ps (± 1 TOF timing channel). (orig.)

  13. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  14. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  15. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  16. Photodegradation of wood and depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical degradation is a key process of the weathering that occurs when wood is exposed outdoors. It is also a major cause of the discoloration of wood in indoor applications. The effects of sunlight on the chemical composition of wood are superficial in nature, but estimates of the depth at which photodegradation occurs in wood vary greatly from 80 microm to as much as 2540 mic rom. Better understanding of the photodegradation of wood through depth profile analysis is desirable because it would allow the development of more effective photo-protective treatments that target the surface layers of wood most susceptible to photodegradation. This paper briefly describes fundamental aspects of photodegradation of wood and reviews progress made in the field of depth profile study on the photodegradation of wood. (author)

  17. Egret-Hibernia(!), a significant petroleum system, northern Grand Banks area, offshore eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Hudson, T.L.; Peters, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Egret-Hibernia(!) is a well-explored petroleum system (3.25 billion barrels oil equivalent [BOE]) located in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin on the Labrador - Newfoundland shelf. Rifting and sediment fill began in the Late Triassic. Egret source rock was deposited in the Late Jurassic at about 153 Ma. After this time, alternating reservoir rock and seal rock were deposited with some syndepositional faulting. By the end of the Early Cretaceous, faults and folds had formed numerous structural traps. For the next 100 m.y., overburden rock thermally matured the source rock when it reached almost 4 km (2.5 mi) burial depth. For 2 km (1.25 mi) below this depth, oil and gas were expelled, until the source was depleted. The expelled petroleum migrated updip to nearby faulted, anticlinal traps, where much of it migrated across faults and upsection to the Hibernia Formation (44% recoverable oil) and Avalon Formation (28%). Accumulation size decreased, and gas content increased from west to east, independent of trap size. These changes correspond to a decrease in source rock richness and quality from west to east. Almost all (96%) of the discovered petroleum resides in the Lower Cretaceous or older reservoir rock units. All accumulations found to date are normally pressured in structural traps. Fifty-two exploration wells found eighteen discoveries. Their size ranges from 1.2 to 0.01 billion BOE. Most discoveries were made between 1979 and 1991. The discovery cycle began with larger accumulations and progressed to smaller accumulations. The estimated sizes of the larger accumulations have grown since 1990. Estimated mean value for undiscovered hydrocarbons is 3.8 billion BOE, thereby raising the ultimate size of Egret-Hibernia(!) to 6.19 billion BOE. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  18. On the LHC observation of gluinos from the Egret-preferred region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, V. A.; Budagov, Ju. A.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Kazakov, D. I.; Khramov, E. V.; Khubua, D. I.

    2009-01-01

    Prospects for observation of a SUSY-like signal from two gluinos g-bar g-bar are investigated within a certain region of the mSUGRA parameter space, where the cross section of the two-gluino production in pp-collisions at the LHC (√s = 14 TeV) is estimated at a rather high level of 17.3 pb. In this so-called EGRET-preferred region, the lightest stable neutralinos χ 1 0 can serve as cold-dark-matter particles and can naturally explain the excess of diffuse Galactic gamma rays observed by the EGRET space apparatus. The g-bar g-bar-event selection relies on a clear signature when decay products of each gluino contain one bb-bar pair, one or two ll-bar pair(s) or one or two light qq-bar pair(s), and a neutralino. Rather high transverse missing energy carried away by the two neutralinos is the essential signature of the events using of which allows the relevant Standard Model background to be reduced significantly. Furthermore, distributions of the reconstructed invariant masses of two opposite-charged-lepton or light-jet pairs produced by the χ 2 0 → χ 1 0 l + l - and χ 2 0 → χ 1 0 qq-bar three-body decays have kinematic end points which measure the difference between masses of χ 2 0 and χ 1 0 . In particular, it was found that these signatures of selected processes demonstrate good prospects for discovery of gluinos at the LHC. These signatures allow one to distinguish different mSUGRA parameters m 1/2 within the EGRET-preferred region (at a higher than 6σ confidence level with 300 fb -1 data).

  19. Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, M; Mahoney, J S; Schroder, G D; Hacker, C S; Pier, S M

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets and laughing gulls gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Lead, cadmium, and manganese levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bones were comparable, but gulls had more lead in brain, liver, and kidney tissues than egrets had, which suggested a higher rate of accumulation or exposure. Because of their high abundance and comparable positions in the estuarine and terrestrial food webs, cattle egrets and laughing gulls may serve as convenient biological indicators to monitor potentially toxic substances in these ecosystems. (29 references, 7 tables)

  20. Study of the spectral characteristics of unidentified galactic EGRET sources. Are they pulsar-like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merck, M.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Esposito, J. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J. M.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lin, Y. C.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.; Michelson, P. F.; von Montigny, C.; Muecke, A.; Mukherjee, R.; Nolan, P. L.; Pohl, M.; Schneid, E.; Sreekumar, P.; Thompson, D. J.; Willis, T. D.

    1996-12-01

    A spectral study of unidentified galactic EGRET sources was performed. The derived spectra are compared to the spectra of pulsars to test the hypothesis, that a significant fraction of these sources are Geminga like radio-quiet pulsars (Yadigaroglu & Romani 1995ApJ...449..211Y). Most of the sources show significantly different spectra than expected under this hypothesis. Of those with spectra consistent with typical pulsar spectra, four are positionally consistent with young spin-powered radio pulsars leaving only very few Geminga type candidates in the sample.

  1. Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Beaming Evolution, Stats and Unident. EGRET Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We compute the variation of the beaming fraction with the efficiency of high energy gamma-ray production in the outer gap pulsar model of Romani and Yadigaroglu. This allows us to correct the fluxes observed for pulsars in the EGRET band and to derive a simple estimate of the variation of efficiency with age. Integration of this model over the population of young neutron stars gives the expected number of gamma-ray pulsars along with their distributions in age and distance. This model also sh...

  2. Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Lingual Salivary Glands of the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansour, Mansour I.; Jarrar, Bashir M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the morphological, histological and histochemical characterizations of the lingual salivary glands of the little egret, Egretta garzetta. The glands are composed of two posterior entities at the base of the tongue and one anterior entity on the dorsal surface of the free lingual part. These glands are made of mucoserous cells that elaborate sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but they are devoid of glycogen and neutral mucosubstances. The findings of the present study were compared with those reported for other birds in correlation with their phylogeny and feeding habits. (author)

  3. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  4. EGRET observations of diffuse gamma-ray emission in taurus and perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.; Grenier, Isabelle A.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission observed toward the extensive molecular cloud complexes in Taurus and Perseus by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The region's large size (more than 300 square degrees) and location below the plane in the anticenter are advantageous for straightforward interpretation of the interstellar emission. The complex of clouds in Taurus has a distance of ∼140 pc and is near the center of the Gould Belt. The complex in Perseus, adjacent to Taurus on the sky, is near the rim of the Belt at a distance of ∼300 pc. The findings for the cosmic-ray density and the molecular mass-calibrating ratio N(H 2 )/W CO in Taurus and Perseus are compared with results for other nearby cloud complexes resolved by EGRET. The local clouds that now have been studied in gamma rays can be used to trace the distribution of high-energy cosmic rays within 1 kpc of the sun

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Henk; Polder, Anuschka; Venter, Belinda; Skaare, Janneche U

    2008-03-01

    During the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from South Africa, despite the high levels found previously. We analysed eggs from African darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, African sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found HCB, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at detectable levels. The presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in South Africa. It also seemed as if terrestrial feeding birds had higher DDE:PCB ratios when compared with aquatic feeding birds. Except for chlordane, the African darter eggs had the highest levels of all other compounds (mean 370 and 300 ng g(-1) ww Sigma pesticides and Sigma PCBs, respectively). Multivariate analysis clearly distinguished the aquatic and terrestrially feeding birds on pollution profile. The African darter (aquatic feeding) and the cattle egret (terrestrial feeding) would be good indicator candidates. Eggshell thinning was detected in the African darter, and was associated with most of the compounds, including DDE and PCBs. We raise a concern that generally longer living birds in warmer climates, laying fewer eggs per clutch, might be at increased risk when compared with trophically similar birds exposed to equivalent levels of pollution in colder climates. Given the scarcity of water and the high biodiversity in Southern Africa, climate change will exert strong pressure, and any additional anthropogenic contamination at levels that can cause subtle behavioural, developmental and reproductive changes, can have serious effects.

  6. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  8. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  9. THE SEARCH FOR BLAZARS AMONG THE UNIDENTIFIED EGRET gamma-RAY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Meintjes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of a multi-wavelength follow-up study of selected flat spectrum extragalactic radio-optical counterparts within the error boxes of 13 unidentified EGRET sources. Two of these previously unidentified counterparts have been selected for optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up studies. Spectroscopic observations made with the 4.1m SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachón, Chile, showed that the spectra of the optical counterparts of 3EG J0821−5814 (PKS J0820−5705 and 3EG J0706−3837 (PMN J0710−3835 correspond to a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ and LINER-Seyfert I galaxy respectively. Optical photometry of these sources, performed with the 1.0m telescope at Sutherland (South-Africa shows noticeable intranight variability for PKS J0820−5705, as well as a 5 sigma variation of the mean brightness in the R-filter over a timescale of three nights. Significant variability has been detected in the B-band for PMN J0710−3835 as well. The gamma-ray spectral indices of all 13 candidates range between 2–3, correlating well with the BL Lacs and FSRQs detected with Fermi-LAT in the first 11 months of operation.

  10. Finishing of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  11. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  12. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  13. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  14. A novel avian-like hepatitis E virus in wild aquatic bird, little egret (Egretta garzetta), in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10 8 genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta). The complete genome of HEV strain little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN (KX589065) is 6660-nt long including a 18-nt 5' end and a 103-nt 3' end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4554nt/1517aa), ORF2 (1728nt/593aa) and ORF3 (339nt/112aa) encoded proteins of little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (62.8%, 71% and 61.5%) to the corresponding proteins of genotype 1 avian (chicken) HEV in species Orthohepevirus B, respectively. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel orthohepevirus distantly related to avian (chicken) HEVs at the first time in wild bird. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. Birds could be an important reservoir of HEV generally and could be infected with genetically highly divergent strains of HEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  16. Great Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  17. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elwood F.; Henry, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997–2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000–2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ∼ 100% MeHg) ≥0.80 μg THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained reproductive threshold of tolerance to MeHg may be associated with habitat quality (food type and abundance). Clearly, drought was the most important factor affecting snowy egret annual productivity. In contrast to snowy egrets, night-herons generally had fewer nests meeting the 0.80 μg THg/g criterion, and those above the criterion were less sensitive to mercury than were snowy egrets. Furthermore, night-herons appeared more tolerant of drought conditions than snowy egrets because they nested earlier, selected more protected nesting sites, and had a more generalist diet that provided additional food options including terrestrial

  18. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  19. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  20. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  1. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  2. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants ... Learn more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs ...

  3. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  4. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  5. Soil-wood interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der Annemieke; klein Gunnewiek, Paulien; Boer, de Wietse

    2017-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting fungi may affect soil fungal communities directly underneath decaying wood via their exploratory hyphae. In addition, differences in wood leachates between decaying tree species may influence soil fungal communities. We determined the composition of fungi in 4-yr old decaying logs

  6. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  7. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  8. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  9. Great Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip

  10. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in Montserrat, West Indies, and its impact on nest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; A.I. Arendt

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of the Cattle Egret's reproductive ecology and habitat use in an insular environment were studied on Montserrat, West Indies. Average size of 290 nests (17.9 cm) was smaller than sizes reported in the literature and was attributed to a paucity of available nesting materials. We measured 330 eggs to determine: egg volume (24,117.04 mm3), fresh egg weight (...

  11. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  12. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  13. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  14. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  15. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  16. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  17. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  18. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  19. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  20. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  1. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  2. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  3. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  4. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  5. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  6. How James Wood Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  7. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Jarkovsky, J.

    1973-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with a mixture of a vinyl or an allyl monomer (20 - 90 wt. %) and unsaturated polyester resins. The impregnated wood is then exposed to ionizing radiation at doses of 0.1 to 20 Mrad at a temperature of 60 to 180 degC. (B.S.)

  8. Chemical modification of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  9. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  10. GRO/EGRET data analysis software: An integrated system of custom and commercial software using standard interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubenthal, N. A.; Bertsch, D.; Lal, N.; Etienne, A.; Mcdonald, L.; Mattox, J.; Sreekumar, P.; Nolan, P.; Fierro, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has been in orbit for more than a year and is being used to map the full sky for gamma rays in a wide energy range from 30 to 20,000 MeV. Already these measurements have resulted in a wide range of exciting new information on quasars, pulsars, galactic sources, and diffuse gamma ray emission. The central part of the analysis is done with sky maps that typically cover an 80 x 80 degree section of the sky for an exposure time of several days. Specific software developed for this program generates the counts, exposure, and intensity maps. The analysis is done on a network of UNIX based workstations and takes full advantage of a custom-built user interface called X-dialog. The maps that are generated are stored in the FITS format for a collection of energies. These, along with similar diffuse emission background maps generated from a model calculation, serve as input to a maximum likelihood program that produces maps of likelihood with optional contours that are used to evaluate regions for sources. Likelihood also evaluates the background corrected intensity at each location for each energy interval from which spectra can be generated. Being in a standard FITS format permits all of the maps to be easily accessed by the full complement of tools available in several commercial astronomical analysis systems. In the EGRET case, IDL is used to produce graphics plots in two and three dimensions and to quickly implement any special evaluation that might be desired. Other custom-built software, such as the spectral and pulsar analyses, take advantage of the XView toolkit for display and Postscript output for the color hard copy. This poster paper outlines the data flow and provides examples of the user interfaces and output products. It stresses the advantages that are derived from the integration of the specific instrument-unique software and powerful commercial tools for graphics and

  11. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  12. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  13. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  14. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  15. Studies of non-contact methods for roughness measurements on wood surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, I.A.S.; Porankiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of wood surfaces after different kinds of machining processes is a property of great importance for the wood processing industries. Present work is a study, whose objective was to evaluate different non-contact methods, for measurement of the quality of the wood surfaces by correlating them with stylus tracing. A number of Scots Pine samples were prepared by different kinds of wood machining processing. Surface roughness measurements were performed, utilizing two optical noncontact methods. The results indicate that the laser scan method can measure surface roughness on sawn wood with a sufficient degree of accuracy. (author) [de

  16. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective...

  17. Wood for the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

  18. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  19. Wood plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Bonoan, L.S.; Verceluz, F.P.; Azucena, E.A.

    1976-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve the physical and mechaniproperties of local inferior quality wood species by radiation-induced graft polymerization with plastic monomers. The process involves the following: 1) Preparation of sample; 2) Impregnation of sample with the monomers; 3) Irradiation of the impregnated sample with the use of 20,000 curie Co-60 as gamma-source; 4) Drying of irradiated sample to remove the unpolymerized monomer. Experimentation on different wood species were undertaken and the results given. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the monomers systems MMA, MMA-USP, and styrene-USP are suitable for graft polymerization with the wood species almon, apitong, bagtikan, mayapis, red lauan, and tanguile. This is shown by their maximum conversion value which range from 86% to 96% with the optimum dose range of 1 to 2 Mrads. However, in the application of WPC process, properties that are required in a given wood product must be considered, thus aid in the selection of the monomer system to be used with a particular wood species. Some promising applications of WPC is in the manufacture of picker sticks, shuttles, and bobbins for the textile industry. However, there is a need for a pilot plant scale study so that an economic assessment of the commercial feasibility of this process can be made

  20. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  1. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  2. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermer, Joeran; Ekvall, Annika; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Waste wood is increasingly used as fuel in Sweden. It is of Swedish origin as well as imported, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. The waste wood is contaminated by e.g. paint and wood preservatives and objects of metal, glass, plastics etc. The contaminants may cause technical problems such as deposits and corrosion as well as plugging of air openings. The present study has focussed on potential contaminants in waste wood that could cause problems of technical as well as environmental nature. The major chemical contaminants are surface treatments (paints etc) and wood preservatives. The surface treatments contribute in particular to contaminants of zinc and lead. In some cases zinc has been found to cause severe deposits in the furnaces. Surface treatments also contribute to increased levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphur and nitrogen. Preservative-treated wood is the most important source of increased levels of copper, chromium and arsenic in the waste wood. Waste wood imported from Germany contains less arsenic but the same amount of copper and chromium as Swedish waste wood. The contents of mercury in German waste wood can be expected to be higher than in waste wood of Swedish origin. The fraction consisting of wood-based panels is comparably free from contaminants but as a result of the high contents of adhesives wood-based panels contribute to a higher proportion of nitrogen in waste wood than in forest residues. A great number of non-wood compounds (such as plastics and metals) do also contaminate waste wood. By careful and selective demolition and various sorting procedures most non-wood compounds will be separated from the waste wood. Waste sorting analyses carried out indicate that the waste wood contains approximately 1% non-wood compounds, mainly plastic and metal compounds, glass, dirt, concrete, bricks and gypsum. This may seem to be a small proportion, but if large amounts of waste wood are incinerated the non-wood compounds will inevitably cause

  3. WOOD PROPERTIES AND EFFECT OF WOOD PROPERTIES ON THE WOOD FINISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Malkoçoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is basic raw material for furniture and joinery industries with wood structures. Wood is a biological material that has widely different properties depending on species, geographic area where the tree grew, the growth condition, size of the tree at harvest, sawing, and other manufacturing processes. Wood properties have been characterized within two groups as natural and manufacturing factors that effects finishing performance. Grow rate, density, knots, moisture content, extractives and juvenile wood are natural characteristics. Grain orientation, texture, drying and performance expectations are manufacturing characteristics. In this review, the effects of natural and manufacturing characteristics are discussed on the surface finishing performance of wood.

  4. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  5. Wood for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, D

    1986-01-01

    Growing wood for energy could contribute three million tonnes of coal equivalent per year by the end of the century. Research programmes in the UK involved with energy forestry are reported. Three systems of wood energy, modified conventional forestry, single stem timber cropping and short rotation coppicing are being investigated. The short rotation coppicing requires inputs similar to those of agricultural crops and the machinery geared towards agricultural operations is compatible with it. Single stem forestry has a medium rotation period of 20 years. The production of coppice wood fuels is discussed in further detail for different parts of the UK with recommendations for species selection and adaption of existing farming practices. A coppice willow harvester has been developed for harvesting during November - February. Weed control and fertilizer application are also briefly mentioned.

  6. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  7. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  8. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  9. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  10. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  11. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  12. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  13. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  14. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  15. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  16. Status of wood energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    In this address, the potential of wood and wood residues to supply future energy needs is examined. In addition, the possible environmental impact of the use of wood fuels on global climate change is discussed. Technologies for the development of new fuels are described

  17. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  18. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a general description of the microscopic wood anatomy of Annonaceae is given. We provide a description of the wood anatomical features of the family and of all subfamilies and tribes, all from material in the Utrecht Wood collection. Hand-lens images can be an important help in

  19. Wood construction and magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Hideo; Hojo, Atsushi; Seki, Kyoushiro; Takashiba, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The results of experiments involving the AC and DC magnetic characteristics of impregnated type magnetic wood were studied by taking into consideration the wood construction and fiber direction. The experimental results show that the sufficient amount of impregnated magnetic fluid varies depending on the fiber direction and length, and the grain face of the wood material. The impregnated type magnetic wood sample that is fully impregnated by magnetic fluid has a 60% saturation magnetization compared to the saturation magnetization of magnetic fluid. Samples for which the wood fiber direction was the same as the direction of the magnetic path had a higher magnetization intensity and permeability

  20. Comparative study of Danish prefab houses made of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The use of wood in Danish prefab building projects is increasing, but there is not a strong architectural tradition in Denmark for constructing timber housing. This paper therefore contains a comparative study of various manners of incorporating architectural features in prefab houses made of wood....... In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values....... It was concluded that especially two aspects are of great importance for the concrete handling of the architectural quality of prefab houses made of wood; 1) flexibility in relation to user and site, and 2) the interaction between form, logics and material. It is suggested that keeping these two aspects in mind...

  1. Growth and wood properties of genetically improved loblolly pine: propagation type comparison and genetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence Schimleck; Lewis Jordan; Benjamin Hornsby; Joseph Dahlen; Richard Daniels; Alexander Clark; Luis Apiolaza; Dudley Huber

    2013-01-01

    The use of clonal varieties in forestry offers great potential to improve growth traits (quantity) and wood properties (quality) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Loblolly pine trees established via somatic embryogenesis (clones), full-sib zygotic crosses, and half-sib zygotic open-pollinated families were sampled to identify variation in growth and wood properties...

  2. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  3. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  4. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  5. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O; Ribeiro, R [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1998-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Sweetgum - an American wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1973-01-01

    Sweetgum grows throughout most of the eastern United States and sporadically throughout Mexico and Central America. The wood is moderately heavy, even-textured, and it machines moderately well. It is used for a variety of purposes, with furniture, plywood, containers, and pulp absorbing the most volume. Growth is good, but supplies are slowly diminishing because the...

  7. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  9. Quaternized wood as sorbent for hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, K S; Lee, C K; Lee, C Y

    2001-01-01

    The potential of quaternized wood (QW) chips in removing hexavalent chromium from synthetic solution and chrome waste under both batch and continuous-flow conditions was investigated. Sorption was found to be dependent on pH, metal concentration, and temperature. QW chips provide higher sorption capacity and wider pH range compared with untreated wood chips. The equilibrium data could be fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model, and maximum sorption capacities were calculated to be 27.03 and 25.77 mg/g in synthetic chromate solution and chrome waste, respectively. The presence of sulfate in high concentration appeared to suppress the uptake of chromium by QW chips. Column studies showed that bed depth influenced the breakthrough time greatly whereas flow rate of influent had little effect on its sorption on the column.

  10. Wood construction under cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Hagman, Olle; Sundqvist, Bror

    2014-01-01

    As wood constructions increasingly use engineered wood products worldwide, concerns arise about the integrity of the wood and adhesives system. The glueline stability is a crucial issue for engineered wood application, especially under cold climate. In this study, Norway spruce (Picea abies...... affected shear strength of wood joints. As temperature decreased, the shear strength decreased. PUR resin resulted in the strongest shear strength at all temperatures tested. MF resin responded to temperature changes in a similar ways as the PUR resin. The shear strength of wood joints with EPI resins...... specimens need to be tested in further work to more completely present the issue. The EN 301 and EN 302 may need to be specified based on wood species....

  11. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  12. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 50 years of research focused on large wood (LW) in rivers provide a basis for understanding how wood enters rivers; how wood decays, breaks, and is transported downstream; and how at least temporarily stable wood influences channel geometry, fluxes of water, sediment, and organic matter, and the abundance and diversity of aquatic and riparian organisms. Field-based studies have led to qualitative conceptual models and to numerical stimulations of river processes involving wood. Numerous important gaps remain, however, in our understanding of wood dynamics. The majority of research on wood in rivers focuses on small- to medium-sized rivers, defined using the ratio of wood piece size to channel width as channels narrower than the locally typical wood-piece length (small) and slightly narrower than the longer wood pieces present (medium). Although diverse geographic regions and biomes are represented by one or a few studies in each region, the majority of research comes from perennial rivers draining temperate conifer forests. Regional syntheses most commonly focus on the Pacific Northwest region of North America where most of these studies originate. Consequently, significant gaps in our understanding include lack of knowledge of wood-related processes in large rivers, dryland rivers, and rivers of the high and low latitudes. Using a wood budget as an organizing framework, this paper identifies other gaps related to wood recruitment, transport, storage, and how beavers influence LW dynamics. With respect to wood recruitment, we lack information on the relative importance of mass tree mortality and transport of buried or surficial downed wood from the floodplain into the channel in diverse settings. Knowledge gaps related to wood transport include transport distances of LW and thresholds for LW mobility in small to medium rivers. With respect to wood storage, we have limited data on longitudinal trends in LW loads within unaltered large and great rivers and on

  13. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  14. Lump wood combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  15. THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE, STEPHENS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA, MISSOURI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCBRIDE, WILMA

    THE JAMES MADISON WOOD QUADRANGLE AT STEPHENS COLLEGE IS A COMPLEX OF BUILDINGS DESIGNED TO MAKE POSSIBLE A FLEXIBLE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT. A LIBRARY HOUSES A GREAT VARIETY OF AUDIO-VISUAL RESOURCES AND BOOKS. A COMMUNICATION CENTER INCORPORATES TELEVISION AND RADIO FACILITIES, A FILM PRODUCTION STUDIO, AND AUDIO-VISUAL FACILITIES. THE LEARNING…

  16. VARIATION IN THE FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cani

    The study investigated the fibre characteristics and chemical composition of Vitex doniana towards determining its potentials for pulp and paper. Fibre dimensions are of great importance because of the strong correlation between it and the strength properties of wood and paper. Axial and radial examinations of fibre ...

  17. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK -1 , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m -3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Radioactivity of Wood and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hus, M.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear experiments in the atmosphere and nuclear accidents caused global deposition of artificial radionuclides in the soil of Earth's northern hemisphere, the territory of the Republic of Croatia included. Soil contamination by radionuclides resulted in their deposition in plants growing on the contaminated soil as well as in the trees. Large area of the Republic of Croatia is covered with wood, which is exploited in manufacture of industrial wood and for firewood. From approximately 3 million cubic metres of wood exploited annually, nearly one third serves for firewood. In the process of burning a smaller portion of radionuclides deposited in the wood evaporates and goes to atmosphere while a larger portion is retained in the ash. In this paper are presented the results of natural radionuclides 4 0K , 2 32T h and 2 38U as well as of artificial radionuclide 1 37C s content determination in the wood, wood briquette, charcoal and in ash remained after burning the wood, wood briquette and charcoal. The obtained results are discussed from wood radiocontamination aspect and from the aspect of potential environmental radiocontamination by the products from wood burning process. (author)

  19. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  20. Method of stabilizing wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesek, M.; Dedek, V.; Plander, E.

    1975-01-01

    Wood is impregnated with vinyl monomers in a solution of organic solvents and in the presence of a swelling agent. The impregnation mixture contains a diolefinic hydrocarbon and/or a solid chlorinated or bromated compound with the melting point exceeding 30 degC and less than 10 % of an organosilicon compound. Polymerization is effected by ionizing radiation and a subsequent action of temperature in a range of 40 to 150 JegC. (B.S.)

  1. Wood Composite Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  2. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  3. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  4. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out. The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips. Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp, integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Trichoderma-enriched organic charcoal in the integrated wood protection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The gradual elimination of chromium from wood preservative formulations results in higher Cu leaching and increased susceptibility to wood decay fungi. Finding a sustainable strategy in wood protection has become of great interest among researchers. The objective of these in vitro studies was to demonstrate the effect of T-720-enriched organic charcoal (biochar against five wood decay basidiomycetes isolated from strongly damaged poles. For this purpose, the antagonistic potential of Trichoderma harzianum (strain T-720 was confirmed among other four Trichoderma spp. against five brown-rot basidiomycetes in dual culture tests. T-720 was genetically transformed and tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP in order to study its antagonistic mechanism against wood decay basidiomycetes. It was also demonstrated that T-720 inhibits the oxalic acid production by basidiomycetes, a well-known mechanism used by brown-rot fungi to detoxify Cu from impregnated wood. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of biochar, alone or in combination with T-720, on Cu leaching by different preservatives, pH stabilization and prevention of wood decay caused by five basidiomycetes. Addition of biochar resulted in a significant Cu binding released from impregnated wood specimens. T-720-enriched biochar showed a significant reduction of wood decay caused by four basidiomycetes. The addition of T-720-enriched biochar to the soil into which utility poles are placed may improve the efficiency of Cr-free wood preservatives.

  6. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  7. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  8. Inoculation Expedition of Agar wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation expedition of agar wood is a main field works for researcher in Nuclear Malaysia to prove the real inoculation of agar wood in real jungle. These expeditions was conducted fourth times in the jungles of Malaysia including Gunung Tebu in Terengganu, Murum in Belaga, Sarawak, Kampung Timbang in Kota Belud, Sabah and Nuclear Malaysia itself. This expedition starts from preparation of samples and equipment, transportation into the jungle, searching and recognition of agar wood and lastly, inoculation of the agar wood. Safety aspects precedence set out in the preparation and implementation of this expedition. (author)

  9. The wood energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douard, F.; Oremus, Y.; Garsault-Fabbi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The program law fixing the energy policy (POPE Law of the 13 july 2005) fixes an objective of 50% of growth for the renewable heat. As this renewable heat is today generated by the biomass, it seems necessary to adjust all the efforts on this sector. This document proposes to takes stock on the wood energy in France. It presents the wood fuels, an evaluation of the Wood-Energy Plan decided by the ADEME in 2000, the wood heat networks, and some example of installations. (A.L.B.)

  10. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  11. Survival, growth, wood basic density and wood biomass of seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A performance comparison of seven-year-old individuals of 13 Casuarina species/provenances in terms of survival, growth (diameter, height and volume), wood basic density and wood biomass was undertaken at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania. The trial was laid out using a randomised complete block design with four ...

  12. Co-combustion of anthracite coal and wood pellets: Thermodynamic analysis, combustion efficiency, pollutant emissions and ash slagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feihong; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2018-08-01

    This work presents studies on the co-combustion of anthracite coal and wood pellets in fluidized bed. Prior to the fluidized bed combustion, thermogravimetric analysis are performed to investigate the thermodynamic behavior of coal and wood pellets. The results show that the thermal decomposition of blends is divided into four stages. The co-firing of coal and wood pellets can promote the combustion reaction and reduce the emission of gaseous pollutants, such as SO 2 and NO. It is important to choose the proportion of wood pellets during co-combustion due to the low combustion efficiency caused by large pellets with poor fluidization. Wood pellets can inhibit the volatilization of trace elements, especially for Cr, Ni and V. In addition, the slagging ratio of wood pellets ash is reduced by co-firing with coal. The research on combustion of coal and wood pellets is of great significance in engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population structure of Argas arboreus (Acari : Argasidae ticks associated with seasonally abandoned mixed heronries, dominated by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Belozerov

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through induction of reproductive diapause in engorged females, and behavioural diapause in unfed nymphs and adult ticks. Many ticks showed morphological anomalies and malformations, the study of which could possibly be used for monitoring of environmental pollution.

  14. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  15. UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Véronic Landry; Pierre Blanchet; Gabrielle Boivin; Jean-François Bouffard; Mirela Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) have attracted great interest in recent years. They can be used to polymerize coatings, such as those used for prefinished wood flooring. In this project, two lamps were compared for their suitability to be used on a wood flooring finishing line: a UV-microwave and a UV-LED lamp. Low heat emission was found for the UV-LED lamp compared to the UV-microwave one. This study also reveals that the 4 W/cm2 UV-LED lamp used is not powerf...

  16. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  17. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  18. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  19. The wood of Merovingian weaponry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tegel, W.; Muigg, B.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, JAN (2016), s. 148-153 ISSN 0305-4403 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * Merovingian weaponry * Mineralised wood * Wood anatomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  20. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  1. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  2. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  3. Composites from wood and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  4. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  5. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  6. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  7. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  8. On Erdos–Wood's conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we prove that infinite number of integers satsify Erdős–Woods conjecture. Moreover, it follows that the number of natural numbers ≤ satisfies Erdős–Woods conjecture with = 2 is at least /(log ) for some positive constant > 2.

  9. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  10. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  11. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  12. Considerations on wood energy in a systemic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino D, Juan F; Quintero, Ricardo S

    2008-01-01

    The energy obtained from woody biomass or also called wood energy, takes each time more importance as another of the alternatives to the current energy and environmental crisis associated to the excessive use of fossil fuels. Nevertheless, there still exist a series of prejudices, information gaps and disagreements about wood energy that deserves an adequate treatment and disclosure as it is intended in this paper. For this aim, it's necessary to consider wood energy under a systemic view that means, accounting for each component as an interdependent part that managed all together results in the so called wood energy systems. They integrate aspects as the production, logging and transportation of biomass? Conversion to useful forms of energy and utilization in specific applications. Due to the great diversity of factors and agents involved, is necessary to carry out an adequate process of this type of energy systems planning, using for this purpose tools as the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which can help to obtain the design of optimized systems, that reach their greater potential bringing with them great energy and socio environmental benefits. There are still few experiences in wood energy systems, and especially in Colombia where there is a lack of pilot projects where the convenience of its implementation could be demonstrated offering guidelines for its planning, operation and maintenance. Due to the large opportunities that wood energy presents and its scarce development, it is enormously justified to develop in an ordered and planned way this forgotten sector under a systemic treatment as the one that is considered here.

  13. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  14. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  15. Wood would burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swithenbank, Jim; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Absract: In view of the world-wide problem of energy sustainability and greenhouse gas production (carbon dioxide), it is timely to review the issues involved in generating heat and power from all fuels and especially new (to the UK) solid fuels, including high moisture fuels such as wood, SRF, oil shale, tar sands and brown coal, which will become major international fuels as oil and gas become depleted. The combustion properties of some of these materials are significantly different from traditional coal, oil and gas fuels, however the technology proposed herein is also applicable to these conventional fuels. This paper presents some innovative combustion system options and the associated technical factors that must be considered for their implementation. For clarity of understanding, the novel concepts will be largely presented in terms of a currently developing solid fuel market; biomass wood chips. One of the most important characteristics of many solid fuels to be used in the future (including oil shale and brown coal) is their high moisture content of up to 60%. This could be removed by utilising low grade waste heat that is widely available in industry to dry the fuel and thus reduce transport costs. Burning such dried wood for power generation also increases the energy available from combustion and thus acts as a thermal transformer by upgrading the low grade heat to heat available at combustion temperatures. The alternative approach presented here is to recover the latent heat by condensing the extrinsic moisture and the water formed during combustion. For atmospheric combustion, the temperature of the condensed combustion products is below the dew point at about 55-65 o C and is only suitable for recovery in an efficient district heating system. However, in order to generate power from the latent heat, the condensation temperature must be increased to the level where the heat can be used in the thermodynamic power cycle. This can be achieved by

  16. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Xiaoqing, E-mail: wangxq@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Forestry New Technology, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China); Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  17. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorod arrays were deposited on the wood surface via a hydrothermal process. • The assembled ZnO nanorod arrays greatly enhanced the photostability of wood. • The treated wood can sustain direct exposure to flame with only minor smoldering. • The ZnO-coated wood modified with stearic acid showed a superhydrophobic surface. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  18. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  20. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  1. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  2. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  3. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  4. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  5. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  6. Potential wood protection strategies using physiological requirements of wood degrading fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sailer, M.F.; Etten, B.D. van

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing restrictions in the use of wood preserving biocides a number of potential biocide free wood preserving alternatives are currently assessed. Wood degrading fungi require certain conditions in the wood in order to be able to use wood as a food source. This paper discusses the

  7. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  8. The Next Great Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  9. Women's work... in wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1998-01-01

    Women have opportunities galore in the 1990s in wood products research, education, extension, consulting,manufacturing, marketing, and associations in North America. In the 1980s the same statement could not have been made.

  10. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  11. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  12. Rethinking wood dust safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnasingam, Jega; Wai, Lim Tau; Ramasamy, Geetha; Ioras, Florin; Tadin, Ishak; Universiti Putra Malaysia; Buckinghamshire New University; Centre for Occupational Safety and Health Singapore

    2015-01-01

    The current universal work safety and health standards pertaining to wood dust in factories lack the localisation required. As a study has shown, there is a urgent need to reevaluate the current guidelines and practices.

  13. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  14. What Next for Wood Construction/Demolition Debris?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2014-01-01

    Residents in localities throughout the world voluntarily participate in the routine recycling of household wastes, such as paper, metals, and plastics containers. But when a house in their neighborhood gets built or torn down, most of the debris – including wood waste – gets landfilled. Such a waste of material suggests that there are opportunities to add value to these under-utilized resources. The great variability, as well as contamination, pose major challenges. It is recommended that rec...

  15. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  16. Life cycle environmental impacts of different construction wood waste and wood packaging waste processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Kaisa; Judl, Jáchym; Myllymaa, Tuuli

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the life cycle environmental impacts of different wood waste processing methods in three impact categories: climate impact, acidification impacts and eutrophication impacts. The wood waste recovery methods examined were the use of wood waste in terrace boards made out of wood composite which replace impregnated terrace boards, incineration of wood waste in a multi-fuel boiler instead of peat and the use of wood waste in the production of particleboard in either Finland or ...

  17. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  18. Effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy W.C. Lee; Zhongli Hong; Douglas R. Phillips; Chung-Yun Hse

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cement/wood ratios and wood storage conditions on hydration temperature, hydration time, and compressive strength of wood-cement mixtures made from six wood species: southern pine, white oak, southern red oak, yellow-poplar, sweetgum, and hickory. Cement/wood ratios varied from 13/1 to 4/1. Wood storage conditions consisted of air-...

  19. Great Indoors Awards 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Hollandis Maastrichtis jagati 17. XI esimest korda rahvusvahelist auhinda The Great Indoors Award. Aasta sisekujundusfirmaks valiti Masamichi Katayama asutatud Wonderwall. Auhinna said veel Zaha Hadid, Heatherwick Studio, Ryui Nakamura Architects ja Item Idem

  20. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  1. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reactivity and burnout of wood fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo

    This thesis deals with the combustion of wood in pulverised fuel power plants. In this type of boiler, the slowest step in the wood conversion process is char combustion, which is one of the factors that not only determine the degree of fuel burnout, but also affect the heat release profile...... of different aspects relevant to wood combustion, including wood structure and composition, wood pyrolysis, wood char properties and wood char oxidation. The full scale campaign, which is the subject of Chapter 3, included sampling of wood fuel before and after milling and sampling of gas and particles...... at the top of the combustion chamber. The collected samples and data are used to obtain an evaluation of the mills in operation at the power plant, the particle size distribution of the wood fuel, as well as the char conversion attained in the furnace. In Chapter 4 an experimental investigation...

  3. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  4. Emission of dioxins from fireplaces and wood-burning stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.J.; Vikelsoee, J.; Madsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the Environmental Report No. 149 was published. The result of this investigation was that exceptionally large quantities of dioxin were emitted from burning of clean wood in fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. The conclusion was, however, that it was a preliminary investigation subject to great uncertainties. So it was recommended to make further investigations. The project was continued in 1990, and the present report is the result of this investigation. The fuels applied were logged and treated as an integral part of the test in order to take precautions against contamination. A new test arrangement with a dilution channel was developed in order to be able to take samples. The dilution channel made it possible to take out representative samples for the entire combustion process. Four wood-burning stoves were chosen for the experiments. Two stoves representing those sold from 1960 till 1990. One new stove approved according to DS 887 and finally a prototype stove. The dioxin analysis method was developed so that it could better handle the presence of tar in the samples taken. Danmarks Miljoe Undersoegelse (DMU) - The Danish Environmental Investigations - carried out a great work of development and documentation in this field. Before the main experiment a validation of the sampling and the analysis method was made. The conclusion was that the sampling and analysis method was satisfactory and that a continuity from Environmental Project no. 149 was ensured. During the execution of the present project a probable explanation of the high dioxin emission has been found which were reported in Environmental Project No. 149. The reason is in all probability contamination from burning of pressure-creosoted wood with burning of clean wood. The present report contains a number of appendices showing results from single experiments, references and a number of references to supplementary reports which were elaborated during the progress of the work. (EG)

  5. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouter, S.

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E -2 eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10 -4 m -2 s -1 GeV -1 in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  6. wood burns down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bukh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available To relax the local authorities and to receive the guests of high rank «with no tie» the so-called «Fisherman's House» was built at the source of Angara-river, near Lake Baikal. Vladimir Ivanov, a young architect, was noticed by his skillful performa nee of exclusive orders and became the author of this house. At the time of ferroconcrete boom the proposal to build a wooden guest house turned out to be unexpectedly to the point and was graciously approved. The economic department was entrusted to select the men good for carpenter's work, and the forestry department was entrusted to provide thick round timber. And the work started. But, as it usually happens, the workers did not take the trouble and made the first eight rims of the current timber with an inappropriate diameter.And when Pavlov insisted on demolishing the construction and replacing the logs by the logs with the necessary diameter, the building work obeyed to his will and was finished suecessfully.The architecture of the house is not the derived action of the saw and the fret-saw. It is a technology of the axe. It is natural, convincing and original. It is no use to look for the local sources in it. It grew up in the area of timber and cold winter. And this clear and efficient action kept the construction from the annoying vulgarity and provided Siberian exotics easily penetrating into one's soul, refined as it may be.One of the eminent guests said with admiration: «Even if Pavlov had created nothing more, he would have justified his professional choice with this single house.» Why not to say it as a good toast. However, this is a suitable case to add: style is an absence of style. It is a taste.After the Fisherman's House Irkutsk architects were attracted by wood. They followed the strictness in wood and, as much as they could, created a couple of successful remakes, until the cylinder logs and ... new

  7. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure. (paper)

  8. The GREAT3 challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, H; Mandelbaum, R; Rowe, B

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-based data. The details of the challenge are described in [1], and the challenge website and its leader board can be found at http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/, respectively

  9. Classification of CITES-listed and other neotropical Meliaceae wood images using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Costa, Adriana; Soares, Richard; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2018-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art for field wood identification to combat illegal logging relies on experienced practitioners using hand lenses, specialized identification keys, atlases of woods, and field manuals. Accumulation of this expertise is time-consuming and access to training is relatively rare compared to the international demand for field wood identification. A reliable, consistent and cost effective field screening method is necessary for effective global scale enforcement of international treaties such as the Convention on the International Trade in Endagered Species (CITES) or national laws (e.g. the US Lacey Act) governing timber trade and imports. We present highly effective computer vision classification models, based on deep convolutional neural networks, trained via transfer learning, to identify the woods of 10 neotropical species in the family Meliaceae, including CITES-listed Swietenia macrophylla , Swietenia mahagoni , Cedrela fissilis , and Cedrela odorata . We build and evaluate models to classify the 10 woods at the species and genus levels, with image-level model accuracy ranging from 87.4 to 97.5%, with the strongest performance by the genus-level model. Misclassified images are attributed to classes consistent with traditional wood anatomical results, and our species-level accuracy greatly exceeds the resolution of traditional wood identification. The end-to-end trained image classifiers that we present discriminate the woods based on digital images of the transverse surface of solid wood blocks, which are surfaces and images that can be prepared and captured in the field. Hence this work represents a strong proof-of-concept for using computer vision and convolutional neural networks to develop practical models for field screening timber and wood products to combat illegal logging.

  10. Mechanical properties: wood lumber versus plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Zandomenico Dias

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic lumber and thermoplastic composites are sold as alternatives to wood products. However, many technical standards and scientific studies state that the two materials cannot be considered to have the same structural behaviour and strength. Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. How different are their mechanical properties? This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. The data were collected from books, scientific papers and manufacturers' websites and technical data sheets, and subsequently compiled and presented in Ashby plots and bar graphs. The high values of the compressive strength and specific compressive and tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (width direction shown by the experimental thermoplastic composites compared to wood reveal their great potential for use in compressed elements and in functions where components are compressed or tensioned perpendicularly to the grain. However, the low specific flexural modulus and high density of thermoplastic materials limit their usage in certain civil engineering and building applications.

  11. Liquefaction of aspen poplar wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Mathews, J F; Pepper, J M

    1982-01-01

    Dried and green aspen poplar wood suspended in water containing alkali catalysts was converted completely to an oil, water-soluble chemical, and gases by heating for 1 hour in the presence of CO in a rocking batch reactor. Within the ranges of parameters studied: temperature of 593-633 K; nominal reaction times of less than or equal to 1 hour; water-to-wood ratio of 0.5:1-5:1; Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and NaOH catalysts; amount of catalyst 7.0-12.5%; and initial H-CO ratios of 2:1-0:1, the water-to-wood ratio was most important. Oil yields of approximately 50% with a C plus H content of approximately 80% and representing a C recovery of approximately 66% were obtained. The higher heats of combustion were 32.2-36.0 MJ/kg.

  12. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  13. Wood-burning stoves worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo

    global environmental health risk, since these sources are important contributors to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the ambient air that increase climate and health risks. This thesis explores the social-technical dimensions of both the use of wood-burning stoves (WBSs) and transition to the use......More than any time in our history, the wood-burning stove continues to be the most popular technology used for cooking and heating worldwide. According to the World Health Organization and recent scientific studies, the inefficient use of solid-fuels in traditional stoves constitutes the major...... systems, improved efficient retrofits and advanced stove innovations. In chapter 3, four popular wood-burning practices found in five countries were singled-out to be examined closely in four case studies: “cooking in Brazil”, “cooking and heating in Peru”, “heating in Portugal” and “recreational heat...

  14. Nothing Great Is Easy

    OpenAIRE

    Stansbie, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    A solo exhibition of 13 pieces of art work.\\ud \\ud Nothing Great is Easy is an exhibition of sculpture, film, drawing and photography that proposes reconstructed narratives using the sport of swimming and in particular the collective interaction and identity of the channel swimmer. The work utilises the processes, rituals/rules, language and the apparatus of sport.\\ud \\ud “Nothing great is easy” are the words on the memorial to Captain Matthew Webb who was the first man to swim the English ch...

  15. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    We once had a corp, or should we say, it once had us They showed us its tags, isn’t it great, unified tags They asked us to parse and they told us to use everything So we looked around and we noticed there was near nothing We took other langs, bitext aligned: words one-to-one We played for two weeks, and then they said, here is the test The parser kept training till morning, just until deadline So we had to wait and hope what we get ...

  16. Assessment of the wood waste resource and its position in the wood / wood-energy sector - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Ludovic; Deroubaix, Gerard; Roux, Marie-Lise; Levet, Anne-Laure; Quint, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    The first objective of this study is to obtain a better knowledge of the 'wood wastes' issue, to propose a photography of the wood waste sector (productions, trades, consumptions), and then to elaborate different prospective scenarios on the use of wood waste volumes while taking into account possible evolutions on the medium or short term of the regulation and market of the wood/wood energy sector. The considered wastes come from industrial production, from the use of wood-based products, and from the end of life of products potentially containing wood. The authors present bibliographical sources and the adopted methodology, briefly describe the 'wood waste' system with its actors, and then report their assessment of wood wastes. They propose a global assessment as well as detailed assessments with respect to waste origins: wood trade and distribution, industries, craft, households and communities, building sector, public and private tertiary sector, packaging. They also address the collection and management of wood wastes by public services, and present the different types of valorisation (panel fabrication, energy, and others). They discuss exports, and then present different scenarios: a trend-based scenario, and two prospective scenarios with a priority to energetic valorisation or to material valorisation of wood wastes. These scenarios are compared

  17. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  18. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  19. The environmental assessment of the wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, Cristian; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analysed the emissions from residential boilers burning wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. Three boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study. The emissions captured comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). We have used the Life Cycle Inventory method in order to identify the main stressors generated by the wood combustion stage. In this purpose, we have analysed one type of old boiler, one type of modern boiler and a multi-fuel boiler, which can burn wood logs, bark pellets, wood briquettes and wood pellets. In this article, we selected only the wood combustion stage because it is the most important according to the emissions produced. (authors)

  20. Ergonomics and safety in secondary wood processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.

  1. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  2. Fuel wood symposium; Symposium Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, C.; Wauer, A. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) organised a 'Fuel Wood Symposium' in Freising-Weihenstephan on 17.11.2000. The purpose of this specialist conference was to give an overview of the use of biomass, especially wood, as an source of energy. (orig.) [German] Die Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wald und Forstwirtschaft richtete am 17.11.2000 in Freising-Weihenstephan das 'Symposium Energieholz' aus. Ziel der Fachtagung war es, einen Ueberblick ueber die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, insbesondere Holz, zu geben. (orig.)

  3. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  4. Preparation of coloured wood plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.T.; Filippova, T.G.; Rajchuk, F.Z.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made into the possibility of using fat, as well as alcohol- and water-soluble dyes for radiation-chemical dying of polymers and plastics filled with wood. The use of fat-soluble azo and anthraquinone dyes permits obtaining intensely colored wood-plastic materials based on methyl methacrylate by way of gamma radiation with doses of up to 3 Mrad. At a dose above 5 Mrad, a marked tarnishing of the dye or a change in color and stains are observed. Dyes in styrene withstand higher radiation doses without any significant destruction

  5. Wood pellets for stoker burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykaenen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author of this article has had a stoker for several years. Wood chips and sod peat has been used as fuels in the stoker, either separately or mixed. Last winter there occurred problems with the sod peat due to poor quality. Wood pellets, delivered by Vapo Oy were tested in the stoker. The price of the pellets seemed to be a little high 400 FIM/500 kg large sack. If the sack is returned in good condition 50 FIM deposit will be repaid to the customer. However, Vapo Oy informed that the calorific value of wood pellets is three times higher than that of sod peat so it should not be more expensive than sod peat. When testing the wood pellets in the stoker, the silo of the stoker was filled with wood pellets. The adjustments were first left to position used for sod peat. However, after the fire had ignited well, the adjustments had to be decreased. The content of the silo was combusted totally. The combustion of the content of the 400 litter silo took 4 days and 22 hours. Respectively combustion of 400 l silo of good quality sod peat took 2 days. The water temperature with wood pellets remained at 80 deg C, while with sod peat it dropped to 70 deg C. The main disadvantage of peat with small loads is the unhomogenous composition of the peat. The results of this test showed that wood pellets will give better efficiency than peat, especially when using small burner heads. The utilization of them is easier, and the amount of ash formed in combustion is significantly smaller than with peat. Wood pellets are always homogenous and dry if you do not spoil it with unproper storage. Pellets do not require large storages, the storage volume needed being less than a half of the volume needed for sod peat. When using large sacks the amount needed can even be transported at the trunk of a passenger car. Depending on the area to be heated, a large sack is sufficient for heating for 2-3 weeks. Filling of stoker every 2-5 day is not an enormous task

  6. Wood preservatives and pressure-treated wood: considerations for historic-preservation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Anthony; Stan T. Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wood, an abundant resource throughout most of the world, has been used as a building material for thousands of years. Many historic buildings have been built primarily of wood, and masonry and stone buildings generally have wood elements, both structural and architectural. As a biological material, wood is both remarkably complex and yet quite durable if well...

  7. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  8. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Jakub; Florek, Marek; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Lekki, Janusz; Chevallier, Pierre; Zieba, Emil; Mestres, Narcis; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Kuczumow, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, μ-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of μ-Raman and μ-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested

  9. Composite structure of wood cells in petrified wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Florek, Marek [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Kwiatek, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Lekki, Janusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Chevallier, Pierre [LPS, CEN Saclay et LURE, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 209D, F-91405 Orsay (France); Zieba, Emil [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB), Campus de la UAB, E-08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Dutkiewicz, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kuczumow, Andrzej [Department of Chemistry, Catholic University of Lublin, 20-718 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-04-28

    Special kinds of petrified wood of complex structure were investigated. All the samples were composed of at least two different inorganic substances. The original cell structure was preserved in each case. The remnants of the original biological material were detected in some locations, especially in the cell walls. The complex inorganic structure was superimposed on the remnant organic network. The first inorganic component was located in the lumena (l.) of the cells while another one in the walls (w.) of the cells. The investigated arrangements were as follows: calcite (l.)-goethite-hematite (w.)-wood from Dunarobba, Italy; pyrite (l.)-calcite (w.)-wood from Lukow, Poland; goethite (l.)-silica (w.)-wood from Kwaczala, Poland. The inorganic composition was analysed and spatially located by the use of three spectral methods: electron microprobe, X-ray synchrotron-based microprobe, {mu}-PIXE microprobe. The accurate mappings presenting 2D distribution of the chemical species were presented for each case. Trace elements were detected and correlated with the distribution of the main elements. In addition, the identification of phases was done by the use of {mu}-Raman and {mu}-XRD techniques for selected and representative points. The possible mechanisms of the described arrangements are considered. The potential synthesis of similar structures and their possible applications are suggested.

  10. The Great Mathematician Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  11. Selected mechanical properties of modified beech wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Holan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This thesis deals with an examination of mechanical properties of ammonia treated beach wood with a trademark Lignamon. For determination mechanical properties were used procedures especially based on ČSN. From the results is noticeable increased density of wood by 22% in comparison with untreated beach wood, which makes considerable increase of the most mechanical wood properties. Considering failure strength was raised by 32% and modulus of elasticity was raised at average about 46%.

  12. What great managers do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  13. Growth of high-density ZnO nanorods on wood with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lizhuo; Tu, Kunkun; Guan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays were successfully assembled on the wood surface in situ via a two-step process consisting of formation of ZnO seeds and subsequent crystal growth under hydrothermal conditions at a low temperature. The morphology and crystalline structure of the formed ZnO nanorods were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Highly dense and uniform arrays of ZnO nanorods with well-defined hexagonal facets were generated on the wood surface by tuning the concentration of the ZnO growth solution during the hydrothermal treatment. Accelerated weathering tests indicated that the assembled ZnO nanorod arrays were highly protective against UV radiation and greatly enhanced the photostability of the coated wood. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorod-coated wood can withstand continuous exposure to flame with only minor smoldering in contrast with the pristine wood catching fire easily and burning rapidly. Moreover, when further modified with low-surface-energy stearic acid, the ZnO nanorod decorated wood surface can be transformed into a superhydrophobic surface, with a water contact angle (CA) of ∼154°. Such ZnO nanorod-modified woods with enhanced photostability, flame retardancy and water repellency offer an interesting alternative to conventional wood preservation strategies, highlighting their potential applications in some novel wood products.

  14. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  15. USE OF AMAZONIAN SPECIES FOR AGING DISTILLED BEVERAGES: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL WOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnys Paz Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of storing liquor in wooden barrels is a practice that aims to improve the sensory characteristics, such as color, aroma and flavor, of the beverage. The quality of the liquor stored in these barrels depends on wood characteristics such as density, permeability, chemical composition, anatomy, besides the wood heat treatment used to fabricate the barrels. Brazil has a great diversity of forests, mainly in the north, in the Amazon. This region is home to thousands of tree species, but is limited to the use of only a few native species to store liquors. The objective of this study was to determine some of the physical and chemical characteristics for four Amazon wood species. The results obtained in this study will be compared with others from woods that are traditionally used for liquor storage. The species studied were angelim-pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke cumarurana (Dipteryx polyphylla (Huber Ducke, jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril L. and louro-vermelho (Nectandra rubra (Mez CK Allen. The trees were collected from Precious Woods Amazon Company forest management area, in Silves, Amazonas. Analyzes such as: concentration of extractives, lignin amount, percentage of minerals (ash and tannin content, density, elemental analysis (CHNS-O and thermal analysis were done. It was observed that the chemical composition (lignin, holocellulose and elemental analysis (percentage of C, H, N and O of the woods have significant differences. The jatobá wood presented higher tannin content, and in the thermal analysis, was that which had the lowest mass loss.

  16. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface and its prospects in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattcacharia, S.K.; Khan, Mubarak A.

    2005-01-01

    Photocuring technique has unveiled a new horizon in polymer science. Application of photocuring technique on wood surface has enhanced the use of low grade wood. As Bangladesh is an overpopulated country, necessity of good quality wood is increasing day by day. So low grade wood, like Simul or Partex, locally produced particleboard, would come out with great use. As Partex board, produced from Jute sticks and various types of indigenous low grade wood and particle board are abundant in Bangladesh, so photocuring could play a major role to improve the quality of low grade wood and serve the nation. Already, a lot of research works were carried out by the local scientists to improve the wood surface using UV curing method. Different formulations were also developed by the local scientists using various oligomer, monomer and different types of additives. The used oligomers are epoxy, polyester, urethane, etc. and monomers of different functionalities and used additives are acrylic monomer, CaCO 3 , sand, MgSiO 3 , talc, etc. Thin films were prepared on glass plate with different formulations using UV radiation and different characteristics properties (pendulum hardness, abrasion, gloss (60 deg. and 20 deg.), microscratch hardness, weathering effect, adhesion strength, etc.) were studied. Now, a Pilot Plant has already been established with the financial assistance by the government of Bangladesh, worth US$ 3.5 million

  17. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  18. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  19. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  20. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  1. Advances and challenges of wood polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Wood flour and fiber have been blended with thermoplastic such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polylactic acid and polyvinyl chloride to form wood plastic composites (WPC). WPCs have seen a large growth in the United States in recent years mainly in the residential decking market with the removal of CCA treated wood decking from residential markets. While there are...

  2. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  3. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  4. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of the Wood Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazia FOUCHAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the walls wood masonry behaviour. First, we propose a regulatory validation of the walls wood masonry behaviour subjected to vertical and horizontal loads according to Eurocode 5. Then we present the numerical application on the wall wood supported two floors level.

  6. Characteristics and availability of commercially important woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures, furniture, tools, vehicles, and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons, wood is prized for a multitude of uses. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous...

  7. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by .... Stop watch-used to indicate the exact time the mould has remained in the press before wood .... There is abundance of saw dust the source of which is the ... Madison, Wisconsin: Wiley Interscience. Usoro, H. S. ...

  8. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    not only a defrocked friar with the guys or on the street; he donned the silk babouches when he went home too. He dispossessed himself of the Seine that rolled on before his eyes; the small girl who lived on her feet, whom he puts to death in all his books, he hardly saw her; the loveliest girls of his day, the finest too for sure, who wanted him, so that he happened to come – he dispossessed himself of them, whether he came or opted to come no more, which amounted to the same thing; no apples from Norman orchards, no trees deep in the woods, no unlaced Louise Colet, no lilies, no young laughter, no Louise Colet weeping at his door, he kissed it all off, laughed over it and kissed it off, cried about it and kissed it off, he was not there. In fact he had nothing, he was deprived of everything, since it was in his head.

  9. Mechanical trunk in pine wood for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Orlando da Luz Freire Neto

    2012-12-01

    , with exclusive use of wood derived from reforestation of Pinus elliottii 45 years of age, Experiment Station Itapetininga / IF-SMA, where through a partnership with the company "Scales and Trunks Trivelato", and how strategic methodology, this facility will be built as zootechnical technological standard and quality control adopted by the company, which is pioneer in this segment. The raw material studied showed characteristics suitable for structural use (ABNT, good workability, and there is no need to adjust or replace other metal components (screws, nails, gears, hinges, mechanical set of scales, etc.. For its construction who received conventional lacquer finish. Besides adding aesthetic value, the use of pine wood has reduced by 25% the weight of the final product, which consumed 1.4 m3 for its production, a decrease of 40% for the purchase of raw material wood. Of great practical impact on the preservation of natural resources, supported by various public policies, with the primary target audience ranchers familiar with the low investment capacity in traditional husbandry facilities, social and technological innovation that will enable farmers to better adherence to official programs of good practices and animal welfare, increasing levels of public health.

  10. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Permian Silicified Wood in Oman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Grygar, Tomáš

    -, č. 15 (2009), s. 14-18 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : silicified wood * Oman * geology Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry www.geologyoman.com/gso/Haj(Nov09).pdf

  12. Wood and concrete polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, K.

    1974-01-01

    There are several ways to prepare and use wood and concrete polymer composites. The most important improvements in the case of concrete polymer composites are obtained for compressive and tensile strengths. The progress in this field in United States and other countries is discussed in this rview. (M.S.)

  13. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  14. Detecting decay in wood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Ross; X. Wang; B.K. Brashaw

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a summary of the Wood and Timber Condition Assessment Manual. It focuses on current inspection techniques for decay detection and provides guidelines on the use of various non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods in locating and defining areas of deterioration in timber bridge components and other civil structures.

  15. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  16. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  17. The great intimidators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  18. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  19. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  20. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  1. Wood as a home heating fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, K.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development of clean-burning technology in three types of wood-burning appliances: catalytic, non-catalytic, and pellet stoves. A recent study by the Washington State Energy Extension Office concluded that in homes that use both electricity and wood, 73 megawatts of electricity/yr were saved by using wood. Since wood-burning stoves can now meet air quality standards, wood could be considered to be a greenhouse-neutral fuel if more trees are planted as they are consumed

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  3. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  4. Fuel Wood Consumption and Species Degradation in South-Western Nigeria: The Ecological Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orimoogunje Oluwagbenga O.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous dependence of man on fuel and service wood has resulted in serious degradation of the fragile forest ecosystem. Therefore, this study evaluated the sources and patterns of fuel wood and examined the rate of consumption in the study area. This was with the aim to assess the ecological implications of fuelwood consumption on species degradation. The study utilized both, primary and secondary data. Information was extracted from topographic map on the scale of 1: 50,000 and satellites imageries that cover the study area. Questionnaire administration, field observation and weight measurement of fuel wood were carried out. The results showed that the sources of fuel wood for domestic cooking were forest, nearby bush and abandoned farm while the sources of domestic energy were fuel wood (61.17%, charcoal (27%, kerosene (10%, electricity (1.33% and gas (0.5%. Fuel wood for small scale industries were: forest (49.23%, farmland (34.62 and fallow land (16.15%. The trend of fuel wood consumption was on the high side from 1995 to 2011, it was 58% in 1995, 70% in 2000, 82% in 2005 and 92% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Many valuable economic tree species such as Triplochiton scleroxylon, Nesogordonia papaverifera, and Cordia spp. are near their extinction. Animals such as antelope, wolf and fox are going into extinction while monkey, grasscutter, hare, rabbit were endemic in the study area. The study concluded that the patterns of fuel wood use and fuel wood saturation presents a great danger for biodiversity products and services.

  5. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  6. Idiopathic great saphenous phlebosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Jodati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arterial sclerosis has been extensively described but reports on venous sclerosis are very sparse. Phlebosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the venous wall. Despite its morphological similarities with arteriosclerosis and potential morbid consequences, phlebosclerosis has gained only little attention. We report a 72 year old male with paralysis and atrophy of the right leg due to childhood poliomyelitis who was referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. The great saphenous vein, harvested from the left leg, showed a hardened cord-like obliterated vein. Surprisingly, harvested veins from the atrophic limb were normal and successfully used for grafting.

  7. Great software debates

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A

    2004-01-01

    The industry’s most outspoken and insightful critic explains how the software industry REALLY works. In Great Software Debates, Al Davis, shares what he has learned about the difference between the theory and the realities of business and encourages you to question and think about software engineering in ways that will help you succeed where others fail. In short, provocative essays, Davis fearlessly reveals the truth about process improvement, productivity, software quality, metrics, agile development, requirements documentation, modeling, software marketing and sales, empiricism, start-up financing, software research, requirements triage, software estimation, and entrepreneurship.

  8. Making Psychotherapy Great Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-05-01

    Psychotherapy never stopped being as "great" as other treatments. This column explores the evidence base for both psychotherapy and medications, using depression as a specific example. The limitations are comparable for psychotherapy and medication, with much of the evidence based on small degrees of "statistically significant" rather than "clinically meaningful" change. Our field's biomedical emphasis leads to a false assumption that most patients present with single disorders, when comorbidity is the rule rather than the exception. This false assumption contributes to limitations in the evidence base and in our ability to treat patients optimally.

  9. Advantages of the use of energy wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, K.; Aarnio, J.; Maekinen, P.

    2000-01-01

    According to the Regional Forestry Associations it would be possible to develop the harvesting of energy wood by increasing the use of it. The study was made at the areas of 34 regional forestry associations as an inquiry to the executive managers, as well as the persons responsible for timber trade, harvesting or regional affairs. The inquiries studied the use of energy wood and the user of them at the areas of the associations, as well as the amounts of harvesting and the realization of it. Only a third of the associations have large energy wood consuming plants (using more than 500 m 3 energy wood per year). The closest large energy wood consuming plant was in the average 31 km from the office of the association. The average energy wood use of the plant was 20 000 m 3 /a, the variation being 700 - 200 000 m 3 /a. The energy wood purchase range of the plants varied from few kilometers to hundred kilometers, the average being 47 km. Most of the energy wood was harvested from forest regeneration areas. Some of the energy wood is also harvested from young forest maintenance and thinning areas. The estimated harvesting of energy wood in 1999 was 6300 m 3 . A part of the energy wood is used for heating the farms and other small real estates, and a part is used for heating larger buildings like schools, hospitals, factories. The fees to the associations for purchase of energy wood varied significantly. The range was 2.00 - 11.00 FIM/m 3 . One association charged 300 FIM/parcel, and in one association the price depend on the amount of wood acquired from the lot, the unit price being 0.5 FIM/m 3 . It appeared that the associations estimated the use of energy wood to increase. The level in 1999 was 6300 m 3 and it is estimated to increase to 14 300 m 3 in 2005. The associations estimated that the levels can only be achieved if the stumpage price of energy wood may not be 0.0 FIM. Even a marginal price would lead to an increased harvesting of energy wood. The associations

  10. Great War legacies in Serbian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Great War, Ivo Andrić published a number of poems, essays and short stories describing the hard-won victorious outcome as transient to the dire reality of the inordinate loss of human lives and suffering. Yet, personal experiences, although perceived as ephemeral, helped to define the historical discourse capturing man’s resolve to persist in his chosen mission. Over time, Serbian literature and fine arts sustained an unfinished dialogue of the past and the present, merging the individual voices with the collective voices to construct the national narrative. The young writer Miloš Crnjanski observed the sights of destruction and despair that seemed to pale in new literary works pertaining to the war. His novel A Diary about Čarnojević was closely related to his own perilous wartime journey as a conscript in the Austrian army. The vastness of Pannonian plains and Galician woods must have invoked a comparison of sorts with another historic chapter recorded in the collective consciousness of his nation: the Great Migration of Serbs led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević (Crnojević in 1690. The very title of the novel contained a powerful reference to the migration, and its illustrious historic leader which has not been discussed or explored before.

  11. Wood energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    This publication first recalls the main benefits of the use of wood, the first source of renewable energy in France: abundant and local resource, low CO 2 emission, competitiveness, job creation. It comments the relationship between the use of this source of energy and the compliance with air quality standards as they are notably defined by European directives, as the use of wood as heating source is one of the recommended lever to improve air quality. The publication comments emissions generated by this type of heating (mainly in the housing sector, with some critical meteorological periods). Levers for actions are discussed: fleet renewal to promote the best performing equipment, practice improvements (fuel quality, apparatus maintenance). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed: support to individual equipment fleet modernisation, support to R and D, support to the sector, and information and communication

  12. Characterizing, modelling and optimizing the sound absorption of wood wool cement boards (WWCB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterman, B.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The present article aims to characterize and, by using impedance models, predict the sound absorption of wood wool cement boards (WWCB). The main challenge lies in the inhomogeneity of the WWCB; the samples taken from different commercial boards do not only greatly differ in density, but also in

  13. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  14. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  15. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  16. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  17. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  18. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  19. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  20. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  1. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  2. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Almat...

  3. Great Britain at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From 14 to 16 November 2006 Administration Building, Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.30 - 17.30 Fifteen companies will present their latest technologies at the 'Great Britain at CERN' exhibition. British industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main fields represented will be computing technologies, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, vacuum & low temperature technologies and particle detectors. The exhibition is organised by BEAMA Exhibitions (the British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association). Below you will find: a list of the exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departmental secretariat, from the Reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the companies is available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS 3D Metrics Alma...

  4. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt current accepted default factors for the decay of wood in landfills greatly overestimate methane emissions.

  5. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-01-01

    from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt current accepted default factors for the decay of wood in landfills greatly overestimate methane emissions

  6. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. New Theoretical Estimates of the Contribution of Unresolved Star-Forming Galaxies to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background (EGB) as Measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia M.

    2011-01-01

    We present new theoretical estimates of the contribution of unresolved star-forming galaxies to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) as measured by EGRET and the Fermi-LAT. We employ several methods for determining the star-forming galaxy contribution the the EGB, including a method positing a correlation between the gamma-ray luminosity of a galaxy and its rate of star formation as calculated from the total infrared luminosity, and a method that makes use of a model of the evolution of the galaxy gas mass with cosmic time. We find that depending on the model, unresolved star-forming galaxies could contribute significantly to the EGB as measured by the Fermi-LAT at energies between approx. 300 MeV and approx. few GeV. However, the overall spectrum of unresolved star-forming galaxies can explain neither the EGRET EGB spectrum at energies between 50 and 200 MeV nor the Fermi-LAT EGB spectrum at energies above approx. few GeV.

  8. EVOLUTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight boards and beams in the wood-based construction and furniture industry are not a new topic. The density reduction of panels using sandwich structure with light cores was confirmed by users like doors or mobile homes more than three decades ago. Today many ways to attain a lighter wooden structure are on offer, partially in industrial application. The first one is the use of light-weight wood species like balsa, lime, pine from southern hemisphere plantations etc. limited by the availability, strength properties, gluability and so on. A second one is the sandwich structure made from hard faces like thick veneer, thin plywood, particleboard or high density thin fiberboard and cores made from honeycomb paper, very light wood species or foams like the polystyrene one. A third way to produce a light structure is to reduce the core drastically, using predesigned skeletons with special shapes and connections to the faces. The engines for these developments are on the one hand the fast growing market of knockdown furniture and on the other hand the increasing costs for energy and raw materials. Additional factors that make weight saving a primary economical objective for most producers are transportation costs, easier handling and higher acceptance among the end users. Moreover, customers demand more for ergonomical solutions regarding packaging. Many patents were generated by researchers and developers for new one-stage production processes for sandwich panels with wood- and impregnated paper-based facings made from veneers, particles or fibres and a core consisting of expandable foams, particles or embedded hard skeletons. These ideas or prototypes could be integrated in existing continuous pressing lines for wood based panels keeping some of the advantages of the continuous production technique in matters of efficiency. Some of the challenges of the light weight wooden structure are the connection in half or final parts, resistance to

  9. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1, followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1 and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC, lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  10. Growth and Wood/Bark Properties of Abies faxoniana Seedlings as Affected by Elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Zhou Qiao; Yuan-Bin Zhang; Kai-Yun Wang; Qian Wang; Qi-Zhuo Tian

    2008-01-01

    Growth and wood and bark properties of Abies faxoniana seedlings after one year's exposure to elevated CO2 concentration (ambient + 350 (=1= 25) μmol/mol) under two planting densities (28 or 84 plants/mz) were investigated in closed-top chambers. Tree height, stem diameter and cross-sectional area, and total biomass were enhanced under elevated CO2 concentration, and reduced under high planting density. Most traits of stem bark were improved under elevated CO2 concentration and reduced under high planting density. Stem wood production was significantly increased in volume under elevated CO2 concentration under both densities, and the stem wood density decreased under elevated CO2 concentration and increased under high planting density. These results suggest that the response of stem wood and bark to elevated CO2 concentration is density dependent. This may be of great importance in a future CO2 enriched world in natural forests where plant density varies considerably. The results also show that the bark/wood ratio in diameter, stem cross-sectional area and dry weight are not proportionally affected by elevated CO2 concentration under the two contrasting planting densities. This indicates that the response magnitude of stem bark and stem wood to elevated CO2 concentration are different but their response directions are the same.

  11. Dr. Byron McKeeby's contribution to Grant Wood's "American Gothic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2004-07-01

    Grant Wood (1891-1942) was a major American regionalist artist from Iowa who produced his world famous icon, American Gothic in 1930. Along with Mona Lisa and Whistler's Mother, this work has become one of the most recognized paintings in the world. While it has been greatly admired by most of its viewers, it has been criticized by others. Currently on display at the Art Institute of Chicago, this oil painting portrays a grim faced farmer and his somber daughter who are resolutely standing in front of their rural, Gothic Revival farmhouse. The tall, gaunt farmer, looking straight ahead, firmly holds a pitchfork whose tines point upward, while his daughter, with her eyes averted appears to be showing disapproval. In American art, it is unusual to find the hard, cold realism and honest, direct and earthy qualities that Wood captures in American Gothic. Wood's actual intention was to present the work as a subtle and witty commentary on midwestern, rural life. To achieve his goal, Wood emulated the meticulous style and technique of the 16th century Flemish masters. His sister, Nan Wood Graham (1900-1990), and his 62-year-old dentist, Dr. Byron H. McKeeby (1867-1950), posed for the painting. This article describes how Grant developed this artistic style which is reflected in American Gothic. Additionally, it examines the strained interactions between Grant Wood, the artist, and Dr. Byron McKeeby, the model.

  12. Molecular Dynamics of Water in Wood Studied by Fast Field Cycling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a very important role in wood and wood products. The molecular motion of water in wood is susceptible to thermal activation. Thermal energy makes water molecules more active and weakens the force between water and wood; therefore, the water molecules dynamic properties are greatly influenced. Molecular dynamics study is important for wood drying; this paper therefore focuses on water molecular dynamics in wood through fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry techniques. The results show that the spin-lattice relaxation rate decreases with the Larmor frequency. Nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles at different temperatures could separate the relaxation contribution of water in bigger pores and smaller pores. The T1 distribution from wide to narrow at 10 MHz Larmor frequency reflects the shrinkage of pore size with the higher temperature. The dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rate on correlation time for water molecular motion based on BPP (proposed by Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound theory shows that water correlation time increases with higher temperature, and its activation energy, calculated using the Arrhenius transformation equation, is 9.06±0.53 kJ/mol.

  13. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Frihart; Rishawn Brandon; James Beecher; Rebecca Ibach

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood...

  14. Wood Programs. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Robert; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Wood Programs software developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (These programs--not contained in this document--include understanding board feet, wood characteristics, wood safety drill, wood dimensions, wood moisture, operating the table saw, radial arm, measurement drill, fraction drill, and…

  15. Chapter 02: Basic wood biology—Anatomy for identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    Before the topics of using a hand lens, preparing wood for observation, and understanding the characters used in wood identification can be tackled, a general introduction to the biology of wood must be undertaken. The woods in commercial trade in Central America come almost exclusively from trees, so the discussion of wood biology is restricted to trees here, though...

  16. Ionizing radiation and a wood-based biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Mark S.; Stipanovic, Arthur J.; Cheng, Kun; Barber, Vincent A.; Manning, Mellony; Smith, Jennifer L.; Sundar, Smith

    2014-01-01

    Woody biomass is widely available around the world. Cellulose is the major structural component of woody biomass and is the most abundant polymer synthesized by nature, with hemicellulose and lignin being second and third. Despite this great abundance, woody biomass has seen limited application outside of the paper and lumber industries. Its use as a feedstock for fuels and chemicals has been limited because of its highly crystalline structure, inaccessible morphology, and limited solubility (recalcitrance). Any economic use of woody biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals requires a “pretreatment” process to enhance the accessibility of the biomass to enzymes and/or chemical reagents. Electron beams (EB), X-rays, and gamma rays produce ions in a material which can then initiate chemical reactions and cleavage of chemical bonds. Such ionizing radiation predominantly scissions and degrades or depolymerizes both cellulose and hemicelluloses, less is known about its effects on lignin. This paper discusses how ionizing radiation can be used to make a wood-based biorefinery more environmentally friendly and profitable for its operators. - Highlights: • Ionizing radiation reduces the crystallinity of cellulose. • Ionizing radiation reduces cellulose's degree of polymerization. • The amount and rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, including wood, are increased with increasing radiation dose. • Wood and other lignocellulosic materials have the potential to be a renewable material for the production of chemicals and fuels

  17. Ethanol from wood 'can be competitive'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-19

    Estimates by Stones and Webster indicate that the cost of producing ethanol for fuel purposes from wood will be as cheap as any other method and comparable with proven sugarcane and maize technology. In coming to this conclusion, it was assumed that significant advances would be made in the hydrolysis of wood and that saleable by-products would be possible from the lignin and hemicellulose of the feedstock wood.

  18. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  19. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  20. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  1. Violates stem wood burning sustainable development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...... burning are characterised together with particle and PAH emissions. The positive treatment of wood stove-technology in the Danish strategy for sustainable development (draft 2007) is critically evaluated and approaches to better regulation are identified....

  2. "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" PBS Series. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide correlates with the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series "In the Footsteps of Alexander the Great" hosted by historian Michael Wood. The four episodes of the series are entitled: "Son of God"; "Lord of Asia"; "Across the Hindu Kush"; and "To the Ends of the…

  3. Food, reproductive success and multiple breeding in the Great Tit Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboven, Nanette; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Verhulst, Simon

    2001-01-01

    We studied the reproductive success of facultatively double brooded Great Tits Parus major in relation to (seasonal) variation in abundance of their main food supply: caterpillars in Oak Quercus robur. Data were collected in two mixed woods (Vlieland and Hoge Veluwe, from 1985-1996). The caterpillar

  4. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bobeková; Michal Tomšovský; Petr Horáček

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit). The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was ide...

  5. Reliable and non-destructive positioning of larvae of wood-destroying beetles in wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, G.; Thiele, H.; Unger, W.

    1980-01-01

    Living larvae of wood-destroying insects (house longhorn beetle, deathwatch) can be determined in wood by both X-ray technique and vibration measurements. For such examinations convenient commercial devices were used and tested under laboratory conditions. The methods complement each other and lead to a rationalization of the tests of wood preservatives against wood-destroying insects. It seems to be promising to apply the test methods also to timber already used for building

  6. Typical Little Egrets Egretta garzetta mix with Dimorphic Egrets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclater, W.L. 1924. Systema Avium Aethiopicanum. Part 1. London. Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. & Keith, S. (Eds.). 1986. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 2. London. Academic Press. White, C.M.N. 1965. A Revised Check List of African Non-Passerine Birds. Govt Printer. Lusaka. Zedlitz, O.G. 1914. Das Sud-Somaliland als ...

  7. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttock, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  8. Factors affecting the laser processing of wood, 2: Effects of material parameters on machinability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, T.; Hayashi, D.

    1994-01-01

    Material parameters of wood were investigated. Factors relating to the workpiece include cutting direction, specific gravity, and components of the wood such as resin-like materials. Also studies of the effects of irregular tissue on machinability were made. The interactions between laser beam and materials are often greatly complex. They depend on the characteristics of the laser beam, the thermal constants of the woods, and the optical surface properties of the woods. Therefore, high quality beam mode and carefully selected materials were used. The following laser cutting properties became clear after studying the experimental results. Slow speed cutting and softwoods make slight differences, regarding cutting section and fiber direction. However, it can beconsidered that there is not very much change except in cross-section. Because of the high power density of laser, cutting speed makes no big difference. The irregular tissue of wood cannot maintain normal cutting speed and accuracy. The factor of genuine density eta, which is thought to be entirely independent of each specific gravity, is definedas the concept of density in general. It can be obtained by applying a simple rule, that is, the eta is the ratio of r(u)/rho(s) where rho(s) is the wood substance as the characteristic value of wood, and r(u)is specific gravity. An experimental formula shows that the depth of cut decreases in proportion to the value of eta. However, in the strict sense of the word, data of wood material as a natural resources mustbe treated qualitatively, because there are deviations from regularity due to various reasons. (author)

  9. Wood-energy - The sector get worried

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Bohlinger, Philippe; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Sredojevic, Alexandre; Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Wood energy is, today and certainly also tomorrow, one of the most important renewable energies in France. However, the wood-energy sector seems to slow down as hydrocarbon prices stay extremely low. This document presents 8 articles, describing the context and the characteristics of this evolution, plus some examples of developments in France. The themes of the articles are: the activity of the wood-energy sector should be reinforced to meet the objectives of the French energy multi-year plan; The 2035 prospective of the wood yield in the French forest will meet the future demand, however this evaluation does not take into consideration the effects of the climatic change; the conversion to biomass of the 'Fort de l'Est' (near Paris) heating system (equipped with a boiling fluidized bed boiler) has enabled the heat network to beat the 50 pc share of renewable energy; wood-energy professionals use the 'quality' lever to challenge their fossil fuel competitors; the city of Orleans is now equipped with an innovative biomass cogeneration plant; the example of wood waste valorization in a French sawmill; the French ONF (Forest Administration) Wood-Energy actor has just inaugurated its largest biomass dryer, in order to develop the domestic market for wood as a fuel; analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of using wood to generate electric power or replacing electric space heating by heat network

  10. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  11. Wood energy 2000; Bois energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druette, L [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 44 - Nantes (France); Lacome, T [AFNOR, 75 - Paris (France); Roy, C [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    The deregulation of the Electric Market and the opening of the Green Certificate exchange market force the set up of renewable energies. The wood, which is for most of european countries an important part of renewable fuel, should see the increase of its utilization. This conference on the wood energy deals the main aspects of this energy development. The papers present the wood burning furnaces technology assessment, the wood fuel market and the standardization of the appliances in this domain. Some papers also include the consequences of the big storms of december 1999. (A.L.B.)

  12. The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons; George C. Chen

    2017-01-01

    The wood flour used in wood-plastic composites (WPCs) can biologically deteriorate and thus the overall mechanical performance of WPCs decrease when exposed to moisture and fungal decay. Protecting the wood flour by chemical modification can improve the durability of the wood in a nontoxic way so it is not harmful to the environment. WPCs were made with modified wood...

  13. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  14. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  15. Detection of wood failure by image processing method: influence of algorithm, adhesive and wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanying Lin; Sheng He; Feng Fu; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Wood failure percentage (WFP) is an important index for evaluating the bond strength of plywood. Currently, the method used for detecting WFP is visual inspection, which lacks efficiency. In order to improve it, image processing methods are applied to wood failure detection. The present study used thresholding and K-means clustering algorithms in wood failure detection...

  16. The central role of wood biology in understanding the durability of wood-coating interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2007-01-01

    To design effectively for durability, one must actively and honestly assess the material properties and limitations of each of the components in the design system; wood or wood composite, and the coating. Inasmuch as wood coatings are manufactured to specified tolerances from known materials, we have control of that component of the system. Compared to manmade...

  17. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  18. Carcinogenic risk of chromium, copper and arsenic in CCA-treated wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Nakano, Chihiro; Wenting, Wu; Ohnuma, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We showed that 2.1% of 233 pieces of lumber debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake was chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and pentavalent arsenic (As) in the debris may be diffused in the air via incineration, we exposed human lung normal (BEAS-2B) and carcinoma (A549) cells to Cr, Cu and As at the molar ratio in a representative CCA-treated wood. Co-exposure to 0.10 μM Cr and 0.06 μM As, which solely had no effect on colony formation, synergistically promoted colony formation in BEAS-2B cells, but not A549 cells, with activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu showed limited effects. Since previous reports showed Cr and As concentrations to which human lungs might be exposed, our results suggest the importance to avoid diffusion of Cr and As in the air via incineration of debris including CCA-treated wood after the disaster. - Highlights: • CCA-treated wood was found in debris after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. • Carcinogenic risk of CCA-treated woods was evaluated with human lung cell lines. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically promoted colony formation. • Co-exposure to Cr and As synergistically activated the PI3/AKT pathway. • Effects of sole exposure and co-exposure to Cu on colony formation were limited. - Co-exposure to Cr and As, but not Cu, in CCA-treated wood debris from the Great East Japan Earthquake showed carcinogenicity in vitro.

  19. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ribera

    Full Text Available The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720 was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium. T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%. Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens

  20. Integrated control of wood destroying basidiomycetes combining Cu-based wood preservatives and Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Javier; Fink, Siegfried; Bas, Maria Del Carmen; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2017-01-01

    The production of new generation of wood preservatives (without addition of a co-biocide) in combination with an exchange of wood poles on identical sites with high fungal inoculum, has resulted in an increase of premature failures of wood utility poles in the last decades. Wood destroying basidiomycetes inhabiting sites where poles have been installed, have developed resistance against wood preservatives. The objective of the in vitro studies was to identify a Trichoderma spp. with a highly antagonistic potential against wood destroying basidiomycetes that is capable of colonizing Cu-rich environments. For this purpose, the activity of five Trichoderma spp. on Cu-rich medium was evaluated according to its growth and sporulation rates. The influence of the selected Trichoderma spp. on wood colonization and degradation by five wood destroying basidiomycetes was quantitatively analyzed by means of dry weight loss of wood specimens. Furthermore, the preventative effect of the selected Trichoderma spp. in combination with four Cu-based preservatives was also examined by mass loss and histological changes in the wood specimens. Trichoderma harzianum (T-720) was considered the biocontrol agent with higher antagonistic potential to colonize Cu-rich environments (up to 0.1% CuSO4 amended medium). T. harzianum demonstrated significant preventative effect on wood specimens against four wood destroying basidiomycetes. The combined effect of T. harzianum and Cu-based wood preservatives demonstrated that after 9 months incubation with two wood destroying basidiomycetes, wood specimens treated with 3.8 kg m-3 copper-chromium had weight losses between 55-65%, whereas containers previously treated with T. harzianum had significantly lower weight losses (0-25%). Histological studies on one of the wood destroying basidiomycetes revealed typical decomposition of wood cells by brown-rot fungi in Cu-impregnated samples, that were notably absent in wood specimens previously exposed to T

  1. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  2. Review: The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia de Jesus Sales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha busca discutir a tradução de The Great Gatsby para o contexto brasileiro. Diversas traduções foram feitas, em diversas épocas e com repercussão positiva no contexto brasileiro. Para o presente estudo, foi observada a tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, de 2011. Nesse sentido, o aspecto biográficos do autor e a forma como se apresentam os personagens na obra são fatores de cotejamento na obra original e na tradução brasileira. Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 – 1940 é famoso por ter em suas obras traços biográficos, algo que certamente influencia o leitor que adentra a sua obra. Quanto à recepção de O Grande Gatsby no contexto brasileiro, há que se considerar que O Grande Gatsby teve diversas traduções no Brasil. Depois dessa tradução de Vanessa Bárbara, em 2011, outras três vieram em 2013, juntamente com o filme. Há que considerar os aspectos comerciais embutidos nessas traduções e que muito corroboram para o resultado final. Prova disso são as capas, que são sempre diferenciadas em cada edição lançada. O tradutor nem sempre pode opinar sobre questões como estas. A tradução, a meu ver, é uma obra de qualidade, visto que a tradutora buscou ser fiel, sem dificultar a interpretação da obra para o leitor.

  3. The Wood Anatomy of Rubiaceae tribes Anthospermeae and Paederieae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Puff, Ch.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed wood anatomical descriptions are given for the genera Anthospermum, Nenax, Phyllis, Carpacoce, Coprosma, Neogaillonia, Crocyllis, Plocama and Spermadictyon, and miscellaneous wood anatomical data on the genera Normandia, Pomax, Opercularia, Leptodermis and Aitchisonia. The wood anatomical

  4. Highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelenkov, P. G.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there is a great interest in the world to biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers in a composition with natural fillers. Highly filled polymer composite materials based on various grades of synthetic block copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate with wood flour were under investigation. Five grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer differing in the content of vinyl acetate groups and a melt flow index were used in this work in order to find the best one for highly filled biocomposites. Wood flour content in biocomposites was 50, 60, 70 weight %. The rheological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting biocomposites were studied.

  5. Analysis of Location Quotient index of poplar wood processing value chain in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    omid hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Hajjarian; Samira Porbar

    2016-01-01

    Value added in the poplar wood value chain has great economic effects for poplar farmers and have a fundamental role in sustainable supplying of required cellulosic materials of industries in long-term. The purpose of this study was to analyze the value chain of poplar and use the results to improve it. In order to determine the poplar value chain, Porter's value chain analysis framework was used. The statistical society consists of 76 experts to identify poplar wood value who were active in ...

  6. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  7. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  8. The Wood-Growth-and-Burial Process (WGBP) Permanent Wood Sequestration to Solve the Global Carbon Dioxide Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, F.; Hasse, U.

    2008-12-01

    , or/and via very slightly increased energy prices. It is a great advantage of the WGBP that it will not be competitive with the agriculture, as the areas most suitable for the process are not attractive for the growth of food or energy plants. The WGBP does not need fertilizers and irrigation, and it does not need genetically engineered plants. It is completely ecological and environmentally friendly. The WGBP can be performed at almost any place of the world, and it is not necessary to perform the process at the sites of carbon dioxide emission. The WGBP will contribute to a fair international trade. The WGBP will be equally available to all countries and societies of the world. There is no discrimination of poorer or less advanced societies. The WGBP will produce wood deposits for future generation, which once may become sources for biomass processing technologies, be it for the production of chemicals of energy. The burial sites will be saving banks of precious material. Ref.: F. Scholz, U. Hasse: ChemSusChem 1 (2008) 381-384 greifswald.de/~analytik/

  9. Manufacturing methods and magnetic characteristics of magnetic wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.; Hojo, A.; Osada, H.; Namizaki, Y.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between wood construction and DC magnetic characteristics for three types of magnetic wood was experimentally investigated. The results show that the magnetic characteristics of each type of magnetic wood are dependent on the magnetic materials, the density of the magnetic material and the construction of the wood. Furthermore, it was determined that the relationship between the fiber direction and the magnetic path direction of the magnetic wood influenced the wood's magnetic characteristics

  10. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  11. Thermal Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Prepared from Hemicellulose-extracted Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Enayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemicellulose of Southern Yellow Pine wood spices was extracted by pressurized hot water at three different temperatures: 140°C, 155°C and 170°C. Compounding with PP (polypropylene was performed by extrusion after preparing wood flour and sieving to determine its mesh size. The ratio of wood to polymer was 50:50 based on oven-dry weight of wood flour. All extraction treatments and control samples were compounded under two sets of conditions, without and with 2% MAPP as coupling agent. Injection molding was used to make tensile test samples (dogbone from the pellets made by extrusion. Thermal properties of wood-plastic composites were studied by TGA and DSC while the thermal stability of pretreated wood flours, PP and MAPP were studied by TGA as well. The greater weight loss of wood materials was an indication that higher treatment temperature increases the extractability of hemicellulose. The removal of hemicellulose by extraction improves thermal stability of wood flour, especially for extraction at 170°C. Wood-plastic composites made from extracted fibers at 170°C showed the highest thermal stability. Coupling agent did not have a significant effect on thermal stability but it improved the degree of crystallinity of the composites.Surface roughness of wood fiber increased after treatment. Extraction of hemicellulose increased the degree of crystallinity but it was not significant except for samples from treated wood flour at 170°C and with MAPP.

  12. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  13. Scarcity on the market for wood wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of the market for wood wastes in the Netherlands and how this affects the targets to use biomass. Several types of biomass must be imported, not only wood wastes, but also e.g. olive stones and cacao shells [nl

  14. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  15. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  16. Chapter 6: Fire damage of wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Kukay; R.H. White; F. Woeste

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity (Figure 6.1). If there is a...

  17. Business environment in the wood fuels field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, H.; Ranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this publication the business environment in the wood fuels sector and the internal and external factors affecting it are studied. It has been considered important to describe both the present situation and future possibilities of the business in order to develop it so that the planned increase in the use of wood fuels can be achieved

  18. Wood energy markets, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    To celebrate the 2012 International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, in this chapter we consider in some depth the sustainability of wood energy. To do so, we evaluate the traditional economic, environmental and social dimensions of the sustainability concept. We also address how public policy has influenced wood energy sustainability across the UNECE region.

  19. Chapter 9:Wood Adhesion and Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2013-01-01

    The recorded history of bonding wood dates back at least 3000 years to the Egyptians (Skeist and Miron 1990, River 1994a), and adhesive bonding goes back to early mankind (Keimel 2003). Although wood and paper bonding are the largest applications for adhesives, some of the fundamental aspects leading to good bonds are not fully understood. Better understanding of these...

  20. Potential for Biobased Adhesives in Wood Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2016-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest and research on using bio-based materials as wood adhesives; however, they have achieved only limited market acceptance. To better understand this low level of replacement, it is important to understand why adhesives work or fail in moisture durability tests. A holistic model for wood adhesives has been developed that clarifies...

  1. Chapter 16: Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Christopher G. Hunt; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Protein adhesives allowed the development of bonded wood products such as plywood and glulam in the early 20th century. Petrochemical-based adhesives replaced proteins in most wood bonding applications because of lower cost, improved production efficiencies, and enhanced durability. However, several technological and environmental factors have led to a resurgence of...

  2. Peter Koch: wizard of wood use

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Lora

    1978-01-01

    Like his pioneer forefathers, Peter Koch sees opportunity where others see obstacles. And his vision is helping to reshape the wood industry. Since 1963 Koch has directed research on processing southern woods for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, Louisiana. In that time, he has invented six revolutionary machines, developed...

  3. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  4. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  5. Wood Variety Recognition on Mobile Devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Pavel; Haindl, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 93 (2013), s. 52-52 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : wood recognition * Markov random fields Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/RO/vacha-wood variety recognition on mobile devices.pdf

  6. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial...

  7. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  8. Micromechanical measurement of wood substructure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Troy W. Schmidt; Roderic S. Lakes; Steven M. Cramer

    2002-01-01

    The annual rings of softwoods are visually obvious and represent cylindrical layers of primarily cellulosic material that possess significantly different properties. For simplicity, wood construction products are designed assuming a material homogeneity that does not exist. As rapidly grown plantation trees are used for wood products, fewer rings are contained in an...

  9. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  10. WGDB: Wood Gene Database with search interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Ginwal, H S

    2014-01-01

    Wood quality can be defined in terms of particular end use with the involvement of several traits. Over the last fifteen years researchers have assessed the wood quality traits in forest trees. The wood quality was categorized as: cell wall biochemical traits, fibre properties include the microfibril angle, density and stiffness in loblolly pine [1]. The user friendly and an open-access database has been developed named Wood Gene Database (WGDB) for describing the wood genes along the information of protein and published research articles. It contains 720 wood genes from species namely Pinus, Deodar, fast growing trees namely Poplar, Eucalyptus. WGDB designed to encompass the majority of publicly accessible genes codes for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in tree species which are responsive to wood formation and quality. It is an interactive platform for collecting, managing and searching the specific wood genes; it also enables the data mining relate to the genomic information specifically in Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus taeda, Pinus radiata, Cedrus deodara, Cedrus atlantica. For user convenience, this database is cross linked with public databases namely NCBI, EMBL & Dendrome with the search engine Google for making it more informative and provides bioinformatics tools named BLAST,COBALT. The database is freely available on www.wgdb.in.

  11. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  12. Turbulence and Araki-Woods factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, A.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    Using Baire category techniques we prove that Araki-Woods factors are not classifiable by countable structures. As a result, we obtain a far reaching strengthening as well as a new proof of the well-known theorem of Woods that the isomorphism problem for ITPFI factors is not smooth. We derive...

  13. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only the most widely used building material in the United States but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees range from a minimally processed log at a log-home building site to a...

  14. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  16. Wood products research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Wegner

    2010-01-01

    Forest biomass conversion to biofuels and other value-added co-products; hyper-performance advanced composites custom tailored to end use requirements; advanced high performance wood-based structures; and nanomaterials and nano-enable high performance products from wood represent important research and development investment areas for the successful transformation of...

  17. Heating and ignition of small wood cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace L. Fons

    1950-01-01

    The literature provides limited information on the time of ignition of wood under conditions of rapid heating such as occur in forest and structure fires. An investigation was made of ease of ignition as affected by such physical properties of wood as initial temperature, size, and moisture content and by temperature of ambient gas or rate of heating. Temperature-time...

  18. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  19. Finishability of CCA pressure-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ross; Richard Carlson; William Feist; Steven Bussjaeger

    2000-01-01

    Thus, a need arose for the development of surface finishes for CCA-treated wood that could address the special requirements of this substrate and provide protection against the ravages of water, sunlight, mildew, and other aspects of weathering and wear. Initially, this need was not addressed, most wood preserving companies had little expertise in surface finishes and...

  20. Environmental education on wood preservatives and preservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and use of wood preservatives in Nigeria should address not only the cost and demand functions but also the potential hazards in environmental equations. Forest products specialists are often asked about the perceived risks and environmental costs of treated wood products. Evidently, the civil society is ...

  1. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Physiological Effects of Touching Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the physiological effects of touching wood with the palm, in comparison with touching other materials on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Eighteen female university students (mean age, 21.7  ±  1.6 years participated in the study. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentrations were measured in the left/right prefrontal cortex using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV was used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflected parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflected sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated white oak, marble, tile, and stainless steel were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed, participants touched the materials for 90 s. As a result, tactile stimulation with white oak significantly (1 decreased the oxy-Hb concentration in the left/right prefrontal cortex relative to marble, tile, and stainless steel and (2 increased ln(HF-reflected parasympathetic nervous activity relative to marble and stainless steel. In conclusion, our study revealed that touching wood with the palm calms prefrontal cortex activity and induces parasympathetic nervous activity more than other materials, thereby inducing physiological relaxation.

  3. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  4. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  5. Mineralogy of Non-Silicified Fossil Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The best-known and most-studied petrified wood specimens are those that are mineralized with polymorphs of silica: opal-A, opal-C, chalcedony, and quartz. Less familiar are fossil woods preserved with non-silica minerals. This report reviews discoveries of woods mineralized with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various iron and copper minerals, manganese oxide, fluorite, barite, natrolite, and smectite clay. Regardless of composition, the processes of mineralization involve the same factors: availability of dissolved elements, pH, Eh, and burial temperature. Permeability of the wood and anatomical features also plays important roles in determining mineralization. When precipitation occurs in several episodes, fossil wood may have complex mineralogy.

  6. Use of nanofillers in wood coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Lawther, John Mark; Sanadi, Anand Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Wood has been used for thousands of years and remains an important material in the construction industry, most often protected with coatings. Development of nanotechnology allows further improvements or new performance properties to be achieved in wood coatings. Increased UV protection...... with nanometal oxides that allow wood texture to remain seen and higher resilience to scratch and abrasion with use of different nanoparticle shapes are some of the applications that are reviewed here. A variety of possible applications together with a high level of improvements, alongside commercial factors...... like a low level of loading, have already established nanoparticles in some areas of wood coatings. This article is a comprehensive scientific review of the published work in the use of nanofillers in wood coatings....

  7. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  8. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  9. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  10. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotto, A.J.; Monteoliva, S.; Gyenge, J.; Martínez-Meier, A.; Moreno, K.; Tesón, N.; Fernández, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution) and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport) were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  11. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Barotto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks. Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces. Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  12. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barotto, A.J.; Monteoliva, S.; Gyenge, J.; Martínez-Meier, A.; Moreno, K.; Tesón, N.; Fernández, M.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution) and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport) were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  13. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  14. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  15. How spectroscopy and microspectroscopy of degraded wood contribute to understand fungal wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Karin; Schwanninger, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, mid and near infrared, and ultra violet (UV) spectra of wood contain information on its chemistry and composition. When solid wood samples are analysed, information on the molecular structure of the lignocellulose complex of wood e.g. crystallinity of polysaccharides and the orientation of the polymers in wood cell walls can also be gained. UV and infrared spectroscopy allow also for spatially resolved spectroscopy, and state-of-the-art mapping and imaging systems have been able to provide local information on wood chemistry and structure at the level of wood cells (with IR) or cell wall layers (with UV). During the last decades, these methods have also proven useful to follow alterations of the composition, chemistry and physics of the substrate wood after fungi had grown on it as well as changes of the interactions between the wood polymers within the lignocellulose complex caused by decay fungi. This review provides an overview on how molecular spectroscopic methods could contribute to understand these degradation processes and were able to characterise and localise fungal wood decay in its various stages starting from the incipient and early ones even if the major share of research focussed on advanced decay. Practical issues such as requirements in terms of sample preparation and sample form and present examples of optimised data analysis will also be addressed to be able to detect and characterise the generally highly variable microbial degradation processes within their highly variable substrate wood.

  16. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO 2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  17. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Economic evaluation: wood stave pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rook, M.E.

    The spray of leakage from the wood stave water supply pipeline serving the New England Power Company's (NEPCO) Searsburg hydroelectric development had caused this facility to be dubbed ''The Searsburg Car Wash.'' In July, 1982, excessive leakage from this pipeline prompted NEPCO to perform a technical inspection which would inform the company's decision to replace, repair, or abandon the pipeline. The inspection indicated that a combination of interrelated factors has led to rapid deterioration. The feasibility study, which included a benefit -cost analysis of a times replacement with a continued repair program weighed annually by a risk factor representing the probability of pipeline failure during the replacement period, determined that direct replacement was most advantageous. 4 figures, 1 figures.

  19. Wood-starved and footsore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, T.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly half the people on earth soon may find themselves a little colder and a little hungrier as sources of cheap fuel for cooking and heating begin to disappear. Traditional wood-base fuels such as firewood and charcoal are becoming scarce as populations increase and forest land is converted to other uses. For more than 100 million people, this shortage has reached crisis proportions. In just seven years the world population, now estimated at 5.5 billion, is expected to exceed 6.25 billion. Almost half-including nearly 600 million urban dwellers-may not have enough fuel to heat their homes and feed their families. By 2025, when the world population could reach 10 billion, finding fuel supplies that are reliable and inexpensive will be both a rural and an urban problem. Solutions are being explored in several areas, based on more efficient and more effective tree planting and more energy efficient technologies

  20. Identification and Evaluation of Oncoming Changes of Wood and Paper Industries of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Akbar Bahmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying and rating of oncoming challenges of the wood and paper industries of the country can create a delicate attitude for policy makers and investors of these valuable industries. This study by the aim of identification and evaluation of wood and paper industries challenges with scientific and authentic method of likert spectra scale was done is 2010. Present challenges of wood and paper industries were detected by literature review and consulting with experts and academician and a number of manufacturing unites of wood and paper industries and query was designed. Intended data and statistics obtained from experts of wood and paper industries were compared and analyzed by likert scale spectra. The results showed that of 24 examined challenges, shortage of raw material, lake of long, compressive and applied prospective, existence of great gap between the university and industrial units and wearied and aged machinery are among the most important. Finally the identified challenges were submitted to the authorities for helping the economy of the country as well as causing the prosperity and budding of these industries.

  1. Wood chemistry symposium: from muka to lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian Wood Chemistry Symposium held during September, 1979, is reviewed. The chemical and physical explanations of delignification were debated. Problems of mechanical pulping include insufficient brightness, yellowing, and low strength relative to energy consumption. A session on chemicals, energy, and food from wood began with criteria for a viable project, which included adequate return on investment, modest capital investment requirements, identified pre-existing markets, and favorable thermodynamic balances. The pulp and paper industry should improve its methods of using bark and wood waste in direct combustion (by pre-drying wastes and improving furnace efficiency) rather than supporting oil-from-wood projects, since using a waste for fuel will free fossil fuels for uses in synthetic fibers and thermoplastics. In the area of food, there are modest successes with cellulose fiber additives to bread and snack food and single cell protein (which, though made from wastes, cannot compete with soy protein). However, making monomeric sugars from wood polysaccharides is not an efficient process, and muka, animal feed supplement from foliage, is successful only in Russia. In Canada it cannot compete with agricultural products. Alpha cellulose is a major wood chemical product. Promising uses include cellulose derived thermoplastics and lignosulphonates for secondary oil recovery. Instead of breaking wood polysaccharides and lignin into monomers and then repolymerizing them, it is possible to use the pre-built polymers; such an approach is illustrated by use of lignin in polyurethane foams, adhesives, and coatings.

  2. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  3. Micron-scale intra-ring analyses of δ13C in early Eocene Arctic wood from Ellesmere Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.; Eberle, J.; Sternberg, L.

    2009-12-01

    Early Eocene (ca. 53 Ma) fossil assemblages on Ellesmere Island (75 oN paleolatitude), provide rich information about the plant and animal life of the lush polar ecosystems of the time. Fossil wood recovered from Ellesmere Island is abundant and not permineralized; however, morphological features such as growth rings and resin canals have been obliterated by compression. We report on exceptionally high-resolution intra-ring analyses of δ13C within fossil wood, sampled at ~30 micron intervals across several centimeters of wood sample. Clear patterns in systematic seasonal increases and decreases in wood δ13C allowed us to identify at least 5 annual cycles in the wood. The patterns of increase and decrease in δ13C were consistent with patterns observed for evergreen wood, and distinct from the deciduous patterns we have observed for Metasequoia fossil wood from the middle Eocene (ca. 45 Ma) Arctic site on Axel Heiberg Island. We believe that the high point in the δ13C value of wood seen in each cycle corresponds to the highest environmental temperatures during the annual cycle, as has been seen for modern evergreens (e.g., Barbour et al., 2002). Modern studies have also noted that high temperature periods are correlated with the highest vapor-pressure and soil-water deficits of the annual cycle; these environmental factors would cause the plant to change its discrimination during photosynthesis. We will discuss the relatively low amplitude of δ13C fluctuations (0.5-1.0 ‰) clearly defined by Ellesmere fossil wood, in comparison to observations on modern common evergreens (2.0-4.0 ‰), and speculate that this difference implies greatly dampened seasonal temperature fluctuations in Eocene polar environments, relative to today. Barbour M.M., Walcroft A.S., Farquhar G.D., 2002, Seasonal variation in δ13C and δ18O of cellulose from growth rings of Pinus radiata. Plant, Cell and Environment: v. 25, p. 1483-1499.

  4. Strong air pollution from old wood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to this article, wood-firing is the major source of suspended dust in Norway. Old stoves emit about six times as much as new stoves. Only seven percent of the wood-firing takes place in modern, clean-burning stoves. In Oslo, where replacement of old stoves has been publicly supported, this fraction is even less. The emission of carbon dioxide from burning wood does not count as climate gas emission since the amount of CO 2 released from a burning tree equals the amount that was fixed in the growing tree, and it would have been released anyhow by the decaying tree if not burned

  5. Environmental assessment of domestic wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labouze, E.; Le Guerin, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In France, more than 6 million families are concerned with the domestic use of wood energy. The wood energy plan of ADEME aims at encouraging the development of wood energy in three sectors: domestic, collective/tertiary, industrial. In that context, ADEME commissioned BIO Intelligence Service a life cycle assessment of collective and industrial heating in order to give objective environmental information and to analyse the strength and weakness of wood heating. Three scenarios were defined according to the origin of wood: firewood, granules and sawmill chips. The study also proposes a comparison to other heating systems: gas, fuel oil and electricity. The life cycle analysis applied to domestic heating consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of the whole linked steps: extraction of fuel, distribution, final use... Every system under study has been divided according to three main stages: - Extraction of raw materials; - Transport of fuels until the place of storage or distribution; - Use (combustion or upstream production of energy in the case of electricity). The environmental impacts are estimated with the following indicators: - Non renewable primary energy balance sheet; - Global warming potential; - Air acidification potential; - Eutrophication potential; - Emissions of toxic metals in air and in soils. The results show that wood heating have the best energy and global warming balance sheets. For air acidification, the combustion stage is pre-dominant regardless of the energy resource. This is mainly due to nitrogen and sulphur oxides airborne emissions. For wood heating, preparation requires fuel consumption which also contributes significantly to nitrogen oxides emissions. The comparison with conventional energy shows that the wood scenarios are well positioned in relation to fuel and electricity for this indicator. Gas appears to be the best heating option for this indicator. The contribution eutrophication is also due to nitrogen oxides airborne

  6. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  7. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  8. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Noraida, A. W.; Abdul-Rahim, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there wa...

  9. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  10. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  11. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  12. Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Water repellents and water-repellent preservatives increase the durability of wood by enabling the wood to repel liquid water. This report focuses on water-repellent finishes for wood exposed outdoors above ground. The report includes a discussion of the effects of outdoor exposure on wood, the characteristics of water repellent and water-repellent preservative...

  13. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  14. Methods for Mitigating the Environmental Risks Associated with Wood Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Hayward; Stan T. Lebow; Kenneth M. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    As noted in earlier chapters, the treatment of wood is both art and science. Wood is a variable material; treatment results tend to vary with the preservative and wood species and even within boards of the same species. This means that treated wood often contains a range of preservative retentions. Some pieces will have less than the desired retention, while others may...

  15. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of water... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515...

  16. Housing and the wood industry, trends & market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Al Schuler; K. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Housing markets continue to have major impacts on the secondary wood industry. So, what are the steps being taken by wood products manufacturers in order to stay viable? As a follow-up to last year's article, "Housing Market's Impact on the Secondary Woodworking Industry" (Wood & Wood Products, July 2010), the focus of this year's study was...

  17. Wood construction codes issues in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The current wood construction codes find their origin in the 1935 Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material published by the USDA Forest Service. Many of the current design recommendations can be traced back to statements from this book. Since this time a series of development both historical and recent has led to a multi-layered system for use of wood products in...

  18. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  19. Acetylation of wood components and fourier transform infra-red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the reactivity of wood components with acetic anhydride or vinyl acetate was studied. It was found that the reactivity of wood components was virgin wood flour > holocellulose >> a-cellulose. Acetylation of Turkish pine or cedar wood flour with acetic anhydride was significantly improved in the presence of ...

  20. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  1. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  2. A geographical analysis of the Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anders; Bohlin, Folke; Hektor, Bo; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2000-01-01

    The geographical variation in Swedish wood fuel market characteristics for the district heating sector has been studied using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and cross-sectional Tobit analysis. The results indicate that local availability and competition for wood fuels influence the wood fuel consumption at inland heating plants. The factors affecting the decision to use wood fuel at heating plants close to seaports, however, were not captured by the model, suggesting that coastal location reduces dependency on the local wood fuel market. The effects of changes in local wood fuel availability on wood fuel use by an inland heating plant are presented and discussed

  3. Implementation of new technologies in wood industry and their effect in wood products quality

    OpenAIRE

    ELVA ÇAUSHI; PANDELI MARKU

    2014-01-01

    There are about 300 companies producing furniture and about 250 small and medium enterprises (SME) producing sawn timber, which operate in the field of wood industry in Albania. This wood industry production is being challenged by the increasing demand in the domestic market, ranging from kitchen furniture to office and schools furniture, bedroom furniture, doors, windows, and saw timber in different dimensions. The production from the wood industry can fulfill about 80% of the domestic mark...

  4. LCA-based optimization of wood utilization under special consideration of a cascading use of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglmeier, Karin; Steubing, Bernhard; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Cascading, the use of the same unit of a resource in multiple successional applications, is considered as a viable means to improve the efficiency of resource utilization and to decrease environmental impacts. Wood, as a regrowing but nevertheless limited and increasingly in demand resource, can be used in cascades, thereby increasing the potential efficiency per unit of wood. This study aims to assess the influence of cascading wood utilization on optimizing the overall environmental impact of wood utilization. By combining a material flow model of existing wood applications - both for materials provision and energy production - with an algebraic optimization tool, the effects of the use of wood in cascades can be modelled and quantified based on life cycle impact assessment results for all production processes. To identify the most efficient wood allocation, the effects of a potential substitution of non-wood products were taken into account in a part of the model runs. The considered environmental indicators were global warming potential, particulate matter formation, land occupation and an aggregated single score indicator. We found that optimizing either the overall global warming potential or the value of the single score indicator of the system leads to a simultaneous relative decrease of all other considered environmental impacts. The relative differences between the impacts of the model run with and without the possibility of a cascading use of wood were 7% for global warming potential and the single score indicator, despite cascading only influencing a small part of the overall system, namely wood panel production. Cascading led to savings of up to 14% of the annual primary wood supply of the study area. We conclude that cascading can improve the overall performance of a wood utilization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties of bio-composites from wood particles and liquefied wood resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    Compression molded composites were made from wood particles and a liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde co-condensed resin. Based on our previous research, a phenol to wood (P/W) ratio of 2/1 was chosen for this study. The two experimental variables selected were: 1) liquefaction temperature (150o and 180oC) and 2) cooking method (atmospheric and sealed). Panels were...

  6. What Caused the Great Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  7. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  8. The economic potential of wood pellet production from alternative, low-value wood sources in the southeast of the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, Ric; Junginger, Martin; Faaij, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The global demand for wood pellets used for energy purposes is growing. Therefore, increased amounts of wood pellets are produced from primary forestry products, such as pulp wood. The present analysis demonstrates that substantial amounts of alternative, low-value wood resources are available that

  9. On-line automatic detection of wood pellets in pneumatically conveyed wood dust flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Duo; Yan, Yong; Carter, Robert M.; Gao, Lingjun; Qian, Xiangchen; Lu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a piezoelectric transducer based system for on-line automatic detection of wood pellets in wood dust flow in pneumatic conveying pipelines. The piezoelectric transducer senses non-intrusively the collisions between wood pellets and the pipe wall. Wavelet-based denoising is adopted to eliminate environmental noise and recover the collision events. Then the wood pellets are identified by sliding a time window through the denoised signal with a suitable threshold. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory test rig and on an industrial pneumatic conveying pipeline to assess the effectiveness and operability of the system.

  10. Application of molecular genetic methods for identification of wood-decaying fungi in wood constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bobeková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the utilization of molecular biology methods for detection of wood decaying fungi directly from decomposed wood using a commercial DNA extraction kit developed for soil substrates (PowerSoil™ DNA isolation kit. The experiment based on dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans detection from inoculated wooden pieces under laboratory conditions was followed by field detection of wood-decaying fungi from wood structures on building constructions. Fungal DNA was identified using the PCR–based methods including species-specific PCR and sequencing of amplified ITS region of ribosomal DNA.

  11. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  12. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  13. Wood biomass gasification in the world today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolikj, Ognjen; Perishikj, Radovan; Mikulikj, Jurica

    1999-01-01

    Today gasification technology of different kinds represents a more and more interesting option of the production of energy forms. The article describes a biomass gasification plant (waste wood) Sydkraft, Vernamo from Sweden. (Author)

  14. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  16. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  17. Cold shock on the wood fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queyrel, A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the wood fuel industry represents one of the pillars of the European energy plan, and in particular of the French energy policy, as it fulfills both objectives of development of renewable energy sources and CO 2 balance. The wood fuel industry supplies 6% of the French energy consumption and has permitted to save more than 9 million tons of petroleum equivalent. However, the conclusions of the European project CARBOSOL stress on the strong health impacts of wood-fueled combustion systems, in particular in the case of domestic individual systems and appliances. The combustion of biomass (fireplaces and agriculture) is responsible for 50 to 70% of the winter carbon pollution in Europe. The situation of collective or industrial wood-fueled facilities is different since pollution control solutions can be more easily implemented. (J.S.)

  18. PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF QUALITY WOOD Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest species, in general, present a slow growth, which results and profits can manifest themselves in the long run, it becomes necessary the study and discovery of new species that may provide raw materials and return on invested capital more immediate, being that the Melia azedarach wood is a potential option. In the absence of information about, the objective of this paper is to determine its physical properties: basic density and shrinkage of the Melia azedarach species in the Itapeva-SP region. The data obtained in this study allow to classify wood Melia azedarach as wood of average density and good dimensional stability. Feature that makes it ideal for its use in furniture industry. The low amount of research related to quality of this wood prevents the commercial use of it to achieve its full potential harnessing its effectively, and essential investments in this field.

  19. Manufacture, delivery and marketing of wood pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtanen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Wood pellet is a cheap fuel, the use of which can easily bee automated. Pellet heating can be carried out with a stoker or a pellet burner, which can be mounted to oil and solid fuels boiler or to solid fuel boilers. Vapo Oy delivers wood pellet to farms and detached houses via Agrimarket stores. Vapo Oy delivers pellets to large real estates, municipalities, industry, greenhouses and power plants directly as bulk. The pellets are delivered either by trailers or lorries equipped with fan-operated unloaders. The use of wood pellets is a suitable fuel especially for real estates, the boiler output of which is 20 - 1000 kW. Vapo Oy manufactures wood pellets of cutter chips, grinding dust and sawdust. The raw material for Ilomantsi pellet plant is purchased from the province of North Karelia. The capacity of pelletizing plant is 45 000 t of pellets per year, half of which is exported mainly to Sweden and Denmark

  20. Gamma radiation a help to archeological woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balibar, F.

    1981-01-01

    Waterlogged archeological wood falls into dust once extracted from the water. In order to prevent this destruction several processes have been thought up. In France, the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre has developed a method of consolidation by resin impregnation and gamma irradiation. The object is first immersed in a vessel containing liquid resin which spreads throughout the wood thereby driving off the water. During the second stage of the treatment, the impregnated objects are irradiated by gamma radiation emitted by a rectangular grid of cobalt 60, so as to polymerize the resin inside the wood. The irradiated objects are Gallo-Roman statuettes discovered during digs at the sources of the river Seine. The wood consolidated right through to the core then becomes sufficiently solid for the restorer to work on the surface of these objects [fr

  1. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  2. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Transparent wood for functional and structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  4. Wood durability and stability without toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Rebecca E. Ibach; Thomas Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    Part of a sustainable future for wood products depends on extending the lifetime of wood used in adverse environments. For some products such as the daily news paper, the average life of the products is one day. For packaging, the products average life time may be as few days to a few weeks. For pallets and wooden containers, the lifetime may be several months. For...

  5. Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    drainage areas are different, hydrological analysis will be conducted on the two basins individually. The results of the two analyses will be combined to...ER D C TR -1 5- 4 Environmental Quality and Installations Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri En gi ne er R es ea rc h...Environmental Quality and Installations ERDC TR-15-4 August 2015 Hydrologic Analysis of Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri Michael L. Follum, Darla C. McVan

  6. Wood versus quality of the air?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2015-01-01

    CITEPA has estimated at 875000 tonnes the releases of fine particles in France in 2014. Wood heating is responsible for 1/3 of the release of PM10 particles (particles with a diameter lower than 10 μm) and for half of the release of PM2.5 particles. PM2.5 particles are particles whose diameter is lower than 2.5 μm, they are more dangerous than PM10 particles because they enter the lungs more deeply. In 2012 the World Health Organisation acknowledged fine particles as responsible for lung cancers. The other contributors are industry (20 to 30%) and transport (16%). The uncertainties on the figures are important and can reach 50% as the estimations are based on extrapolations but wood heating appears to be the major polluter. The solution is to promote the installation of new wood heating systems that release far less particles. Open fireplaces and closed fireplaces installed before 2002 release respectively 97 and 91 kg of fine particles a year while closed fireplaces installed after 2007 release only 8 kg a year and the latest closed systems only 3 kg a year. In some mountainous regions like Haute-Savoie where wood heating is a tradition, local authorities give financial helps to individuals to install efficient systems. Community wood heating and industrial wood boilers have been equipped with efficient filters since the first Grenelle law on the environment took effect and their releases of fine particles have dropped sharply. (A.C.)

  7. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  8. UV-LED Curing Efficiency of Wood Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronic Landry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs have attracted great interest in recent years. They can be used to polymerize coatings, such as those used for prefinished wood flooring. In this project, two lamps were compared for their suitability to be used on a wood flooring finishing line: a UV-microwave and a UV-LED lamp. Low heat emission was found for the UV-LED lamp compared to the UV-microwave one. This study also reveals that the 4 W/cm2 UV-LED lamp used is not powerful enough to cure UV high solids acrylate coatings while satisfactory results can be obtained for UV water-based formulations. In fact, conversion percentages were found to be low for the high solids coatings, leaving the coatings tacky. Higher conversion percentages were obtained for the UV water-based formulations. As a result, mass loss, hardness, and scratch resistance found for the samples cured by UV-LED were closed to the ones found for the samples cured using the UV microwave lamp.

  9. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Wood property variation in Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean W. Einspahr; Miles K. Benson; John R. Peckham

    1968-01-01

    The use of bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.), quaking aspen (P. tremuloides Michx.), and cottonwood (P. deltoides Bartr.) by the pulp and paper industry has increased greatly during the past decade. This expanded use has stimulated research on the genetic improvement of Populus. For the past 12 years...

  11. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  12. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  13. Arthroscopy of the great toe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, C.; van Dijk, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    The few available reports of arthroscopic treatment of the first MTP joint in the literature indicate favorable outcome. However, arthroscopy of the great toe is an advanced technique and should only be undertaken by experienced surgeons

  14. Wood Modification at High Temperature and Pressurized Steam: a Relational Model of Mechanical Properties Based on a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermally modified wood has high dimensional stability and biological durability.But if the process parameters of thermal modification are not appropriate, then there will be a decline in the physical properties of wood.A neural network algorithm was employed in this study to establish the relationship between the process parameters of high-temperature and high-pressure thermal modification and the mechanical properties of the wood. Three important parameters: temperature, relative humidity, and treatment time, were considered as the inputs to the neural network. Back propagation (BP neural network and radial basis function (RBF neural network models for prediction were built and compared. The comparison showed that the RBF neural network model had advantages in network structure, convergence speed, and generalization capacity. On this basis, the inverse model, reflecting the relationship between the process parameters and the mechanical properties of wood, was established. Given the desired mechanical properties of the wood, the thermal modification process parameters could be inversely optimized and predicted. The results indicated that the model has good learning ability and generalization capacity. This is of great importance for the theoretical and applicational studies of the thermal modification of wood.

  15. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  16. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  17. Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Craig M. Clemons

    2017-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) have slower moisture sorption than solid wood, but over time moisture can impact the strength, stiffness, and decay of the composite. These changes will become increasingly important if WPCs are used in more challenging environments such as in ground-contact applications. There are several options for mitigating the moisture sorption of...

  18. Creation of Wood Dust during Wood Processing: Size Analysis, Dust Separation, and Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mračková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical separators and fabric filters are being used to remove airborne fine particles generated during the processing and handling of wood. Such particles might have a harmful effect on employee health, not only in small- but also in large-scale wood processing facilities. The amount of wood dust and its dispersion conditions vary according to geometric boundary conditions. Thus, the dispersion conditions could be changed by changing the linear size of the particles. Moreover, the smaller the particles are, the more harmful they can be. It is necessary to become familiar with properties, from a health point of view, of wood dust generated from processing. Wood dust has to be sucked away from the processing area. The fractional separation efficiency of wood dust can be improved using exhaust and filtering devices. Filtration efficiency depends on moisture content, particle size, and device performance. Because of the carcinogenicity of wood dust, the concentration of wood dust in air has to be monitored regularly. Based on the results hereof, a conclusion can be made that both mechanical separators of types SEA and SEB as well as the fabric filters with FINET PES 1 textile are suitable for the separation of wet saw dust from all types of wooden waste produced within the process.

  19. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  20. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  1. Properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    The water sorption and mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) made of extracted and delignified wood flour (WF) has been investigated. WF was prepared by extraction with the solvent systems toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW), and its delignification was conducted by means of sodium chlorite/acetic acid (AA) solution. A 2 4...

  2. Surface characterization of weathered wood-plastic composites produced from modified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Fabiyi; Armando G. McDonald; Nicole M. Stark

    2007-01-01

    The effects of weathering on the surface properties of wood-plastic composites (WPC) were examined. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) based WPCs made from modified wood flour (untreated, extractives free, and holocellulose (delignified) fibers) were subjected to accelerated (xenon-arc) weathering. Colorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed to...

  3. Weathering methods for preservative treated wood and their applicability for fire retarded wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.

    1999-01-01

    preservative treated wood. The aim of the presentation is to inform you about current testing methods and to discuss their applicability to test fire retarded wood in outdoor use. Assuming that fire retardants will only be used in out of ground contact, only those methods are mentioned, which fit

  4. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  5. Wood evidence : proper collection, documentation, and storage of wood evidence from a crime scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2006-01-01

    Wood can be found at crime scenes in many forms: as a murder weapon, as material used to hide a body, or as trace evidence from forced entry or vandalism. In the course of my work at the Forest Products Laboratory, Center for Wood Anatomy Research, I have been part of several forensic investigations that were adversely affected by inappropriate procedures used to...

  6. Chapter 6: Above Ground Deterioration of Wood and Wood-Based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Kirker; Jerrold Winandy

    2014-01-01

    Wood as a material has unique properties that make it ideal for above ground exposure in a wide range of structural and non-strucutral applications. However, no material is without limitations. Wood is a bio-polymer which is subject to degradative processes, both abiotic and biotic. This chapter is a general summary of the abiotic and biotic factors that impact service...

  7. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  8. Wood energy barometer. 43 million toe produced in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The use of wood in the form of energy contributes in fighting global warming since, unlike fossil energies, the carbon dioxide emitted by its combustion is reabsorbed by the forests. These environmental and energetic advantages explain why the European Union large wood countries are preparing programmes to develop both wood energy technologies and wood energy consumption; This document takes stock or gives information on the breakdown of valorization of wood energy origin primary energy, the gross electricity generation from wood energy in the 15 european union countries and Poland, the primary energy from wood energy, the comparative between different wood energy fuel prices in Europe, the number of direct and indirect job created in different sectors, the wood energy sector industrialists and a comparison between current trend and white paper objectives. (A.L.B.)

  9. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  10. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  11. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  12. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  14. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  15. Wood-Based Nanotechnologies toward Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Li, Tian; Li, Yiju; Zhang, Ying; Gong, Amy; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily; Luo, Wei; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-01-01

    With over 30% global land coverage, the forest is one of nature's most generous gifts to human beings, providing shelters and materials for all living beings. Apart from being sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable, wood and its derivative materials are also extremely fascinating from a materials aspect, with numerous advantages including porous and hierarchical structure, excellent mechanical performance, and versatile chemistry. Here, strategies for designing novel wood-based materials via advanced nanotechnologies are summarized, including both the controllable bottom-up assembly from the highly crystalline nanocellulose building block and the more efficient top-down approaches directly from wood. Beyond material design, recent advances regarding the sustainable applications of these novel wood-based materials are also presented, focusing on areas that are traditionally dominated by man-made nonrenewable materials such as plastic, glass, and metals, as well as more advanced applications in the areas of energy storage, wastewater treatment and solar-steam-assisted desalination. With all recent progress pertaining to materials' design and sustainable applications presented, a vision for the future engineering of wood-based materials to promote continuous and healthy progress toward true sustainability is outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Ikei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years. As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish, increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish, and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish, demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  17. Optimization of wood plastic composite decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravivarman, S.; Venkatesh, G. S.; Karmarkar, A.; Shivkumar N., D.; Abhilash R., M.

    2018-04-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) is a new class of natural fibre based composite material that contains plastic matrix reinforced with wood fibres or wood flour. In the present work, Wood Plastic Composite was prepared with 70-wt% of wood flour reinforced in polypropylene matrix. Mechanical characterization of the composite was done by carrying out laboratory tests such as tensile test and flexural test as per the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the laboratory test specimen (tensile test) was created and explicit finite element analysis was carried out on the finite element model in non-linear Explicit FE code LS - DYNA. The piecewise linear plasticity (MAT 24) material model was identified as a suitable model in LS-DYNA material library, describing the material behavior of the developed composite. The composite structures for decking application in construction industry were then optimized for cross sectional area and distance between two successive supports (span length) by carrying out various numerical experiments in LS-DYNA. The optimized WPC deck (Elliptical channel-2 E10) has 45% reduced weight than the baseline model (solid cross-section) considered in this study with the load carrying capacity meeting acceptance criterion (allowable deflection & stress) for outdoor decking application.

  18. Physiological Effects of Touching Coated Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2017-07-13

    This study examined the physiological effects of touching wood with various coating with the palm of the hand on brain activity and autonomic nervous activity. Participants were 18 female university students (mean age, 21.7 ± 1.6 years). As an indicator of brain activity, oxyhemoglobin concentrations were measured in the left and right prefrontal cortices using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component of HRV, which reflects parasympathetic nervous activity, and the low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio, which reflects sympathetic nervous activity, were measured. Plates of uncoated, oil-finished, vitreous-finished, urethane-finished, and mirror-finished white oak wood were used as tactile stimuli. After sitting at rest with their eyes closed for 60 s, participants touched the stimuli with their palm for 90 s each. The results indicated that tactile stimulation with uncoated wood calmed prefrontal cortex activity (vs. urethane finish and mirror finish), increased parasympathetic nervous activity (vs. vitreous finish, urethane finish, and mirror finish), and decreased heart rate (vs. mirror finish), demonstrating a physiological relaxation effect. Further, tactile stimulation with oil- and vitreous-finished wood calmed left prefrontal cortex activity and decreased heart rate relative to mirror-finished wood.

  19. Genetic dissection of growth, wood basic density and gene expression in interspecific backcrosses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background F1 hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla are widely grown for pulp and paper production in tropical and subtropical regions. Volume growth and wood quality are priority objectives in Eucalyptus tree improvement. The molecular basis of quantitative variation and trait expression in eucalypt hybrids, however, remains largely unknown. The recent availability of a draft genome sequence (http://www.phytozome.net) and genome-wide genotyping platforms, combined with high levels of genetic variation and high linkage disequilibrium in hybrid crosses, greatly facilitate the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) as well as underlying candidate genes for growth and wood property traits. In this study, we used Diversity Arrays Technology markers to assess the genetic architecture of volume growth (diameter at breast height, DBH) and wood basic density in four-year-old progeny of an interspecific backcross pedigree of E. grandis and E. urophylla. In addition, we used Illumina RNA-Seq expression profiling in the E. urophylla backcross family to identify cis- and trans-acting polymorphisms (eQTLs) affecting transcript abundance of genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density. Results A total of five QTLs for DBH and 12 for wood basic density were identified in the two backcross families. Individual QTLs for DBH and wood basic density explained 3.1 to 12.2% of phenotypic variation. Candidate genes underlying QTLs for wood basic density on linkage groups 8 and 9 were found to share trans-acting eQTLs located on linkage groups 4 and 10, which in turn coincided with QTLs for wood basic density suggesting that these QTLs represent segregating components of an underlying transcriptional network. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of the use of next-generation expression profiling to quantify transcript abundance in a segregating tree population and identify candidate genes potentially affecting wood property variation. The QTLs identified in this

  20. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  1. Famous puzzles of great mathematicians

    CERN Document Server

    Petković, Miodrag S

    2009-01-01

    This entertaining book presents a collection of 180 famous mathematical puzzles and intriguing elementary problems that great mathematicians have posed, discussed, and/or solved. The selected problems do not require advanced mathematics, making this book accessible to a variety of readers. Mathematical recreations offer a rich playground for both amateur and professional mathematicians. Believing that creative stimuli and aesthetic considerations are closely related, great mathematicians from ancient times to the present have always taken an interest in puzzles and diversions. The goal of this

  2. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  3. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  4. How to quantify conduits in wood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Alexander; Klepsch, Matthias; Karimi, Zohreh; Jansen, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Vessels and tracheids represent the most important xylem cells with respect to long distance water transport in plants. Wood anatomical studies frequently provide several quantitative details of these cells, such as vessel diameter, vessel density, vessel element length, and tracheid length, while important information on the three dimensional structure of the hydraulic network is not considered. This paper aims to provide an overview of various techniques, although there is no standard protocol to quantify conduits due to high anatomical variation and a wide range of techniques available. Despite recent progress in image analysis programs and automated methods for measuring cell dimensions, density, and spatial distribution, various characters remain time-consuming and tedious. Quantification of vessels and tracheids is not only important to better understand functional adaptations of tracheary elements to environment parameters, but will also be essential for linking wood anatomy with other fields such as wood development, xylem physiology, palaeobotany, and dendrochronology.

  5. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  6. Wood energy and air quality. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents and comments some reference data about the current and prospective (2010, 2020) pollutant emissions through wood combustion as a source of energy. It indicates and compares greenhouse gas emissions by the different sources for household, collective and industrial heating (fuel, gas, electricity, pellets, logs, grinds, wood wastes), gives an overview of atmospheric emissions due to biomass combustion. It compares emissions due to wood combustion with respect to the activity sectors and to combustion equipment. It highlights the challenges of the development of the household sector in terms of improvement and renewal of the quality of the burning equipment. It comments the implemented policies which notably aim at reducing the emission of particles, and at defining quality labels

  7. Study of radiation-destroyed wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A.S.; Shakhanova, R.K.; Stepanova, I.N.; Vysotskaya, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    The change in carbohydrate composition of aspen wood exposed to electron beam radiation (0.5 MeV, dose rates of 0-0.56 MGy) is studied. It has been found that the water-soluble polysaccharide content grows from 0.47 up to 8.54 %, and that of the non-hydrolyzed polysaccharides decreases from 49.4 down to 36.1 %. The polysaccharide total content of aspen wood goes down from 61.28 to 56.82 % with the radiation dose increasing. Consequently, the xylose, arabinose, and ramnose percentage of wood hydrolyzates increases correspondingly from 11.9 up to 15.44, from 0.66 up to 0.90, and from 0.21 up to 0.38

  8. Fuel-wood from undermanaged woodland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, R A

    1995-11-22

    This report examines the potential for the utilisation of currently undermanaged woodland for supply of wood fuel. The potential markets for wood fuel are identified, along with their requirements in terms of fuel specification. Woodland resources currently receiving little or no management are identified, concentrating on broadleaves in lowland Britain. The nature of these resources is discussed, and opportunities/constraints for their management reviewed. Machinery suitable for these woodland areas is discussed, and the application of this equipment into practical systems is examined in some detail. These themes are developed in two case studies, resulting in a discussion of findings and a range of conclusions. It is believed that potential exists to extract chipped wood fuel form existing unmanaged woodland areas from Pound 25/gt upwards, including standing value and contractor profit. (Author)

  9. Making a Great First Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  10. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  11. The Great Books and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  12. Great tit hatchling sex ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Mateman, A.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    The sex of Great Tit Parus major nestlings was determined using PCR RAPDs. Because this technique requires minute amounts of DNA, chicks could be sampled soon (0-2d) after hatching, before any nestling mortality occurred. The proportion of males among 752 chicks hatching in 102 broods (98.9% of

  13. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  14. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  15. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    . Three years after applications the SOM content increased lightly in the treatment receiving more than 16 Mg ha-1 of wood ash. SOM in the treated soils displayed a higher degree of aromaticity than in the untreated soils, indicating a gain in more stable SOM compounds probably as a consequence of the charcoal application. However, both methods also revealed increases in labile C compounds, probably due to the carbohydrates added through root system. Microbial biomass-C and soil respiration increased significantly. The treatments also led to increases in the functional diversity indices. The amended soils showed greater utilization of substrates and the ability of soil bacteria to utilize different C resources was also greatly altered. The application of mixed wood ash did not lead to any difference in MWD, which was around 6 mm in all cases. The application of 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1 increased significantly the hydraulic conductivity (4.07 cmh-1) when compared with in control plots (1.3 cmh-1) and mixed ash plots (1.52 and 2.45 cmh-1, 16 Mg and 32 Mg respectively). However, air-filled porosity was not higher in 16 Mg fly ash plots. AWC was not improved by wood ash application.

  16. Nigerian Wood Waste: A Potential Resource for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    methods these vast amount of wood residues are often discarded ... contradict sustainable solid waste management which entails various .... waste through the production of steam in boiler super-heater .... Wood Fuels Handbook. AIEL: Italian.

  17. USE OF CANDEIA’S (Eremanthus erythropappus WASTE WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The candeia (Eremanthus erythropappus is a native forest species with multiple uses and specially utilized as essential oils source. The use of the candeia´s waste wood after oil extraction for particle panels production becomes a viable alternative, avoiding environmental problems and increasing the availability of these products in the consuming market. This work verified the viability of producing wood-cement panels using waste wood generated after the extraction of candeia’s oil, in association with pinus and eucalipto woods. The experiment was installed according to a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The treatments were arranged according to a factorial 2 x 3 scheme (two wooden species and three replacement percentages of the woods by candeia’s waste. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of candeia waste wood, after oil extraction, in association with pinus and eucalipto wood for manufacturing wood-cement panels.

  18. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    were performed to assess the energy characteristics of the collected wood .... Methods. Wood processing activities were physically observed for. 6 days/wk at the sawmills for 15weeks. ..... [10] Oladeji, J T “Fuel characterization of briquettes.

  19. 21 CFR 866.2600 - Wood's fluorescent lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2600 Wood's fluorescent lamp. (a) Identification. A Wood's fluorescent lamp is a device intended for medical purposes to detect...

  20. Unpalatable plants facilitate tree sapling survival in wooded pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Ouden, den J.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1. In endangered wooded pasture ecosystems established tree saplings are frequently found in spatial association with protective structures, suggesting nurse effects. This associational resistance is thought to be a driving force behind tree regeneration in wooded pastures. Experimental