WorldWideScience

Sample records for grazing-incidence reflection optics

  1. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  2. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  3. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  4. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  5. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.

    1983-01-01

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  6. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  7. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2012 physics pp. 1–58. Grazing incidence polarized ..... atomic distances, the neutron has an energy which is low compared to molecular binding ...... cores and that of the Co ions in the AF oxide coatings. ...... [32] C Leighton, M R Fitzsimmons, P Yashar, A Hoffmann, J Nogus, J Dura, C F Majkrzak and.

  8. Active Micro structured Optical Arrays of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingale, R.; Feldman, Ch.; Michette, A.; Hart, D.; McFaul, Ch; Morrison, G.R.; Pfauntsch, S.; Powell, A.K.; Sahraei, Sh.; Shand, M.T.; Button, T.; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D.; Zhang, D.; Dunare, C.; Parkes, W.; Stevenson, T.; Folkard, M.; Vojnovic, B.; Vojnovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    The UK Smart X-Ray Optics (SXO) programme is developing active/adaptive optics for terrestrial applications. One of the technologies proposed is micro structured optical arrays (MOAs), which focus X-rays using grazing incidence reflection through consecutive aligned arrays of microscopic channels. Although such arrays are similar in concept to poly capillary and microchannel plate optics, they can be bent and adjusted using piezoelectric actuators providing control over the focusing and inherent aberrations. Custom configurations can be designed, using ray tracing and finite element analysis, for applications from sub-keV to several-keV X-rays, and the channels of appropriate aspect ratios can be made using deep silicon etching. An exemplar application will be in the micro probing of biological cells and tissue samples using Ti Ka radiation (4.5?keV) in studies related to radiation-induced cancers. This paper discusses the optical design, modelling, and manufacture of such optics

  9. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.

  10. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  11. An Evaluation of Grazing-Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    The refractive index for most materials is slightly less than unity, which opens an opportunity to develop the grazing incidence neutron imaging optics. The ideal material for the optics would be natural nickel and its isotopes. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has active development program on the nickel replicated optics for use in x-ray astronomy. Brief status report on the program is presented. The results of the neutron focusing optic test carried by the MSFC team at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are also presented. Possible applications of the optics are briefly discussed.

  12. Optical design of grazing incidence toroidal grating monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.; Howells, M.R.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Design rules using geometrical optics and physical optics associated with the phase balancing method are discussed for stigmatic toroidal grazing incidence monochromators. To determine the optical performance of devices involving mirrirs and/or gratings, ray tracing programs using exact geometry are quite widely used. It is then desirable to have some way to infer the practical performance of an instrument from a spot diagram created by tracing a limited number of rays. We propose a first approach to this problem involving an estimation of the geometrical intensity distribution in the image plane and the corresponding line spread function. (orig.)

  13. Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osantowski, John F. (Editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

  14. The Development of a Differential Deposition Technique for Figure Correction in Grazing Incidence Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a physical-vapor-deposition coating technique to correct residual figure errors in grazing-incidence optics. The process involves...

  15. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  16. Experiment and application of soft x-ray grazing incidence optical scattering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Su, Liping; Geng, Tao; Li, Kun

    2017-08-01

    For short wavelength imaging systems,surface scattering effects is one of important factors degrading imaging performance. Study of non-intuitive surface scatter effects resulting from practical optical fabrication tolerances is a necessary work for optical performance evaluation of high resolution short wavelength imaging systems. In this paper, Soft X-ray optical scattering distribution is measured by a soft X-ray reflectometer installed by my lab, for different sample mirrors、wavelength and grazing angle. Then aim at space solar telescope, combining these scattered light distributions, and surface scattering numerical model of grazing incidence imaging system, PSF and encircled energy of optical system of space solar telescope are computed. We can conclude that surface scattering severely degrade imaging performance of grazing incidence systems through analysis and computation.

  17. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  18. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  19. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  20. Optical Analysis of Grazing Incidence Ring Resonators for Free-Electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, David Richard

    1990-08-01

    The design of resonators for free-electron lasers (FELs) which are to operate in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) region of the spectrum is complicated by the fact that, in this wavelength regime, normal incidence mirrors, which would otherwise be used for the construction of the resonators, generally have insufficient reflectivities for this purpose. However, the use of grazing incidence mirrors in XUV resonators offers the possibility of (1) providing sufficient reflectivity, (2) a lessening of the mirrors' thermal loads due to the projection of the laser beam onto an oblique surface, and (3) the preservation of the FEL's tunability. In this work, the behavior of resonators employing grazing incidence mirrors in ring type configurations is explored. In particular, two designs, each utilizing four off-axis conic mirrors and a number of flats, are examined. In order to specify the location, orientation, and surface parameters for the mirrors in these resonators, a design algorithm has been developed based upon the properties of Gaussian beam propagation. Two computer simulation methods are used to perform a vacuum stability analysis of the two resonator designs. The first method uses paraxial ray trace techniques with the resonators' thin lens analogues while the second uses the diffraction-based computer simulation code GLAD (General Laser Analysis and Design). The effects of mirror tilts and deviations in the mirror surface parameters are investigated for a number of resonators designed to propagate laser beams of various Rayleigh ranges. It will be shown that resonator stability decreases as the laser wavelength for which the resonator was designed is made smaller. In addition, resonator stability will also be seen to decrease as the amount of magnification the laser beam receives as it travels around the resonator is increased.

  1. Adaptive grazing incidence optics for the next generation of x-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, C.; Pearson, D.; Plinta, A.; Metro, B.; Lintz, E.; Shropshire, D.; Danner, R.

    2010-09-01

    Advances in X-ray astronomy require high spatial resolution and large collecting area. Unfortunately, X-ray telescopes with grazing incidence mirrors require hundreds of concentric mirror pairs to obtain the necessary collecting area, and these mirrors must be thin shells packed tightly together... They must also be light enough to be placed in orbit with existing launch vehicles, and able to be fabricated by the thousands for an affordable cost. The current state of the art in X-ray observatories is represented by NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory with 0.5 arc-second resolution, but only 400 cm2 of collecting area, and by ESA's XMM-Newton observatory with 4,300 cm2 of collecting area but only 15 arc-second resolution. The joint NASA/ESA/JAXA International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with {15,000 cm2 of collecting area and 5 arc-second resolution which is currently in the early study phase, is pushing the limits of passive mirror technology. The Generation-X mission is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 period. As currently conceived, Gen-X would be a follow-on to IXO with a collecting area >= 50 m2, a 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. Gen-X would be launched in {2030 with a heavy lift Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Active figure control will be necessary to meet the challenging requirements of the Gen-X optics. In this paper we present our adaptive grazing incidence mirror design and the results from laboratory tests of a prototype mirror.

  2. Some simple ideas on x-ray reflection and grazing-incidence diffraction from thin surfactant films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, K.

    1994-01-01

    For Langmuir films of long linear amphiphilic molecules at the air-water interface, grazing-incidence diffraction data resolved in terms of both the horizontal and vertical components of the scattering angle can be evaluated to a fair level of detail by means of a slide rule. Specular reflection ...... data require more sophisticated means although some rules of thumb can be formulated.......For Langmuir films of long linear amphiphilic molecules at the air-water interface, grazing-incidence diffraction data resolved in terms of both the horizontal and vertical components of the scattering angle can be evaluated to a fair level of detail by means of a slide rule. Specular reflection...

  3. The role of surface topography in predicting scattering at grazing incidence from optical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Jones, V.O.; Elson, J.M.; Bennett, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Monochromator design and the design of optical experiments at XUV and X-ray wavelengths are frequently limited by scattering from optical components, yet theoretical treatments are few and untested experimentally. This is partly due to the failure of scattering models used in the visible and near UV when the wavelength becomes comparable to, or smaller than, the topographic features on the surface, and partly it is due to the difficulty in measuring the topography on the required size scale. We briefly review the theoretical problems and prospects for accurately predicting both the magnitude and angular distribution of scattering at grazing incidence from optical surfaces. Experimental methods for determining and representing the surface topography are also reviewed, together with their limitations and ranges of applicability. Finally, the first results of our experiments, conducted recently at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on the angular distribution of scattering by surfaces of known topography are presented and discussed, along with their potential implications for the theory of scattering, and for XUV and X-ray optical components. (orig.)

  4. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  5. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  6. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  8. In situ x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction study of L 1{sub 0} ordering in {sup 57}Fe/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra Reddy, V; Gupta, Ajay; Gome, Anil [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 017 (India); Leitenberger, Wolfram [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14469 Potsdam (Germany); Pietsch, U [Physics Department, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)], E-mail: vrreddy@csr.ernet.in, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com

    2009-05-06

    In situ high temperature x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements in the energy dispersive mode are used to study the ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L 1{sub 0} phase formation in [Fe(19 A)/Pt(25 A)]{sub x 10} multilayers prepared by ion beam sputtering. With the in situ x-ray measurements it is observed that (i) the multilayer structure first transforms to a disordered FePt and subsequently to an ordered fct L 1{sub 0} phase, (ii) the ordered fct L 1{sub 0} FePt peaks start to appear at 320 deg. C annealing, (iii) the activation energy of the interdiffusion is 0.8 eV and (iv) ordered fct FePt grains have preferential out-of-plane texture. The magneto-optical Kerr effect and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopies are used to study the magnetic properties of the as-deposited and 400 deg. C annealed multilayers. The magnetic data for the 400 {sup 0}C annealed sample indicate that the magnetization is at an angle of {approx}50 deg. from the plane of the film.

  9. Grazing Incidence Wavefront Sensing and Verification of X-Ray Optics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Rohrbach, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of interferometrically measured mirror metrology data and characterization of a telescope wavefront can be powerful tools in understanding of image characteristics of an x-ray optical system. In the development of soft x-ray telescope for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO), we have developed new approaches to support the telescope development process. Interferometrically measuring the optical components over all relevant spatial frequencies can be used to evaluate and predict the performance of an x-ray telescope. Typically, the mirrors are measured using a mount that minimizes the mount and gravity induced errors. In the assembly and mounting process the shape of the mirror segments can dramatically change. We have developed wavefront sensing techniques suitable for the x-ray optical components to aid us in the characterization and evaluation of these changes. Hartmann sensing of a telescope and its components is a simple method that can be used to evaluate low order mirror surface errors and alignment errors. Phase retrieval techniques can also be used to assess and estimate the low order axial errors of the primary and secondary mirror segments. In this paper we describe the mathematical foundation of our Hartmann and phase retrieval sensing techniques. We show how these techniques can be used in the evaluation and performance prediction process of x-ray telescopes.

  10. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  11. Aplanatic telescopes based on Schwarzschild optical configuration: from grazing incidence Wolter-like x-ray optics to Cherenkov two-mirror normal incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements

  12. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  13. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Pignotti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 μg range

  14. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingerle, D., E-mail: dingerle@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Meirer, F. [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG Utrecht (Netherlands); Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D. [MiNALab, CMM-irst, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and possible impurities. X-ray techniques utilizing the external reflection of X-rays are very surface sensitive, hence providing a non-destructive tool for process analysis and control. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is an established technique for the characterization of single- and multi-layered thin film structures with layer thicknesses in the nanometer range. XRR spectra are acquired by varying the incident angle in the grazing incidence regime while measuring the specular reflected X-ray beam. The shape of the resulting angle-dependent curve is correlated to changes of the electron density in the sample, but does not provide direct information on the presence or distribution of chemical elements in the sample. Grazing Incidence XRF (GIXRF) measures the X-ray fluorescence induced by an X-ray beam incident under grazing angles. The resulting angle dependent intensity curves are correlated to the depth distribution and mass density of the elements in the sample. GIXRF provides information on contaminations, total implanted dose and to some extent on the depth of the dopant distribution, but is ambiguous with regard to the exact distribution function. Both techniques use similar measurement procedures and data evaluation strategies, i.e. optimization of a sample model by fitting measured and calculated angle curves. Moreover, the applied sample models can be derived from the same physical properties, like atomic scattering/form factors and elemental concentrations; a simultaneous analysis is therefore a straightforward approach. This combined analysis in turn reduces the uncertainties of the individual techniques, allowing a determination of dose and depth profile of the implanted

  15. Packing stress reduction in polymer-lipid monolayers at the air-water interface: An X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction and reflectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, T.L.; Majewski, J.; Howes, P.B.; Kjaer, K.; Nahmen, A. von; Lee, K.Y.C.; Ocko, B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Smith, G.S.

    1999-08-25

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity (XR), the authors have determined the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface as a function of hydrophilic lipid headgroup size. Di-stearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE) lipid monolayers were systematically modified by chemically grafting hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of MW = 90 g/mol (2 ethylene oxide, EO, units), MW = 350 g/mol (8 EO units), and MW = 750 g/mol (17 EO units) to the lipid headgroups. The monolayers were studied in the solid phase at a surface pressure of 42 mN/m. At these high lipid packing densities, the PEG chains are submerged in the water subphase. The increased packing stresses from these bulky polymer headgroups distort the unit cell and the in-plane packing modes of the monolayers, leading to large out-of-plane alterations and staggering of the lipid molecules. Surprisingly, a change in the molecular packing of the monolayer toward higher packing densities (lower area per molecule) was observed on increasing the PEG MW to 750 g/mol (17 EO units). This rearrangement of the monolayer structure may be due to a conformational change in the PEG chains.

  16. Stress measurements by multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) using different radiation wavelengths and different incident angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciszko, Marianna; Baczmański, Andrzej; Braham, Chedly; Wróbel, Mirosław; Wroński, Sebastian; Cios, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The presented study introduces the development of the multi-reflection grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction method (MGIXD) for residual stress determination. The proposed new methodology is aimed at obtaining more reliable experimental data and increasing the depth of non-destructive stress determination below the sample surface. To verify proposed method measurements were performed on a classical X-ray diffractometer (Cu Kα radiation) and using synchrotron radiation (three different wavelengths: λ = 1.2527 Å, λ = 1.5419 Å and λ = 1.7512 Å). The Al2017 alloy subjected to three different surface treatments was investigated in this study. The obtained results showed that the proposed development of MGIXD method, in which not only different incident angles but also different wavelengths of X-ray are used, can be successfully applied for residual stress determination, especially when stress gradients are present in the sample.

  17. Hot slumping glass technology for the grazing incidence optics of future missions with particular reference to IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Conconi, P.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Friedrich, P.; Gallieni, D.; Guldimann, B.; Martelli, F.; Negri, R.; Pagano, G.; Pareschi, G.; Parodi, G.; Proserpio, L.; Salmaso, B.; Scaglione, F.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Terzi, L.; Tintori, M.; Vongehr, M.; Wille, E.; Winter, A.; Zambra, A.

    2010-07-01

    The mirrors of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) consist of a large number of high quality segments delivering a spatial resolution better than 5 arcsec. A study concerning the slumping of thin glass foils for the IXO mirrors is under development in Europe, funded by ESA and led by the Brera Observatory. We are investigating two approaches, the "Direct" and "Indirect" slumping technologies, being respectively based on the use of convex and concave moulds. In the first case during the thermal cycle the optical surface of the glass is in direct contact with the mould surface, while in the second case it is the rear side of the foil which touches the master. Both approaches present pros and cons and aim of this study is also to make an assessment of both processes and to perform a trade-off between the two. The thin plates are made of D263glass produced by Schott. Each plate is 0.4 mm thick, with a reflecting area of 200 mm x 200 mm; the mould are made of Fused Silica. After the thermal cycle the slumped MPs are characterized to define their optical quality and microroughness. The adopted integration process foresees the bonding of the slumped foils to a rigid backplane by means of reinforcing ribs. During the bonding process the plates are constrained to stay in close contact to the surface of the master (i.e. the same mould used for the hot slumping process) by the application of a vacuum pump suction. In this way spring-back deformations and low frequency errors still present on the foil profile after slumping can be corrected. In this paper we present the preliminary results concerning achieved during the first part of the project.

  18. Study of interface correlation in W/C multilayer structure by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A., E-mail: arupb@barc.gov.in; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Maidul Haque, S.; Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, VIZAG Centre, Visakhapatnam 530012 (India); Rai, S. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Raman Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-10-28

    W/C/W tri-layer thin film samples have been deposited on c-Si substrates in a home-built Ion Beam Sputtering system at 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Torr Ar working pressure and 10 mA grid current. The tri-layer samples have been deposited at different Ar{sup +} ion energies between 0.6 and 1.2 keV for W layer deposition and the samples have been characterized by specular and non-specular grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements. By analyzing the GIXR spectra, various interface parameters have been obtained for both W-on-C and C-on-W interfaces and optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy for obtaining interfaces with low imperfections has been found. Subsequently, multilayer W/C samples with 5-layer, 7-layer, 9-layer, and 13-layer have been deposited at this optimum Ar{sup +} ion energy. By fitting the specular and diffused GIXR data of the multilayer samples with the parameters of each interface as fitting variables, different interface parameters, viz., interface width, in-plane correlation length, interface roughness, and interface diffusion have been estimated for each interface and their variation across the depth of the multilayers have been obtained. The information would be useful in realizing W/C multilayers for soft X-ray mirror application in the <100 Å wavelength regime. The applicability of the “restart of the growth at the interface” model in the case of these ion beam sputter deposited W/C multilayers has also been investigated in the course of this study.

  19. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  20. Grazing incidence infrared reflectivity of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 and NbN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somal, HS; Feenstra, BJ; Schutzmann, J; Kim, JH; Barber, ZH; Duijn, VHM; Hien, NT; Menovsky, AA; Palumbo, M; vanderMarel, D

    1996-01-01

    Infrared reflectivity measurements, using p-polarized light at a grazing angle of incidence, show an increased sensitivity to the optical conductivity of highly reflecting superconducting materials. We demonstrate that when this measurement technique is applied to the conventional s-wave

  1. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  2. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  4. Impact of Lipid Oxidization on Vertical Structures and Electrostatics of Phospholipid Monolayers Revealed by Combination of Specular X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytowski, Agatha; Abuillan, Wasim; Makky, Ali; Konovalov, Oleg; Tanaka, Motomu

    2015-07-30

    The influence of phospholipid oxidization of floating monolayers on the structure perpendicular to the global plane and on the density profiles of ions near the lipid monolayer has been investigated by a combination of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF) and specular X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Systematic variation of the composition of the floating monolayers unravels changes in the thickness, roughness and electron density of the lipid monolayers as a function of molar fraction of oxidized phospholipids. Simultaneous GIXF measurements enable one to qualitatively determine the element-specific density profiles of monovalent (K(+) or Cs(+)) and divalent ions (Ca(2+)) in the vicinity of the interface in the presence and absence of two types of oxidized phospholipids (PazePC and PoxnoPC) with high spatial accuracy (±5 Å). We found the condensation of Ca(2+) near carboxylated PazePC was more pronounced compared to PoxnoPC with an aldehyde group. In contrast, the condensation of monovalent ions could hardly be detected even for pure oxidized phospholipid monolayers. Moreover, pure phospholipid monolayers exhibited almost no ion specific condensation near the interface. The quantitative studies with well-defined floating monolayers revealed how the elevation of lipid oxidization level alters the structures and functions of cell membranes.

  5. Grazing-incident PIXE Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongri; Wang Guangpu; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the grazing incidence technology is first applied to the PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis. Three pieces of samples were investigated, including the contaminated aluminium substrate, the SIMOX (separated by oxygen implantation) SOI (Silicon on Insulator) sample and the silicon wafer implanted with Fe + . The results reveal that the grazing-incident proton can improve the sensitivity of PIXE in trace analysis, especially for samples contaminated on surface. With the penetration depth of the proton bean decreased, the ratio of the peak area to the detection limit raised observably and the sensitivity near the sample surface increased. (authors)

  6. Grazing incidence angle based sensing approach integrated with fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared (FO-FTIR) spectroscopy for remote and label-free detection of medical device contaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Moinuddin, E-mail: moinuddin.hassan@fda.hhs.gov; Ilev, Ilko [Optical Therapeutics and Medical Nanophotonics Laboratory, Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Contamination of medical devices has become a critical and prevalent public health safety concern since medical devices are being increasingly used in clinical practices for diagnostics, therapeutics and medical implants. The development of effective sensing methods for real-time detection of pathogenic contamination is needed to prevent and reduce the spread of infections to patients and the healthcare community. In this study, a hollow-core fiber-optic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methodology employing a grazing incidence angle based sensing approach (FO-FTIR-GIA) was developed for detection of various biochemical contaminants on medical device surfaces. We demonstrated the sensitivity of FO-FTIR-GIA sensing approach for non-contact and label-free detection of contaminants such as lipopolysaccharide from various surface materials relevant to medical device. The proposed sensing system can detect at a minimum loading concentration of approximately 0.7 μg/cm{sup 2}. The FO-FTIR-GIA has the potential for the detection of unwanted pathogen in real time.

  7. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  8. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard......-X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs...

  9. Reflected Sunlight Reduction and Characterization for a Deep-Space Optical Receiver Antenna (DSORA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    A baffle system for the elimination of first-order specular and diffuse reflection of sunlight from the sunshade of a deep-space optical receiver telescope is presented. This baffle system consists of rings of 0.5cm blades spaced 2.5 cm apart on the walls of GO hexagonal sunshade tubes that combine to form the telescope sunshade. The shadow cast by the blades, walls, and rims of the tubes prevent all first-order reflections of direct sunlight from reaching the primary mirror of the telescope. A reflection model of the sunshade without baffles is also presented for comparison. Since manufacturers of absorbing surfaces do not measure data near grazing incidence, the reflection properties at anticipated angles of incidence must be characterized. A description of reflection from matte surfaces in term of bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) is presented along with a discussion of measuring BRDF near grazing incidence.

  10. Grazing incidence Fe-line telescopes using W/B4C multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1995-01-01

    The loss of throughput observed at higher energies for traditional grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes coated with high-Z elements can be partly countered by employing multilayers on the outermost reflectors. Using 8-keV reflectivity data from a periodic W/B4C multilayer, the expected performance...

  11. Analysis of buried interfaces in multilayer mirrors using grazing incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectometry near resonance edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertsu, M G; Nardello, M; Giglia, A; Corso, A J; Maurizio, C; Juschkin, L; Nicolosi, P

    2015-12-10

    Accurate measurements of optical properties of multilayer (ML) mirrors and chemical compositions of interdiffusion layers are particularly challenging to date. In this work, an innovative and nondestructive experimental characterization method for multilayers is discussed. The method is based on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectivity measurements performed on a wide grazing incidence angular range at an energy near the absorption resonance edge of low-Z elements in the ML components. This experimental method combined with the underlying physical phenomenon of abrupt changes of optical constants near EUV resonance edges enables us to characterize optical and structural properties of multilayers with high sensitivity. A major advantage of the method is to perform detailed quantitative analysis of buried interfaces of multilayer structures in a nondestructive and nonimaging setup. Coatings of Si/Mo multilayers on a Si substrate with period d=16.4  nm, number of bilayers N=25, and different capping structures are investigated. Stoichiometric compositions of Si-on-Mo and Mo-on-Si interface diffusion layers are derived. Effects of surface oxidation reactions and carbon contaminations on the optical constants of capping layers and the impact of neighboring atoms' interactions on optical responses of Si and Mo layers are discussed.

  12. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ˜95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ˜6.0%.

  13. Properties of grazing-incidence pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji

    2008-03-01

    A pulsed operation of a grazing-incidence double-grating Ti:sapphire laser oscillator that consists of a gain medium, back mirror, and a pair of gratings, was studied. A stable single-longitudinal-mode operation was achievable. From the calculation of the optical path trajectories, it can be explained by the increased beam walk-off from the gain medium by the introduction of the second grating compared with the conventional single-grating grazing-incidence cavity geometry. The improved spectral property was also explained by the calculations of increased dispersion. The results indicate that the oscillator configuration was useful for the applications which require stable mode operation and narrow linewidth such as the high resolution spectroscopy or the laser isotope separation. (author)

  14. Opto-mechanical Analyses for Performance Optimization of Lightweight Grazing-incidence Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    New technology in grazing-incidence mirror fabrication and assembly is necessary to achieve subarcsecond optics for large-area x-ray telescopes. In order to define specifications, an understanding of performance sensitivity to design parameters is crucial. MSFC is undertaking a systematic study to specify a mounting approach, mirror substrate, and testing method. Lightweight mirrors are typically flimsy and are, therefore, susceptible to significant distortion due to mounting and gravitational forces. Material properties of the mirror substrate along with its dimensions significantly affect the distortions caused by mounting and gravity. A parametric study of these properties and their relationship to mounting and testing schemes will indicate specifications for the design of the next generation of lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors. Here we report initial results of this study.

  15. Status of Mirror Development for the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Speegle, C.; Young, M.; Kester, T.; Cheimets, P.; Hertz, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to observe soft X-ray emissions at 0.5 - 2.0 keV energies (24 - 6 Å) from a solar active region. MaGIXS will, for the first time, obtain spatially resolved spectra of high-temperature, low-emission plasma within an active region core. The unique optical design includes a Wolter I telescope and a 3-optic grazing incidence spectrograph. The spectrograph consists of a finite conjugate, stigmatic mirror pair and a planar varied line space grating. The grazing incidence mirrors are being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and are produced using electroform nickel-replication techniques, employing the same facilities developed for HERO, FOXSI, ART-XC and IXPE. The MaGIXS mirror mandrels have been fabricated, figured, and have completed the first phase of polishing. A set of three test shells were replicated and exposed to X-rays in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. Here we present results from mandrel metrology and X-ray testing at the SLF. We also discuss the development of a new polishing technique for the MaGIXS mirror mandrels, where we plan to use the Zeeko polishing machine.

  16. X-ray grazing incidence study of inhomogeneous strain relaxation in Si/SiGe wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, A.; Zhuang, Y.; Holy, V.; Stangl, J.; Zerlauth, S.; Schaeffler, F.; Bauer, G.; Darowski, N.; Pietsch, U.

    2003-01-01

    The elastic strain relaxation in a series of dry-etched periodic multilayer Si/SiGe wire samples with different etching depths was investigated systematically by means of grazing incidence diffraction (GID). The samples were patterned by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching from a Si/SiGe superlattice grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were employed to obtain information on the shape of the wires. The inhomogeneous strain distribution in the etched wires and in the non-etched part of the multilayers was derived by means of finite element calculations which were used as an input for simulations of the scattered X-ray intensities in depth dependent GID. The theoretical calculations for the scattered intensities are based on distorted-wave Born approximation. The unperturbed scattering potential was chosen with a reduced optical density corresponding to the ratio of wire width and wire period, in order to reflect the main interaction between the incident X-rays and the patterned samples. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data demonstrating the variation of strain relaxation with depth

  17. Surface quality inspection of PbWO4 crystals by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengucci, P.; Di Cristoforo, A.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality scintillating crystals are required for applications in radiographic systems and high-energy physics detectors to achieve the specified optical properties. In order to study the state of the single crystals surface we propose the use of the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID) technique. This technique allows performing a depth profiling of the sample by changing the incidence angle of the X-ray beam with respect to the sample surface. In this work, two samples of a large PbWO 4 (PWO) single crystal exhibiting different surface roughness values have been studied. Results have shown that GID is a suitable technique for surface quality inspection

  18. Tests of a grazing-incidence ring resonator free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, D.H.; Laucks, M.L.; Lowrey, A.R.; Adamski, J.L.; Pistoresi, D.J.; Shoffstall, D.R.; Bentz, M.P.; Burns, R.H.; Guha, J.; Sun, K.; Tomita, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Boeing free-electron laser (FEL) optical cavity that has been changed from a simple concentric cavity using two spherical mirrors to a larger grazing-incidence ring resonator. The new resonator consists of two mirror telescopes located at each end of the wiggler with a round-trip path length of approximately 133 m. Each telescope is a grazing-incidence hyperboloid followed by a normal-incidence paraboloid. Initial tests showed that poorly positioned ring focus and unreliable pointing alignment resulted in reduced and structured FEL output. (First lasing operation occurred on March 23 and 24, 1990.) Later efforts concentrated on improving the resonator alignment techniques and lowering the single-pass losses. FEL performance and reliability have significantly improved due to better ring alignment. The alignment procedure and recent lasing results are described. The effect the electron beam has on lasing is also discussed. Measurements are presented showing how FEL temporal output and wavelength are sensitive to electron beam energy variations

  19. The SSRL ultrahigh vacuum grazing incidence monochromator: design considerations and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.C.; Bachrach, R.Z.; Lien, N.

    1978-01-01

    Considerable experience has now accumulated with the 'grasshopper' monochromator installed on the four degree line at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. This is one of the first bakeable high vacuum instruments for use with a storage ring source in the photon energy range 25 to 1000 eV. The unique features of this instrument will be discussed from a general point of view, including the source emittance and the transforming properties of the beam line plus monochromator. Actual performance figures will be given in order to better appraise the limits of focusing optics and gratings at two degree grazing incidence. Improvements such as post-monochromator optics, isolation valves and provisions for adjustment will be briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried interfaces in periodically structured crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, David; Preidel, Veit; Becker, Christiane [Young Investigator Group Nanostructured Silicon for Photovoltaic and Photonic Implementations (Nano-SIPPE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Pollakowski, Beatrix; Beckhoff, Burkhard [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Baumann, Jonas; Kanngiesser, Birgit [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Amkreutz, Daniel; Rech, Bernd [Institut Silizium Photovoltaik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Back, Franziska; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline [SCHOTT AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    We present grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) experiments on 3D periodically textured interfaces of liquid phase crystallized silicon thin-film solar cells on glass. The influence of functional layers (SiO{sub x} or SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x}) - placed between glass substrate and silicon during crystallization - on the final carbon and oxygen contaminations inside the silicon was analyzed. Baring of the buried structured silicon surface prior to GIXRF measurement was achieved by removal of the original nano-imprinted glass substrate by wet-chemical etching. A broad angle of incidence distribution was determined for the X-ray radiation impinging on this textured surface. Optical simulations were performed in order to estimate the incident radiation intensity on the structured surface profile considering total reflection and attenuation effects. The results indicate a much lower contamination level for SiO{sub x} compared to the SiO{sub x}/SiC{sub x} interlayers, and about 25% increased contamination when comparing structured with planar silicon layers, both correlating with the corresponding solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Image processing for grazing incidence fast atom diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiossac, Maxime; Roncin, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.roncin@u-psud.fr

    2016-09-01

    Grazing incidence fast atom diffraction (GIFAD, or FAD) has developed as a surface sensitive technique. Compared with thermal energies helium diffraction (TEAS or HAS), GIFAD is less sensitive to thermal decoherence but also more demanding in terms of surface coherence, the mean distance between defects. Such high quality surfaces can be obtained from freshly cleaved crystals or in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) chamber where a GIFAD setup has been installed allowing in situ operation. Based on recent publications by Atkinson et al. (2014) and Debiossac et al. (2014), the paper describes in detail the basic steps needed to measure the relative intensities of the diffraction spots. Care is taken to outline the underlying physical assumptions.

  2. Mirror and grating surface figure requirements for grazing incidence synchrotron radiation beamlines: Power loading effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Sharma, S.

    1987-01-01

    At present, grazing incidence mirrors are used almost exclusively as the first optical element in VUV and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. The performance of these mirrors is determined by thermal and mechanical stress-induced figure errors as well as by figure errors remaining from the grinding and polishing process. With the advent of VUV and soft x-ray undulators and wigglers has come a new set of thermal stress problems related to both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of power from these devices. In many cases the power load on the entrance slits and gratings in these beamlines is no longer negligible. The dependence of thermally-induced front-end mirror figure errors on various storage ring and insertion device parameters (especially those at the National Synchrotron Light Source) and the effects of these figure errors on two classes of soft x-ray beamlines are presented.

  3. Mark IV 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence mono-chromator for the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility (CSRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.H.; Bancroft, G.M.; Coatsworth, L.L.; Yates, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The vacuum, mechanical, and optical characteristics of a 'Grasshopper' grazing incidence monochromator for use with a synchrotron radiation source in the 30-300 eV range is described. The monochromator is compatible with ultrahigh vacuum ( -10 Torr throughout), and the motor driven scan mechanism is linear and reliable. The monchromator has been calibrated using several known absorption edges between 36 and 102 eV and a nonlinear least squares fit to the scan equation. These same absorption edges, plus a scan over zero order, show that the present resolution of the monochromator (with 10 and 16 μm exit and entrance slits respectively) is 0.16 A (0.06 eV at the AlLsub(2,3) edge). With 10 μm entrance and exit slits the resolution will be very close to the theoretical Δlambda = 0.083 A

  4. Grazing incidence X-ray absorption characterization of amorphous Zn-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, S. L.; Ma, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Mason, T. O.

    2016-05-01

    We report a surface structure study of an amorphous Zn-Sn-O (a-ZTO) transparent conducting film using the grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique. By setting the measuring angles far below the critical angle at which the total external reflection occurs, the details of the surface structure of a film or bulk can be successfully accessed. The results show that unlike in the film where Zn is severely under coordinated (N < 4), it is fully coordinated (N = 4) near the surface while the coordination number around Sn is slightly smaller near the surface than in the film. Despite a 30% Zn doping, the local structure in the film is rutile-like.

  5. Nested grazing incidence optics for x ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Sen; Qiang, Peng-Fei; Sheng, Li-Zhi; Liu, Yong-An; Liu, Zhe; Liu, Duo; Zhao, Bao-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Min

    2017-09-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61471357) and the State Key Laboratory of Geo-Information Engineering Foundation (Grant No. SKLGIE2014-M-2-1).

  6. Grazing incidence EUV study of the Alcator tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of impurity radiation to examine plasma conditions is a well known technique. To gain access, however, to the hot, central portion of the plasma created in the present confinement machines it is necessary to be able to observe radiation from medium and heavy elements such as molybdenum and iron. These impurities radiate primarily in the extreme ultra violet region of the spectrum and can play a role in the power balance of the tokamak. Radiation from highly ionized molybdenum was examined on the Alcator A and C tokamaks using a photometrically calibrated one meter grazing incidence monochromator. On Alcator A, a pseudo-continuum of Mo emissions in the 60 to 100 A ranges were seen to comprise 17% of the radiative losses from the plasma. This value closely matched measurements by a broad band bolometer array. Following these preliminary measurements, the monochromator was transferred to Alcator C for a more thorough examination of EUV emissions. Deviations from predicted scaling laws for energy confinement time vs density were observed on this machine

  7. Ray-tracing of shape metrology data of grazing incidence x-ray astronomy mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Fabio E.; Vernani, Dervis

    2008-07-01

    A number of future X-ray astronomy missions (e.g. Simbol-X, eROSITA) plan to utilize high throughput grazing incidence optics with very lightweight mirrors. The severe mass specifications require a further optimization of the existing technology with the consequent need of proper optical numerical modeling capabilities for both the masters and the mirrors. A ray tracing code has been developed for the simulation of the optical performance of type I Wolter masters and mirrors starting from 2D and 3D metrology data. In particular, in the case of 2D measurements, a 3D data set is reconstructed on the basis of dimensional references and used for the optical analysis by ray tracing. In this approach, the actual 3D shape is used for the optical analysis, thus avoiding the need of combining the separate contributions of different 2D measurements that require the knowledge of their interactions which is not normally available. The paper describes the proposed approach and presents examples of application on a prototype engineering master in the frame of ongoing activities carried out for present and future X-ray missions.

  8. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  9. Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) Slit-Jaw Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, P.; Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer is a NASA sounding rocket payload providing a 0.6 - 2.5 nm spectrum with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. The instrument is comprised of a novel optical design, featuring a Wolter1 grazing incidence telescope, which produces a focused solar image on a slit plate, an identical pair of stigmatic optics, a planar diffraction grating and a low-noise detector. When MaGIXS flies on a suborbital launch in 2019, a slit-jaw camera system will reimage the focal plane of the telescope providing a reference for pointing the telescope on the solar disk and aligning the data to supporting observations from satellites and other rockets. The telescope focuses the X-ray and EUV image of the sun onto a plate covered with a phosphor coating that absorbs EUV photons, which then fluoresces in visible light. This 10-week REU project was aimed at optimizing an off-axis mounted camera with 600-line resolution NTSC video for extremely low light imaging of the slit plate. Radiometric calculations indicate an intensity of less than 1 lux at the slit jaw plane, which set the requirement for camera sensitivity. We selected a Watec 910DB EIA charge-coupled device (CCD) monochrome camera, which has a manufacturer quoted sensitivity of 0.0001 lux at F1.2. A high magnification and low distortion lens was then identified to image the slit jaw plane from a distance of approximately 10 cm. With the selected CCD camera, tests show that at extreme low-light levels, we achieve a higher resolution than expected, with only a moderate drop in frame rate. Based on sounding rocket flight heritage, the launch vehicle attitude control system is known to stabilize the instrument pointing such that jitter does not degrade video quality for context imaging. Future steps towards implementation of the imaging system will include ruggedizing the flight camera housing and mounting the selected camera and lens combination to the instrument structure.

  10. Reflective Optics for Microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondispersive optics are essential for emerging microdiffraction and nanobeam research. Here we describe extensions to traditional Kirkpatrick Baez optics required to develop nondispersive microdiffraction and nanoprobe optics with 1-10 nm spatial resolution

  11. Side-pumped Nd:YVO4 cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO 4 cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO 4 cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M 2 = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M 2 = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  12. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-01-01

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed

  13. Future metrology needs for FEL reflective optics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, L.

    2000-09-21

    An International Workshop on Metrology for X-ray and Neutron Optics has been held March 16-17, 2000, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, Illinois (USA). The workshop gathered engineers and scientists from both the U.S. and around the world to evaluate metrology instrumentation and methods used to characterize surface figure and finish for long grazing incidence optics used in beamlines at synchrotrons radiation sources. This two-day workshop was motivated by the rapid evolution in the performance of x-ray and neutron sources along with requirements in optics figure and finish. More specifically, the performance of future light sources, such as free-electron laser (FEL)-based x-ray sources, is being pushed to new limits in term of both brilliance and coherence. As a consequence, tolerances on surface figure and finish of the next generation of optics are expected to become tighter. The timing of the workshop provided an excellent opportunity to study the problem, evaluate the state of the art in metrology instrumentation, and stimulate innovation on future metrology instruments and techniques to be used to characterize these optics. This paper focuses on FEL optics and metrology needs. (A more comprehensive summary of the workshop can be found elsewhere.) The performance and limitations of current metrology instrumentation will be discussed and recommendations from the workshop on future metrology development to meet the FEL challenges will be detailed.

  14. Advanced laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion research. II. Tolerance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Guy R.; Folta, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Two example ultrahigh-spatial resolution laser-backlit grazing-incidence x-ray microscope designs for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research have been described [Appl. Opt. 40, 4570 (2001)]. Here details of fabrication, assembly, and optical surface errors that are characteristic of present state-of-the-art superpolished multilayer-coated spherical mirrors are given. They indicate that good image qualities can be expected; in particular, <0.5-μm spatial resolution at very high x-ray energies (up to 25 keV) appears to be feasible. Existing ICF imaging diagnostics approach ∼2 μm spatial at low (<2 keV) energy. The improvement in resolution compared with that of other grazing-incidence devices is attributed to a fortuitous residual on-axis aberration dependence on short wavelengths; recent advances in mirror fabrication, including a new thin-film deposition technique to correct figure errors precisely in one dimension; and novel design. For even higher resolution, a means of creating precise aspherical mirrors of spheric-quality microroughness may be possible by use of the same deposition technique

  15. Depth distribution of chemical phase concentration determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, P.; Ballo, P.; Dobrocka, E.; Vallo, M.; Lalinsky, T.

    2013-01-01

    Grazing incidence geometry is widely used in X-ray diffraction analysis of thin films. Penetration depth of radiation can be easily changed by an appropriate selection of the angle of incidence α that enables obtaining information from different depths of the sample. This depth can be decreased up to a nanometer scale by approaching the critical angle α_c for total external reflection. This method therefore provides an efficient tool for the analysis of depth distribution of various structural properties, such as the crystallite size, the amorphous fraction, stress or the concentration of chemical phase. However, absorption of the radiation can be characterized by an average attenuation coefficient μ a special care has to be paid to the last property. Variation of chemical phase concentration with depth usually results in depth dependence on the attenuation coefficient. In this contribution a method for determination of depth distribution of a chemical phase is outlined. The method correctly takes into account the depth variation of the attenuation coefficient. The method is tested on thin oxidized Ir layers. The aim of this paper is a comparison two simple model cases with the experimental results. (authors)

  16. Dynamic grazing incidence fast atom diffraction during molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P., E-mail: atkinson@insp.jussieu.fr; Eddrief, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Etgens, V. H. [CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); VeDeCom-Université Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, Versailles (France); Khemliche, H., E-mail: hocine.khemliche@u-psud.fr; Debiossac, M.; Mulier, M.; Lalmi, B.; Roncin, P. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Momeni, A. [ISMO UMR8214 CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91400 (France); Univ. Cergy Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy (France)

    2014-07-14

    A Grazing Incidence Fast Atom Diffraction (GIFAD) system has been mounted on a commercial molecular beam epitaxy chamber and used to monitor GaAs growth in real-time. In contrast to the conventionally used Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction, all the GIFAD diffraction orders oscillate in phase, with the change in intensity related to diffuse scattering at step edges. We show that the scattered intensity integrated over the Laue circle is a robust method to monitor the periodic change in surface roughness during layer-by-layer growth, with oscillation phase and amplitude independent of incidence angle and crystal orientation. When there is a change in surface reconstruction at the start of growth, GIFAD intensity oscillations show that there is a corresponding delay in the onset of layer-by-layer growth. In addition, changes in the relative intensity of different diffraction orders have been observed during growth showing that GIFAD has the potential to provide insight into the preferential adatom attachment sites on the surface reconstruction during growth.

  17. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  18. Integrated X-ray testing of the electro-optical breadboard model for the XMM reflection grating spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixler, J.V.; Craig, W.; Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarts, H.; Boggende, T. den; Brinkman, A.C. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Burkert, W.; Brauninger, H. [Max-Planck Institute fur Extraterrestische Physik, Testanlage (Germany); Branduardi-Raymont, G. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Dubbeldam, L. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-07-12

    X-ray calibration of the Electro-Optical Breadboard Model (EOBB) of the XXM Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been carried out at the Panter test facility in Germany. The EOBB prototype optics consisted of a four-shell grazing incidence mirror module followed by an array of eight reflection gratings. The dispersed x-rays were detected by an array of three CCDs. Line profile and efficiency measurements where made at several energies, orders, and geometric configurations for individual gratings and for the grating array as a whole. The x-ray measurements verified that the grating mounting method would meet the stringent tolerances necessary for the flight instrument. Post EOBB metrology of the individual gratings and their mountings confirmed the precision of the grating boxes fabrication. Examination of the individual grating surface`s at micron resolution revealed the cause of anomalously wide line profiles to be scattering due to the crazing of the replica`s surface.

  19. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Development of highly polished, grazing incidence mirrors for synchrotron radiation beam lines at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, K.G.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kulkarni, S.; Fantone, S.D.

    1987-08-01

    New platinum-coated grazing incidence mirrors with low surface roughnesses have been developed to focus bending magnet radiation from the SSRL/SLAC SPEAR storage ring on the entrance slits of two Beam Line VIII grating monochromators. The first mirror in the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) branch is a cooled SiC cylinder capable of absorbing synchrotron radiation power levels of up to 260 watts without excessive distortion. This mirror deflects the beam vertically through a 12/degree/ angle and focuses it sagitally on the TGM entrance slit plane. The second TGM optical element is a fused-silica spherical mirror with a large radius of curvature that deflects the beam vertically through an additional 12/degree/ and focuses it tangentially with 3/1 demagnification. The first mirror in our spherical grating branch is a 5/degree/-vertically deflecting, cooled SiC toroid designed to focus tangentially on the monochromator entrance slits and sagitally in the exit slits. A 4/degree/-deflecting fused silica mirror is used after the exit sites in each beam line to refocus on to the sample. For this application a thin cylinder is bent to approximate an ellipsoid. The mirrors are now installed at SSRL and performance measurements are planned. Qualitatively the focus of the TGM optics at the entrance slit plane appears very good. In this paper we discuss considerations leading to the choice of SiC for each of the two first mirrors. We present highlights of the development of these mirrors with some emphasis on SiC polishing techniques. In addition, the specialized metrology developed to produce the more difficult figure of the toroid will be described. Measured surface roughness and figure results will be presented. 19 refs., 11 figs

  1. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  2. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering study of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weidong, E-mail: 57399942@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wu, Zhaojun [Department of Practice Teaching and Equipment Management, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Gu, Xiaohua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Zhonghua, E-mail: wuzh@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The size and distribution of silver nanoparticles in ion-exchanged silicate glass induced by thermal treatments in air at different temperatures were investigated by means of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering technique, X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra. Silver–sodium ion exchange of soda-lime silicate glasses was done at 350 °C for 240 min, then the samples were treated by thermal annealing in air at different temperatures 400, 500 and 550 °C, respectively, for 1 h. After the annealing treatment above 400 °C for 1 h, smaller Ag nanoparticles occurred, together with bigger ones. Both dissolution of smaller Ag nanoparticles and diffusion of larger ones are discussed in these stages of annealing in this contribution.

  3. Structure of a monolayer of molecular rotors on aqueous subphase from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jiří; Wen, Jin; Magnera, Thomas F; Dron, Paul I; Zhu, Chenhui; Michl, Josef

    2018-03-23

    In situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering shows that a monolayer of artificial rod-shaped dipolar molecular rotors produced on the surface of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough has a structure conducive to a 2D ferroelectric phase. The axes of the rotors stand an average of 0.83 nm apart in a triangular grid, perpendicular to the surface within experimental error. They carry 2,3-dichlorophenylene rotators near rod centers, between two decks of interlocked triptycenes installed axially on the rotor axle. The analysis is based first on simultaneous fitting of observed Bragg rods and second on fitting the reflectivity curve with only three adjustable parameters and the calculated rotor electron density, which also revealed the presence of about seven molecules of water near each rotator. Dependent on preparation conditions, a minor and variable amount of a different crystal phase may also be present in the monolayer.

  4. Multiple scattering in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction: impact on lattice-constant determination in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resel, Roland, E-mail: roland.resel@tugraz.at; Bainschab, Markus; Pichler, Alexander [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Dingemans, Theo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Simbrunner, Clemens [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); University of Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Stangl, Julian [Johannes Kepler University, Linz (Austria); Salzmann, Ingo [Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-20

    The use of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction to determine the crystal structure from thin films requires accurate positions of Bragg peaks. Refraction effects and multiple scattering events have to be corrected or minimized. Dynamical scattering effects are observed in grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction experiments using an organic thin film of 2,2′:6′,2′′-ternaphthalene grown on oxidized silicon as substrate. Here, a splitting of all Bragg peaks in the out-of-plane direction (z-direction) has been observed, the magnitude of which depends both on the incidence angle of the primary beam and the out-of-plane angle of the scattered beam. The incident angle was varied between 0.09° and 0.25° for synchrotron radiation of 10.5 keV. This study reveals comparable intensities of the split peaks with a maximum for incidence angles close to the critical angle of total external reflection of the substrate. This observation is rationalized by two different scattering pathways resulting in diffraction peaks at different positions at the detector. In order to minimize the splitting, the data suggest either using incident angles well below the critical angle of total reflection or angles well above, which sufficiently attenuates the contributions from the second scattering path. This study highlights that the refraction of X-rays in (organic) thin films has to be corrected accordingly to allow for the determination of peak positions with sufficient accuracy. Based thereon, a reliable determination of the lattice constants becomes feasible, which is required for crystallographic structure solutions from thin films.

  5. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redinger, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between θ = 78.5 and θ = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For θ = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount of material as a

  6. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex

    2009-07-10

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between {theta} = 78.5 and {theta} = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For {theta} = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount

  7. Development of grazing incidence devices for space-borne time of flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadu, A.; Devoto, P.; Louarn, P.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Time of flight mass spectrometer is widely used to study space plasmas in planetary and solar missions. This space-borne instrument selects ions in function of their energy through an electrostatic analyzer. Particles are then post-accelerated to energies in the range of 20 keV to cross a carbon foil. At the foil exit, electrons are emitted and separated from ion beam in the time of flight section. A first detector (a Micro-Channel Plate or MCP) emits a start signal at electron arrival and a second one emits a stop signal at incident ion end of path. The time difference gives the speed of the particle and its mass can be calculated, knowing its initial energy. However, current instruments suffer from strong limitations. The post acceleration needs very high voltage power supplies which are heavy, have a high power consumption and imply technical constraints for the development. A typical instrument weighs from 5 to 6 kg, includes a 20 kV power supply, consumes a least 5 W and encounters corona effect and electrical breakdown problems. Moreover, despite the particle high energy range, scattering and straggling phenomena in the carbon foil significantly reduce the instrument overall resolution. Some methods, such as electrostatic focus lenses or reflectrons, really improve mass separation but global system efficiency remains very low because of the charge state dependence of such devices. The main purpose of our work is to replace carbon foil by grazing incidence MCP's - also known as MPO's, for Micro Pore Optics - for electron emission. Thus, incident particles would back-scatter onto the channel inner surface with an angle of a few degrees. With this solution, we can decrease dispersion sources and lower the power supplies to post accelerate ions. The result would be a lighter and simpler instrument with a substantial resolution improvement. We have first simulated MPO's behavior with TRIM and MARLOWE Monte-Carlo codes. Energy scattering and output angle computed

  8. Reflection of attosecond x-ray free electron laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2007-01-01

    In order to utilize hard x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL's) when they are extended to attosecond pulse lengths, it is necessary to choose optical elements with minimal response time. Specular grazing-incidence optics made of low-Z materials are popular candidates for reflectors since they are likely to withstand x-ray damage and provide sufficiently large reflectivities. Using linear-optics reflection theory, we calculated the transient reflectivity of a delta-function electric pulse from a homogenous semi-infinite medium as a function of angle of incidence for s- and p-polarized light. We specifically considered the pulse response of beryllium, diamond, silicon carbide, and silicon, all of which are of relevance to the XFEL's that are currently being built. We found that the media emit energy in a damped oscillatory way, and that the impulse-response times are shorter than 0.3 fs for normal incidence. For grazing incidence, the impulse-response time is substantially shorter, making grazing-incidence mirrors a good choice for deep subfemtosecond reflective optics

  9. SPRED: a multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    1982-03-01

    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100 to 1100 A or 160 to 1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 ms, but up to 7 individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1 ms time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable to that of a conventional grazing incidence monochromator.

  10. SPRED: a multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    1982-03-01

    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100 to 1100 A or 160 to 1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 ms, but up to 7 individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1 ms time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable to that of a conventional grazing incidence monochromator

  11. Electrochemically adsorbed Pb on Ag (111) studied with grazing- incidence x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.; Ross, P.N.; Melroy, O.R.; Toney, M.F.; Borges, G.L.; Samant, M.G.

    1989-04-01

    Grazing-incidence x-ray scattering studies of the evolution of electrochemically deposited layers of lead on silver (111) as a function of applied electrochemical potential are presented. Measurements were made with the adsorbed layers in contact with solution in a specially designed sample cell. The observed lead structures are a function of the applied potential and range from an incommensurate monolayer, resulting from underpotential deposition, to randomly oriented polycrystalline bulk lead, resulting from lower deposition potentials. These early experiments demonstrate the ability of in situ x-ray diffraction measurements to determine structures associated with electrochemical deposition. 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. Characterization of X-UV multilayers by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevot, L.; Pardo, B.; Corno, J.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of multilayers at the X-UV wavelengths depends upon the structural and geometrical imperfections of the deposited materials. These two respective contributions are not easily separated when only one Bragg peak is recorded, as is usually the case in the X-UV range, so a prediction of the performance at other wavelengths appears rather doubtful. We show how grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry (using Cu Kα 1 radiation) allows the precise evaluation of both interfacial roughnesses and thickness errors, as well as their variations through the stacks. As examples, we analyse three (W/C) multilayers with periods between 3 to 6 nm and up to 40 layers

  13. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent ion-surface interaction at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new spectroscopy based on the resonant coherently induced electron loss to the continuum in ion-surface scattering under grazing incidence is proposed. A series of peaks, corresponding to the energy differences determined by the resonant interaction with the rows of atoms in the surface, is predicted to appear in the energy distribution of electrons emitted from electronic states bound to the probe. Calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with a glancing angle of 0--2 mrad show a total yield close to 1

  14. A Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering View of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavcevic, M.L.; Silovic, L.; Dubcek, P.; Pavlovic, M.; Bernstorff, S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study of ZnO films with vertically aligned and randomly distributed nano wires, grown through a hydrothermal growth process on nano structured ZnO seeding coatings and deposited by electron beam evaporation on silicon and glass, respectively. The comparison of the scattering patterns of seeding coatings and nano wires showed that the scattering of vertically aligned nano wires exhibited a specific feature: the dominant characteristic of their scattering patterns is the appearance of fine structure effects around the specular peak. These effects were clarified by the combined reflection and scattering phenomena, suggested for the aligned nano wires-substrate system. Furthermore, they enabled the calculation of the average gyration radius of nano wires in horizontal direction. The calculated value was in good agreement with the radii of nano wires estimated by surface electron microscopy. Therefore, the observed feature in the scattering pattern can serve as evidence of the aligned growth of nano wires.

  15. Ion-induced nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces investigated by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, D; Metzger, T H [ID01, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Biermanns, A; Pietsch, U [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Ziberi, B; Frost, F [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Plantevin, O [Universite Paris-Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, UMR 8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: gcarbone@esrf.fr

    2009-06-03

    In this review we cover and describe the application of grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques to study and characterize nanopattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion under various conditions. It is demonstrated that x-rays under grazing incidence are especially well suited to characterize (sub)surface structures on the nanoscale with high spatial and statistical accuracy. The corresponding theory and data evaluation is described in the distorted wave Born approximation. Both ex situ and in situ studies are presented, performed with the use of a specially designed sputtering chamber which allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the nanostructure formation. Corresponding results show a general stabilization of the ordering wavelength and the extension of the ordering as a function of the ion energy and fluence as predicted by theory. The in situ measurements are especially suited to study the early stages of pattern formation, which in some cases reveal a transition from dot to ripple formation. For the case of medium energy ions crystalline ripples are formed buried under a semi-amorphous thick layer with a ripple structure at the surface being conformal with the crystalline/amorphous interface. Here, the x-ray techniques are especially advantageous since they are non-destructive and bulk-sensitive by their very nature. In addition, the GI x-ray techniques described in this review are a unique tool to study the evolving strain, a topic which remains to be explored both experimentally and theoretically.

  16. Image defects from surface and alignment errors in grazing incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.

    1989-01-01

    The rigid body motions and low frequency surface errors of grazing incidence Wolter telescopes are studied. The analysis is based on surface error descriptors proposed by Paul Glenn. In his analysis, the alignment and surface errors are expressed in terms of Legendre-Fourier polynomials. Individual terms in the expression correspond to rigid body motions (decenter and tilt) and low spatial frequency surface errors of mirrors. With the help of the Legendre-Fourier polynomials and the geometry of grazing incidence telescopes, exact and approximated first order equations are derived in this paper for the components of the ray intercepts at the image plane. These equations are then used to calculate the sensitivities of Wolter type I and II telescopes for the rigid body motions and surface deformations. The rms spot diameters calculated from this theory and OSAC ray tracing code agree very well. This theory also provides a tool to predict how rigid body motions and surface errors of the mirrors compensate each other.

  17. Trapping mechanisms in scattering of beams at grazing incidence from crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; O'Connor, D.J.; Felsobuki, E.I. von-Nagy

    1993-01-01

    The trajectories of grazing incidence, 1 keV beams of Si incident on Cu{111} are investigated by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the conditions under which atoms in the beam can be trapped in the surface binding potential are investigated. The binding potentials for the Cu-Si dimers are calculated using ab initio methods for the neutral, anion and cation. These calculations estimate the binding potential and equilibrium separation for the potential used for the MD calculations. It is found that at 4 o incidence to the Cu{111} face, no trapping occurs for a perfect crystal surface undergoing no thermal vibrations. Trapping can occur for the Si neutral if thermal vibrations are included in the model. Trapping is predicted to occur near steps on the Cu{111} face but these are fairly rare events for the Si - particles. (Author)

  18. Proteins on surfaces investigated by microbeam grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Vendrely, Charlotte [Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, ERRMECE, F-95000, Cergy-Pontoise (France); Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Grazing incidence small angle scattering with a 1 micron x-ray beam ({mu}GISAXS) is applied to study structural ordering of casein micelles and fibroin in solution cast films. {mu}GISAXS scans provide the possibility to locate highly ordered areas and to investigate variation in the molecular packing. In the case of the casein micelles, ordered film structures have been generated by decreasing their natural size dispersion. While dynamic light scattering was used to characterize the different size fractions in solution, {mu}GISAXS and roughness are measured on the resulting casein films. GISAXS-Patterns are analyzed by simulations providing the dimension and nearest neighbor distances of casein micelles. In the case of fibroin, ordering of nano-fibers formed during the drying process is investigated. The experimental data are analyzed by simulations and compared to SEM, AFM and Raman scattering experiments.

  19. Grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure of self-assembled semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, S.; Letoublon, A.; Proietti, M.G.; Renevier, H.; Gonzalez, L.; Garcia, J.M.; Priester, C.; Garcia, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied self-organized quantum wires of InAs, grown by molecular beam epitaxy onto a InP(0 0 1) substrate, by means of grazing incidence diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS). The equivalent quantum wires thickness is 2.5 monolayers. We measured the (4 4 0) and (4 2 0) GIDAFS spectra, at the As K-edge, keeping the incidence and exit angles close to the InP critical angle. The analysis of both the smooth and oscillatory contributions of the DAFS spectrum, provide valuable information about composition and strain inside the quantum wires and close to the interface. We also show preliminary results on InAs wires encapsulated by a 40 A thick InP capping layer, suggesting the DAFS capability of probing different iso-strain regions of the wires

  20. Crystalline self-assembly of organic molecules with metal ions at the air-aqueous solution interface. A grazing incidence X-ray scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, I.; Buller, R.; Kjær, K.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of intense X-rays from synchrotron sources made possible to probe, at the molecular level, the structural aspects of self-assemblies generated at interfaces. Here we present the two-dimensional (2-D) packing arrangements of two-, three- and multi-component organo-metallic self......-assemblies formed via interfacial reaction at the air-aqueous solution interface, as determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIRD) and X-ray specular reflectivity techniques. GIXD yields structural information on the crystalline part of the Langmuir film, including the ions and counterions lateral order...... of metal ions bound to the polar head groups of amphipilic molecules; use of bolaamphiphiles to generate oriented thin films with metal ions arranged in periodic layers; delineation of differences in the lateral organization of metal ions at interfaces as induced by racemates and enantiomerically pure...

  1. Molecular-beam epitaxy growth and structural characterization of semiconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satapathy, D.K.

    2005-12-19

    The present work is devoted to the growth of the ferromagnetic metal MnAs on the semiconductor GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). The MnAs thin films are deposited on GaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) are used in situ to investigate the nucleation, evolution of strain, morphology and interfacial structure during the MBE growth. Four stages of the nucleation process during growth of MnAs on GaAs(001) are revealed by RHEED azimuthal scans. GID shows that further growth of MnAs films proceed via the formation of relaxed islands at a nominal thickness of 2.5 ML which increase in size and finally coalesce to form a continuous film. Early on, an ordered array of misfit dislocations forms at the interface releasing the misfit strain even before complete coalescence occurs. The fascinating complex nucleation process of MnAs on GaAs(0 0 1) contains elements of both Volmer-Weber and Stranski-Krastanov growth. A nonuniform strain amounting to 0.66%, along the [1 -1 0] direction and 0.54%, along the [1 1 0] direction is demonstrated from x-ray line profile analysis. A high correlation between the defects is found along the GaAs[1 1 0] direction. An extremely periodic array of misfit dislocations with a period of 4.95{+-}0.05 nm is formed at the interface along the [1 1 0] direction which releases the 7.5% of misfit. The inhomogeneous strain due to the periodic dislocations is confined at the interface within a layer of 1.6 nm thickness. The misfit along the [1 -1 0] direction is released by the formation of a coincidence site lattice. (orig.)

  2. Discrimination and quantification of implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: New detector initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Choi, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.; Eng, P.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data [e.g. 1 and references therein] but the extent to which alteration processes on these bodies complicate such information is only now being determined. Therefore, in order to obtain pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Discovery Mission. Unfortunately, the probe crash-landed shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces complicating the analysis and necessitating the development of new analytical techniques and equipment. Thus, shards from the Genesis collector array and their appropriate flight spares are currently being characterized via grazing-incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The goals are (1) determine solar wind fluences of the elements Ca-Ge by grazing-incidence angle-resolved x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray reflectivity, (2) improve data reduction via the development of XRF spectral deconvolution routines and develop modeling algorithms for reflectivity and fluorescence yield analysis in order to determine element specific depth profiles from which absolute concentration may be extracted and (3) designing and developing a new multi-element silicon multi-channel (SMCD) detector system. These improvements will increase our sensitivity by a factor of three or more, reduce measurement time at a given sensitivity to one-eighth and the minimum detection limit would be reduced by a factor of 3 to ∼3 x 10 8 atoms/cm 2 .

  3. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  4. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniques: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10 12 /cm 2 . Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar wind.

  5. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent interaction in ion-surface scattering at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of an ion with an oriented crystal surface, under grazing-incidence conditions with respect to a special direction of the crystal, gives rise to electron loss to the continuum from electronic bound states of the ion. The calculations presented below predict large probabilities for electron emission due to this mechanism. The electrons are emitted with well defined energies, expressed in terms of the condition of resonance. Furthermore, the emission takes place around certain preferential directions, which are determined by both the latter condition and the symmetry of the surface lattice. Our calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with glancing angle of 0--2 mrad indicate a yield of emission close to 1. Using heavier projectiles, one obtains smaller yields, but still large enough to be measurable in some cases (e.g., ∼0.9 for 53 MeV B 4+ and an angle of incidence of 1 mrad). Besides, the initial bound state is energy shifted due to the interaction with both the crystal potential and the velocity-dependent image potential. This results in a slight shift of the peaks of emission, which suggests a possible spectroscopy for analyzing the dynamical interaction of electronic bound states with solid surfaces

  6. HEKATE—A novel grazing incidence neutron scattering concept for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Artur; Stahn, Jochen

    2018-03-01

    Structure and magnetism at surfaces and buried interfaces on the nanoscale can only be accessed by few techniques, one of which is grazing incidence neutron scattering. While the technique has its strongest limitation in a low signal and large background, due to the low scattering probability and need for high resolution, it can be expected that the high intensity of the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, will make many more such studies possible, warranting a dedicated beamline for this technique. We present an instrument concept, Highly Extended K range And Tunable Experiment (HEKATE), for surface scattering that combines the advantages of two Selene neutron guides with unique capabilities of spatially separated distinct wavelength frames. With this combination, it is not only possible to measure large specular reflectometry ranges, even on free liquid surfaces, but also to use two independent incident beams with tunable sizes and resolutions that can be optimized for the specifics of the investigated samples. Further the instrument guide geometry is tuned for reduction of high energy particle background and only uses low to moderate supermirror coatings for high reliability and affordable cost.

  7. HEKATE-A novel grazing incidence neutron scattering concept for the European Spallation Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Artur; Stahn, Jochen

    2018-03-01

    Structure and magnetism at surfaces and buried interfaces on the nanoscale can only be accessed by few techniques, one of which is grazing incidence neutron scattering. While the technique has its strongest limitation in a low signal and large background, due to the low scattering probability and need for high resolution, it can be expected that the high intensity of the European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden, will make many more such studies possible, warranting a dedicated beamline for this technique. We present an instrument concept, Highly Extended K range And Tunable Experiment (HEKATE), for surface scattering that combines the advantages of two Selene neutron guides with unique capabilities of spatially separated distinct wavelength frames. With this combination, it is not only possible to measure large specular reflectometry ranges, even on free liquid surfaces, but also to use two independent incident beams with tunable sizes and resolutions that can be optimized for the specifics of the investigated samples. Further the instrument guide geometry is tuned for reduction of high energy particle background and only uses low to moderate supermirror coatings for high reliability and affordable cost.

  8. Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) and Lobster Eye (LE) Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudec, R.

    2010-01-01

    Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy and in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there were proposed also other designs and configurations, which are considered for future applications for both in laboratory and (finitely) in space. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye (LE) optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. The KB systems have already found wide usage in laboratory and synchrotron, both application are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. While this paper focuses on future possible applications of non-Wolter grazing incidence systems in space and astronomy, we also discuss in detail applications in other areas of science, where (in contrary to astronomy) some of these systems have demonstrated their advantages

  9. Optical Reflectance Measurements for Commonly Used Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-08-01

    When simulating light collection in scintillators, modeling the angular distribution of optical light reflectance from surfaces is very important. Since light reflectance is poorly understood, either purely specular or purely diffuse reflectance is generally assumed. In this paper we measure the optical reflectance distribution for eleven commonly used reflectors. A 440 nm, output power stabilized, un-polarized laser is shone onto a reflector at a fixed angle of incidence. The reflected light's angular distribution is measured by an array of silicon photodiodes. The photodiodes are movable to cover 2pi of solid angle. The light-induced current is, through a multiplexer, read out with a digital multimeter. A LabVIEW program controls the motion of the laser and the photodiode array, the multiplexer, and the data collection. The laser can be positioned at any angle with a position accuracy of 10 arc minutes. Each photodiode subtends 6.3deg, and the photodiode array can be positioned at any angle with up to 10 arc minute angular resolution. The dynamic range for the current measurements is 10 5:1. The measured light reflectance distribution was measured to be specular for several ESR films as well as for aluminum foil, mostly diffuse for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape and titanium dioxide paint, and neither specular nor diffuse for Lumirrorreg, Melinexreg and Tyvekreg. Instead, a more complicated light distribution was measured for these three materials.

  10. A flow cell for transient voltammetry and in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium(II) tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veder, Jean-Pierre [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Nafady, Ayman [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Clarke, Graeme [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Williams, Ross P. [Centre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); De Marco, Roland, E-mail: r.demarco@curtin.edu.a [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Bond, Alan M. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    An easy to fabricate and versatile cell that can be used with a variety of electrochemical techniques, also meeting the stringent requirement for undertaking cyclic voltammetry under transient conditions in in situ electrocrystallization studies and total external reflection X-ray analysis, has been developed. Application is demonstrated through an in situ synchrotron radiation-grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) characterization of electrocrystallized cadmium (II)-tetracyanoquinodimethane material, Cd(TCNQ){sub 2}, from acetonitrile (0.1 mol dm{sup -3} [NBu{sub 4}][PF{sub 6}]). Importantly, this versatile cell design makes SR-GIXRD suitable for almost any combination of total external reflection X-ray analysis (e.g., GIXRF and GIXRD) and electrochemical perturbation, also allowing its application in acidic, basic, aqueous, non-aqueous, low and high flow pressure conditions. Nevertheless, the cell design separates the functions of transient voltammetry and SR-GIXRD measurements, viz., voltammetry is performed at high flow rates with a substantially distended window to minimize the IR (Ohmic) drop of the electrolyte, while SR-GIXRD is undertaken using stop-flow conditions with a very thin layer of electrolyte to minimize X-ray absorption and scattering by the solution.

  11. On the determination of stress profiles in expanded austenite by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and successive layer removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Winther, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    Surface layers of expanded austenite resulting from nitriding typically exhibit large gradients in residual stress and composition. Evaluation of residual-stress profiles is explored by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), probing shallow depths, combined with successive layer...... removal. Several factors complicating the stress determination are analysed and discussed: (1) ghost stresses arising from a small variation in the shallow information depths probed with GI-XRD, (2) selection of the grain interaction model used to calculate the X-ray elastic constants for conversion...

  12. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction at free-standing nanoscale islands: fine structure of diffuse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, D; Hanke, M; Schmidbauer, M; Schaefer, P; Konovalov, O; Koehler, R

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the x-ray intensity distribution around 220 reciprocal lattice point in case of grazing incidence diffraction at SiGe nanoscale free-standing islands grown on Si(001) substrate by LPE. Experiments and computer simulations based on the distorted wave Born approximation utilizing the results of elasticity theory obtained by FEM modelling have been carried out. The data reveal fine structure in the distribution of scattered radiation with well-pronounced maxima and complicated fringe pattern. Explanation of the observed diffraction phenomena in their relation to structure and morphology of the island is given. An optimal island model including its shape, size and Ge spatial distribution was elaborated

  13. Measuring helium bubble diameter distributions in tungsten with grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M.; Kluth, P.; Doerner, R. P.; Kirby, N.; Riley, D.; Corr, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering was performed on tungsten samples exposed to helium plasma in the MAGPIE and Pisces-A linear plasma devices to measure the size distributions of resulting helium nano-bubbles. Nano-bubbles were fitted assuming spheroidal particles and an exponential diameter distribution. These particles had mean diameters between 0.36 and 0.62 nm. Pisces-A exposed samples showed more complex patterns, which may suggest the formation of faceted nano-bubbles or nano-scale surface structures.

  14. On the determination of stress profiles in expanded austenite by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and successive layer removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Frederico A.P.; Christiansen, Thomas L.; Winther, Grethe; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface layers of expanded austenite resulting from nitriding typically exhibit large gradients in residual stress and composition. Evaluation of residual-stress profiles is explored by means of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), probing shallow depths, combined with successive layer removal. Several factors complicating the stress determination are analysed and discussed: (1) ghost stresses arising from a small variation in the shallow information depths probed with GI-XRD, (2) selection of the grain interaction model used to calculate the X-ray elastic constants for conversion of lattice strains into residual stress and (3) the composition dependence of these elastic constants

  15. Single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a grazing-incidence four-mirror cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, D K; Binks, D J; Gloster, L A W; King, T A

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate stable single mode operation in a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator with a novel grazing-incidence four-mirror coupled cavity. This cavity consists of a grating, a gain medium, and four mirrors and, therefore, has a four-arm interferometer configuration. Through the interferometric effect, we could suppress the adjacent modes and obtain stable single mode operation with a bandwidth of < 200 MHz. We also have developed a general analysis of the laser modes and the threshold conditions for configuration and the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  16. A geological history of reflecting optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew Richard

    2005-03-22

    Optical reflectors in animals are diverse and ancient. The first image-forming eye appeared around 543 million years ago. This introduced vision as a selection pressure in the evolution of animals, and consequently the evolution of adapted optical devices. The earliest known optical reflectors--diffraction gratings--are 515 Myr old. The subsequent fossil record preserves multilayer reflectors, including liquid crystals and mirrors, 'white' and 'blue' scattering structures, antireflective surfaces and the very latest addition to optical physics--photonic crystals. The aim of this article is to reveal the diversity of reflecting optics in nature, introducing the first appearance of some reflector types as they appear in the fossil record as it stands (which includes many new records) and backdating others in geological time through evolutionary analyses. This article also reveals the commercial potential for these optical devices, in terms of lessons from their nano-level designs and the possible emulation of their engineering processes--molecular self-assembly.

  17. A new spectrometer for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence for the characterization of Arsenic implants and Hf based high-k layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.; Giubertoni, D.; Steinhauser, G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2010-01-01

    Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (GIXRF) is a powerful technique for depth-profiling and characterization of thin layers in depths up to a few hundred nanometers. By measurement of fluorescence signals at various incidence angles Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis provides information on depth distribution and total dose of the elements in the layers. The technique is very sensitive even in depths of a few nanometers. As Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis does not provide unambigous depth profile information and needs a realistic input depth profile for fitting, in the context of the EC funded European Integrated Activity of Excellence and Networking for Nano and Micro-Electronics Analysis (ANNA) Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis is used as a complementary technique to Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) for the characterization of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ). A measuring chamber was designed, constructed and tested to meet the requirements of Grazing Incidence X-ray Fluorescence Analysis. A measurement protocol was developed and tested. Some results for As implants as well as Hf based high k layers on Silicon are shown. For the determination of the bulk As content of the wafers, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis has also been applied for comparison.

  18. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  19. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico

    2016-01-01

    at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.......The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing......-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments...

  20. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles. PMID:26917133

  1. Novel micro-reactor flow cell for investigation of model catalysts using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehres, Jan; Pedersen, Thomas; Masini, Federico; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Diaz, Ana; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of a novel and highly sensitive micro-reactor device for performing in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering experiments of model catalyst systems is presented. The design of the reaction chamber, etched in silicon on insulator (SIO), permits grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) in transmission through 10 µm-thick entrance and exit windows by using micro-focused beams. An additional thinning of the Pyrex glass reactor lid allows simultaneous acquisition of the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS). In situ experiments at synchrotron facilities are performed utilizing the micro-reactor and a designed transportable gas feed and analysis system. The feasibility of simultaneous in situ GISAXS/GIWAXS experiments in the novel micro-reactor flow cell was confirmed with CO oxidation over mass-selected Ru nanoparticles.

  2. In situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering investigation of polystyrene nanoparticle spray deposition onto silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Gerd; Benecke, Gunthard; Buffet, Adeline; Heidmann, Berit; Perlich, Jan; Risch, Johannes F H; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Yu, Shun; Wurth, Wilfried; Roth, Stephan V

    2013-09-10

    We investigated the spray deposition and subsequent self-assembly during drying of a polystyrene nanoparticle dispersion with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering at high time resolution. During the fast deposition of the dispersion and the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, different transient stages of nanoparticle assembly can be identified. In the first stage, the solvent starts to evaporate without ordering of the nanoparticles. During the second stage, large-scale structures imposed by the breakup of the liquid film are observable. In this stage, the solvent evaporates further and nanoparticle ordering starts. In the late third drying stage, the nanoparticles self-assemble into the final layer structure.

  3. Study of the in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, R., E-mail: ryuji.maruyama@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bigault, T.; Wildes, A.R.; Dewhurst, C.D. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Soyama, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Courtois, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-21

    The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system with a polycrystalline grain size less than the ferromagnetic exchange length was investigated using polarized neutron off-specular scattering and grazing incidence small angle scattering measurements to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the magnetic properties which are different from the bulk. These complementary measurements with different length scales and the data analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation revealed the lateral correlation on a length scale of sub- μm due to the fluctuating orientation of the magnetization in the layer. The obtained in-plane magnetic structure is consistent with the random anisotropy model, i.e. competition between the exchange interactions between neighboring spins and the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  4. Reflective analogue optical link operating issues

    CERN Document Server

    Batten, Jeremy

    1996-01-01

    The proposed readout of analogue data from CMS tracker will use an optical fibre link. The choice of transmitter/receiver technology, however, has been the subject of intense research and development by the RD23 collaboration. One solution uses passive devices, multi-quantum well modulators, at the detector front end, and continuous wave driving lasers at the readout back end. This system has been tested at Imperial College. We report on the following: problems of noise associated with multimoded behaviour of a degraded laser; measurements of laser wavelength dependence on both drive current and temperature; and modulator reflectance dependence on laser wavelength. We extrapolate the findings to system issues, highlighting the degree of temperature control required of the driving laser.

  5. Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of GEO Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Cardona, Tammaso; Lederer, Susan M.; Cowardin, Heather; Abercromby, Kira J.; Barker, Edwin S.; Bedard, Donald

    2013-01-01

    We report on optical reflection spectroscopy of geosynchronous (GEO) objects in the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN) catalog. These observations were obtained using imaging spectrographs on the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. Our goal is to determine the composition of these objects by comparing these spectral observations with ground-based laboratory measurements of spacecraft materials. The observations are all low resolution (1 nm after smoothing) obtained through a 5 arcsecond wide slit and using a grism as the dispersing element. The spectral range covered was from 450 nm to 800 nm. All spectra were flux calibrated using observations of standard stars with the exact same instrumental setup. An effort was made to obtain all observations within a limited range of topocentric phase angle, although the solar incident angle is unknown due to the lack of any knowledge of the attitude of the observed surface at the time of observation.

  6. Simultaneous analysis of Grazing Incidence X-Ray reflectivity and X-ray standing waves from periodic multilayer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, S.N.; Makhotkin, Igor Alexandrovich; Chuyev, M.A.; Seregin, A.Y.; Pashayev, E.M.; Louis, Eric; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Bijkerk, Frederik; Kovalchuk, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Structural analysis of periodic multilayers with small period thickness (~4 nm) is a challenging task, especially when thicknesses of intermixed interfaces become comparable to individual layer thicknesses. In general, angular dependent X-ray fluorescence measurements, excited by the X-ray standing

  7. Effectiveness of Near-Grazing Incidence Reflection in Creating the Rotationally Modulated Lanes in the Jovian Hectometric Radio Emission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Groene, J. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Galileo plasma wave instrument has identified a narrow (in frequency) attenuation band in the hectometric emission that varies in frequency with system 3 longitude. It is possible to model this emission band assuming a high-latitude cyclotron source region with emission that is efficiently attenuated when the ray path is nearly tangent to an L shell that is close to the Io flux tube. The data suggest that the mechanism for attenuating the emission is very efficient, with the ratio of attenuated to unattenuated emission I/I(sub o) emission from an L shell that is near the Io flux tube (a caustic surface).

  8. Metrology and Alignment of Light Weight Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William; Content, David; Petre, Robert; Saha, Timo

    2000-01-01

    Metrology and alignment of light weight X-ray optics have been a challenge for two reasons: (1) that the intrinsic mirror quality and distortions caused by handling can not be easily separated, and (2) the diffraction limits of the visible light become a severe problem at the order of one arc-minute. Traditional methods of using a normal incident pencil or small parallel beam which monitors a tiny fraction of the mirror in question at a given time can not adequately monitor those distortions. We are developing a normal incidence setup that monitors a large fraction, if not the whole, of the mirror at any given time. It will allow us to align thin X-ray mirrors to-an accuracy of a few arc seconds or to a limit dominated by the mirror intrinsic quality.

  9. Angle resolved electron spectroscopy of spontaneous ionization processes occurring in doubly charged ion-surface collisions at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Emmichoven, P.A.Z. van; Niehaus, A.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental setup used to measure electron spectra at well defined detection angles for grazing incidence doubly charged ion-surface collisions at keV-energies is described. Electron spectra are reported for the rare gas ions colliding with a Cu(110)-surface. The spectra are analyzed in terms of various spontaneous ionization processes using a newly developed model. It is found that double capture followed by atomic auto-ionization on the incoming trajectory and Auger-capture processes in which the first and second hole in the doubly charged projectiles are successively filled are the main processes contributing to the electron spectra. From a comparison of model calculations with measured spectra it is concluded that the metal electrons cannot adapt adiabatically to the sudden changes of the charge state of the projectile in front of the surface. A parameter characterizing the partly diabatic behavior is determined. The variation of spectra upon adsorption of a monolayer of oxygen on the surface is reported and discussed. (author)

  10. Measurement of UO2 surface oxidation using grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction: Implications for nuclear forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Park, Sulgiye; Davisson, M. Lee; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear forensics involves determination of the origin and history of interdicted nuclear materials based on the detection of signatures associated with their production and trafficking. The surface oxidation undergone by UO2 when exposed to air is a potential signature of its atmospheric exposure during handling and transport. To assess the sensitivity of this oxidation to atmospheric parameters, surface sensitive grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements were performed on UO2 samples exposed to air of varying relative humidity (34%, 56%, and 95% RH) and temperature (room temperature, 50 °C, and 100 °C). Near-surface unit cell contraction was observed following exposure, indicating oxidation of the surface and accompanying reduction of the uranium cation ionic radii. The extent of unit cell contraction provides a measure of the extent of oxidation, allowing for comparison of the effects of various exposure conditions. No clear influence of relative humidity on the extent of oxidation was observed, with samples exhibiting similar degrees of unit cell contraction at all relative humidities investigated. In contrast, the thickness of the oxidized layers increased substantially with increasing temperature, such that differences on the order of 10 °C yielded readily observable crystallographic signatures of the exposure conditions.

  11. Grazing exit versus grazing incidence geometry for x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zoeger, N.; Pepponi, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the presented study the grazing exit x-ray fluorescence was tested for its applicability to x-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of arsenic in droplet samples. The experimental results have been compared to the findings of former analyses of the same samples using a grazing incidence (GI) setup to compare the performance of both geometries. Furthermore, the investigations were accomplished to gain a better understanding of the so called self-absorption effect, which was observed and investigated in previous studies using a GI geometry. It was suggested that a normal incidence-grazing-exit geometry would not suffer from self-absorption effects in x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis due to the minimized path length of the incident beam through the sample. The results proved this assumption and in turn confirmed the occurrence of the self-absorption effect for GI geometry. Due to its lower sensitivity it is difficult to apply the GE geometry to XAFS analysis of trace amounts (few nanograms) of samples but the technique is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of concentrated samples

  12. An in situ grazing incidence x-ray scattering study of block copolymer thin films during solvent vapor annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaodan; Gunkel, Ilja; Hexemer, Alexander; Russell, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Although solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has been widely applied to block copolymer (BCP) thin films to obtain well-ordered microdomains, the mechanism of enhancing lateral order is not well understood. Here, we used real time in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (in situGISAXS) to study the self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP BCP BCPs with different molecular weights thin films in THF vapor, a near neutral solvent for both blocks. Both swelling and deswelling behavior of BCP thin films were examined. The extent of swellingand the solvent removal rate not only affect the domain spacing of BCPs but also dictate the extent of lateral ordering of the BCP microdomains. Larger grains were observed at higher values of the swelling ratio (close to disordering). To preserve the maximal lateral ordering of the microdomains in the swollen state, the fastest solvent removal rate is required to freeze in the ordered microdomain structure of the swollen BCP film. We thanks support from U.S. Department of Energy BES under contract BES-DE-FG02-96ER45612 and ALS doctoral fellowship.

  13. Study of the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering of strongly disturbed fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchin, B. S., E-mail: ross@crys.ras.ru; Chukhovsky, F. N.; Pavlyuk, M. D.; Opolchentsev, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The applicability of different approaches to the description of hard X-ray scattering from rough surfaces is generally limited by a maximum surface roughness height of no more than 1 nm. Meanwhile, this value is several times larger for the surfaces of different materials subjected to treatment, especially in the initial treatment stages. To control the roughness parameters in all stages of surface treatment, a new approach has been developed, which is based on a series expansion of wavefield over the plane eigenstate-function waves describing the small-angle scattering of incident X-rays in terms of plane q-waves propagating through the interface between two media with a random function of relief heights. To determine the amplitudes of reflected and transmitted plane q-waves, a system of two linked integral equations was derived. The solutions to these equations correspond (in zero order) to the well-known Fresnel expressions for a smooth plane interface. Based on these solutions, a statistical fractal model of an isotropic rough interface is built in terms of root-mean-square roughness σ, two-point correlation length l, and fractal surface index h. The model is used to interpret X-ray scattering data for polished surfaces of single-crystal cadmium telluride samples.

  14. UltraForm Finisher Optical Mandrel Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of normal incidence and grazing incidence X-Ray optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of...

  15. Structural stability of naphthyl end-capped oligothiophenes in organic field-effect transistors measured by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction in operando

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Lauritzen, Andreas E.; Bikondoa, Oier

    2017-01-01

    We report on microstructural durability of 5,5′-bis(naphth-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (NaT2) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) in operando monitored by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). NaT2 maintains its monoclinic bulk motif in operating OFETs with a=20.31±0.06 Å, b=6.00±0.01 Å...

  16. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical computing; beam splitter; optical switch; polarized beams. ... main research direction called quantum information and quantum computation is .... above has several advantages: Firstly, it is easy to be integrated with appropriate.

  17. Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Danilo Olzon Dionysio de; Ardisson, Jose Domingos, E-mail: dolzon@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Edilaine Honorio [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie (Belgium); Olzon-Dionysio, Maristela; Souza, Sylvio Dionysio de; Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil); Martinez, L.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: systematic investigation of samples of plasma-nitriding austenitic stainless steels ASTM F138 and AISI 316L is reported. The surface treatment of the steels through plasma-nitriding was used to improve further the hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of these stainless steels. The resulting layered crystallographic structure actually corresponds to several phases with close cell parameters, making their identification and quantification a real experimental challenge. The ASTM F138 and AISI 316L stainless steel disks were plasma nitrided for 4 h at 400 deg C in a 80% H{sub 2} -20% N2 atmosphere at 6 torr, using plasma current frequencies between 6 and 100 kHz. Data of Moessbauer (CEMS and CXMS) and grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD-SR) were systematically collected. The nitrided layer thickness were not in general influenced by the plasma frequency, except at 12 kHz, which produced a layer thickness of approximately 8.0 mm, being in average 40% thicker than for the other samples. CXMS and CEMS Moessbauer spectra for this 12 kHz-sample show a much more pronounced magnetic resonance lines than for the other samples. The Fe{sub 4}N phase presents a single magnetic hyperfine interaction; the other two (Fe{sub 2-3}N and the expanded austenite) present both paramagnetic and magnetic components, even though their hyperfine parameters may not be safely separated. We also present the results of XRD-SR that were probed at several depths. The data from these techniques may be consistently correlated and this leads to an improved model to explain the structure of the nitrided layers. (author)

  18. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  19. Generalized laws of reflection and refraction from transformation optics

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yadong; Yao, Kan; Chen, Huanyang

    2012-01-01

    Based on transformation optics, we introduce another set of generalized laws of reflection and refraction (differs from that of [Science 334, 333 (2011)]), through which a transformation media slab is derived as a meta-surface, producing anomalous reflection and refraction for all polarizations of incident light.

  20. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis of zeolite NaA membranes on porous alumina tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyotani, Tomohiro

    2006-07-01

    Zeolite NaA-type membranes hydrothermally synthesized on porous alumina tubes, for dehydration process, were characterized by grazing incidence 2 theta scan X-ray diffraction analysis (GIXRD). The fine structure of the membrane was studied fractionally for surface layer and for materials embedded in the porous alumina tube. The thickness of the surface layer on the porous alumina tube in the membranes used in this study was approximately 2-3 microm as determined from transmission electron microscopy with focused ion beam thin-layer specimen preparation technique (FIB-TEM). To discuss the effects of the membrane surface morphology on the GIXRD measurements, CaA-type membrane prepared by ion exchange from the NaA-type membrane and surface-damaged NaA-type membrane prepared by water leaching were also studied. For the original NaA-type membrane, 2 theta scan GIXRD patterns could be clearly measured at X-ray incidence angles (alpha) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 deg in increments of 0.1 deg. The surface layers of the 2 - 3 microm on the porous alumina tube correspond to the alpha values up to ca. 0.2 deg. For the CaA-type and the surface-damaged NaA-type membranes, however, diffraction patterns from the surface layer could not be successfully detected and the others were somewhat broad. For all the three samples, diffraction intensities of both zeolite and alumina increased with depth (X-ray incidence angle, alpha) in the porous alumina tube region. The depth profile analysis of the membranes based on the GIXRD first revealed that amount of zeolite crystal embedded in the porous alumina tube is much larger than that in the surface layer. Thus, the 2 theta scan GIXRD is a useful method to study zeolite crystal growth mechanism around (both inside and outside) the porous alumina support during hydrothermal synthesis and to study water permeation behavior in the dehydration process.

  1. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  2. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  3. Optical computation based on nonlinear total reflectional optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Education Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China. *Corresponding ... Before the computation, all the inputs are prepared in the polarization state. The key .... The all-optical computing system described.

  4. Side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration; Laser de Nd:YVO{sub 4} bombeado transversalmente em configuracao com angulo rasante interno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2006-07-01

    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO{sub 4} cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M{sup 2} = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M{sup 2} = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  5. Effect of Ar9+ irradiation on Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe alloy characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Argha; Das, Kalipada; Gayathri, N.; Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P. Y.; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2018-03-01

    The microstructural parameters such as domain size and microstrain have been estimated from Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) data for Ar9+ irradiated Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe sample as a function of dpa (dose). Detail studies using X-ray Diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRDLPA) from GIXRD data has been carried out to characterize the microstructural parameters like domain size and microstrain. The reorientation of the grains due to effect of irradiation at high dpa (dose) has been qualitatively assessed by the texture parameter P(hkl).

  6. Inner Stucture of Thin Films of Lamellar Poly(styrene-em>b>-butadiene) Diblock Copolymers as revealed by Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The lamellar orientation in supported, thin films of poly(styrene-b-butadiene) (P(S-b-B)) depends on block copolymer molar mass. We have studied films from nine block copolymer samples with molar masses between 13.9 and 183 kg/mol using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and ...... quantitatively in the framework of our recently developed distorted-wave Born approximation model (Busch, P.; et al. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 2006, 39, 433). The results cannot be explained from enthalpic considerations alone but point to the importance of entropic factors....

  7. Design of a high-efficiency grazing incidence monochromator with multilayer-coated laminar gratings for the 1-6 keV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masato; Ishino, Masahiko; Sasai, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    A grazing incidence objective monochromator consisting of a spherical mirror, a varied-line-spacing plane grating with multilayered coating, a movable plane multilayered mirror, and a fixed exit slit for the 1-6 keV region has been designed. The included angle at the grating was chosen to satisfy the grating equation and extended Bragg condition simultaneously. The aberration was corrected by means of a hybrid design method. A spectral resolving power of ∼600-∼6000 and a throughput of ∼2%-∼40% is expected for the monochromator when used in an undulator beamline

  8. Structure of Co-Doped Alq3 thin films investigated by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang; Pang, Zhiyong; Fang, Shaojie; Wang, Fenggong; Song, Shumei; Huang, Yuying; Wei, Xiangjun; Yu, Haisheng; Han, Shenghao

    2011-02-10

    The structural properties of Co-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray absorption fine structure (GIXAFS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXAFS analysis suggests that there are multivalent Co-Alq(3) complexes and the doped Co atoms tend to locate at the attraction center with respect to N and O atoms and bond with them. The FTIR spectra indicate that the Co atoms interact with the meridional (mer) isomer of Alq(3) rather than forming inorganic compounds.

  9. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction study of the tilted phases of Langmuir films: Determination of molecular conformations using simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignat, J.; Daillant, J.; Cantin, S.; Perrot, F.; Konovalov, O.

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) data from condensed phases of Langmuir films of long-chain fatty acids at the air-water using a new method consisting in a careful extraction of the structure factors followed by fitting of molecular parameters using simulated annealing. We show that the information contained in GIXD spectra is enough to obtain near-atomic structural information. In particular, we directly determine the orientation of the chain backbone planes and of the carboxylic headgroups, and we evaluate chain conformation defects

  10. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction study of the tilted phases of Langmuir films: Determination of molecular conformations using simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignat, J. [LIONS/Service de Chimie Moleculaire, CEA-Saclay bat. 125, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); LPPI, universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville/Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Daillant, J. [LIONS/Service de Chimie Moleculaire, CEA-Saclay bat. 125, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean.daillant@cea.fr; Cantin, S. [LPPI, universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville/Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Perrot, F. [LPPI, universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac Neuville/Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Konovalov, O. [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2007-05-23

    We have analyzed grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) data from condensed phases of Langmuir films of long-chain fatty acids at the air-water using a new method consisting in a careful extraction of the structure factors followed by fitting of molecular parameters using simulated annealing. We show that the information contained in GIXD spectra is enough to obtain near-atomic structural information. In particular, we directly determine the orientation of the chain backbone planes and of the carboxylic headgroups, and we evaluate chain conformation defects.

  11. Scattering of H(D) from LiF(1 0 0) under fast grazing incidence conditions: To what extent is classical dynamics a useful tool?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzas, A.S. [Departamento de Química Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martín, F. [Departamento de Química Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-nanociencia), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Díaz, C., E-mail: cristina.diaz@uam.es [Departamento de Química Módulo 13, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Diffraction experiments of atoms and molecules under fast grazing incidence conditions have opened a new field in surface science. This experimental effort calls for complementary theoretical studies, which would allow a detailed analysis of experimental data. Here, we have analyzed the ability of classical dynamics simulations to reproduce experimental results. To perform this study, a DFT (density functional theory) based potential energy surface, describing the interaction between a H atom and a LiF(1 0 0) surface, has been computed. Diffraction probabilities have been simulated by means of a classical binning method. Our results have been found to be in qualitative good agreement with recent experimental measurements.

  12. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  13. The epitaxial growth and interfacial strain study of VO{sub 2}/MgF{sub 2} (001) films by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.L. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection of Jiangsu Province, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Chen, S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Liu, Q.H. [Science and Technology on Electro-optical Information Security Control Laboratory, Tianjin 300300 (China); Liao, G.M.; Chen, Y.L.; Ren, H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zou, C.W., E-mail: czou@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2016-09-05

    High quality VO{sub 2} films with different thickness were epitaxially grown on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. The evolution of interfacial strain was investigated by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. By adjusting the incidence angles, the penetration depth of X-ray in VO{sub 2} film could be controlled and the thickness-depend lattice distortion in the epitaxial VO{sub 2} film was investigated. Due to the lattice mismatching, the pronounced tensile strain was observed in ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film. As the film thickness increasing, the interfacial strain relaxed gradually and became fully relaxed for thick VO{sub 2} films. Combined with the electric transport measurement, it was revealed that the phase transition temperature of ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film decreased greatly. The effect of interfacial strain induced phase transition modulation and the intrinsic mechanism was systematically discussed. - Highlights: • We prepared high quality VO{sub 2} epitaxial films on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. • Synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was employed to detect evolution of strain along depth profile. • Based on a classic band structure model, the mechanism of strain controlled phase transition of VO{sub 2} was discussed.

  14. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  15. Reflections on 35 years with Applied Optics: outgoing editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mait, Joseph N

    2014-10-20

    Applied Optics' Editor-in-Chief, Joseph N. Mait reflects on his experience as a reader, author, reviewer and eventual editor of the journal. Dr. Mait also introduces the incoming Editor-in-Chief, Ronald G. Driggers and acknowledges outgoing Division Editor, T.-C. Poon.

  16. Optical properties (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of shot fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Rong; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2000-01-01

    To study the optical properties of materials, one needs a complete set of the angular distribution functions of surface scattering from the materials. Here we present a convenient method for collecting a large set of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) samples in the hemispherical

  17. Electro-optic polymeric reflection modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Swillam, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel low power design for polymeric Electro-Optic reflection modulator is proposed based on the Extraordinary Reflection of light from multilayer structure consisting of a plasmonic metasurface with a periodic structure of sub wavelength circular apertures in a gold film above a thin layer of EO polymer and above another thin gold layer. The interference of the different reflected beams from different layer construct the modulated beam, The applied input driving voltage change the polymer refractive index which in turn determine whether the interference is constructive or destructive, so both phase and intensity modulation could be achieved. The resonant wavelength is tuned to the standard telecommunication wavelength 1.55μm, at this wavelength the reflection is minimum, while the absorption is maximum due to plasmonic resonance (PR) and the coupling between the incident light and the plasmonic metasurface.

  18. Metasurface-based anti-reflection coatings at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Alessio; Alù, Andrea; Toscano, Alessandro; Bilotti, Filiberto

    2018-05-01

    In this manuscript, we propose a metasurface approach for the reduction of electromagnetic reflection from an arbitrary air‑dielectric interface. The proposed technique exploits the exotic optical response of plasmonic nanoparticles to achieve complete cancellation of the field reflected by a dielectric substrate by means of destructive interference. Differently from other, earlier anti-reflection approaches based on nanoparticles, our design scheme is supported by a simple transmission-line formulation that allows a closed-form characterization of the anti-reflection performance of a nanoparticle array. Furthermore, since the working principle of the proposed devices relies on an average effect that does not critically depend on the array geometry, our approach enables low-cost production and easy scalability to large sizes. Our theoretical considerations are supported by full-wave simulations confirming the effectiveness of this design principle.

  19. Optical Fiber Sensing Based on Reflection Laser Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gagliardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview on high-resolution and fast interrogation of optical-fiber sensors relying on laser reflection spectroscopy is given. Fiber Bragg-gratings (FBGs and FBG resonators built in fibers of different types are used for strain, temperature and acceleration measurements using heterodyne-detection and optical frequency-locking techniques. Silica fiber-ring cavities are used for chemical sensing based on evanescent-wave spectroscopy. Various arrangements for signal recovery and noise reduction, as an extension of most typical spectroscopic techniques, are illustrated and results on detection performances are presented.

  20. Reflectance diffuse optical tomography. Its application to human brain mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Yamanaka, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Oda, Motoki; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2005-01-01

    We report the successful application of reflectance diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared light with the new reconstruction algorithm that we developed to the observation of regional hemodynamic changes in the brain under specific mental tasks. Our results reveal the heterogeneous distribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the brain, showing complementary images of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin changes in certain regions. We conclude that our reflectance DOT has practical potential for human brain mapping, as well as in the diagnostic imaging of brain diseases. (author)

  1. Molecular aggregation states of poly{2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl acrylate} polymer brush thin film analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, H; Honda, K; Takahara, A; Kobayashi, M; Morita, M; Masunaga, H; Sasaki, S; Takata, M; Sakata, O

    2009-01-01

    Fluoropolymer brush with crystalline side chains was prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl acrylate (FA-C 8 ) from a flat silicon substrate. The crystallization and the molecular aggregation structures of polymer side chain at the outermost surface and internal region in the brush film were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurement using two different incident angles of X-ray. At the air interface of PFA-C 8 brush film, the rod-like R f group was oriented perpendicular to the surface forming a hexagonal packing structure to reduce surface energy. In contrast, the oriented R f groups parallel to the substrate coexisted at the internal region in the brush. This unique depth dependence of crystalline state of the fluoropolymer brush was observed by surface-sensitive GIXD measurement.

  2. Phase and Texture of Solution-Processed Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films Investigated by Two-Dimensional Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phase and texture of a newly developed solution-processed copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film have been investigated by two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The results show that it has β phase crystalline structure, with crystallinity greater than 80%. The average size of the crystallites is found to be about 24 nm. There are two different arrangements of crystallites, with one dominating the diffraction pattern. Both of them have preferred orientation along the thin film normal. Based on the similarities to the vacuum deposited CuPc thin films, the new solution processing method is verified to offer a good alternative to vacuum process, for the fabrication of low cost small molecule based organic photovoltaics.

  3. Penetration Depth and Defect Image Contrast Formation in Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography of 4H-SiC Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Guo, Jianqiu; Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Kim, Jun Gyu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Chung, Gill; Sanchez, Edward; Manning, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Synchrotron x-ray topography in grazing-incidence geometry is useful for discerning defects at different depths below the crystal surface, particularly for 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers. However, the penetration depths measured from x-ray topographs are much larger than theoretical values. To interpret this discrepancy, we have simulated the topographic contrast of dislocations based on two of the most basic contrast formation mechanisms, viz. orientation and kinematical contrast. Orientation contrast considers merely displacement fields associated with dislocations, while kinematical contrast considers also diffraction volume, defined as the effective misorientation around dislocations and the rocking curve width for given diffraction vector. Ray-tracing simulation was carried out to visualize dislocation contrast for both models, taking into account photoelectric absorption of the x-ray beam inside the crystal. The results show that orientation contrast plays the key role in determining both the contrast and x-ray penetration depth for different types of dislocation.

  4. Note: Comparison of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering of a titania sponge structure at the beamlines BW4 (DORIS III) and P03 (PETRA III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawolle, M.; Körstgens, V.; Ruderer, M. A.; Metwalli, E.; Guo, S.; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Herzog, G.; Benecke, G.; Schwartzkopf, M.; Buffet, A.; Perlich, J.; Roth, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) is a powerful technique for morphology investigation of nanostructured thin films. GISAXS measurements at the newly installed P03 beamline at the storage ring PETRA III in Hamburg, Germany, are compared to the GISAXS data from the beamline BW4 at the storage ring DORIS III, which had been used extensively for GISAXS investigations in the past. As an example, a titania thin film sponge structure is investigated. Compared to BW4, at beamline P03 the resolution of larger structures is slightly improved and a higher incident flux leads to a factor of 750 in scattered intensity. Therefore, the acquisition time in GISAXS geometry is reduced significantly at beamline P03.

  5. Molecular aggregation states of poly{l_brace}2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl acrylate{r_brace} polymer brush thin film analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H; Honda, K; Takahara, A [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kobayashi, M [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Morita, M [Fundamental Research Department, Chemical Division, Daikin Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Nishi Hitotsuya, Settsu-shi, Osaka 566-8585 (Japan); Masunaga, H; Sasaki, S; Takata, M [Japan Synchrotron Research Institute, Mikazuki Sayo, Hyogo 671-5198 (Japan); Sakata, O, E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.j [RIKEN Harima Institute, Mikazuki Sayo, Hyogo 671-5198 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Fluoropolymer brush with crystalline side chains was prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethyl acrylate (FA-C{sub 8}) from a flat silicon substrate. The crystallization and the molecular aggregation structures of polymer side chain at the outermost surface and internal region in the brush film were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurement using two different incident angles of X-ray. At the air interface of PFA-C{sub 8} brush film, the rod-like R{sub f} group was oriented perpendicular to the surface forming a hexagonal packing structure to reduce surface energy. In contrast, the oriented R{sub f} groups parallel to the substrate coexisted at the internal region in the brush. This unique depth dependence of crystalline state of the fluoropolymer brush was observed by surface-sensitive GIXD measurement.

  6. Si Nanoribbons on Ag(110) Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, and Density-Functional Theory: Evidence of a Pentamer Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévot, Geoffroy; Hogan, Conor; Leoni, Thomas; Bernard, Romain; Moyen, Eric; Masson, Laurence

    2016-12-30

    We report a combined grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density-functional theory (DFT) study which clearly elucidates the atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on the missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. Our study allows us to discriminate between the theoretical models published in the literature, including the most stable atomic configurations and those based on a missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. GIXD measurements unambiguously validate the pentamer model grown on the reconstructed surface, obtained from DFT. This pentamer atomistic model accurately matches the high-resolution STM images of the Si nanoribbons adsorbed on Ag(110). Our study closes the long-debated atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on Ag(110) and definitively excludes a honeycomb structure similar to that of freestanding silicene.

  7. Micropore and nanopore fabrication in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Matthew R; Shang, Tao; Hawkins, Aaron R; Rudenko, Mikhail; Measor, Philip; Schmidt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of micropore and nanopore features in hollow antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides to create an electrical and optical analysis platform that can size select and detect a single nanoparticle. Micropores (4 μm diameter) are reactive-ion etched through the top SiO(2) and SiN layers of the waveguides, leaving a thin SiN membrane above the hollow core. Nanopores are formed in the SiN membranes using a focused ion-beam etch process that provides control over the pore size. Openings as small as 20 nm in diameter are created. Optical loss measurements indicate that micropores did not significantly alter the loss along the waveguide.

  8. Additive manufacturing of reflective optics: evaluating finishing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuteritz, G.; Lachmayer, R.

    2018-02-01

    Individually shaped light distributions become more and more important in lighting technologies and thus the importance of additively manufactured reflectors increases significantly. The vast field of applications ranges from automotive lighting to medical imaging and bolsters the statement. However, the surfaces of additively manufactured reflectors suffer from insufficient optical properties even when manufactured using optimized process parameters for the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Therefore post-process treatments of reflectors are necessary in order to further enhance their optical quality. This work concentrates on the effectiveness of post-process procedures for reflective optics. Based on already optimized aluminum reflectors, which are manufactured with a SLM machine, the parts are differently machined after the SLM process. Selected finishing methods like laser polishing, sputtering or sand blasting are applied and their effects quantified and compared. The post-process procedures are investigated on their impact on surface roughness and reflectance as well as geometrical precision. For each finishing method a demonstrator will be created and compared to a fully milled sample and among themselves. Ultimately, guidelines are developed in order to figure out the optimal treatment of additively manufactured reflectors regarding their optical and geometrical properties. Simulations of the light distributions will be validated with the developed demonstrators.

  9. Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Cheng Xinbin; Zhu Jingtao; Huang Qiushi; Zhang Zhong; Chen Lingyan

    2011-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of aperiodic tungsten/carbon (W/C) multi-layer mirror were studied. W/C multi-layer was designed as a broad-angle reflective supermirror for Cu-Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) in the grazing incident angular range (0.9-1.1 deg.) using simulated annealing algorithm. To deposit the W/C depth-graded multi-layer mirror accurately, we introduce an effective layer growth rate as a function of layer thickness. This method greatly improves the reflectivity curve compared to the conventional multi-layer mirror prepared with constant growth rate. The deposited multi-layer mirror exhibits an average reflectivity of 19% over the grazing incident angle range of 0.88-1.08 deg. which mainly coincides with the designed value. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms were discussed and the re-sputtering process of light-atom layers is accounted for the modification of layer thicknesses which leads to the effective growth rates. Using this calibration method, the aperiodic multi-layer mirrors can be better fabricated for X-ray optics.

  10. Scaling properties of optical reflectance from quasi-periodic superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiang; Yao Hesheng; Feng Weiguo

    1991-08-01

    The scaling properties of the optical reflectance from two types of quasi-periodic metal-insulator superlattices, one with the structure of Cantor bars and the other with the structure of Cantorian-Fibonaccian train, have been studied for the region of s-polarized soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet. By using the hydrodynamic model of electron dynamics and transfer-matrix method, and be taking into account retardation effects, we have presented the formalism of the reflectivity for the superlattices. From our numerical results, we found that the reflection spectra of the quasi-superlattices have a rich structure of self-similarity. The interesting scaling indices, which are related to the fractal dimensions, of the spectra are also discussed for the two kinds of the quasi-superlattices. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  11. Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcklen, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Rossi, S. de; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Soufli, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Thomasset, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP 48F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gullikson, E. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B{sub 4}C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1–1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L{sub 2,3} absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  12. Direct quantification of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in suspension by grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: Influence of substrate pre-treatment in the deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motellier, S., E-mail: Sylvie.motellier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives, DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE CEDEX (France); Derrough, S.; Locatelli, D. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives, DRT/NanoSafety Plateform, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE CEDEX (France); Amdaoud, M.; Lhaute, K. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives, DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 GRENOBLE CEDEX (France)

    2013-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence at grazing incidence (GIXRF) was investigated as a method for the quantification of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions. One of the major advantages of this technique is the possibility to analyze the particles without pre-treatment, like harsh acid digestion, as required by most other conventional methods. However, reliable quantitative measurements require a number of precautions. Particularly, the deposition process of the sample on the flat reflecting substrate must maintain homogeneity in composition and concentration over the entire surface of the deposition residue once dried. Scanning electron microscopy showed that using an adhesive coating of the substrate significantly improves the morphology and chemical homogeneity of the residue, hence leading to better performance of the method from a quantitative point of view. Linear calibration curves using internal standardization were established with ionic Ti and with two different types of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Low limits of detections of 18 μg L{sup −1} and 52 μg L{sup −1} at incident angles of 0.20° and 0.75°, respectively, were obtained. It was found that correlation factors of the calibration linear fits were particle-size dependent, which was assigned to sampling problems due to possible incomplete dispersion of the particles in suspensions. The measured fluorescence of the dried deposits changed within a 4-month timespan for both types of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, demonstrating the very peculiar behavior of these particulate samples. - Highlights: • Suspensions of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were quantitatively analyzed by GIXRF. • The substrate was coated with an adhesive film prior to sample deposition. • Improved spatial homogeneity of the dry spot residue was confirmed by SEM/EDX. • Linear calibration curves were obtained with ionic Cr as internal standard. • Ti low limits of detections were in the 20–50 μg L{sup −1}.

  13. Superhydrophobic surfaces: from fluid mechanics to optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathgen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis optical diraction was used to study the static and dynamic properties of microscopic liquid-gas interfaces that span between adjacent ridges of a superhydrophobic surface. An observed interference phenomenon at grazing incident angle led to the development of optical gratings with a

  14. Output diagnostics of the grazing incidence plane grating monochromator BUMBLE BEE (15 to 1500 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jark, W.; Kunz, C.

    1985-09-01

    The BUMBLE BEE is a bakeable uhv compatible plane grating monochromator, with a fixed exit beam, and the capability to suppress higher order radiation in a wide energy range. The instrument was built to be used in connection with a uhv reflectometer and has a differential pumping section between the optical components and the sample, allowing a pressure of 10/sup -5/ torr in the experimental chamber without influencing the uhv in the monochromator. The monochromator is not optimized for resolution. Due to its location at a beamline with a short source distance we achieve only medium resolving power in the order of E/..delta..E approx. = 200. The primary goal is the suppression of higher orders, fortunately the thus selected operating parameters for the coupled rotations of the optical components also give nearly the highest available output. The instrument is characterized in great detail. The performance of the instrument is discussed and compared with extensive theoretical calculations.

  15. Simulations of the azimuthal distribution of low-energy H atoms scattered off Ag(1 1 0) at grazing incidence: DFT many-body versus model pair potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Cafarelli, P; Benazeth, C; Nieuwjaer, N; Lorente, N

    2003-01-01

    We compare the azimuthal distribution of H atoms after scattering off Ag(1 1 0) obtained by molecular dynamics with different H-Ag(1 1 0) potential energy surfaces (PES) and experimental results. We use grazing incident H atoms and low energies (up to 4 keV). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed for the static case of an H atom in front of an Ag(1 1 0) surface. The surface is represented by an 8-atom slab, and the H atoms form 1x1 and 2x2 supercells. The generalized gradient approximation is used. Classical trajectories are evaluated on the obtained PES, and the azimuthal distribution of the scattered atoms is calculated. Good agreement with experiment is obtained which gives us some confidence in the correct description of the system at low energies by the static DFT calculations. These results are also compared with pair-potential calculations. The accuracy of trajectories may be important for the correct evaluation of charge transfer, energy loss and straggling during ion-surface coll...

  16. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100-300 Å spectral banda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2014-11-01

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li+ or Li2 +, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li+ and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li2 + lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  17. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100–300 Å spectral band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 Å and 135 Å, respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 mÅ at the 200 Å setting and better than 40 mÅ for the 135-Å range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Å Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Å Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  18. Heavy-ion induced desorption of a TiZrV coated vacuum chamber bombarded with 5 MeV/u Ar8+ beam at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedlund, E.; Malyshev, O. B.; Westerberg, L.; Krasnov, A.; Semenov, A. S.; Leandersson, M.; Zajec, B.; Kollmus, H.; Bellachioma, M. C.; Bender, M.; Kraemer, A.; Reich-Sprenger, H.

    2009-01-01

    TiZrV nonevaporable getter (NEG) coated vacuum chambers is a new vacuum technology which is already used in many particle accelerators worldwide. This coating is also of interest for heavy-ion accelerator vacuum chambers. Heavy-ion desorption yields from an activated as well as a CO saturated NEG coated tube have been measured with 5 MeV/u Ar 8+ beam. The sticking probability of the NEG film was obtained by using the partial pressure ratios on two sides of the NEG coated tube. These ratios were compared to results of modeling of the experimental setup with test particle Monte Carlo and angular coefficient methods. The partial pressures inside the saturated NEG coated tube bombarded with heavy ions were up to 20 times larger than those inside the activated one. However, the partial pressure of methane remained the same. The value of the total desorption yield from the activated NEG coated tube is 2600 molecules/ion. The desorption yields after saturation for CH 4 , H 2 , and CO 2 were found to be very close to the yields measured after the activation, while CO increased by up to a factor of 5. The total desorption yield for the saturated tube is up to 7000 molecules/ion. The large value of the desorption yield of the activated NEG coated tube, an order of magnitude higher than the desorption yield from a stainless steel tube at normal incident angle, could be explained by the grazing incident angle

  19. Evaluation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of nitride films by combining grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and laser curvature techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.; Lu, F.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of thin films have been problematic. In this work, evaluation of both Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus is conducted using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction combined with measurement of the induced stress. Poisson's ratio was evaluated from analysis of the X-ray diffraction data to obtain a strain-cos 2 α.sin 2 ψ plot. Moreover, the Young's modulus of the films could be also calculated from that plot as well as from the residual stress, which could be determined by a measurement of stress induced substrate curvature. The ternary nitride TiAlN is used as a model system for the evaluation. The films, prepared by cathodic arc plasma deposition, exhibited a strong (111) preferred orientation and a composition corresponding to Ti 0.6 Al 0.4 N. The measured Poisson's ratio and the Young's modulus of the films were 0.143 ± 0.003 and 310 ± 20 GPa, respectively, which are comparable to those reported in the literature

  20. Grazing incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction of marbles consolidated with diammonium hydrogen phosphate treatments: non-destructive probing of buried minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Elena; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Gigli, Lara; Merlini, Marco; Plaisier, Jasper Rikkert; Realini, Marco; Gatta, G. Diego

    2018-05-01

    Diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP)-based consolidating treatments react with carbonatic stones and form calcium phosphates phases, whose composition depends on the availability of free calcium ions. In this work, an innovative non-destructive approach based on grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) with synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to investigate DAP-treated Carrara marble specimens and to study the influence of the substrate composition on the crystallization of calcium phosphate phases. The outcomes indicate that the presence of compositional micro-heterogeneity of Carrara marble favours the formation of specific phases. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, a calcium phosphate with a low Ca/P molar ratio, is formed on carbonatic phases with a low Ca amount, such as dolomite grains and Mg-containing veins. Furthermore, this study highlights the potentialities of SR-GIXRD as a powerful non-destructive tool for the diagnostic of Cultural Heritage objects since it allows investigating the conservation history of stone materials and their interaction with the environment.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Change of Packing Structure of Condensed-Phase in a Micro-Phase Separated Langmuir Monolayer Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimura, Ken-ichi [Department of Applied Chemisty, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585, Utsunomiya (Japan); Kato, Teiji [Department of Applied Chemisty, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585, Utsunomiya (Japan); Brezesinski, Gerald [Max-Planck Instutite of Colloids and Interfaces, Research Campus Golm, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Packing structure of condensed-phase in a binary mixed Langmuir monolayer of behenic acid (C22) and perfluoro-2,5,8-trimethyl-3,6,9-trioxadodecanoic acid (PFPE) on a cadmium acetate aqueous solution was studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) as a function of the subphase temperature. The measurements were made during temperature scan at a fixed molecular area to explain the morphological change of the condensed-phase domains due to a thermal treatment reported previously. Analysis of GIXD data implies that the condensed-phase domains are composed of only the C22 molecules perpendicularly oriented and very closely packed in a centered rectangular unit cell with orthorhombic distortion at low temperatures. As the temperature increases the area occupied by molecule increases, and above 25 deg. C the lattice becomes disordered, which would allow morphological transformation of the condensed-phase domains. The process of packing structure change is almost reversible except for non-equilibrium phases observed for the monolayer spread at a low temperature, 5.5 deg. C.

  2. In-situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements of relaxation in Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D.S. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ali, M.; Hickey, B.J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 1JT (United Kingdom); Tanner, B.K., E-mail: b.k.tanner@dur.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    The relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe tunnel junctions grown epitaxially on (001) MgO substrates has been measured by in-situ grazing incidence in-plane X-ray diffraction during the thermal annealing cycle. We find that the Fe layers are fully relaxed and that there are no irreversible changes during annealing. The MgO tunnel barrier is initially strained towards the Fe but on annealing, relaxes and expands towards the bulk MgO value. The strain dispersion is reduced in the MgO by about 40% above 480 K post-annealing. There is no significant change in the “twist” mosaic. Our results indicate that the final annealing stage of device fabrication, crucial to attainment of high TMR, induces substantial strain relaxation at the MgO barrier/lower Fe electrode interface. - Highlights: • Lattice relaxation of Fe/MgO/Fe epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions measured. • In-plane lattice parameter of Fe equal to bulk value; totally relaxed. • MgO barrier initially strained towards the Fe but relaxes on annealing. • Reduction in strain dispersion in the MgO barrier by 40% above about 470 K. • No change in the in-plane “twist” mosaic throughout the annealing cycle.

  3. Crystal and electronic structures of pentacene thin films from grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction and first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabok, Dmitrii; Puschnig, Peter; Ambrosch-Draxl, Claudia; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2007-01-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical investigations on thin films of pentacene are performed in order to determine the structure of the pentacene thin film phase. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction is used for studying a pentacene thin film with a nominal thickness of 180 nm. The crystal structure is found to exhibit the lattice parameters a=0.592 nm, b=0.754 nm, c=1.563 nm, α=81.5 deg. , β=87.2 deg. , and γ=89.9 deg. . These crystallographic unit cell dimensions are used as the only input parameters for ab initio total-energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory revealing the molecular packing within the crystal structure. Moreover, we calculate the electronic band structure of the thin film phase and compare it to that of the bulk phase. We find the intermolecular bandwidths of the thin film phase to be significantly larger compared to the bulk structure, e.g., the valence bandwidth is twice as large. This remarkable effect is traced back to an enhanced intermolecular π-π overlap due to the upright standing molecules in the thin film phase

  4. In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy/synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction-A powerful new technique for the characterization of electrochemical surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Roland [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)]. E-mail: r.demarco@exchange.curtin.edu.au; Jiang, Z.-T. [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Martizano, Jay [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Lowe, Alex [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Pejcic, Bobby [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Applied Chemistry, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Riessen, Arie van [Materials Research Group, Department of Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    A marriage of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and in situ synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (SR-GIXRD) has provided a powerful new technique for the elucidation of the mechanistic chemistry of electrochemical systems. In this study, EIS/SR-GIXRD has been used to investigate the influence of metal ion buffer calibration ligands, along with natural organic ligands in seawater, on the behaviour of the iron chalcogenide glass ion-selective electrode (ISE). The SR-GIXRD data demonstrated that citrate - a previously reported poor iron calibration ligand for the analysis of seawater - induced an instantaneous and total dissolution of crystalline GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} in the modified surface layer (MSL) of the ISE, while natural organic ligands in seawater and a mixture of ligands in a mimetic seawater ligand system protected the MSL's crystalline inclusions of GeSe and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} from oxidative attack. Expectedly, the EIS data showed that citrate induced a loss in the medium frequency time constant for the MSL of the ISE, while seawater's natural organic ligands and the mimetic ligand system preserved the medium frequency EIS response characteristics of the ISE's MSL. The new EIS/SR-GIXRD technique has provided insights into the suitability of iron calibration ligands for the analysis of iron in seawater.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Change of Packing Structure of Condensed-Phase in a Micro-Phase Separated Langmuir Monolayer Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Ken-ichi; Kato, Teiji; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Packing structure of condensed-phase in a binary mixed Langmuir monolayer of behenic acid (C22) and perfluoro-2,5,8-trimethyl-3,6,9-trioxadodecanoic acid (PFPE) on a cadmium acetate aqueous solution was studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) as a function of the subphase temperature. The measurements were made during temperature scan at a fixed molecular area to explain the morphological change of the condensed-phase domains due to a thermal treatment reported previously. Analysis of GIXD data implies that the condensed-phase domains are composed of only the C22 molecules perpendicularly oriented and very closely packed in a centered rectangular unit cell with orthorhombic distortion at low temperatures. As the temperature increases the area occupied by molecule increases, and above 25 deg. C the lattice becomes disordered, which would allow morphological transformation of the condensed-phase domains. The process of packing structure change is almost reversible except for non-equilibrium phases observed for the monolayer spread at a low temperature, 5.5 deg. C

  6. Quantification of the optical surface reflection and surface roughness of articular cartilage using optical coherence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Wang Shuzhe; Huang Yanping; Zheng Yongping [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: simo.saarakkala@uku.fi, E-mail: ypzheng@ieee.org

    2009-11-21

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising new technique for characterizing the structural changes of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). The calculation of quantitative parameters from the OCT signal is an important step to develop OCT as an effective diagnostic technique. In this study, two novel parameters for the quantification of optical surface reflection and surface roughness from OCT measurements are introduced: optical surface reflection coefficient (ORC), describing the amount of a ratio of the optical reflection from cartilage surface with respect to that from a reference material, and OCT roughness index (ORI) indicating the smoothness of the cartilage surface. The sensitivity of ORC and ORI to detect changes in bovine articular cartilage samples after enzymatic degradations of collagen and proteoglycans using collagenase and trypsin enzymes, respectively, was tested in vitro. A significant decrease (p < 0.001) in ORC as well as a significant increase (p < 0.001) in ORI was observed after collagenase digestion. After trypsin digestion, no significant changes in ORC or ORI were observed. To conclude, the new parameters introduced were demonstrated to be feasible and sensitive to detect typical OA-like degenerative changes in the collagen network. From the clinical point of view, the quantification of OCT measurements is of great interest since OCT probes have been already miniaturized and applied in patient studies during arthroscopy or open knee surgery in vivo. Further studies are still necessary to demonstrate the clinical capability of the introduced parameters for naturally occurring early OA changes in the cartilage.

  7. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  8. Micro reflectance difference techniques: Optical probes for surface exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Del Pozo-Zamudio, O.; Herrera-Jasso, R.; Ulloa-Castillo, N.A.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Micro reflectance difference spectroscopy ({mu}-RDS) is a promising tool for the in-situ and ex-situ characterization of semiconductors surfaces and interfaces. We discuss and compare two different approaches used to measure {mu}-RD spectra. One is based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, while the other uses a laser and a XY translation stage. To show the performance of these systems, we have measured surface optical anisotropies of GaSb(001) sample on which anisotropic strains have been generated by preferential mechanical polishing along [110] and [1 anti 10] directions. The spectrometers are complementary and the selection of one of them depends on the sample to be investigated and on experimental conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Optical constants from mirror reflectivities measured at synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C.; Burbine, T.H.; Graessle, D.E.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improved mirror reflectivity measurement techniques have been introduced to permit more accurate determinations of optical constants δ and β in the complex index of refraction n = 1 - δ-iβ over the energy range 50 to 5000 eV. When the density has been determined by x-ray or other means, one can calculate the real and imaginary parts f' and f double-prime, of the complex atomic scattering factor f = f o + f ' + if double-prime from δ and β. Preliminary results are given for the Ni LIII edge around 852 eV, and the Au M edge region from 2150 to 3500 eV. Since these are the first experimental evaluations of δ for these element edges, they are compared with appropriate reservations to semi-empirical tabulations. There is much potential for this technique applied to synchrotron sources

  10. Optical detection of Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms based on multispectral reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Bangyi; PAN Delu; MAO Zhihua; SHEN Yuzhang; ZHU Qiankun; CHEN Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    Prorocentrum donghaiense is one of the most common red tide causative dinoflagellates in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and the adjacent area of the East China Sea. It causes large-scale blooms in late spring and early summer that lead to widespread ecologic and economic damage. A means for distinguish-ing dinoflagellate blooms from diatom (Skeletonema costatum) blooms is desired. On the basis of measure-ments of remote sensing reflectance [Rrs(λ)] and inherent optical parameters, the potential of using a mul-tispectral approach is assessed for discriminating the algal blooms due to P. donghaiense from those due to S. costatum. The behavior of two reflectance ratios [R1 =Rrs(560)/Rrs(532) and R2 =Rrs(708)/Rrs(665)], suggests that differentiation of P. donghaiense blooms from diatom bloom types is possible from the current band setup of ocean color sensors. It is found that there are two reflectance ratio regimes that indicate a bloom is dominated by P. donghaiense: (1) R1 >1.55 and R2 1.75 and R2 ?1.0. Various sensitivity analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of the variation in varying levels of chlorophyll concentration and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as well as changes in the backscattering ratio (bbp/bp) on the efficacy of this multispectral approach. Results indicate that the intensity and inherent op-tical properties of the algal species explain much of the behavior of the two ratios. Although backscattering influences the amplitude of Rrs(λ), especially in the 530 and 560 nm bands, the discrimination between P. donghaiense and diatoms is not significantly affected by the variation of bbp/bp. Since a CDOM(440) in coastal areas of the ECS is typically lower than 1.0 m−1 in most situations, the presence of CDOM does not interfere with this discrimination, even as SCDOM varies from 0.01 to 0.026 nm−1. Despite all of these effects, the dis-crimination of P. donghaiense blooms from diatom blooms based on multispectral

  11. Combined evaluation of grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectivity data for improved profiling of ultra-shallow depth distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingerle, D.; Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Demenev, E.; Giubertoni, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous downscaling of the process size for semiconductor devices pushes the junction depths and consequentially the implantation depths to the top few nanometers of the Si substrate. This motivates the need for sensitive methods capable of analyzing dopant distribution, total dose and

  12. Reflective optics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsch, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on reflective optics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: measurement of the effect of particulate contamination on X-ray reflectivity; design optimization of astrometric reflectors; application of supersmooth optics to extrasolar planet detection; all-reflective spectrometer design of the Infrared Space Observatory; manufacturing the Keck 10-meter telescope structure and drives; advanced reflective optical systems for ground-based laboratory collimators; design of a catadioptric lens for long-range oblique aerial reconnaissance; development of a three-mirror, wide-field sensor; low-cost, lightweight, large-aperture laser transmitter/receiver; fabrication of the airborne optical adjunct mirrors; manufacturing simulation for precision optical fabrication of large mirrors; rapid optical fabrication technology for ultralightweight quartz-glass mirrors; cryogenic testing of reflective optical component and telescope systems

  13. Reflective optics II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsch, Dietrich G.

    1989-10-01

    Various papers on reflective optics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: measurement of the effect of particulate contamination on X-ray reflectivity; design optimization of astrometric reflectors; application of supersmooth optics to extrasolar planet detection; all-reflective spectrometer design of the Infrared Space Observatory; manufacturing the Keck 10-meter telescope structure and drives; advanced reflective optical systems for ground-based laboratory collimators; design of a catadioptric lens for long-range oblique aerial reconnaissance; development of a three-mirror, wide-field sensor; low-cost, lightweight, large-aperture laser transmitter/receiver; fabrication of the airborne optical adjunct mirrors; manufacturing simulation for precision optical fabrication of large mirrors; rapid optical fabrication technology for ultralightweight quartz-glass mirrors; cryogenic testing of reflective optical component and telescope systems.

  14. Crystallization behavior of polyethylene on silicon wafers in solution casting processes traced by time-resolved measurements of synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S; Masunaga, H; Takata, M; Itou, K; Tashiro, K; Okuda, H; Takahara, A

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization behavior of polyethylene (PE) on silicon wafers in solution casting processes has been successfully traced by time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering (GISWAXS) measurements utilizing synchrotron radiation. A p-xylene solution of PE kept at ca. 343 K was dropped on a silicon wafer at ca. 298 K. While the p-xylene evaporated naturally from the dropped solution sample, PE chains crystallized to be a thin film. Raman spectral measurements were performed simultaneously with the GISWAXS measurements to evaluate quantitatively the p-xylene the dropped solution contained. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns indicated nucleation and crystal growth in the dropped solution and the following as-cast film. GIWAXS and Raman spectral data revealed that crystallization of PE was enhanced after complete evaporation of the p-xylene from the dropped solution. The [110] and [200] directions of the orthorhombic PE crystal became relatively parallel to the wafer surface with time, which implied that the flat-on lamellae with respect to the wafer surface were mainly formed in the as-cast film. On the other hand, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) patterns implied formation of isolated lamellae in the dropped solution. The lamellae and amorphous might alternatively be stacked in the preferred direction perpendicular to the wafer surface. The synchrotron GISWAXS experimental method could be applied for kinetic study on hierarchical structure of polymer thin films.

  15. The adaptation of methods in multilayer optics for the calculation of specular neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, J.

    1988-10-01

    The adaptation of standard methods in multilayer optics to the calculation of specular neutron reflection is described. Their application is illustrated with examples which include a glass optical flat and a deuterated Langmuir-Blodgett film. (author)

  16. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...... of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  17. Relationship between electrical properties and crystallization of indium oxide thin films using ex-situ grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, G. B.; Okasinski, J. S.; Buchholz, D. B.; Boesso, J.; Almer, J. D.; Zeng, L.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Chang, R. P. H.

    2017-05-01

    Grazing-incidence, wide-angle x-ray scattering measurements were conducted on indium oxide thin films grown on silica substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Growth temperatures (TG) in this study ranged from -50 °C to 600 °C, in order to investigate the thermal effects on the film structure and its spatial homogeneity, as well as their relationship to electrical properties. Films grown below room temperature were amorphous, while films prepared at TG = 25 °C and above crystallized in the cubic bixbyite structure, and their crystalline fraction increased with deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity (σ) and electrical mobility (μ) were strongly enhanced at low deposition temperatures. For TG = 25 °C and 50 °C, a strong ⟨100⟩ preferred orientation (texture) occurred, but it decreased as the deposition temperature, and consequential crystallinity, increased. Higher variations in texture coefficients and in lattice parameters were measured at the film surface compared to the interior of the film, indicating strong microstructural gradients. At low crystallinity, the in-plane lattice spacing expanded, while the out-of-plane spacing contracted, and those values merged at TG = 400 °C, where high μ was measured. This directional difference in lattice spacing, or deviatoric strain, was linear as a function of both deposition temperature and the degree of crystallinity. The crystalline sample with TG = 100 °C had the lowest mobility, as well as film diffraction peaks which split into doublets. The deviatoric strains from these doublet peaks differ by a factor of four, supporting the presence of both a microstructure and strain gradient in this film. More isotropic films exhibit larger μ values, indicating that the microstructure directly correlates with electrical properties. These results provide valuable insights that can help to improve the desirable properties of indium oxide, as well as other transparent conducting oxides.

  18. Silicon Pore Optics development for ATHENA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Guenther, Ramses

    2015-01-01

    The ATHENA mission, a European large (L) class X-ray observatory to be launched in 2028, will essentially consist of an X-ray lens and two focal plane instruments. The lens, based on a Wolter-I type double reflection grazing incidence angle design, will be very large (similar to 3 m in diameter) ...

  19. Optical properties (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of shot fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R; Koenderink, J J; Kappers, A M

    2000-11-01

    To study the optical properties of materials, one needs a complete set of the angular distribution functions of surface scattering from the materials. Here we present a convenient method for collecting a large set of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) samples in the hemispherical scattering space. Material samples are wrapped around a right-circular cylinder and irradiated by a parallel light source, and the scattered radiance is collected by a digital camera. We tilted the cylinder around its center to collect the BRDF samples outside the plane of incidence. This method can be used with materials that have isotropic and anisotropic scattering properties. We demonstrate this method in a detailed investigation of shot fabrics. The warps and the fillings of shot fabrics are dyed different colors so that the fabric appears to change color at different viewing angles. These color-changing characteristics are found to be related to the physical and geometrical structure of shot fabric. Our study reveals that the color-changing property of shot fabrics is due mainly to an occlusion effect.

  20. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  1. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part 2. Reflection Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2002-03-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  2. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  3. Physics and technology development of multilayer EUV reflective optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of molybdenum/silicon based multilayer reflective elements for the Extreme UV wavelength range, as motivated by their application in photolithography for semiconductor manufacturing. The thesis reflects the basic thin film physics, technological developments,

  4. Interaction between lipid monolayers and poloxamer 188: An X-ray reflectivity and diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.H.; Majewski, J.; Ege, C.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism by which poloxamer 188 (P188) seals a damaged cell membrane is examined using the lipid monolayer as a model system. X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction results show that at low nominal lipid density, P188, by physically occupying the available area and phase ...

  5. Optical fringe-reflection deflectometry with bundle adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Li, Sikun; Zhang, Qican; Zhong, Jianxin; Su, Xianyu; You, Zhisheng

    2018-06-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) screens are located outside of a camera's field of view in fringe-reflection deflectometry. Therefore, fringes that are displayed on LCD screens are obtained through specular reflection by a fixed camera. Thus, the pose calibration between the camera and LCD screen is one of the main challenges in fringe-reflection deflectometry. A markerless planar mirror is used to reflect the LCD screen more than three times, and the fringes are mapped into the fixed camera. The geometrical calibration can be accomplished by estimating the pose between the camera and the virtual image of fringes. Considering the relation between their pose, the incidence and reflection rays can be unified in the camera frame, and a forward triangulation intersection can be operated in the camera frame to measure three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of the specular surface. In the final optimization, constraint-bundle adjustment is operated to refine simultaneously the camera intrinsic parameters, including distortion coefficients, estimated geometrical pose between the LCD screen and camera, and 3D coordinates of the specular surface, with the help of the absolute phase collinear constraint. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the pose calibration with planar mirror reflection is simple and feasible, and the constraint-bundle adjustment can enhance the 3D coordinate measurement accuracy in fringe-reflection deflectometry.

  6. Polarization resolved imaging with a reflection near-field optical microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Xiao, Mufei; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using a rigorous microscopic point-dipole description of probe-sample interactions, we study imaging with a reflection scanning near-field optical microscope. Optical content, topographical artifacts, sensitivity window-i.e., the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...... configuration is preferable to the cross-linear one, since it ensures more isotropic (in the surface plane) near-field imaging of surface features. The numerical results are supported with experimental near-field images obtained by using a reflection microscope with an uncoated fiber tip....

  7. Normal and grazing incidence pulsed laser deposition of nanostructured MoSx hydrogen evolution catalysts from a MoS2 target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominski, V. Yu.; Romanov, R. I.; Fominski, D. V.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Troyan, I. A.

    2018-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation of a MoS2 target causes enhanced splashing of the material. So, for MoSx films obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the conventional normal incidence (NI) configuration, their typical morphology is characterized by an underlying granular structure with an overlayer of widely dispersed spherical Mo and MoSx particles possessing micro-, sub-micro- and nanometer sizes. We investigated the possibility of using high surface roughness, which occurs due to particle deposition, as a support with a large exposed surface area for thin MoSx catalytic layers for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). For comparison, the HER performance of MoSx layers formed by grazing incidence (GI) PLD was studied. During GI-PLD, a substrate was placed along the direction of laser plume transport and few large particles loaded the substrate. The local structure and composition of thin MoSx layers formed by the deposition of the vapor component of the laser plume were varied by changing the pressure of the buffer gas (argon, Ar). In the case of NI-PLD, an increase in Ar pressure caused the formation of quasi-amorphous MoSx (x ≥ 2) films that possessed highly active catalytic sites on the edges of the layered MoS2 nanophase. At the same time, a decrease in the deposition rate of the MoSx film appeared due to the scattering of the vapor flux by Ar molecules during flux transport from the target to the substrate. This effect prevented uniform deposition of the MoSx catalytic film on the surface of most particles, whose deposition rate was independent of Ar pressure. The scattered vapor flux containing Mo and S atoms was a dominant source for MoSx film growth during GI-PLD. The thickness and composition distribution of the MoSx film on the substrate depended on both the pressure of the buffer gas and the distance from the target. For 1.0-2.5 cm from the target, the deposition rate was quite sufficient to form S-enriched quasi-amorphous MoSx (2.5 < x < 6) catalytic

  8. Surface morphology and in-plane-epitaxy of SmBa2Cu3O7-δ films on SrTiO3 (001) substrates studied by STM and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Q.D.; Smilgies, D.M.; Feidenhans'l, R.

    1996-01-01

    The surface morphology and in-plane epitaxy of thin films of SmBa(2)Cu3O(7-delta) (Sm-BCO) grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates with various thicknesses have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). As revealed by GIXRD, SmBCO films as ...... films above h(c2), introduction of screw dislocations leads to spiral growth.......The surface morphology and in-plane epitaxy of thin films of SmBa(2)Cu3O(7-delta) (Sm-BCO) grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates with various thicknesses have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). As revealed by GIXRD, SmBCO films...... substrate. Three different types of surface morphology were observed by STM with increasing film thickness h: a) 2D growth for hh(c2). With GIXRD, a density modulation is observed in the films with a thickness below h(c2). For thicker...

  9. Strain, size and composition of InAs quantum sticks, embedded in InP, determined via X-ray anomalous diffraction and diffraction anomalous fine structure in grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letoublon, A.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Renevier, H.; Proietti, M.G.; Monat, C.; Gendry, M.; Marty, O.; Priester, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the study of strain, size and composition of small-size encapsulated semiconductor nanostructures. We show that the partial structure factor of As atoms in InAs stick-like nanostructures (quantum sticks), embedded in InP, can be directly extracted from grazing incidence anomalous X-ray diffraction maps at the As K-edge. We have recovered the average height and strain of the islands and determined their composition. The average height of the quantum sticks (QSs), as deduced from the width of the structure factor profile is 2.54 nm. The InAs out of plane deformation, relative to InP, is equal to 6.1%. Fixed-Q anomalous diffraction spectra, measured at the As K-edge, in grazing incidence provide clear evidence of pure InAs QSs. This is confirmed by the analysis of the diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) that also gives a direct way to recover the strain accomodation inside the quantum sticks. Finite difference method calculations reproduce well the diffraction data. Chemical mixing at interfaces is at most 1 ML. This paper shows that ultimate application of anomalous diffraction and DAFS together with reciprocal space maps is a powerful method to sudy the structural properties of nanostructures

  10. Optical study of BST films combining ellipsometry and reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Vladimír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Pajasová, Libuše; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Daniš, S.; Valvoda, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 10 (2009), s. 5280-5283 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : BST thin films * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2009

  11. Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhongping; Carder, Kendall L.; Steward, Robert G.; Peacock, Thomas G.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Mueller, James L.

    1997-02-01

    Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic properties of oceanic waters are important parameters for ocean optics. Due to surface reflectance, Rrs or water-leaving radiance is difficult to measure from above the surface. It usually is derived by correcting for the reflected skylight in the measured above-water upwelling radiance using a theoretical Fresnel reflectance value. As it is difficult to determine the reflected skylight, there are errors in the Q and E derived Rrs, and the errors may get bigger for high chl_a coastal waters. For better correction of the reflected skylight,w e propose the following derivation procedure: partition the skylight into Rayleigh and aerosol contributions, remove the Rayleigh contribution using the Fresnel reflectance, and correct the aerosol contribution using an optimization algorithm. During the process, Rrs and in-water inherent optical properties are derived at the same time. For measurements of 45 sites made in the Gulf of Mexico and Arabian Sea with chl_a concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 49 mg/m3, the derived Rrs and inherent optical property values were compared with those from in-water measurements. These results indicate that for the waters studied, the proposed algorithm performs quite well in deriving Rrs and in- water inherent optical properties from above-surface measurements for clear and turbid waters.

  12. Integrated manufacture of a freeform off-axis multi-reflective imaging system without optical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Zhu, Linlin; Yan, Ning

    2018-03-19

    Multi-reflective imaging systems find wide applications in optical imaging and space detection. However, it is faced with difficulties in adjusting the freeform mirrors with high accuracy to guarantee the optical function. Motivated by this, an alignment-free manufacture approach is proposed to machine the optical system. The direct optical performance-guided manufacture route is established without measuring the form error of freeform optics. An analytical model is established to investigate the effects of machine errors to serve the error identification and compensation in machining. Based on the integrated manufactured system, an ingenious self-designed testing configuration is constructed to evaluate the optical performance by directly measuring the wavefront aberration. Experiments are carried out to manufacture a three-mirror anastigmat, surface topographical details and optical performance shows agreement to the designed expectation. The final system works as an off-axis infrared imaging system. Results validate the feasibility of the proposed method to achieve excellent optical application.

  13. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  14. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements.

  15. Construction and use of an optical semi-automatic titrator employing the technique of reflectance photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hoon

    2001-01-01

    An optical semi-automatic titrator was constructed employing the technique of the reflectance spectrometry and was tested for the determination of the end points of the acid-base, precipitation, and EDTA titrations. And since the current optical semi-automatic titrator built on the principle of the reflectance spectrometry could be successfully used even for the determination of the end of the end point in the precipitation titration where the solid particles are formed during the titration process, it was found to be feasible that a completely automated optical titrator would be designed and built based on the current findings

  16. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Human Skin Using a Commercial Fiber Optic Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, J. A. Delgado; Rodriguez, M. Cunill; Montiel, S. Vazquez y; Castro, Jorge; Rodriguez, A. Cornejo; Gutierrez, J. L.; Martinez, F.; Gutierrez, B.; Orozco, E.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a reliable and easy to implement technique in human tissue characterization. In this work we evaluate the performance of the commercial USB4000 miniature fiber optic spectrometer in the in-vivo measurement of the diffuse reflectance spectra of different healthy skin sites and lesions in a population of 54 volunteers. Results show, that this spectrometer reproduces well the typical signatures of skin spectra over the 400-1000 nm region. Remarkable spectral differences exist between lesions and normal surrounding skin. A diffusion-based model was used to simulate reflectance spectra collected by the optical probe of the system

  17. Calculating the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media from a single optical reflectance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli

    2003-07-01

    When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).

  18. Prediction of the limit of detection of an optical resonant reflection biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongcheol; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Shin, Jae-Heon; Huh, Chul; Sung, Gun Yong

    2007-07-09

    A prediction of the limit of detection of an optical resonant reflection biosensor is presented. An optical resonant reflection biosensor using a guided-mode resonance filter is one of the most promising label-free optical immunosensors due to a sharp reflectance peak and a high sensitivity to the changes of optical path length. We have simulated this type of biosensor using rigorous coupled wave theory to calculate the limit of detection of the thickness of the target protein layer. Theoretically, our biosensor has an estimated ability to detect thickness change approximately the size of typical antigen proteins. We have also investigated the effects of the absorption and divergence of the incident light on the detection ability of the biosensor.

  19. Artificial neural networks based estimation of optical parameters by diffuse reflectance imaging under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozan Gökkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical parameters (properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms are determined through noninvasive optical imaging. Objective of this study is to decompose obtained diffuse reflectance into these optical properties such as absorption and scattering coefficients. To do so, transmission spectroscopy is firstly used to measure the coefficients via an experimental setup. Next, the optical properties of each characterized phantom are input for Monte Carlo (MC simulations to get diffuse reflectance. Also, a surface image for each single phantom with its known optical properties is obliquely captured due to reflectance-based geometrical setup using CMOS camera that is positioned at 5∘ angle to the phantoms. For the illumination of light, a laser light source at 633nm wavelength is preferred, because optical properties of different components in a biological tissue on that wavelength are nonoverlapped. During in vitro measurements, we prepared 30 different mixture samples adding clinoleic intravenous lipid emulsion (CILE and evans blue (EB dye into a distilled water. Finally, all obtained diffuse reflectance values are used to estimate the optical coefficients by artificial neural networks (ANNs in inverse modeling. For a biological tissue it is found that the simulated and measured values in our results are in good agreement.

  20. Performance of multilayer coated silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M. D.; Collon, M. J.; Jensen, C. P.; Christensen, F. E.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Marggraf, S.; Bavdaz, M.; Lumb, D.; Shortt, B.

    2010-07-01

    The requirements for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) telescope are very challenging in respect of angular resolution and effective area. Within a clear aperture with 1.7 m > R > 0.25 m that is dictated by the spacecraft envelope, the optics technology must be developed to satisfy simultaneously requirements for effective area of 2.5 m2 at 1.25 keV, 0.65 m2 at 6 keV and 150 cm2 at 30 keV. The reflectivity of the bare mirror substrate materials does not allow these requirements to be met. As such the IXO baseline design contains a coating layout that varies as a function of mirror radius and in accordance with the variation in grazing incidence angle. The higher energy photon response is enhanced through the use of depth-graded multilayer coatings on the inner radii mirror modules. In this paper we report on the first reflectivity measurements of wedged ribbed silicon pore optics mirror plates coated with a depth graded W/Si multilayer. The measurements demonstrate that the deposition and performance of the multilayer coatings is compatible with the SPO production process.

  1. Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Using cross-hatched, patterned semiconductor surfaces and round 20-nm-thick gold pads on semiconductor wafers, we investigate the imaging characteristics of a reflection near-field optical microscope with an uncoated fibre tip for different polarization configurations and light wavelengths....... Is is shown that cross-polarized detection allows one to effectively suppress far-field components in the detected signal and to realise imaging of optical contrast on the sub-wavelength scale. The sensitivity window of our microscope, i.e. the scale on which near-field optical images represent mainly optical...

  2. Portable, Fiber-Based, Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DRS) Systems for Estimating Tissue Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Chang, Kevin; Klein, Daniel; Deng, Yu Feng; Chang, Vivide; Phelps, Janelle E; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2011-02-01

    Steady-state diffuse reflection spectroscopy is a well-studied optical technique that can provide a noninvasive and quantitative method for characterizing the absorption and scattering properties of biological tissues. Here, we compare three fiber-based diffuse reflection spectroscopy systems that were assembled to create a light-weight, portable, and robust optical spectrometer that could be easily translated for repeated and reliable use in mobile settings. The three systems were built using a broadband light source and a compact, commercially available spectrograph. We tested two different light sources and two spectrographs (manufactured by two different vendors). The assembled systems were characterized by their signal-to-noise ratios, the source-intensity drifts, and detector linearity. We quantified the performance of these instruments in extracting optical properties from diffuse reflectance spectra in tissue-mimicking liquid phantoms with well-controlled optical absorption and scattering coefficients. We show that all assembled systems were able to extract the optical absorption and scattering properties with errors less than 10%, while providing greater than ten-fold decrease in footprint and cost (relative to a previously well-characterized and widely used commercial system). Finally, we demonstrate the use of these small systems to measure optical biomarkers in vivo in a small-animal model cancer therapy study. We show that optical measurements from the simple portable system provide estimates of tumor oxygen saturation similar to those detected using the commercial system in murine tumor models of head and neck cancer.

  3. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Alessandro; Nichelatti, Enrico

    1998-04-01

    It's developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It's tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8% [it

  4. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Self-reflection in a system of excitons and biexcitons in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Lyakhomskaya, K. D.

    1999-10-01

    The characteristic features of the self-reflection of a powerful electromagnetic wave in a system of coherent excitons and biexcitons in semiconductors were investigated as one of the manifestations of the nonlinear optical skin effect. It was found that a monotonically decreasing standing wave with an exponentially falling spatial tail is formed in the surface region of a semiconductor. Under the influence of the field of a powerful pulse, an optically homogeneous medium is converted into one with distributed feedback. The appearance of spatially separated narrow peaks of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and reflection coefficient is predicted.

  5. Measurement and modelization of silica opal reflection properties: Optical determination of the silica index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Nga, Pham Thu; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    Self-assembled artificial opals (in particular silica opals) constitute a model system to study the optical properties of three-dimensional photonic crystals. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal but is difficult to measure at the submicrometer scale and usually treated as a free parameter. Here, we propose a method to extract the silica index from the opal reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent methods based on infrared measurements. We show that this index gives a correct description of the opal reflection spectra, either by a band structure or by a Bragg approximation. In particular, we are able to provide explanations in quantitative agreement with the measurements for two features : the observation of a second reflection peak in specular direction, and the quasicollapse of the p-polarized main reflection peak at a typical angle of 54∘.

  6. Reversible unidirectional reflection and absorption of PT-symmetry structure under electro-optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Zhang, Yi-chi; Xia, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In order to obtain tunable unidirectional device, we assumed an ideal periodic layered Parity-Time (PT) symmetry structure inserted by doped LiNbO3 (LN) interlayers. LN is a typical electro-optical material of which the refractive index depends on the external electric field. In our work, we theoretically investigate the modulation effect of the external electric field on the transmittance and reflectance of the structure through numerical method. Through selected structural parameters, the one-way enhanced reflection and high absorption (above 0.9) behaviors are found. Within a special frequency band (not a single frequency), our theoretical model performs enhanced reflection in one incidence direction and high absorption in the other direction. Furthermore, the directions of enhanced reflection and absorption can be reversed through reversing the direction of applied electric field. Such structure with reversible properties has the potential in designing new optical devices.

  7. Retrieval of optical properties of skin from measurement and modeling the diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Lucien F. A.; Lucassen, Gerald W.

    2000-06-01

    We present results on the retrieval of skin optical properties obtained by fitting of measurements of the diffuse reflectance of human skin. Reflectance spectra are simulated using an analytical model based on the diffusion approximation. This model is implemented in a simplex fit routine. The skin optical model used consists of five layers representing epidermis, capillary blood plexus, dermis, deep blood plexus and hypodermis. The optical properties of each layer are assumed homogeneously distributed. The main optical absorbers included are melanin in epidermis and blood. The experimental setup consists of a HP photospectrometer equipped with a remote fiber head. Total reflectance spectra were measured in the 400 - 820 nm wavelength range on the volar underarm of 19 volunteers under various conditions influencing the blood content and oxygenation degree. Changes in the reflectance spectra were observed. Using the fit routine changes in blood content in the capillary blood plexus and in the deep blood plexus could be quantified. These showed different influences on the total reflectance. The method can be helpful to quantitatively assess changes in skin color appearance such as occurs in the treatment of port wine stains, blanching, skin irritation and tanning.

  8. Full-field transmission-type angle-deviation optical microscope with reflectivity-height transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin

    2015-10-01

    This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs.

  9. Epoxy-based broadband anti-reflection coating for millimeter-wave optics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Darin; Suzuki, Aritoki; Keating, Brian; Krantz, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Quealy, Erin; Richards, Paul L.; Siritanasak, Praween; Walker, William

    2013-01-01

    We have developed epoxy-based, broadband anti-reflection coatings for millimeter-wave astrophysics experiments with cryogenic optics. By using multiple-layer coatings where each layer steps in dielectric constant, we achieved low reflection over a wide bandwidth. We suppressed the reflection from an alumina disk to 10% over fractional bandwidths of 92% and 104% using two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively. The dielectric constants of epoxies were tuned between 2.06 and 7.44 by mixin...

  10. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2015-10-07

    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  11. History of optical theory of reflecting telescopes and implications for future projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond N.

    1997-03-01

    This contribution, The History of Optical Theory of Reflecting Telescopes and Implications for Future Projects, is a shortened form of the Karl Schwarzschild lecture given in Bochum in September 1993. Some material has been added from an invited paper given in Padua in December 1992. For a full account, with figures and tables, the reader is referred to these two papers.

  12. Derivation of a regional active-optical reflectance sensor corn algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active-optical reflectance sensor (AORS) algorithms developed for in-season corn (Zea mays L.) N management have traditionally been derived using sub-regional scale information. However, studies have shown these previously developed AORS algorithms are not consistently accurate when used on a region...

  13. Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Descalle, Marie-Anne; Soufli, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Traditional multilayer reflective optics that have been used in the past for imaging at x-ray photon energies as high as 200 keV are governed by classical wave phenomena. However, their behavior at higher energies is unknown, because of the increasing effect of incoherent scattering and the disag...

  14. Reflectivity and surface roughness of multilayer-coated substrate recovery layers for EUV lithographic optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedelcu, I.; van de Kruijs, R.W.E.; Yakshin, A. E.; von Blanckenhagen, G.; F. Bijkerk,

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the use of separation, or substrate recovery, layers (SRLs), to enable the reuse of optical substrates after the deposition of multilayer reflective coatings, in particular Mo/Si multilayers as used for EUV lithography. An organic material (polyimide), known from other work to reduce

  15. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durkam, C.; Shvets, I.V.; Lodder, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of

  16. LAI inversion from optical reflectance using a neural network trained with a multiple scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The inversion of the leaf area index (LAI) canopy parameter from optical spectral reflectance measurements is obtained using a backpropagation artificial neural network trained using input-output pairs generated by a multiple scattering reflectance model. The problem of LAI estimation over sparse canopies (LAI 1000 percent for low LAI. Minimization methods applied to merit functions constructed from differences between measured reflectances and predicted reflectances using multiple-scattering models are unacceptably sensitive to a good initial guess for the desired parameter. In contrast, the neural network reported generally yields absolute percentage errors of <30 percent when weighting coefficients trained on one soil type were applied to predicted canopy reflectance at a different soil background.

  17. Algorithm of extraction optics properties from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunill Rodriguez, Margarita; Delgado Atencio, Jose Alberto; Castro Ramos, Jorge; Vazquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    There are several methods to obtain the optical parameters of biological tissues from the measurement of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance. One of them is well-known as Video Reflectometry in which a camera CCD is used as detection and recording system of the lateral distribution of diffuse reflectance Rd(r) when an infinitely narrow light beam impinges on the tissue. In this paper, we present an algorithm that we have developed for the calibration and application of an experimental set-up of Video Reflectometry destined to extract the optical properties of models of biological tissues with optical properties similar to the human skin. The results of evaluation of the accuracy of the algorithm for optical parameters extraction is shown for a set of proofs reflectance curves with known values of these parameters. In the generation of these curves the simulation of measurement errors was also considered. The results show that it is possible to extract the optical properties with an accuracy error of less than 1% for all the proofs curves. (Author)

  18. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  19. Optimization and Application of Reflective LSPR Optical Fiber Biosensors Based on Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a reflective localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR optical fiber sensor, based on silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. To enhance the sensitivity of the LSPR optical sensor, two key parameters were optimized, the length of the sensing area and the coating time of the Ag NPs. A sensing length of 1.5 cm and a 1-h coating time proved to be suitable conditions to produce highly sensitive sensors for biosensing. The optimized sensor has a high refractive index sensitivity of 387 nm/RIU, which is much higher than that of other reported individual silver nanoparticles in solutions. Moreover, the sensor was further modified with antigen to act as a biosensor. Distinctive wavelength shifts were found after each surface modification step. In addition, the reflective LSPR optical fiber sensor has high reproducibility and stability.

  20. Optimization of plasma mirror reflectivity and optical quality using double laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G G; Clarke, R J; Green, J S; Heathcote, R I; Neely, D; Bagnoud, V; Brabetz, C; Zielbauer, B; Powell, H W; McKenna, P; Arber, T D

    2015-01-01

    We measure a record 96 ±2.5% specularly reflected energy fraction from an interaction with a plasma mirror (PM) surface preionized by a controlled prepulse and find that the optical quality is dependent on the inter pulse time delay. Simulations show that the main pulse reflected energy is a strong function of plasma density scale length, which increases with the time delay and reaches a peak reflectivity for a scale length of 0.3 μm, which is achieved here for a pulse separation time of 3 ps. It is found that the incident laser quasi near field intensity distribution leads to nonuniformities in this plasma expansion and consequent critical surface position distribution. The PM optical quality is found to be governed by the resultant perturbations in the critical surface position, which become larger with inter pulse time delay. (paper)

  1. A geometrical optics polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function for dielectric and metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, M W; Schmidt, J D; Havrilla, M J

    2009-11-23

    A polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), based on geometrical optics, is presented. The pBRDF incorporates a visibility (shadowing/masking) function and a Lambertian (diffuse) component which distinguishes it from other geometrical optics pBRDFs in literature. It is shown that these additions keep the pBRDF bounded (and thus a more realistic physical model) as the angle of incidence or observation approaches grazing and better able to model the behavior of light scattered from rough, reflective surfaces. In this paper, the theoretical development of the pBRDF is shown and discussed. Simulation results of a rough, perfect reflecting surface obtained using an exact, electromagnetic solution and experimental Mueller matrix results of two, rough metallic samples are presented to validate the pBRDF.

  2. Identification method of non-reflective faults based on index distribution of optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonkyoung; Myong, Seung Il; Lee, Jyung Chan; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-01-13

    This paper investigates an identification method of non-reflective faults based on index distribution of optical fibers. The method identifies not only reflective faults but also non-reflective faults caused by tilted fiber-cut, lateral connector-misalignment, fiber-bend, and temperature variation. We analyze the reason why wavelength dependence of the fiber-bend is opposite to that of the lateral connector-misalignment, and the effect of loss due to temperature variation on OTDR waveforms through simulation and experimental results. This method can be realized by only upgrade of fault-analysis software without the hardware change, it is, therefore, competitive and cost-effective in passive optical networks.

  3. Ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection in PT-symmetric Thue-Morse optical waveguide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaye; Yang, Xiangbo

    2017-10-30

    In this paper, we construct a 1D PT-symmetric Thue-Morse aperiodic optical waveguide network (PTSTMAOWN) and mainly investigate the ultrastrong extraordinary transmission and reflection. We propose an approach to study the photonic modes and solve the problem of calculating photonic modes distributions in aperiodic networks due to the lack of dispersion functions and find that in a PTSTMAOWN there exist more photonic modes and more spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking points, which are quite different from other reported PT-symmetric optical systems. Additionally, we develop a method to sort spontaneous PT-symmetric breaking point zones to seek the strongest extraordinary point and obtain that at this point the strongest extraordinary transmission and reflection arrive at 2.96316 × 10 5 and 1.32761 × 10 5 , respectively, due to the PT-symmetric coupling resonance and the special symmetry pattern of TM networks. These enormous gains are several orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. This optical system may possess potential in designing optical amplifier, optical logic elements in photon computers and ultrasensitive optical switches with ultrahigh monochromatity.

  4. Gen-2 Hand-Held Optical Imager towards Cancer Imaging: Reflectance and Transillumination Phantom Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Godavarty

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hand-held near-infrared (NIR optical imagers are developed by various researchers towards non-invasive clinical breast imaging. Unlike these existing imagers that can perform only reflectance imaging, a generation-2 (Gen-2 hand-held optical imager has been recently developed to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging. The unique forked design of the hand-held probe head(s allows for reflectance imaging (as in ultrasound and transillumination or compressed imaging (as in X-ray mammography. Phantom studies were performed to demonstrate two-dimensional (2D target detection via reflectance and transillumination imaging at various target depths (1–5 cm deep and using simultaneous multiple point illumination approach. It was observed that 0.45 cc targets were detected up to 5 cm deep during transillumination, but limited to 2.5 cm deep during reflectance imaging. Additionally, implementing appropriate data post-processing techniques along with a polynomial fitting approach, to plot 2D surface contours of the detected signal, yields distinct target detectability and localization. The ability of the gen-2 imager to perform both reflectance and transillumination imaging allows its direct comparison to ultrasound and X-ray mammography results, respectively, in future clinical breast imaging studies.

  5. Optical reflection spectroscopy of thick corrosion layers on 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, R.A.; Persans, P.D.; Strohmayer, W.; Parkinson, V.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 o C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 at 20 o C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB 2 O 4 . This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. o ) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow

  6. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering from thin polymer films with lamellar structures - the scattering cross section in the distorted-wave Born approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Busch, Peter; Rauscher, Markus

    2006-01-01

    are extended along the film normal, whereas for parallel lamellae, peaks along the film normal appear.The positions of the maxima present in the latter case are explained by accounting for refraction at the film surface and reflection at the film–substrate interface. The results are relevant for thin films...

  7. Calculating the bidirectional reflectance of natural vegetation covers using Boolean models and geometric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiao-Wen; Jupp, David L. B.

    1991-01-01

    The bidirectional radiance or reflectance of a forest or woodland can be modeled using principles of geometric optics and Boolean models for random sets in a three dimensional space. This model may be defined at two levels, the scene includes four components; sunlight and shadowed canopy, and sunlit and shadowed background. The reflectance of the scene is modeled as the sum of the reflectances of the individual components as weighted by their areal proportions in the field of view. At the leaf level, the canopy envelope is an assemblage of leaves, and thus the reflectance is a function of the areal proportions of sunlit and shadowed leaf, and sunlit and shadowed background. Because the proportions of scene components are dependent upon the directions of irradiance and exitance, the model accounts for the hotspot that is well known in leaf and tree canopies.

  8. Hybrid reflection type metasurface of nano-antennas designed for optical needle field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-03-01

    We propose a reflection type metal-insulator-metal (MIM) metasurface composed of hybrid optical antennas for comprehensive spatial engineering the properties of optical fields. Its capability is illustrated with an example to create a radially polarized vectorial beam for optical needle field generation. Functioning as local quarter-wave-plates (QWP), the MIM metasurface is designed to convert circularly polarized incident into local linear polarization to create an overall radial polarization with corresponding binary phases and desired normalized amplitude modulation ranged from 0.07 to 1. To obtain enough degrees of freedom, the optical-antenna layer comprises periodic arrangements of double metallic nano-bars with perpendicular placement and single nano-bars respectively for different amplitude modulation requirements. Both of the antennas enable to introduce π/2 retardation while reaching the desired modulation range both for phase and amplitude. Through adjusting the antennas' geometry and array carefully, we shift the gap-surface plasmon resonances facilitated by optical antennas to realize the manipulation of vectorial properties. Designed at 1064 nm wavelength, the particularly generated vectorial light output can be further tightly focused by a high numerical aperture objective to obtain longitudinally polarized flat-top focal field. The so-called optical needle field is a promising candidate for novel applications that transcend disciplinary boundaries. The proposed metasurface establishes a new class of compact optical components based on nano-scale structures, leading to compound functions for vectorial light generation.

  9. Modeling bidirectional reflectance of forests and woodlands using Boolean models and geometric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.

    1990-01-01

    Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.

  10. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    SHVETS, IGOR

    1997-01-01

    PUBLISHED It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of plane showed optical features in a track pattern whose appearance was determined by the position of an analyzer in front of the photomultiplier tube. These features were not apparent in t...

  11. Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection mode scanning near-field optical microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Durkam, C.; Shvets, I.V.; Lodder, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that it is possible to image magnetic domains with a resolution of better than 60 nm with the Kerr effect in a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope. Images taken of tracks of thermomagnetically prewritten bits in a Co/Pt multilayer structure magnetized out-of plane showed optical features in a track pattern whose appearance was determined by the position of an analyzer in front of the photomultiplier tube. These features were not apparent in the topography...

  12. Comparison of cloud optical depth and cloud mask applying BRDF model-based background surface reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. W.; Yeom, J. M.; Woo, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Over the thin cloud region, satellite can simultaneously detect the reflectance from thin clouds and land surface. Since the mixed reflectance is not the exact cloud information, the background surface reflectance should be eliminated to accurately distinguish thin cloud such as cirrus. In the previous research, Kim et al (2017) was developed the cloud masking algorithm using the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is one of significant instruments for Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite (COMS). Although GOCI has 8 spectral channels including visible and near infra-red spectral ranges, the cloud masking has quantitatively reasonable result when comparing with MODIS cloud mask (Collection 6 MYD35). Especially, we noticed that this cloud masking algorithm is more specialized in thin cloud detections through the validation with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Because this cloud masking method was concentrated on eliminating background surface effects from the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. Applying the difference between TOA reflectance and the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model-based background surface reflectance, cloud areas both thick cloud and thin cloud can be discriminated without infra-red channels which were mostly used for detecting clouds. Moreover, when the cloud mask result was utilized as the input data when simulating BRDF model and the optimized BRDF model-based surface reflectance was used for the optimized cloud masking, the probability of detection (POD) has higher value than POD of the original cloud mask. In this study, we examine the correlation between cloud optical depth (COD) and its cloud mask result. Cloud optical depths mostly depend on the cloud thickness, the characteristic of contents, and the size of cloud contents. COD ranges from less than 0.1 for thin clouds to over 1000 for the huge cumulus due to scattering by droplets. With

  13. The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 μm and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 μm, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 μm to 0.74 at 8.45 μm. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 μm to 7.84 at 8.45 μm. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range

  14. Performance testing of an off-plane reflection grating and silicon pore optic spectrograph at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Allured, Ryan; DeRoo, Casey T.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Burwitz, Vadim; Menz, Benedikt; Hartner, Gisela D.; Smith, Randall K.; Cheimets, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    An x-ray spectrograph consisting of aligned, radially ruled off-plane reflection gratings and silicon pore optics (SPO) was tested at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics PANTER x-ray test facility. SPO is a test module for the proposed Arcus mission, which will also feature aligned off-plane reflection gratings. This test is the first time two off-plane gratings were actively aligned to each other and with an SPO to produce an overlapped spectrum. We report the performance of the complete spectrograph utilizing the aligned gratings module and plans for future development.

  15. Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Ibarra-Manzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical spectra of light reflection are detected under an influence of ultrasonic wave (UWon a GaAs wafer. The differential spectrum is calculated as a difference between those taken under UW and without that influence on a sample. This acousto-optic differential reflectance(AODR spectrum contains some bands that represent the energetic levels of the shallow centers in a sample. A physical basis of this technique is related to a perturbation of local states by UW. Here, a method is developed for characterization of local states at the surfaces and interfaces in crystals and low-dimensional epitaxial structures based on microelectronics materials. A theoretical model is presented to explain AODR spectra. Also, experiments using epitaxial GaAs structures doped by Te were made. Finally, theoretical and experimental results show that acousto-optic reflectance is an effective tool for characterization of shallow trapping centers in epitaxial semiconductor structures.En este trabajo, utilizamos el espectro de la luz reflejada en una muestra de Arsenuro de Galio (GaAs bajo la influencia de una onda ultrasónica. El diferencial espectral es calculado como una diferencia entre el espectro del material obtenido bajo la influencia del ultrasonido y aquél obtenido sin dicha influencia. Este diferencial de reflectancia espectral acusto-óptico (AODR contiene algunas bandas que representan los niveles energéticos de los centros en la superficie de la muestra. Esta técnica está basada en la perturbación de los estados locales generada por el ultrasonido. Particularmente, este trabajo presenta un método para caracterizar los estados locales en la superficie y las interfaces en los cristales, así como estructuras epiteliales de baja dimensión basadas en materiales semiconductores. Para ello, se presenta un modelo teórico para explicar dicho espectro de reflectancia diferencial (AODR. También se realizaron experimentos con estructuras de GaAs epitelial

  16. Retrieval and Validation of aerosol optical properties from AHI measurements: impact of surface reflectance assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Go, S.; Chan, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This study attempts to retrieve the aerosol optical properties (AOPs) based on the spectral matching method, with using three visible and one near infrared channels (470, 510, 640, 860nm). This method requires the preparation of look-up table (LUT) approach based on the radiative transfer modeling. Cloud detection is one of the most important processes for guaranteed quality of AOPs. Since the AHI has several infrared channels, which are very advantageous for cloud detection, clouds can be removed by using brightness temperature difference (BTD) and spatial variability test. The Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm is basically utilized on a dark surface, therefore a bright surface (e.g., desert, snow) should be removed first. Then we consider the characteristics of the reflectance of land and ocean surface using three visible channels. The known surface reflectivity problem in high latitude area can be solved in this algorithm by selecting appropriate channels through improving tests. On the other hand, we retrieved the AOPs by obtaining the visible surface reflectance using NIR to normalized difference vegetation index short wave infrared (NDVIswir) relationship. ESR tends to underestimate urban and cropland area, we improved the visible surface reflectance considering urban effect. In this version, ocean surface reflectance is using the new cox and munk method which considers ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). Input of this method has wind speed, chlorophyll, salinity and so on. Based on validation results with the sun-photometer measurement in AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET), we confirm that the quality of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the YAER algorithm is comparable to the product from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) retrieval algorithm. Our future update includes a consideration of improvement land surface reflectance by hybrid approach, and non-spherical aerosols. This will improve the quality of YAER

  17. [Correction of light refraction and reflection in medical transmission optical tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, S A; Potapov, D A

    2002-01-01

    The effects of light refraction and reflection on the quality of image reconstruction in medical transmission optical tomography of high-scattering media are considered. It has been first noted that light refraction not only distorts the geometric scheme of measurements, but may lead to the appearance of object areas that cannot be scanned. Some ways of decreasing the effect of refraction on the reconstruction of spatial distribution of the extinction coefficient are stated.

  18. Study of optical and electronic properties of nickel from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Yang, L. H.; Da, B.; Tóth, J.; Tőkési, K.; Ding, Z. J.

    2017-09-01

    We use the classical Monte Carlo transport model of electrons moving near the surface and inside solids to reproduce the measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra. With the combination of the classical transport model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters the so-called reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method was developed, and used to obtain optical constants of Ni in this work. A systematic study of the electronic and optical properties of Ni has been performed in an energy loss range of 0-200 eV from the measured REELS spectra at primary energies of 1000 eV, 2000 eV and 3000 eV. The reliability of our method was tested by comparing our results with the previous data. Moreover, the accuracy of our optical data has been confirmed by applying oscillator strength-sum rule and perfect-screening-sum rule.

  19. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal

    2005-01-01

    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  20. Reflectivity and thickness analysis of epiretinal membranes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay E. Kuriyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare thickness and reflectivity spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT findings in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs, before and after ERM peeling surgery, with normal controls. METHODS: A retrospective study analyzed SD-OCTs of eyes with ERMs undergoing ERM peeling surgery by one surgeon from 2008 to 2010 and normal control eyes. SD-OCTs were analyzed using a customized algorithm to measure reflectivity and thickness. The relationship between the SD-OCT findings and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA outcomes was also studied. RESULTS: Thirty-four ERM eyes and 12 normal eyes were identified. Preoperative eyes had high reflectivity and thickness of the group of layers from the internal limiting membrane (ILM to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and the group of layers from the ILM to the external limiting membrane (ELM. The values of reflectivity of these two groups of layers decreased postoperatively, but were still higher than normal eyes. In contrast, preoperative eyes had lower reflectivity of two 10×15 pixel regions of interest (ROIs incorporating: 1 ELM + outer nuclear layer (ONL and 2 photoreceptor layer (PRL + RPE, compared to controls. The values of reflectivity of these ROIs increased postoperatively, but were still lower than normal controls. A larger improvement in BCVA postoperatively was correlated with a greater degree of abnormal preoperative reflectivity and thickness findings. CONCLUSION: Quantitative differences in reflectivity and thickness between preoperative, postoperative, and normal SD-OCTs allow assessment of changes in the retina secondary to ERM. Our study identified hyperreflective inner retina changes and hyporeflective outer retina changes in patients with ERMs. SD-OCT quantitative measures of reflectivity and/or thickness of specific groups of retinal layers and/or ROIs correlate with improvement in BCVA.

  1. FORS, Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy con gli spettrometri miniaturizzati per l’identificazione dei pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuesto articolo riporta i risultati del test di un sistema FORS (Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy assemblato con componenti Ocean Optics. Questa ditta ha sviluppato una linea di spettrometri miniaturizzati e dal costo estremamente contenuto. Le trascurabili dimensioni e peso di questo sistema FORS lo rendono uno strumento assolutamente adatto alle indagini dell’arte in cantiere. Sono stati testati 54 pigmenti storici in polvere e stesi con gomma arabica, tempera all’uovo, olio e affresco. Il sistema è stato provato su un quadro dell’800 e su opere murali del barocco siciliano.   This paper shows the results of the testing of a FORS (Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy system assembled with Ocean Optics components and featuring a USB4000 miniaturized and low cost spectrometer. The small dimensions and little weight of this FORS system make it adapt for the specific needs of art examination in the field. 54 historical pigments have been tested both in powder and laid with gum Arabic, egg tempera, linseed oil and fresco. The FORS system was also tested on a 1800s oil painting and on 1700s Sicilian baroque murals and the results compared with multispectral imaging analysis.   

  2. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  3. Studies on strain relaxation of La{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} film by normal and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiou [Hangzhou Dianzi University, Institute of Materials Physics, Hangzhou (China); Tan, Weishi [Hunan City University, College of Communication and Electronic Engineering, Yiyang (China); Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Liu, Hao [Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Department of Electronic and Communication Engineering, Suzhou (China); Cao, Mengxiong; Wang, Xingyu; Ma, Chunlin [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China); Jia, Quanjie [The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Perovskite manganite La{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} (LBMO) films were deposited on (001)-oriented single-crystal SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction techniques were applied to characterize the crystal structure and lattice strain of LBMO films. The in-plane and out-of-plane growth orientations of LBMO films with respect to substrate surface have been studied. The epitaxial orientation relationship LBMO (001) [100] //STO (001) [100] exists at the LBMO/STO interface. The lattice strain of LBMO film begins to relax with the thickness of LBMO film up to 12 nm. When the thickness is further increased up to 43 nm, the film is in fully strain-relaxed state. Jahn-Teller strain plays an important role in LBMO/STO system. The mechanism for strain relaxation is in accordance with that of tetragonal distortion. (orig.)

  4. Effects of oxygen partial pressure and annealing temperature on the residual stress of hafnium oxide thin-films on silicon using synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Debaleen [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sinha, Anil Kumar [ISU, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, BARC, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Chakraborty, Supratic, E-mail: supratic.chakraborty@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Residual stress estimation thin hafnium oxide film with thickness of <10 nm. • A mathematical expression is proposed for stress estimation of thin-film using GIXRD. • Residual stress varies with argon content in Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and annealing temperature. • Variation of stress is explained by IL swelling and enhanced structural relaxation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) technique is employed here to estimate the residual stress of < 10 nm thin hafnium oxide film deposited on Si (100) substrate at different argon/oxygen ratios using reactive rf sputtering. A decrease in residual stress, tensile in nature, is observed at higher annealing temperature for the samples deposited with increasing argon ratio in the Ar/O{sub 2} plasma. The residual stress of the films deposited at higher p{sub Ar} (Ar:O{sub 2} = 4:1) is also found to be decreased with increasing annealing temperature. But the stress is more or less constant with annealing temperature for the films deposited at lower Ar/O{sub 2} (1:4) ratio. All the above phenomena can be explained on the basis of swelling of the interfacial layer and enhanced structural relaxation in the presence of excess Hf in hafnium oxide film during deposition.

  5. A compact soft x-ray (0.1–1.2 keV) calibration bench for radiometric measurements using an original versatile Rowland circle grazing incidence monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, S., E-mail: sebastien.hubert@cea.fr

    2017-05-21

    This paper describes an original Rowland circle grazing incidence spectrometer used as a monochromator for a soft x-ray Manson source in order to calibrate both the source and detectors over the 0.1–1.2 keV spectral range. The originality of the instrument lies on a patented vacuum manipulator which allows the simultaneous boarding of two detectors, one (reference) for measuring the monochromatic radiation and the second to be calibrated. In order to achieve this, the vacuum manipulator is able to interchange, in vacuum, one detector with the other in front of the exit slit of the monochromatizing stage. One purpose of this apparatus was to completely eliminate the intrinsic bremsstrahlung emission of the x-ray diode source and isolate each characteristic line for quantitative detector calibrations. Obtained spectral resolution (Δλ/λ<10{sup −2}) and spectral purity (>98%) fully meet this objective. Initially dimensioned to perform calibration of bulky x-ray cameras unfolded on the Laser MégaJoule Facility, other kinds of detector can be obviously calibrated using this instrument. A brief presentation of the first calibration of an x-ray CCD through its quantum efficiency (QE) measurement is included in this paper as example. Comparison with theoretical model for QE and previous measurements at higher energy are finally presented and discussed.

  6. Surface morphology of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on Si substrate studied by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering: I. The initial stage of formation of pentacene film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Ichiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Yoshimoto, Noriyuki

    2018-03-01

    The progress of the surface morphology of a growing sub-monolayered pentacene film on a Si substrate was studied by in situ grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The observed GISAXS profiles did not show sizes of pentacene islands but mainly protuberances on the boundaries around pentacene film. Scattering of X-ray by residual pits in the pentacene film was also detected in the GISAXS profiles of an almost fully covered film. The average radius of pentacene protuberances increased from 13 to 24 nm as the coverage increased to 0.83 monolayer, and the most frequent radius was almost constant at approximately 9 nm. This result suggests that the population of larger protuberances increase with increasing lengths of boundaries of the pentacene film. It can also be considered that the detected protuberances were crystallites of pentacene, since the average size of protuberances was nearly equal to crystallite sizes of pentacene films. The almost constant characteristic distance of 610 nm and amplitudes of pair correlation functions at low coverages suggest that the growth of pentacene films obeyed the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model, as previously reported. It is also considered that the sites of islands show a triangular distribution for small variations of estimated correlation distances.

  7. A reflectivity profilometer for the optical characterisation of grade reflectivity mirrors in the 250 nm - 1100 nm spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Alessandro; Nichelatti, Enrico [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1998-04-01

    It`s developed the prototype of an instrument that can be used for the optical characterisation of graded reflectivity mirrors at any wavelength in the spectral region from 250 nm to 1100 nm. The instrument utilises a high-pressure Xe arc lamp as light source. Light is spectrally filtered by means of a grating monochromator. The sample is illuminated with an image of the monochromator exit slit. After reflection from the sample, this image is projected onto a 1024-elements charge-coupled device linear array driven by a digital frame board and interfaced with a personal computer. It`s tested the instrument accuracy by comparing measurement results with the corresponding ones obtained by means of a laser scanning technique. Measurement Rms repeatability has been estimated to be approximately of 0.8%. [Italiano] E` stato sviluppato il prototipo di uno strumento per la catatterizzazione ottica di specchi a riflettivita` variabile, operante a qualsiasi lunghezza d`onda nell`intervallo spettrale da 250 nm a 1100 nm. La sorgente dello strumento e` una lampada ad arco allo Xenon ad alta pressione. La luce e` filtrata spettralmente per mezzo di un monocromatore a reticolo. Il campione viene illuminato da un`immagine della fenditura d`uscita del monocromatore. Dopo essere stata riflessa dal campione, questa immagine viene proiettata su un array CCD lineare a 1024 elementi, connesso elettronicamente a una scheda digitale e interfacciato a un personal computer. L`accuratezza dello strumento e` stata verificata confrontando alcune misure con le corrispondenti misure ottenute mediante una tecnica a scansione laser. La ripetibilita` RMS delle misure e` stata stimata essere circa dello 0.8%.

  8. Beam line optics technologies series (7). Orthopedic treatment of sharp of light (reflecting mirror)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruga, Tomoya; Nomura, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A reflecting mirror (mirror) is the most popular light device for orthopedic treatment of the shape of light. The paper explains the kinds of mirror for hard X-ray field and its applications in order to think the objects of mirror and how to adjust it when user experiment on the beam-line. The basic knowledge of reflection of X-ray, a use of mirror, the kinds of condenser mirror, the influence factors on the condenser size, arrangement of mirror in the hard X-ray beam-line, what kinds of mirror are necessary, evaluation of performance of mirror and adjustment, and troubles and measures are described. Layout in optics hutch at BL01B1 at SPring-8, refraction and total reflection of X-rays at surface, reflectivity of Rh and Pt with ideal surface as a function of photon energy, effects of surface roughness on reflectivity of Rh, calculated beam sizes for typical SPring-8 mirror as a function of magnification, schematic drawing of mirror, standard mirror system for vertical deflection in bending magnet beam-line, and observed and calculated reflectivity of Rh double mirror at BL01B1 at SPring-8 are illustrated. (S.Y)

  9. Calculation of Reflectance and Transmittance of Coating With Optically Rough Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Depsy, A.; Shawky, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    For ideal surfaces, components of the reflected beam are related to the components of the incident beam by Fresnel reflection equation. The surfaces encountered in engineering applications deviate from ideal as a result of roughness, oxidization and contamination; hence the Radiative properties of these real surfaces differ greatly from those predicted by electromagnetic theory. In regard to problems of radiative heat transfer; the roughness of surfaces may be divided into two categories: (1) small surface irregularities such that the incident radiation cannot undergo more than a single reflection, (2) deep cavities in which the incident radiation undergoes multi-reflection. The normally incident radiation from rough surface having small irregularities is reflected partly specularly and partly diffusely [1]. Kubelka-Munk theory (K-M) [2] describes optical characteristics (e.g. reflectance, transmittance and absorbance) by a variety of light scattering media including paints, textiles and papers, and It is widely used in various industrial applications. Moder developments in radiative transfer theory (RTT) enable the derivation of (K-M) parameters from first principles [3]. Kubelka and Munk proposed a theory based on a model of two light fluxes travelling in the forward and backward directions. Subsequently a number of authors refined the theory and compared it with experimental data [4]. Several authors attempted to relate the Kubelka- Munk coefficients to the transport coefficients [5,6

  10. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  11. Remote sensing reflectance simulation of coastal optical complex water in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuo; Lou, Xiulin; Zhang, Huaguo; Zheng, Gang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra of the Zhejiang coastal water in the East China Sea (ECS) were simulated by using the Hydrolight software with field data as input parameters. The seawater along the Zhejiang coast is typical Case II water with complex optical properties. A field observation was conducted in the Zhejiang coastal region in late May of 2016, and the concentration of ocean color constituents (pigment, SPM and CDOM), IOPs (absorption and backscattering coefficients) and Rrs were measured at 24 stations of 3 sections covering the turbid to clear inshore coastal waters. Referring to these ocean color field data, an ocean color model suitable for the Zhejiang coastal water was setup and applied in the Hydrolight. A set of 11 remote sensing reflectance spectra above water surface were modeled and calculated. Then, the simulated spectra were compared with the filed measurements. Finally, the spectral shape and characteristics of the remote sensing reflectance spectra were analyzed and discussed.

  12. Swept source optical coherence tomography of objects with arbitrary reflectivity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-03-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) has become a well established imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferogram measured in the frequency domain (k-space). Fourier inversion of the obtained interferogram typically produces a potentially overlapping conjugate mirror image, whose overlap could be avoided by restricting the object to have its highest reflectivity at its surface. However, this restriction may not be fulfilled when imaging a very thin object that is placed on a highly reflective surface, or imaging an object containing a contrast agent with high reflectivity. In this paper, we show that oversampling of the SS-OCT signal in k-space would overcome the need for such restriction on the object. Our result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  13. An efficient approach for computing the geometrical optics field reflected from a numerically specified surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.; Rushdi, A.

    1979-01-01

    An approach for computing the geometrical optic fields reflected from a numerically specified surface is presented. The approach includes the step of deriving a specular point and begins with computing the reflected rays off the surface at the points where their coordinates, as well as the partial derivatives (or equivalently, the direction of the normal), are numerically specified. Then, a cluster of three adjacent rays are chosen to define a 'mean ray' and the divergence factor associated with this mean ray. Finally, the ampilitude, phase, and vector direction of the reflected field at a given observation point are derived by associating this point with the nearest mean ray and determining its position relative to such a ray.

  14. Optical observations of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling: Inter-hemispheric electron reflections within pulsating aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Grubbs, G. A., II

    2017-12-01

    Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling is exhibited in reflected primary and secondary electrons which constitute the second step in the formation of the total precipitating electron distribution. While they have largely been missing from the current theoretical studies of particle precipitation, ground based observations point to the existence of a reflected electron population. We present evidence that pulsating aurora is caused by electrons bouncing back and forth between the two hemispheres. This means that these electrons are responsible for some of the total light in the aurora, a possibility that has largely been ignored in theoretical models. Pulsating auroral events imaged optically at high time resolution present direct observational evidence in agreement with the inter-hemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the SuperThermal Electron Trans-port (STET) model. Immediately following each of the `pulsation-on' times are equally spaced, and subsequently fainter pulsations, which can be explained by the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upwards from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere, and reflecting upwards again. The high time-resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the `pulsation-on' time ( 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations ( 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere. These results are significant and have broad implications because they highlight that the formation of the auroral electron distributions within regions of diffuse and pulsating aurora contain contributions from reflected primary and secondary electrons. These processes can ultimately lead to larger fluxes than expected when considering only the primary injection of magnetospheric electrons.

  15. New trends in space x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future. Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface

  16. Reflective and refractive optical materials for earth and space applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 4, 5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Max J.; Hale, Robert R.; Parsonage, Thomas B.

    The present conference discusses beryllium mirror design and fabrication, production of aspheric beryllium optical surfaces by HIP consolidation, the control of thermally induced porosity for the fabrication of beryllium optics, fine-grained beryllium optical coatings, light-absorbing beryllium baffle materials, and advanced broadband baffle materials. Also discussed are radiation-resistant optical glasses, a catalog of IR and cryooptical properties of selected materials, durable metal-dielectric mirror coatings, the optical stability of diffuse reflectance materials, and optical filters for space applications.

  17. Optical reflectance studies of highly specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, J A; Lewis, R A; Sirbu, L; Enachi, M; Tiginyanu, I M; Skuratov, V A

    2015-01-01

    High-precision optical angular reflectance measurements are reported for a specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane prepared by doping-assisted wet-electrochemical etching. The membrane surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope imaging and revealed a quasi-uniform and self-organized nanoporous network consisting of semiconductor ‘islands’ in the sub-wavelength regime. The optical response of the nanoporous InP surface was studied at 405 nm (740 THz; UV), 633 nm (474 THz; VIS) and 1064 nm (282 THz; NIR), and exhibited a retention of basic macro-dielectric properties. Refractive index determinations demonstrate an optical anisotropy for the membrane which is strongly dependent on the wavelength of incident light, and exhibits an interesting inversion (positive anisotropy to negative) between 405 and 633 nm. The inversion of optical anisotropy is attributed to a strongly reduced ‘metallic’ behaviour in the membrane when subject to above-bandgap illumination. For the simplest case of sub-bandgap incident irradiation, the optical properties of the nanoporous InP sample are analysed in terms of an effective refractive index n eff and compared to effective media approximations. (invited article)

  18. New nonlinear optical effect: self-reflection phenomenon due to exciton-biexciton-light interaction in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Lyakhomskaya, K. D.; Nadkin, L. Y.; Markov, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    The characteristic peculiarities of the self-reflection of a strong electromagnetic wave in a system of coherent excitons and biexcitons due to the exciton-photon interaction and optical exciton-biexciton conversion in semiconductors were investigated as one of the manifestations of nonlinear optical Stark-effect. It was found that a monotonously decreasing standing wave with an exponential decreasing spatial tail is formed in the semiconductor. Under the action of the field of a strong pulse, an optically homogeneous medium is converted, into the medium with distributed feedback. The appearance of the spatially separated narrow pears of the reflective index, extinction and reflection coefficients is predicted.

  19. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves

  20. Synthesis, microstructural, optical and mechanical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Hurtado-Macías, A.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Estrada-Ortiz, F.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin films of YSZ obtained by AACVD have high quality. ► They are uniform, very transparent, and have high hardness. ► Optical characterization were performed in detail, optical constants and band gap energy were determined as a function of dopant content. - Abstract: Thin films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) exhibit exceptional properties, such as high thermal, chemical and mechanical stability. Here, we report the synthesis of YSZ thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition onto borosilicate glass and fused silica substrates. Optimum deposition temperature was 673 ± 5 K. In addition, different Y content was tried to analyse its influence in the microstructure and properties of the films. The films were uniform, transparent and non-light scattering. Surface morphology and cross sectional microstructure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of the films was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Crystallite size and lattice parameter were obtained. Optical properties were analysed from reflectance and transmittance spectra; from these measurements, optical constants and band gap were obtained. Quantum confinement effect, due to the small grain size of the films, was evident in the high band gap energy obtained. Nanoindentation tests were realized at room temperature employing the continuous stiffness measurement method, to determine the hardness and elastic modulus as a function of Y content.

  1. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves.

  2. System and method for determination of the reflection wavelength of multiple low-reflectivity bragg gratings in a sensing optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and method for determining a reflection wavelength of multiple Bragg gratings in a sensing optical fiber comprise: (1) a source laser; (2) an optical detector configured to detect a reflected signal from the sensing optical fiber; (3) a plurality of frequency generators configured to generate a signal having a frequency corresponding to an interferometer frequency of a different one of the plurality of Bragg gratings; (4) a plurality of demodulation elements, each demodulation element configured to combine the signal produced by a different one of the plurality of frequency generators with the detected signal from the sensing optical fiber; (5) a plurality of peak detectors, each peak detector configured to detect a peak of the combined signal from a different one of the demodulation elements; and (6) a laser wavenumber detection element configured to determine a wavenumber of the laser when any of the peak detectors detects a peak.

  3. The X-ray reflectivity of the AXAF VETA-I optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E.; Chartas, G.; Graessle, D.; Hughes, J. P.; Van Speybroeck, L.; Zhao, Ping; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    The study measures the X-ray reflectivity of the AXAF VETA-I optic and compares it with theoretical predictions. Measurements made at energies of 0.28, 0.9, 1.5, 2.1, and 2.3 keV are compared with predictions based on ray trace calculations. Results on the variation of the reflectivity with energy as well as the absolute value of the reflectivity are presented. A synchrotron reflectivity measurement with a high-energy resolution over the range 0.26 to 1.8 keV on a flat Zerodur sample is also reported. Evidence is found for contamination of the flat by a thin layer of carbon on the surface, and the possibility of alteration of the surface composition of the VETA-I mirror, perhaps by the polishing technique. The overall agreement between the measured and calculated effective area of VETA-I is between 2.6 and 10 percent. Measurements at individual energies deviate from the best-fitting calculation to 0.3 to 0.8 percent, averaging 0.6 percent at energies below the high energy cutoff of the mirror reflectivity, and are as high as 20.7 percent at the cutoff.

  4. Fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (45°x: 45°) for color analysis of dental composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Federighi, Veronica; Sykes, Ros; Lodi, Giovanni; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Varoni, Elena M

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the application of a fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) prototype probe for 45°x: 45° FORS for determining color of dental materials. A portable spectrophotometer with a highly manageable fiber optics co-axial probe was used to apply 45°x: 45° FORS for color matching in restorative dentistry. The color coordinates in CIELAB space of two dental shade guides and of the corresponding photopolymerized composites were collected and compared. The 45°x: 45° FORS with the co-axial probe (test system), the integrating sphere spectroscopy (reference system) and a commercial dental colorimeter (comparator system) were used to collect data and calculate color differences (ΔE and ΔE00). FORS system displayed high repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy. ΔE and ΔE00 values between the shade-guide, each other, and the corresponding composites resulted above the clinically acceptable limit. The 45°x: 45° FORS test system demonstrated suitable in vitro performance for dental composite color evaluation. 45°x: 45° fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy allows reliable color analysis of small surfaces of dental composites, favoring the color matching of material with the closely surrounding dental tissue, and confirming significant color differences between shade guide tabs and photo-polymerized composites.

  5. Classification of Several Optically Complex Waters in China Using in Situ Remote Sensing Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the dominant optically active substances in water bodies via classification can improve the accuracy of bio-optical and water quality parameters estimated by remote sensing. This study provides four robust centroid sets from in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs (λ data presenting typical optical types obtained by plugging different similarity measures into fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering. Four typical types of waters were studied: (1 highly mixed eutrophic waters, with the proportion of absorption of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, phytoplankton, and non-living particulate matter at approximately 20%, 20%, and 60% respectively; (2 CDOM-dominated relatively clear waters, with approximately 45% by proportion of CDOM absorption; (3 nonliving solids-dominated waters, with approximately 88% by proportion of absorption of nonliving particulate matter; and (4 cyanobacteria-composed scum. We also simulated spectra from seven ocean color satellite sensors to assess their classification ability. POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER, Sentinel-2A, and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were found to perform better than the rest. Further, a classification tree for MERIS, in which the characteristics of Rrs (709/Rrs (681, Rrs (560/Rrs (709, Rrs (560/Rrs (620, and Rrs (709/Rrs (761 are integrated, is also proposed in this paper. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the proposed classification tree are 76.2% and 0.632, respectively.

  6. Measurement of splanchnic photoplethysmographic signals using a new reflectance fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Michelle; Samuels, Neal; Randive, Nilesh; Langford, Richard M.; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A.

    2010-03-01

    Splanchnic organs are particularly vulnerable to hypoperfusion. Currently, there is no technique that allows for the continuous estimation of splanchnic blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). As a preliminary to developing a suitable splanchnic SpO2 sensor, a new reflectance fiber optic photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and processing system are developed. An experimental procedure to examine the effect of fiber source detector separation distance on acquired PPG signals is carried out before finalizing the sensor design. PPG signals are acquired from four volunteers for separation distances of 1 to 8 mm. The separation range of 3 to 6 mm provides the best quality PPG signals with large amplitudes and the highest signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Preliminary calculation of SpO2 shows that distances of 3 and 4 mm provide the most realistic values. Therefore, it is suggested that the separation distance in the design of a fiber optic reflectance pulse oximeter be in the range of 3 to 4 mm. Preliminary PPG signals from various splanchnic organs and the periphery are obtained from six anaesthetized patients. The normalized amplitudes of the splanchnic PPGs are, on average, approximately the same as those obtained simultaneously from the periphery. These observations suggest that fiber optic pulse oximetry may be a valid monitoring technique for splanchnic organs.

  7. Optical and x-ray alignment approaches for off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allured, Ryan; Donovan, Benjamin D.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah R.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Tutt, James H.; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Smith, Randall K.; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Menz, Benedikt

    2015-09-01

    Off-plane reflection gratings offer the potential for high-resolution, high-throughput X-ray spectroscopy on future missions. Typically, the gratings are placed in the path of a converging beam from an X-ray telescope. In the off-plane reflection grating case, these gratings must be co-aligned such that their diffracted spectra overlap at the focal plane. Misalignments degrade spectral resolution and effective area. In-situ X-ray alignment of a pair of off-plane reflection gratings in the path of a silicon pore optics module has been performed at the MPE PANTER beamline in Germany. However, in-situ X-ray alignment may not be feasible when assembling all of the gratings required for a satellite mission. In that event, optical methods must be developed to achieve spectral alignment. We have developed an alignment approach utilizing a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and diffraction of an ultraviolet laser. We are fabricating the necessary hardware, and will be taking a prototype grating module to an X-ray beamline for performance testing following assembly and alignment.

  8. An Optical Fiber Read Out Method for a Reflective Microcantilever Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An effective optical read out approach based on fiber reflective is presented to detect bends of a biomaterial microcantilever. The microcantilever was fabricated on single crystalline SOI wafer using a series of side definitions and backside wet/dry etchings. A Cr/Au layer with 30 nm Cr and 50 nm Au layer was deposited for the immobilized of bimolecular on the cantilever surface and for reflecting the light back into the fiber, the different light intensities means different bimolecular concentrations. The noncoherent light source is a super luminescent LED. Gradient index lens as a collimator and 50:50 optical coupler and signal modefiber was used to transmit light. Two PINFETs were used to convert the reflecting the light intensities and the light sources into electronic signals, two ADCs convert the signal into digital signals, a MPU was used to eliminate the fluctuation of the light source error. The method can has got high sensitivity is 6507.59 mV/um. Though the experiment, the cantilever biosensor can detect glucose, measurement results clearly demonstrate that the output voltage induced by the microcantilevers bending is proportional to the glucose concentrations and the sensitivity is up to 0.1V/mM, which is enough for glucose real-time trace detection.

  9. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  10. Application of Faraday rotator to suppression of target-reflected radiation in the optical path of a laser installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovskiy, N.E.; Denus, S.; Dubik, A.; Ovsik, Y.; Lisunov, V.V.; Senatskiy, Y.V.; Fedotov, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction conditions between powerful laser radiation and a target are examined together with the Faraday rotators designed for suppressing target-reflected backward radiation in the neodymium glass laser optical path

  11. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  12. Optimized phase mask to realize retro-reflection reduction for optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sifeng; Gong, Mali

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the threats to the active laser detection systems of electro-optical devices due to the cat-eye effect, a novel solution is put forward to realize retro-reflection reduction in this paper. According to the demands of both cat-eye effect reduction and the image quality maintenance of electro-optical devices, a symmetric phase mask is achieved from a stationary phase method and a fast Fourier transform algorithm. Then, based on a comparison of peak normalized cross-correlation (PNCC) between the different defocus parameters, the optimal imaging position can be obtained. After modification with the designed phase mask, the cat-eye effect peak intensity can be reduced by two orders of magnitude while maintaining good image quality and high modulation transfer function (MTF). Furthermore, a practical design example is introduced to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed approach.

  13. Fiber optic sensor based on reflectivity configurations to detect heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunianto, M.; Marzuki, A.; Riyatun, R.; Lestari, D.

    2016-11-01

    Research of optical fiber-based heart rate detection sensor has been conducted using the reflection configurationon the thorax motion modified. Optical fiber used in this research was Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) with a diameter of 0.5. Optical fiber system is made with two pieces of fiber, the first fiber is to serve as a transmitter transmitting light from the source to the reflector membrane, the second fiber serves as a receiver. One of the endsfrom the two fibersis pressed and positioned perpendicular of reflector membrane which is placed on the surface of the chest. The sensor works on the principle of intensity changes captured by the receiver fiber when the reflector membrane gets the vibe from the heart. The light source used is in the form of Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as a light sensor. Variations are performed on the reflector membrane diameter. The light intensity received by the detector increases along with the increasing width of the reflector membrane diameter. The results show that this sensor can detect the harmonic peak at a frequency of 1.5 Hz; 7.5 Hz; 10.5 Hz; and 22.5 Hz in a healthy human heart with an average value of Beat Per Minute (BPM) by 78 times, a prototype sensor that is made can work and function properly.

  14. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  15. Self-reflection of extremely short light pulses in nonlinear optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasov, Alexander E.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2004-07-01

    An equation describing the generation of reflected radiation during the propagation of high-intensity extremely short pulses in a nonlinear optical waveguide is derived. The phenomena taking place during the strong self-inducted changes of the temporal structure of the forward wave are studied. It is shown that the duration of the backward pulse is much greater than the duration of the forward pulse and that the main part of the energy of the backward wave is carried by lower frequencies than the central frequency of the forward wave.

  16. Reflective Optical Chopper Used in NIST High-Power Laser Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cromer, Chris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past ten years, NIST has used high-reflectivity, optical choppers as beamsplitters and attenuators when calibrating the absolute responsivity and response linearity of detectors used with high-power CW lasers. The chopper-based technique has several advantages over the use of wedge-shaped transparent materials (usually crystals often used as beam splitters in this type of measurement system. We describe the design, operation and calibration of these choppers. A comparison between choppers and transparent wedge beampslitters is also discussed.

  17. Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C., E-mail: C.Mateo-Segura@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-04

    Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.

  18. Far-infrared /FIR/ optical black bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    A nonspecular reflectometer and its operation at far-infrared wavelengths are described. Large differences in nonspecular reflectance were found to exist between different optically black coatings. Normal incidence bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF) measurements at wavelengths between 12 and 316 microns of three black coatings show that their mean BRDFs increase with wavelength. The specularity of two of these coatings also showed a strong wavelength dependence, while the specularity of one coating seemed independent of wavelength. The BRDF of one coating depended on the angle of incidence at 12 and 38 microns, but not at 316 microns. Beyond 200 microns, it was found necessary to correct the measurements for the beam spread of the instrument.

  19. Thin Film Structure of Tetraceno(2,3-B)thiophene Characterized By Grazing Incidence X-Ray Scattering And Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Q.; Mannsfeld, S.C.B.; Tang, M.L.; Toney, M.F.; Luening, J.; Bao, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the structure-property relationship for organic semiconductors is crucial in rational molecular design and organic thin film process control. Charge carrier transport in organic field-effect transistors predominantly occurs in a few semiconductor layers close to the interface in contact with the dielectric layer, and the transport properties depend sensitively on the precise molecular packing. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of molecular packing and thin film morphology in the first few monolayers above the dielectric layer on charge transport is needed to improve the transistor performance. In this Article, we show that the detailed molecular packing in thin organic semiconductor films can be solved through a combination of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), near-edge X-ray absorption spectra fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, energy minimization packing calculations, and structure refinement of the diffraction data. We solve the thin film structure for 2 and 20 nm thick films of tetraceno(2,3-b)thiophene and detect only a single phase for these thicknesses. The GIXD yields accurate unit cell dimensions, while the precise molecular arrangement in the unit cell was found from the energy minimization and structure refinement; the NEXAFS yields a consistent molecular tilt. For the 20 nm film, the unit cell is triclinic with a = 5.96 A, b = 7.71 A, c = 15.16 A, alpha = 97.30 degrees, beta = 95.63 degrees, gamma = 90 degrees; there are two molecules per unit cell with herringbone packing (49-59 degree angle) and tilted about 7 degrees from the substrate normal. The thin film structure is significantly different from the bulk single-crystal structure, indicating the importance of characterizing thin film to correlate with thin film device performance. The results are compared to the corresponding data for the chemically similar and widely used pentacene. Possible effects of the observed thin film structure and morphology on

  20. Grazing incidence collisions of ions and atoms with surfaces: from charge exchange to atomic diffraction; Collisions rasantes d'ions ou d'atomes sur les surfaces: de l'echange de charge a la diffraction atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P

    2006-09-15

    This thesis reports two studies about the interaction with insulating surfaces of keV ions or atoms under grazing incidence. The first part presents a study of charge exchange processes occurring during the interaction of singly charged ions with the surface of NaCl. In particular, by measuring the scattered charge fraction and the energy loss in coincidence with electron emission, the neutralization mechanism is determined for S{sup +}, C{sup +}, Xe{sup +}, H{sup +}, O{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, F{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and He{sup +}. These results show the importance of the double electron capture as neutralization process for ions having too much potential energy for resonant capture and not enough for Auger neutralization. We have also studied the ionisation of the projectile and of the surface, and the different Auger-like neutralization processes resulting in electron emission, population of conduction band or excited state. For oxygen scattering, we have measured an higher electron yield in coincidence with scattered negative ion than with scattered atom suggesting the transient formation above the surface of the oxygen doubly negative ion. The second study deals with the fast atom diffraction, a new phenomenon observed for the first time during this work. Due to the large parallel velocity, the surface appears as a corrugated wall where rows interfere. Similarly to the Thermal Atom Scattering the diffraction pattern corresponds to the surface potential and is sensitive to vibrations. We have study the H-NaCl and He-LiF atom-surface potentials in the 20 meV - 1 eV range. This new method offers interesting perspectives for surface characterisation. (author)

  1. Highly reflective Bragg gratings in slightly etched step-index polymer optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuehao; Pun, Chi-Fung Jeff; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Mégret, Patrice; Caucheteur, Christophe

    2014-07-28

    During the past few years, a strong progress has been made in the photo-writing of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in polymer optical fibers (POFs), animated by the constant wish to enhance the grating reflectivity and improve the sensing performances. In this paper, we report the photo-inscription of highly reflective gratings in step-index POFs, obtained thanks to a slight etching of the cladding. We demonstrate that a cladding diameter decrease of ~12% is an ideal trade-off to produce highly reflective gratings with enhanced axial strain sensitivity, while keeping almost intact their mechanical resistance. For this, we make use of Trans-4-stilbenemethanol-doped photosensitive step-index poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) POFs. FBGs are inscribed at ~1550 nm by the scanning phase mask technique in POFs of different external diameters. Reflectivity reaching 97% is achieved for 6 mm long FBGs, compared to 25% for non-etched POFs. We also report that a cladding decrease enhances the FBG axial tension while keeping unchanged temperature and surrounding refractive index sensitivities. Finally and for the first time, a measurement is conducted in transmission with polarized light, showing that a photo-induced birefringence of 7 × 10(-6) is generated (one order of magnitude higher than the intrinsic fiber birefringence), which is similar to the one generated in silica fiber using ultra-violet laser.

  2. Use of pre-pulse in laser spot welding of materials with high optical reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Ihor; Geiger, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Laser micro welding has become a standard manufacturing technique, particularly in industry sectors, such as automotive and aerospace electronics or medical devices, where the requirements for strength, miniaturization and temperature resistance are constantly rising. So far the use of laser micro welding is limited due to the fluctuation of the quality of the welded joints, because the welding results for material with high optical reflection and thermal conductivity, such as copper and copper alloys, depend very strongly on the condition of the material surface. This paper presents investigations on the use of a laser pre-pulse in spot welding of electronic materials with Nd:YAG laser. In order to achieve reproducible joining results two strategies are followed-up. The first one utilizes a reflection-based process control for measuring the reflection during the short pre-pulse. The intensity of the reflected light is used to calculate an appropriated welding pulse power, which corresponds to the measured relative absorption. Adjustment of laser parameters according to the condition of the surface is done in real time before laser main pulse. A second possibility for the stabilization of copper welding is the employment of a short and powerful laser pre-pulse before laser main pulse. This pre-pulse affects the workpiece surface and creates more reproducible absorption conditions for the main pulse, independent from the initial situation on material surface.

  3. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  4. Improved algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials using spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this research, the inverse algorithm for estimating optical properties of food and biological materials from spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance was optimized in terms of data smoothing, normalization and spatial region of reflectance profile for curve fitting. Monte Carlo simulation was used ...

  5. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  6. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  7. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  8. Inherent optical properties and remote sensing reflectance of Pomeranian lakes (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Ficek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of comprehensive empirical studies of theinherent optical properties (IOPs, the remote sensing reflectance Rrs(λ andthe contents of the principal optically active components (OAC i.e. coloureddissolved organic matter (CDOM, suspended particulate matter (SPM andchlorophyll a, in the waters of 15 lakes in Polish Pomerania in 2007-2010.It presents numerous spectra of the total absorption a(λ andscattering b(λ ≈ bp(λ of light in the visibleband (400-700 nm for surface waters, and separately, spectra of absorptionby CDOM aCDOM(λ and spectra of the mass-specificcoefficients of absorption ap*(SPM(λ and scatteringbp*(SPM(λ by SPM. The properties of these lake waters are highly diverse, but all of them can beclassified as Case 2 waters (according to the optical classification by Morel& Prieur 1977 and they all have a relatively high OAC content. The lakeswere conventionally divided into three types: Type I lakes have the lowestOAC concentrations (chlorophyll concentration Ca = (8.76 ± 7.4 mg m-3 and CDOM absorption coefficientsaCDOM(440 = (0.57 ± 0.22 m-1 (i.e. mean and standarddeviation, and optical properties (including spectra of Rrs(λresembling those of Baltic waters. Type II waters have exceptionally highcontents of CDOM (aCDOM(440 = (15.37 ± 1.54 m-1,and hence appear brown in daylight and have very low reflectancesRrs(λ (of the order of 0.001 sr-1. Type III waters arehighly eutrophic and contain large amounts of suspended matter, includingphytoplankton ((CSPM = (47.0 ± 39.4 g m-3,Ca = (86.6 ± 61.5 mg m-3; aCDOM(440 = (2.77 ± 0.86 m-1. Hence the reflectances Rrs(λof these type of waters are on average one order of magnitude higher thanthose of the other natural waters, reaching maximum values of 0.03 sr-1in λ bands 560-580 nm and 690-720 nm (see Ficek et al. 2011. Thearticle provides a number of empirical formulas approximating therelationships between the properties of these lake waters.

  9. Gold nanoparticle-polydimethylsiloxane films reflect light internally by optical diffraction and Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R; Keith Roper, D; Forcherio, Gregory T

    2015-01-01

    Optical properties of polymer films embedded with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) are important in many implementations. In this work, optical extinction by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing gold (Au) NPs was enhanced at resonance compared to AuNPs in suspensions, Beer–Lambert law, or Mie theory by internal reflection due to optical diffraction in 16 nm AuNP–PDMS films and Mie scattering in 76 nm AuNP–PDMS films. Resonant extinction per AuNP for 16 nm AuNPs with negligible resonant Mie scattering was enhanced up to 1.5-fold at interparticle separation (i.e., Wigner–Seitz radii) comparable to incident wavelength. It was attributable to diffraction through apertures formed by overlapping electric fields of adjacent, resonantly excited AuNPs at Wigner–Seitz radii equal to or less than incident wavelengths. Resonant extinction per AuNP for strongly Mie scattering 76 nm AuNPs was enhanced up to 1.3-fold at Wigner–Seitz radii four or more times greater than incident wavelength. Enhanced light trapping from diffraction and/or scattering is relevant to optoelectronic, biomedical, and catalytic activity of substrates embedded with NPs. (paper)

  10. Performance Analysis of a Noncontact Plastic Fiber Optical Fiber Displacement Sensor with Compensation of Target Reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inexpensive fiber-based noncontact distance sensor specific for monitoring short-range displacements in micromachining applications is presented. To keep the overall costs low, the sensor uses plastic optical fibers and an intensiometric approach based on the received light intensity after the reflection from the target whose displacement has to be measured. A suitable target reflectivity compensation technique is implemented to mitigate the effects due to target surface nonuniformity or ageing. The performances of the sensor are first evaluated for different fiber configurations and target reflectivity profiles and positions using a numerical method based on Monte Carlo simulations. Then, experimental validations on a configuration designed to work up to 1.5 mm have been conducted. The results have confirmed the validity of the proposed sensor architecture, which demonstrated excellent compensation capabilities, with errors below 0.04 mm in the (0-1 mm range regardless the color and misalignment of the target.

  11. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-05-05

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploiting Optical Contrasts for Cervical Precancer Diagnosis via Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivide Tuan-Chyan

    Among women worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer with an incidence rate of 15.3 per 100,000 and a mortality rate of 7.8 per 100,000 women. This is largely attributed to the lack of infrastructure and resources in the developing countries to support the organized screening and diagnostic programs that are available to women in developed nations. Hence, there is a critical global need for a screening and diagnostic paradigm that is effective in low-resource settings. Various strategies are described to design an optical spectroscopic sensor capable of collecting reliable diffuse reflectance data to extract quantitative optical contrasts for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. A scalable Monte Carlo based optical toolbox can be used to extract absorption and scattering contrasts from diffuse reflectance acquired in the cervix in vivo. [Total Hb] was shown to increase significantly in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+), clinically the most important tissue grade to identify, compared to normal and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1). Scattering was not significantly decreased in CIN 2+ versus normal and CIN 1, but was significantly decreased in CIN relative to normal cervical tissues. Immunohistochemistry via anti-CD34, which stains the endothelial cells that line blood vessels, was used to validate the observed absorption contrast. The concomitant increase in microvessel density and [total Hb] suggests that both are reactive to angiogenic forces from up-regulated expression of VEGF in CIN 2+. Masson's trichrome stain was used to assess collagen density changes associated with dysplastic transformation of the cervix, hypothesized as the dominant source of decreased scattering observed. Due to mismatch in optical and histological sampling, as well as the small sample size, collagen density and scattering did not change in a similar fashion with tissue grade. Dysplasia may also induce changes in cross-linking of

  13. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  14. Sub-wavelength imaging by depolarization in a reflection near-field optical microscope using an uncoated fiber probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Steen; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    We present a reflection scanning near-field optical microscope utilizing counter-directional light propagation in an uncoated fiber probe, cross-polarized detection and shear-force feedback. Topographical and near-field optical imaging with a scanning speed of up to 10 mu m/s and a lateral...... resolution better than 40 nm are demonstrated with a latex projection test sample. Determination of the optical resolution as well as correlation between topographical and near-field optical images are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  16. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  17. New optical scheme for differential measurements of diffraction reflection intensity on X-radiation sliding incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, A.L.; Mas', E.T.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray optical scheme for differential measurements of X-ray diffraction under sliding incidence conditions is proposed and an attachment design realizng this scheme, using standard equipment, is described. The main feature of the scheme is the following: collimation according to the Bragg angle is carried out for the reflected beam rather than the incident one. Goniometers can be used from DRON, TRS, GS-5 and other spectrometers. The goniometer head carrying the sample is standard, it is a part of the DRON, TRS and DTS. The crystal analyzer is fixed on the attachment. The angular position of the crystal monochromator is controlled by an inductive sensor. The experimental differential curves of X-ray diffraction under conditions of sliding incidence, taken for a silicon crystal having the 111 orientation, are given as well

  18. Optical performance of random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) on spherical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Courtney D.

    Random anti-reflection structured surfaces (rARSS) have been reported to improve transmittance of optical-grade fused silica planar substrates to values greater than 99%. These textures are fabricated directly on the substrates using reactive-ion/inductively-coupled plasma etching (RIE/ICP) techniques, and often result in transmitted spectra with no measurable interference effects (fringes) for a wide range of wavelengths. The RIE/ICP processes used in the fabrication process to etch the rARSS is anisotropic and thus well suited for planar components. The improvement in spectral transmission has been found to be independent of optical incidence angles for values from 0° to +/-30°. Qualifying and quantifying the rARSS performance on curved substrates, such as convex lenses, is required to optimize the fabrication of the desired AR effect on optical-power elements. In this work, rARSS was fabricated on fused silica plano-convex (PCX) and plano-concave (PCV) lenses using a planar-substrate optimized RIE process to maximize optical transmission in the range from 500 to 1100 nm. An additional set of lenses were etched in a non-optimized ICP process to provide additional comparisons. Results are presented from optical transmission and beam propagation tests (optimized lenses only) of rARSS lenses for both TE and TM incident polarizations at a wavelength of 633 nm and over a 70° full field of view in both singlet and doublet configurations. These results suggest optimization of the fabrication process is not required, mainly due to the wide angle-of-incidence AR tolerance performance of the rARSS lenses. Non-optimized recipe lenses showed low transmission enhancement, and confirmed the need to optimized etch recipes prior to process transfer of PCX/PCV lenses. Beam propagation tests indicated no major beam degradation through the optimized lens elements. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed different structure between optimized and non-optimized samples

  19. The photochemical reflectance index provides an optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    In evergreens, the seasonal down-regulation and reactivation of photosynthesis is largely invisible and difficult to assess with remote sensing. This invisible phenology may be changing as a result of climate change. To better understand the mechanism and timing of these hidden physiological transitions, we explored several assays and optical indicators of spring photosynthetic activation in conifers exposed to a boreal climate. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf pigments for evergreen conifer seedlings were monitored over 1 yr of a boreal climate with the addition of gas exchange during the spring. PRI, electron transport rate, pigment levels, light-use efficiency and photosynthesis all exhibited striking seasonal changes, with varying kinetics and strengths of correlation, which were used to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of spring activation. PRI and pigment pools were closely timed with photosynthetic reactivation measured by gas exchange. The PRI provided a clear optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation that was detectable at leaf and stand scales in conifers. We propose that PRI might provide a useful metric of effective growing season length amenable to remote sensing and could improve remote-sensing-driven models of carbon uptake in evergreen ecosystems. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Determination of the optical constants of polymer light-emitting diode films from single reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dexi; Shen Weidong; Ye Hui; Liu Xu; Zhen Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple and fast method to determine the optical constant and physical thickness of polymer films from a single reflectivity measurement. A self-consistent dispersion formula of the Forouhi-Bloomer model was introduced to fit the measured spectral curves by a modified 'Downhill' simplex algorithm. Four widely used polymer light-emitting diodes materials: poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene], poly(9,9-dioctylfluoreny-2,7-diyl) (PFO), poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrenesulfonate) were investigated by this technique. The refractive indices over the whole visible region as well as the optical band gap extracted by this method agree well with those reported in the literature. The determined physical thicknesses present a deviation less than 4% compared with the experimental values measured by the stylus profiler. The influence of scattering loss on the fitted results is discussed to demonstrate the applicability of this technology for polymer films.

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  2. Modifying Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Model for Direct Inversion of Forest Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congrong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy leaf area index (LAI inversion based on remote sensing data is an important method to obtain LAI. Currently, the most widely-used model to achieve forest canopy structure parameters is the Li-Strahler geometric-optical bidirectional reflectance model, by considering the effect of crown shape and mutual shadowing, which is referred to as the GOMS model. However, it is difficult to retrieve LAI through the GOMS model directly because LAI is not a fundamental parameter of the model. In this study, a gap probability model was used to obtain the relationship between the canopy structure parameter nR2 and LAI. Thus, LAI was introduced into the GOMS model as an independent variable by replacing nR2 The modified GOMS (MGOMS model was validated by application to Dayekou in the Heihe River Basin of China. The LAI retrieved using the MGOMS model with optical multi-angle remote sensing data, high spatial resolution images and field-measured data was in good agreement with the field-measured LAI, with an R-square (R2 of 0.64, and an RMSE of 0.67. The results demonstrate that the MGOMS model obtained by replacing the canopy structure parameter nR2 of the GOMS model with LAI can be used to invert LAI directly and precisely.

  3. Effects of the LDEF orbital environment on the reflectance of optical mirror materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Howard; Fleetwood, Charles, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Specimens of eight different optical mirror materials were flown in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) manifest to determine their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic oxygen and other environmental effects at those altitudes. Optical thin films of aluminum, gold, iridium, osmium, platinum, magnesium fluoride-overcoated aluminum and reactively deposited, silicon monoxide-protected aluminum, all of which were vacuum deposited on polished fused silica substrates, were included as part of Experiment S0010, Exposure of Spacecraft Coatings. Two specimens of polished, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide were installed in sites available in Experiment A0114, Interaction of Atomic Oxygen with Solid Surfaces at Orbital Altitudes, which included trays in two of the spacecraft bays, one on the leading edge and the other on the trailing edge. One of the silicon carbide samples was located in each of these trays. This paper will compare specular reflectance data from the preflight and postflight measurements made on each of these samples and attempt to explain the changes in light of the specific environments to which the experiments were exposed.

  4. Deposition and characterization of titania-silica optical multilayers by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc sputtering of oxide targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeo, P R; Shinde, D D; Misal, J S [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam -530012 (India); Kamble, N M; Tokas, R B; Biswas, A; Poswal, A K; Thakur, S; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K; Sabharwal, S C, E-mail: nksahoo@barc.gov.i, E-mail: sahoonk@gmail.co [Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-03

    Titania-silica (TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) optical multilayer structures have been conventionally deposited by reactive sputtering of metallic targets. In order to overcome the problems of arcing, target poisoning and low deposition rates encountered there, the application of oxide targets was investigated in this work with asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this deposition methodology, an electric field optimized Fabry Perot mirror for He-Cd laser ({lambda} = 441.6 nm) spectroscopy was deposited and characterized. For comparison, this mirror was also deposited by the reactive electron beam (EB) evaporation technique. The mirrors developed by the two complementary techniques were investigated for their microstructural and optical reflection properties invoking atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, grazing incidence reflectometry and spectrophotometry. From these measurements the layer geometry, optical constants, mass density, topography, surface and interface roughness and disorder parameters were evaluated. The microstructural properties and spectral functional characteristics of the pulsed dc sputtered multilayer mirror were found to be distinctively superior to the EB deposited mirror. The knowledge gathered during this study has been utilized to develop a 21-layer high-pass edge filter for radio photoluminescence dosimetry.

  5. Deposition and characterization of titania-silica optical multilayers by asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc sputtering of oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeo, P R; Shinde, D D; Misal, J S; Kamble, N M; Tokas, R B; Biswas, A; Poswal, A K; Thakur, S; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K; Sabharwal, S C

    2010-01-01

    Titania-silica (TiO 2 /SiO 2 ) optical multilayer structures have been conventionally deposited by reactive sputtering of metallic targets. In order to overcome the problems of arcing, target poisoning and low deposition rates encountered there, the application of oxide targets was investigated in this work with asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this deposition methodology, an electric field optimized Fabry Perot mirror for He-Cd laser (λ = 441.6 nm) spectroscopy was deposited and characterized. For comparison, this mirror was also deposited by the reactive electron beam (EB) evaporation technique. The mirrors developed by the two complementary techniques were investigated for their microstructural and optical reflection properties invoking atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, grazing incidence reflectometry and spectrophotometry. From these measurements the layer geometry, optical constants, mass density, topography, surface and interface roughness and disorder parameters were evaluated. The microstructural properties and spectral functional characteristics of the pulsed dc sputtered multilayer mirror were found to be distinctively superior to the EB deposited mirror. The knowledge gathered during this study has been utilized to develop a 21-layer high-pass edge filter for radio photoluminescence dosimetry.

  6. Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2007-01-01

    Splanchnic ischaemia can ultimately lead to cellular hypoxia and necrosis, and may well contribute to the development of multiple organ failures and increased mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to monitor abdominal organ blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ). Pulse oximetry has been widely accepted as a reliable method for monitoring oxygen saturation of arterial blood. Animal studies have also shown it to be effective in the monitoring of blood oxygen saturation in the splanchnic region. However, commercially available pulse oximeter probes are not suitable for the continuous assessment of SpO 2 in the splanchnic region. Therefore, there is a need for a new sensor technology that will allow the continuous measurement of SpO 2 in the splanchnic area pre-operatively, operatively and post-operatively. For this purpose, a new fibre optic sensor and processing system utilising the principle of reflectance pulse oximetry has been developed. The accuracy in the estimation of SpO 2 in pulse oximetry depends on the quality and amplitude of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal and for this reason an experimental procedure was carried out to examine the effect of the source-detector separation distance on the acquired PPG signals, and to ultimately select an optimal separation for the final design of the fibre-optic probe. PPG signals were obtained from the finger for different separation distances between the emitting and detecting fibres. Good quality PPG signals with large amplitudes and high signal-to-noise ratio were detected in the range of 3mm to 6mm. At separation distances between 1mm and 2mm, PPG signals were erratic with no resemblance to a conventional PPG signal. At separation distances greater than 6mm, the amplitudes of PPG signals were very small and not appropriate for processing. This investigation indicates the suitability of optical fibres as a new pulse oximetry sensor for estimating blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in the splanchnic region

  7. Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M.; Kyriacou, P. A.

    2007-10-01

    Splanchnic ischaemia can ultimately lead to cellular hypoxia and necrosis, and may well contribute to the development of multiple organ failures and increased mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to monitor abdominal organ blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). Pulse oximetry has been widely accepted as a reliable method for monitoring oxygen saturation of arterial blood. Animal studies have also shown it to be effective in the monitoring of blood oxygen saturation in the splanchnic region. However, commercially available pulse oximeter probes are not suitable for the continuous assessment of SpO2 in the splanchnic region. Therefore, there is a need for a new sensor technology that will allow the continuous measurement of SpO2 in the splanchnic area pre-operatively, operatively and post-operatively. For this purpose, a new fibre optic sensor and processing system utilising the principle of reflectance pulse oximetry has been developed. The accuracy in the estimation of SpO2 in pulse oximetry depends on the quality and amplitude of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal and for this reason an experimental procedure was carried out to examine the effect of the source-detector separation distance on the acquired PPG signals, and to ultimately select an optimal separation for the final design of the fibre-optic probe. PPG signals were obtained from the finger for different separation distances between the emitting and detecting fibres. Good quality PPG signals with large amplitudes and high signal-to-noise ratio were detected in the range of 3mm to 6mm. At separation distances between 1mm and 2mm, PPG signals were erratic with no resemblance to a conventional PPG signal. At separation distances greater than 6mm, the amplitudes of PPG signals were very small and not appropriate for processing. This investigation indicates the suitability of optical fibres as a new pulse oximetry sensor for estimating blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) in the splanchnic region.

  8. Fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration allowing for offset pump and probe beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, A.; Folsom, C.; Jensen, C.; Ban, H.

    2016-12-01

    A new fiber-based modulated optical reflectance configuration is developed in this work. The technique maintains the fiber-based heating laser (pump) and detection laser (probe) in close proximity at a fixed separation distance in a ceramic ferrule. The pump beam periodically heats the sample inducing thermal waves into the sample. The probe beam measures the temperature response at a known distance from the pump beam over a range of heating modulation frequencies. The thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated from the phase response between the input heat flux and the temperature response of a sample having a reflective surface. The unique measurement configuration is ideal for in situ measurements and has many advantages for laboratory-based systems. The design and development of the system are reported along with theoretical justification for the experimental design. The thermal diffusivities of Ge and SiC are measured and found to be within 10% of reported literature values. The diffusivity for SiO2 is measured with a relative difference of approximately 100% from the literature value when the ferrule is in contact with the sample. An additional measurement was made on the SiO2 sample with the ferrule not in contact resulting in a difference of less than 2% from the literature value. The difference in the SiO2 measurement when the ferrule is in contact with the sample is likely due to a parallel heat transfer path through the dual-fiber ferrule assembly.

  9. Design of Elliptic Reflective LED Surgical Shadowless Lamps Using Mathematical Optical Tracing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tang Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional surgical shadowless halogen lamps are generally designed as projection type with many light bulbs, which can produce not only mercury pollution but also heat radiation that are serious problems to patient. The study utilized Runge-Kutta methods and mathematical algorithms to design and optimize the freeform lens. The LED (light-emitting diode was adopted to replace the traditional halogen lamp. A uniform lens was designed and fabricated based on the energy conservation. At first, the light field of LED is concentrated through the freeform lens to improve the optical efficiency. Second, the three-shell elliptic curves are applied to the reflective surgical shadowless lamps, where only few LED chips are needed. Light rays emitting from different directions to the target plane can achieve the goal of shadowless. In this study, the LED’s luminance flux is 1,895 lm. The shadow dilution on the target plane is 54%. Ec (central illuminance is 114,900 lux, and the d50/d10 is 57% which is higher than the regulation by 7%, whereas the power consumption is only 20 W. The energy of reflective surgical shadowless lamps can save more than 50%, compared with the traditional projective one.

  10. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz–0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  11. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of diffuse optical reflectance, optoacoustic pressure and ultrasonic scattering (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subochev, Pavel V.; Orlova, Anna G.; Turchin, Ilya V.

    2017-03-01

    We will present reflection-mode bioimaging system providing complementary optical, photoacsoutic and acoustic measurements by acoustic detector after each laser pulse with 2kHz repetition rate. The photons absorbed within the biological tissue provide optoacoustic (OA) signals, the photons absorbed by the external electrode of a detector provide the measurable diffuse reflectance (DR) from the sample and the probing ultrasonic (US) pulse. To demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the system we performed complementary DR/OA/US imaging of small laboratory animals and human palm with 3.5mm/50μm/35μm lateral resolution at up to 3 mm diagnostic depth. Functional OA and DR imaging demonstrated the levels of tissue vascularization and blood supply. Structural US imaging was essential for understanding the position of vessels and zones with different perfusion. Before BiOS-2017 we plan to accomplish more in vivo experiments validating the developed triple-modality system as diagnostic tool to detect vascularization as well as mechanisms of vascular changes when monitoring response to therapy.

  12. Reflective and antireflective coatings for the optical chain of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Canestrari, Rodolfo; Catalano, Osvaldo; Pareschi, Giovanni; Perri, Luca; Stringhetti, Luca

    2013-09-01

    ASTRI is a Flagship Project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics, INAF. One of the main aims of the ASTRI Project is the design, construction and on-field verification of a dual mirror (2M) end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The ASTRI SST-2M prototype is designed according to the Schwarzschild-Couder optical scheme, and adopts a camera based on Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPM); it will be assembled at the INAF astronomical site of Serra La Nave on mount Etna (Catania, Italy) in the second half of 2014, and will start scientific validation phase soon after. With its 4m wide primary dish, the telescope will be sensitive to multi-TeV Very High Energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV and above, with a point spread function of ~2 arcminutes and a wide (semiaperture 4.8°) corrected field of view. The peculiarities of the optical design and of the SiPM bandpass pushed towards specifically optimized choices in terms of reflective coatings for both the primary and the secondary mirror. Fully dielectric multi-layer coatings have been developed and tested as an option for the primary mirror, aiming to filter out the large Night Sky Background contamination at wavelengths λ>~700 nm. On the other hand, for the large monolithic secondary mirror a simpler design with quartz-overcoated aluminium has been optimized for incidences far from normality. The conformation of the ASTRI camera in turn pushed towards the design of a reimaging system based on thin pyramidal light guides, that could be optionally integrated in the focal surface, aiming to increase the fill factor. An anti-reflective coating optimized for a wide range of incident angles faraway from normality was specifically developed to enhance the UV-optical transparency of these elements. The issues, strategy, simulations and experimental results are thoroughly

  13. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A; Vázquez Y Montiel, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications.

  14. Temperature dependent optical characterization of Ni-TiO2 thin films as potential photocatalytic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rajnarayan; Haque, S. Maidul; Tripathi, S.; Rao, K. Divakar; Singh, Ranveer; Som, T.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2017-09-01

    Along with other transition metal doped titanium dioxide materials, Ni-TiO2 is considered to be one of the most efficient materials for catalytic applications due to its suitable energy band positions in the electronic structure. The present manuscript explores the possibility of improving the photocatalytic activity of RF magnetron sputtered Ni-TiO2 films upon heat treatment. Optical, structural and morphological and photocatalytic properties of the films have been investigated in detail for as deposited and heat treated samples. Evolution of refractive index (RI) and total film thickness as estimated from spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization are found to be in agreement with the trend in density and total film thickness estimated from grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurement. Interestingly, the evolution of these macroscopic properties were found to be correlated with the corresponding microstructural modifications realized in terms of anatase to rutile phase transformation and appearance of a secondary phase namely NiTiO3 at high temperature. Corresponding morphological properties of the films were also found to be temperature dependent which leads to modifications in the grain structure. An appreciable reduction of optical band gap from 2.9 to 2.5 eV of Ni-TiO2 thin films was also observed as a result of post deposition heat treatment. Testing of photocatalytic activity of the films performed under UV illumination demonstrates heat treatment under atmospheric ambience to be an effective means to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of transition metal doped titania samples.

  15. Comments on the paper: 'Optical reflectance, optical refractive index and optical conductivity measurements of nonlinear optics for L-aspartic acid nickel chloride single crystal'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.; Naik, Suvidha G.; Dhavskar, Kiran T.

    2016-02-01

    We argue that the 'L-aspartic acid nickel chloride' crystal reported by the authors of the title paper (Optics Communications, 291 (2013) 304-308) is actually the well-known diaqua(L-aspartato)nickel(II) hydrate crystal.

  16. Detection limit calculations for different total reflection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, theoretical calculations of detection limits for different total-reflection techniques are presented.. Calculations include grazing incidence (TXRF) and gracing exit (GEXRF) conditions. These calculations are compared with detection limits obtained for conventional x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In order to compute detection limits the Shiraiwa and Fujino's model to calculate x-ray fluorescence intensities was used. This model made certain assumptions and approximations to achieve the calculations, specially in the case of the geometrical conditions of the sample, and the incident and takeoff beams. Nevertheless the calculated data of detection limits for conventional XRF and total-reflection XRF show a good agreement with previous results. The model proposed here allows to analyze the different sources of background and the influence of the excitation geometry, which contribute to the understanding of the physical processes involved in the XRF analysis by total reflection. Finally, a comparison between detection limits in total-reflection analysis at grazing incidence and at grazing exit is carried out. Here a good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the reversibility principle is found, showing that detection limits are similar for both techniques. (author)

  17. Research progress of cholesteric liquid crystals with broadband reflection characteristics in application of intelligent optical modulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Ying; Gao Yan-Zi; Song Ping; Yuan Xiao; He Bao-Feng; Yang Huai; Wu Xiao-Juan; Chen Xing-Wu; Hu Wang; Guo Ren-Wei; Ding Hang-Jun; Xiao Jiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have recently sparked an enormous amount of interest in the development of soft matter materials due to their unique ability to self-organize into a helical supra-molecular architecture and their excellent selective reflection of light based on the Bragg relationship. Nowadays, by the virtue of building the self-organized nanostructures with pitch gradient or non-uniform pitch distribution, extensive work has already been performed to obtain CLC films with a broad reflection band. Based on authors’ many years’ research experience, this critical review systematically summarizes the physical and optical background of the CLCs with broadband reflection characteristics, methods to obtain broadband reflection of CLCs, as well as the application in the field of intelligent optical modulation materials. Combined with the research status and the advantages in the field, the important basic and applied scientific problems in the research direction are also introduced. (topical review)

  18. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  19. Comparison of conventional and total reflection excitation geometry for fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy on droplet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments in fluorescence mode have been performed in total reflection excitation geometry and conventional 45 deg. /45 deg. excitation/detection geometry for comparison. The experimental results have shown that XAFS measurements are feasible under normal total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) conditions, i.e. on droplet samples, with excitation in grazing incidence and using a TXRF experimental chamber. The application of the total reflection excitation geometry for XAFS measurements increases the sensitivity compared to the conventional geometry leading to lower accessible concentration ranges. However, XAFS under total reflection excitation condition fails for highly concentrated samples because of the self-absorption effect

  20. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  1. Electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti studied by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Kraaer, Jens; Tougaard, Sven

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS). REELS spectra recorded for primary energies in the range from 300 eV to 10 keV were corrected for multiple inelastically scattered electrons to determine the effective inelastic-scattering cross section. The dielectric functions and optical properties were determined by comparing the experimental inelastic-electron scattering cross section with a simulated cross section calculated within the semi-classical dielectric response model in which the only input is Im(−1/ε) by using the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software package. The complex dielectric functions ε(k,ω), in the 0–100 eV energy range, for Fe, Pd, and Ti were determined from the derived Im(−1/ε) by Kramers-Kronig transformation and then the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. The validity of the applied model was previously tested and found to give consistent results when applied to REELS spectra at energies between 300 and 1000 eV taken at widely different experimental geometries. In the present paper, we provide, for the first time, a further test on its validity and find that the model also gives consistent results when applied to REELS spectra in the full range of primary electron energies from 300 eV to 10000 eV. This gives confidence in the validity of the applied method.

  2. Optimal spacing between transmitting and receiving optical fibres in reflectance pulse oximetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Splanchnic ischaemia can ultimately lead to cellular hypoxia and necrosis, and may well contribute to the development of multiple organ failures and increased mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to monitor abdominal organ blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}). Pulse oximetry has been widely accepted as a reliable method for monitoring oxygen saturation of arterial blood. Animal studies have also shown it to be effective in the monitoring of blood oxygen saturation in the splanchnic region. However, commercially available pulse oximeter probes are not suitable for the continuous assessment of SpO{sub 2} in the splanchnic region. Therefore, there is a need for a new sensor technology that will allow the continuous measurement of SpO{sub 2} in the splanchnic area pre-operatively, operatively and post-operatively. For this purpose, a new fibre optic sensor and processing system utilising the principle of reflectance pulse oximetry has been developed. The accuracy in the estimation of SpO{sub 2} in pulse oximetry depends on the quality and amplitude of the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal and for this reason an experimental procedure was carried out to examine the effect of the source-detector separation distance on the acquired PPG signals, and to ultimately select an optimal separation for the final design of the fibre-optic probe. PPG signals were obtained from the finger for different separation distances between the emitting and detecting fibres. Good quality PPG signals with large amplitudes and high signal-to-noise ratio were detected in the range of 3mm to 6mm. At separation distances between 1mm and 2mm, PPG signals were erratic with no resemblance to a conventional PPG signal. At separation distances greater than 6mm, the amplitudes of PPG signals were very small and not appropriate for processing. This investigation indicates the suitability of optical fibres as a new pulse oximetry sensor for estimating blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) in

  3. The multispectral reflectance of shortwave radiation by agricultural crops in relation with their morphological and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, N.J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Relations between morphological properties of uniform canopies. optical properties of the leaves and reflection of shortwave radiation, in the visible light region and the near infrared, by crops are the subject of this thesis.

    The aim of the study was a further investigation of

  4. Computation of the optical properties of turbid media from slope and curvature of spatially resolved reflectance curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäger, Marion; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of turbid media were calculated from the curvature at the radial distance ρ O and the slope at the radial distance ρ* of simulated spatially resolved reflectance curves (ρ O (ρ*) denotes a decrease of the spatially resolved reflectance curve of 0.75 (2.4) orders of magnitude relative to the reflectance value at 1.2 mm). We found correlations between the curvature at ρ O and the reduced scattering coefficient as well as the slope at ρ* and the absorption coefficient. For the determination of the optical properties we used these two correlations. The calculation of the reduced scattering coefficient from the curvature at ρ O is practically independent from the absorption coefficient. Knowing the reduced scattering coefficient within a certain accuracy allows the determination of the absorption coefficient from the slope at ρ*. Additionally, we investigated the performance of an artificial neural network for the determination of the optical properties using the above explained correlations. This means we used the derivatives as input data. Our artificial neural network was capable to learn the mapping between the optical properties and the derivatives. In effect, the results for the determined optical properties improved in comparison to the above explained method. Finally, the procedure was compared to an artificial neural network that was trained without using the derivatives. (note)

  5. X-ray diffraction and imaging with a coherent beam: application to X-ray optical elements and to crystals exhibiting phase inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, F.

    2011-05-01

    The exceptional properties of synchrotron light sources have been exploited in very different disciplines, from archaeology to chemistry, from material science to biology, from medicine to physics. Among these properties it is important to mention the high brilliance, continuum spectrum, high degree of polarization, time structure, small source size and divergence of the beam, the last resulting in a high transversal coherence of the produced radiation. This high transversal coherence of the synchrotron sources has permitted the development of new techniques, e.g. phase contrast imaging, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI). This thesis work will consist essentially of three parts. In the first part it will be presented the work done as a member of the X-ray Optics Group of ESRF in the characterization of high quality diamond crystals foreseen as X-ray optical elements. The characterization has been done using different complementary X-ray techniques, such as high resolution diffraction, topography, grazing incidence diffraction, reflectivity and measurements of the coherence preservation using the Talbot effect. In the second part, I will show the result obtained in the study of the temperature behaviours of the domain in periodically poled ferroelectrics crystals. This type of measurements, based on Bragg-Fresnel diffraction, are possible only thanks to the high degree of coherence of the beam. In the third part, I will present the results obtained in the characterization of diamonds foreseen for applications other than X-ray optical elements. (author)

  6. Acousto-optic control of internal acoustic reflection in tellurium dioxide crystal in case of strong elastic energy walkoff [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshinov, Vitaly; Polikarpova, Nataliya; Ivanova, Polina; Khorkin, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Peculiar cases of acoustic wave propagation and reflection may be observed in strongly anisotropic acousto-optical crystals. A tellurium dioxide crystal serves as a prime example of such media, since it possesses record indexes of acoustic anisotropy. We studied one of the unusual scenarios of acoustic incidence and reflection from a free crystal-vacuum boundary in paratellurite. The directions of the acoustic waves in the (001) plane of the crystal were determined, and their basic characteristics were calculated. The carried-out acousto-optic experiment at the wavelength of light 532 nm and the acoustic frequency 73 MHz confirmed the theoretical predictions. The effects examined in the paper include the acoustic wave propagation with the record walkoff angle 74°. We also observed the incidence of the wave on the boundary at the angle exceeding 90°. Finally, we registered the close-to-back reflection of acoustic energy following the incidence. One of the stunning aspects is the distribution of energy between the incident and the back-reflected wave. The unusual features of the acoustic wave reflections pointed out in the paper are valuable for their possible applications in acousto-optic devices.

  7. Optically controlled reflection modulator using GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i/multiple-quantum-well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K.-K.; Simes, R. J.; Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; Maserjian, J.

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled reflection modulator has been demonstrated that consists of a combination of a GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i doping structure with a multiple-quantum-well structures on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, all grown by MBE. A modulation of approximately 60 percent is obtained on the test structure, corresponding to a differential change of absorption coefficient in the quantum wells of approximately 7500/cm. Changes in reflectance can be observed with a control beam power as low as 1.5 microW. This device structure has the potential of being developed as an optically addressed spatial light modulator for optical information processing.

  8. Study on rapid valid acidity evaluation of apple by fiber optic diffuse reflectance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Jiang, Xuesong

    2004-03-01

    Some issues related to nondestructive evaluation of valid acidity in intact apples by means of Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) (800-2631nm) method were addressed. A relationship was established between the diffuse reflectance spectra recorded with a bifurcated optic fiber and the valid acidity. The data were analyzed by multivariate calibration analysis such as partial least squares (PLS) analysis and principal component regression (PCR) technique. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influence of data preprocessing and different spectra treatments were also investigated. Models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than models based on derivative spectra and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 and the gap size was 10. Depending on data preprocessing and multivariate calibration technique, the best prediction model had a correlation efficient (0.871), a low RMSEP (0.0677), a low RMSEC (0.056) and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC by PLS analysis. The results point out the feasibility of FTNIR spectral analysis to predict the fruit valid acidity non-destructively. The ratio of data standard deviation to the root mean square error of prediction (SDR) is better to be less than 3 in calibration models, however, the results cannot meet the demand of actual application. Therefore, further study is required for better calibration and prediction.

  9. Analysis of In-Situ Spectral Reflectance of Sago and Other Palms: Implications for Their Detection in Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon Santillan, Jojene; Makinano-Santillan, Meriam

    2018-04-01

    We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa) to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345-1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2). Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  10. ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF SAGO AND OTHER PALMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR DETECTION IN OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345–1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2. Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  11. Reflective variable optical attenuators and fibre ring lasers for wavelength-division multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He Liang

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical fibre system is an important enabling technology to fulfill the demands for bandwidth in the modern information age. The main objective of this project is to study novel devices with the potential to enhance the performance of WDM systems. In particular, a novel reflective variable optical attenuator (RVOA) used for dynamic gain equalization (DGE) and fibre lasers based on an entirely new type of erbium-doped fibres with ultrawide tuning range were investigated theoretically and experimentally. We proposed a new type of RVOA device which could be potentially integrated with arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) to reduce the cost of DGE substantially. Initially, fibre-based RVOAs, fabricated with optical fibre components such as fibre coupler and Faraday rotator mirror, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Larger attenuation range up to 22 dB was realized for fibre coupler-based ROVA with a Faraday rotator mirror and its polarization-dependent loss is about 0.5 dB. Then polymeric waveguide-based RVOAs were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Using an epoxy Novolak resin as core material and an UV-cured resin (Norland's NOA61) as cladding material, a polymeric waveguide RVOA was successfully fabricated. The dynamic 15 dB attenuation range was achieved and the PDL was less than 0.2 dB. The measured insertion loss of the polymeric waveguide RVOA was too large (about 18 dB) and was mainly induced by coupling loss, material loss and poor alignment. In the second part of the study, fibre ring lasers with continuous wavelength tuning over wide wavelength range and fibre ring lasers with discrete wavelength tuning were investigated. Tunable lasers are important devices in WDM systems because they could be employed as reserved sources and therefore avoiding the need to stock large inventory of lasers to cover the ITU-wavelength grid. In this project, erbium ions doped bismuth oxide glass fibres instead of

  12. Evaluation of MidIR fibre optic reflectance: Detection limit, reproducibility and binary mixture discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Clarimma; Bagán, Héctor; García, José Francisco

    2013-11-01

    MidIR fibre optic reflectance (MidIR-FORS) is a promising analytical technique in the field of science conservation, especially because it is non-destructive. Another advantage of MidIR-FORS is that the obtained information is representative, as a large amount of spectral data can be collected. Although the technique has a high potential and is almost routinely applied, its quality parameters have not been thoroughly studied in the specific application of analysis of artistic materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the instrumental capabilities of MidIR-FORS for the analysis of artwork materials in terms of detection limit, reproducibility, and mixture characterisation. The study has been focused on oil easel painting and several paints of known composition have been analysed. Paint layers include blue pigments not only because of their important role along art history, but also because their physical and spectroscopic characteristics allow a better evaluation of the MidIR-FORS capabilities. The results of the analysis indicate that MidIR-FORS supplies a signal affected by different factors, such as the optical, morphological and physical properties of the surface, in addition to the composition of materials analysed. Consequently, the detection limits established are relatively high for artistic objects (Prussian blue - PB 2.1-6.5%; Phthalocyanine blue - Pht 6.3-10.2%; synthetic Ultramarine blue - UM 12.1%) and may therefore lead to an incomplete description of the artwork. Reproducibility of the technique over time and across surface has been determined. The results show that the major sources of dispersion are the heterogeneity of the pigments distribution, physical features, and band shape distortions. The total dispersion is around 4% for the most intense bands (oil) and increases up to 26% when weak or overlapped bands are considered (PB, Pht, UM). The application of different pre-treatments (cutoff of fibres absorption, Savizky-Golay smoothing

  13. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2014-11-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, the organic carbon concentration is measured using thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) from quartz fiber filters. Here, methods are presented whereby Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters are used to accurately predict TOR OC. Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filters. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites sampled during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to artifact-corrected TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date which leads to precise and accurate OC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, all μg m-3 values based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision and accuracy to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also divided into calibration and test sets by OC mass and by OM / OC which reflects the organic composition of the particulate matter and is obtained from organic functional group composition; this division also leads to precise and accurate OC predictions. Low OC concentrations have higher bias and normalized error due to TOR analytical errors and artifact correction errors, not due to the range of OC mass of the samples in the calibration set. However, samples with low OC mass can be used to predict samples with high OC mass indicating that the

  14. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  15. Improvement of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Hong Kong from a Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Using Critical Reflectance with Background Optical Depth Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Jhoon; Wong, Man Sing; Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Jaehwa; Wu, Dong L.; Chan, P.W.; Nichol, Janet E.; Chung, Chu-Yong; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous efforts to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) using a conventional 5-channelmeteorological imager in geostationary orbit, the accuracy in urban areas has been poorer than other areas primarily due to complex urban surface properties and mixed aerosol types from different emission sources. The two largest error sources in aerosol retrieval have been aerosol type selection and surface reflectance. In selecting the aerosol type from a single visible channel, the season-dependent aerosol optical properties were adopted from longterm measurements of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun-photometers. With the aerosol optical properties obtained fromthe AERONET inversion data, look-up tableswere calculated by using a radiative transfer code: the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S). Surface reflectance was estimated using the clear sky composite method, awidely used technique for geostationary retrievals. Over East Asia, the AOD retrieved from the Meteorological Imager showed good agreement, although the values were affected by cloud contamination errors. However, the conventional retrieval of the AOD over Hong Kong was largely underestimated due to the lack of information on the aerosol type and surface properties. To detect spatial and temporal variation of aerosol type over the area, the critical reflectance method, a technique to retrieve single scattering albedo (SSA), was applied. Additionally, the background aerosol effect was corrected to improve the accuracy of the surface reflectance over Hong Kong. The AOD retrieved froma modified algorithmwas compared to the collocated data measured by AERONET in Hong Kong. The comparison showed that the new aerosol type selection using the critical reflectance and the corrected surface reflectance significantly improved the accuracy of AODs in Hong Kong areas,with a correlation coefficient increase from0.65 to 0.76 and a regression line change from tMI [basic algorithm] = 0

  16. Advanced lightweight optics development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbro, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort over the past year has been devoted to exploring ultra-lightweight optics for two specific NASA programs, the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the High Throughput X-ray Spectrometer (HTXS). Experimental investigations have been undertaken in a variety of materials including glass, composites, nickel, beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (CSiC), Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide, Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide, and Silicon. Overall results of these investigations will be summarized, and specific details will be provided concerning the in-house development of ultra-lightweight nickel replication for both grazing incidence and normal incidence optics. This will include x-ray test results of the grazing incidence optic and cryogenic test results of the normal incidence optic. The status of two 1.5 meter diameter demonstration mirrors for NGST will also be presented. These two demonstrations are aimed at establishing the capability to manufacture and test mirrors that have an areal density of 15 kilograms per square meter. Efforts in thin membrane mirrors and Fresnel lenses will also be briefly discussed

  17. Ordered and disordered evolution of the pore mesostructure in hybrid silica anti-reflective films obtained by one-pot self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazzal, Mohamed N., E-mail: g_nawfel@yahoo.fr; Debecker, Damien P.; Gaigneaux, Eric M.

    2016-07-29

    Hybrid mesoporous silica films were prepared in acid-catalysed medium using a one-pot self-assembly method. A gradual content of methyl groups was introduced into the inorganic framework by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and methyltriethoxysilane. To better understand how the ordered and disordered transition occurs in mesoporous hybrid organosilica sytem as function of the MTES molar ratio in the starting solution, textural, chemical and optical properties of the films were studied by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), grazing-incident small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), transmission Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy. Increasing the loading of the incorporated organic groups (up to 40% in the starting solution) led simultaneously to a disorganization of the pore mesostructure and a reduction in the pore diameter. Concomitantly, a disordered domain of the silica rings in the walls was observed, which created bond strains in the silica wall contributing also to the disorganization of the pore mesostructure. Furthermore, an optimal MTES content was identified in order to obtain antireflection coatings, exhibiting low reflection in the visible range. - Highlights: • Mesoporous hybrid silica films where prepared by one-pot co-condensation of MTES and TEOS. • Ordered and disordered mesostructures were studied as function as variable MTES molar ratio. • A rearrangement of the silica cyclic species occurred as the molar ratio of MTES increases. • Transmittance of the silica coatings is affected by the MTES molar ratio.

  18. Reflectivity quenching of ESR multilayer polymer film reflector in optically bonded scintillator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon-Houle, Francis; Pepin, Catherine M.; Charlebois, Serge A.; Lecomte, Roger

    2017-04-01

    The 3M-ESR multilayer polymer film is a widely used reflector in scintillation detector arrays. As specified in the datasheet and confirmed experimentally by measurements in air, it is highly reflective (> 98 %) over the entire visible spectrum (400-1000 nm) for all angles of incidence. Despite these outstanding characteristics, it was previously found that light crosstalk between pixels in a bonded LYSO scintillator array with ESR reflector can be as high as ∼30-35%. This unexplained light crosstalk motivated further investigation of ESR optical performance. Analytical simulation of a multilayer structure emulating the ESR reflector showed that the film becomes highly transparent to incident light at large angles when surrounded on both sides by materials of refractive index higher than air. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that a considerable fraction (∼25-35%) of scintillation photons are incident at these leaking angles in high aspect ratio LYSO scintillation crystals. The film transparency was investigated experimentally by measuring the scintillation light transmission through the ESR film sandwiched between a scintillation crystal and a photodetector with or without layers of silicone grease. Strong light leakage, up to nearly 30%, was measured through the reflector when coated on both sides with silicone, thus elucidating the major cause of light crosstalk in bonded arrays. The reflector transparency was confirmed experimentally for angles of incidence larger than 60 ° using a custom designed setup allowing illumination of the bonded ESR film at selected grazing angles. The unsuspected ESR film transparency can be beneficial for detector arrays exploiting light sharing schemes, but it is highly detrimental for scintillator arrays designed for individual pixel readout.

  19. New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv I

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbar Yariv,1 Menashe Haddad,2,3 Hamootal Duadi,1 Menachem Motiei,1 Dror Fixler1 1Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel; 3Mayanei Hayeshua Medical Center, Benei Brak, Israel Abstract: Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD. Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg. Keywords: Gerchberg-Saxton, optical properties, gold nanorods, blood vessel, tissue viability

  20. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  1. Combined reflectance confocal microscopy-optical coherence tomography for delineation of basal cell carcinoma margins: an ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Peterson, Gary; Chang, Ernest W.; Maguluri, Gopi; Fox, William; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) approach, integrated within a single optical layout, for diagnosis of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and delineation of margins. While RCM imaging detects BCC presence (diagnoses) and its lateral spreading (margins) with measured resolution of ˜1 μm, OCT imaging delineates BCC depth spreading (margins) with resolution of ˜7 μm. When delineating margins in 20 specimens of superficial and nodular BCCs, depth could be reliably determined down to ˜600 μm, and agreement with histology was within about ±50 μm.

  2. Performance testing of a novel off-plane reflection grating and silicon pore optic spectrograph at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Allured, Ryan; DeRoo, Casey; Miles, Drew M.; Donovan, Benjamin D.; Tutt, James H.; Burwitz, Vadim; Menz, Benedikt; Hartner, Gisela D.; Smith, Randall K.; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    An X-ray spectrograph consisting of aligned, radially ruled off-plane reflection gratings and silicon pore optics (SPO) was tested at the Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics PANTER X-ray test facility. The SPO is a test module for the proposed Arcus mission, which will also feature aligned off-plane reflection gratings. This test is the first time two off-plane gratings were actively aligned to each other and with a SPO to produce an overlapped spectrum. We report the performance of the complete spectrograph utilizing the aligned gratings module and plans for future development.

  3. Frustration of Bragg reflection by cooperative dual-mode interference: a new mode of optical propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, A

    1998-12-01

    A new optical mode of propagation is described, which is the natural eigenmode (supermode) of a fiber (or any optical waveguide) with two cospatial periodic gratings. The mode frustrates the backward Bragg scattering from the grating by destructive interference of its two constituent submodes (which are eigenmodes of a uniform waveguide). It can be used in a new type of spatial mode conversion in optical guides.

  4. Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence findings in chronic phototoxic maculopathy secondary to snow-reflected solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A professional mountain trekker presented with gradual, moderate visual decline in one eye. The subnormal vision could not be explained by the examination of anterior and posterior segment of either eye, which was unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence imaging revealed subtle defects in the outer retina, which correlated with the extent of visual disturbance. A novel presentation of retinal phototoxicity due to indirect solar radiation reflected from snow in inadequately protected eyes of a chronically exposed subject is reported.

  5. Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy as efficient technique for the determination of optical properties of polystyrene intermixed with gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deris, Jamileh [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Shaaker, E-mail: Hajati@mail.yu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj 3177983634 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of nano-metalized polymer. • Determination of real part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of imaginary part of the dielectric function of nanostructured sample. • Determination of refractive index and coefficient of extinction of the sample. • Determination of reflection and absorption coefficients of nano-metalized Polymer. - Abstract: The electronic properties (electron inelastic cross section, energy loss function) of a nano-metalized polystyrene obtained by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) in a previous study [J. Deris, S. Hajati, S. Tougaard, V. Zaporojtchenko, Appl. Surf. Sci. 377 (2016) 44–47], which relies on the Yubero-Tougaard method, were used in the complementary application of Kramers-Kronig transformation to determine its optical properties such as the real part (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary part (ε{sub 2}) of the dielectric function (ε), refractive index (n), coefficients of extinction (k), reflection (R) and absorption (μ). The degree of intermixing of polystyrene thin film and gold nanoparticles of sizes 5.5 nm was controlled by annealing the sample to achieve a morphology in which the nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed within polystyrene. It is worth noting that no data are available on the optical properties of metalized polymers such as gold nanoparticles intermixed with polystyrene. Therefore, this work is of high importance in terms of both the sample studied here and the method applied. The advantage of the method applied here is that no information on the lateral distribution of the nanocomposite sample is required. This means that the REELS technique has been presented here to suitably, efficiently and easily obtain the optical properties of such nano-metalized polymer in which the metal nanoparticles have been vertically well distributed (homogeneous in depth). Therefore, for vertically homogeneous and

  6. Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence findings in chronic phototoxic maculopathy secondary to snow-reflected solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dhananjay

    2015-05-01

    A professional mountain trekker presented with gradual, moderate visual decline in one eye. The subnormal vision could not be explained by the examination of anterior and posterior segment of either eye, which was unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence imaging revealed subtle defects in the outer retina, which correlated with the extent of visual disturbance. A novel presentation of retinal phototoxicity due to indirect solar radiation reflected from snow in inadequately protected eyes of a chronically exposed subject is reported.

  7. Out-of-plane reflection and refraction of light by anisotropic optical antenna metasurfaces with phase discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice; Yu, Nanfang; Kats, Mikhail A; Gaburro, Zeno; Capasso, Federico

    2012-03-14

    Experiments on ultrathin anisotropic arrays of subwavelength optical antennas display out-of-plane refraction. A powerful three-dimensional (3D) extension of the recently demonstrated generalized laws of refraction and reflection shows that the interface imparts a tangential wavevector to the incident light leading to anomalous beams, which in general are noncoplanar with the incident beam. The refracted beam direction can be controlled by varying the angle between the plane of incidence and the antenna array. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Dependence of laser radiation intensity on the elastic deformation of a revolving optical disk with a reflective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Portnov, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    The physical mechanism of alteration of intensity of linearly polarized monochromatic electromagnetic radiation with λ = 630 nm in a revolving dielectric disk with a mirror coating is examined. The effect is induced by elastic deformation due to the revolution and by thermoelastic deformation of the optically transparent disk. These deformations result in birefringence, the polarization plane rotation, and a 30-40% change in the intensity of reflected radiation.

  9. High-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, and infrared reflectance imaging in Sjögren reticular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauwvlieghe, Pieter-Paul; Torre, Kara Della; Coppieters, Frauke; Van Hoey, Anneleen; De Baere, Elfride; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Leroy, Bart P; Brodie, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the phenotype of three cases of Sjögren reticular dystrophy in detail, including high-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Two unrelated teenagers were independently referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Both underwent a full ophthalmologic workup, including electrophysiologic and extensive imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. In addition, mutation screening of ABCA4, PRPH2, and the mitochondrial tRNA gene was performed in Patient 1. Subsequently, the teenage sister of Patient 2 was examined. Strikingly similar phenotypes were present in these three patients. Fundoscopy showed bilateral foveal pigment alterations, and a lobular network of deep retinal, pigmented deposits throughout the posterior pole, tapering toward the midperiphery, with relative sparing of the immediate perifoveal macula and peripapillary area. This network is mildly to moderately hyperautofluorescent on autofluorescence and bright on near-infrared reflectance imaging. Optical coherence tomography showed abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex, photoreceptor outer segments, and photoreceptor inner/outer segment interface. The results of retinal function test were entirely normal. No molecular cause was detected in Patient 1. Imaging suggested that the lobular network of deep retinal deposits in Sjögren reticular dystrophy is the result of accumulation of both pigment and lipofuscin between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  10. In vivo determination of the optical properties of muscle with time-resolved reflectance using a layered model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, A.; Glanzmann, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of determining the optical coefficients of muscle in the extremities with in vivo time-resolved reflectance measurements using a layered model. A solution of the diffusion equation for two layers was fitted to three-layered Monte Carlo calculations simulating the skin, the subcutaneous fat and the muscle. Relative time-resolved reflectance data at two distances were used to derive the optical coefficients of the layers. We found for skin and subcutaneous fat layer thicknesses (l 2 ) of up to 10 mm that the estimated absorption coefficients of the second layer of the diffusion model have differences of less than 20% compared with those of the muscle layer of the Monte Carlo simulations if the thickness of the first layer of the diffusion model is also fitted. If l 2 is known, the differences are less than 5%, whereas the use of a semi-infinite model delivers differences of up to 55%. Even if l 2 is only approximately known the absorption coefficient of the muscle can be determined accurately. Experimentally, the time-resolved reflectance was measured on the forearms of volunteers at two distances from the incident beam by means of a streak camera. The thicknesses of the tissues involved were determined by ultrasound. The optical coefficients were derived from these measurements by applying the two-layered diffusion model, and results in accordance with the theoretical studies were observed. (author)

  11. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezaga-Madrid, P.; Antunez-Flores, W.; Ledezma-Sillas, J.E.; Murillo-Ramirez, J.G.; Solis-Canto, O.; Vega-Becerra, O.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition. → Optimum substrate temperatures of 673 K and 623 K for Sc and V doped films. → Around one third of the dopants in solution were deposited into the films. → Crystallite and grain size decreased with the increase of dopant concentration. → Optical band gap increased from 3.29 to 3.32 eV for undoped to 7 Sc/Zn at. %. - Abstract: Many semiconductor oxides (ZnO, TiO 2 , SnO 2 ) when doped with a low percentage of non-magnetic (V, Sc) or magnetic 3d (Co, Mn, Ni, Fe) cation behave ferromagnetically. They have attracted a great deal of interest due to the integration of semiconducting and magnetic properties in a material. ZnO is one of the most promising materials to carry out these tasks in view of the fact that it is optically transparent and has n or p type conductivity. Here, we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped zinc oxide thin films. ZnO based thin films with additions of V and Sc were deposited by the Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition method. V and Sc were incorporated separately in the precursor solution. The films were uniform, transparent and non-light scattering. The microstructure of the films was characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Scanning Probe Microscopy. Average grain size and surface rms roughness were estimated by the measurement of Atomic Force Microscopy. The microstructure of doped ZnO thin films depended on the type and amount of dopant material incorporated. The optical properties were determined from specular reflectance and transmittance spectra. Results were analyzed to determine the optical constant and band gap of the films. An increase in the optical band gap with the content of Sc dopant was obtained.

  12. High-efficiency and flexible generation of vector vortex optical fields by a reflective phase-only spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng-Qiang; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Kun; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2017-08-01

    The scheme for generating vector optical fields should have not only high efficiency but also flexibility for satisfying the requirements of various applications. However, in general, high efficiency and flexibility are not compatible. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a solution to directly, flexibly, and efficiently generate vector vortex optical fields (VVOFs) with a reflective phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) based on optical birefringence of liquid crystal molecules. To generate the VVOFs, this approach needs in principle only a half-wave plate, an LC-SLM, and a quarter-wave plate. This approach has some advantages, including a simple experimental setup, good flexibility, and high efficiency, making the approach very promising in some applications when higher power is need. This approach has a generation efficiency of 44.0%, which is much higher than the 1.1% of the common path interferometric approach.

  13. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  14. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, organic carbon is measured from a quartz fiber filter that has been exposed to a volume of ambient air and analyzed using thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR). Here, methods are presented that show the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters to accurately predict TOR OC. This work marks an initial step in proposing a method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks with an inexpensive, non-destructive analysis technique using routinely collected PTFE filter samples which, in addition to OC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the composition of organic aerosol. This feasibility study suggests that the minimum detection limit and errors (or uncertainty) of FT-IR predictions are on par with TOR OC such that evaluation of long-term trends and epidemiological studies would not be significantly impacted. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least-squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date. The calibration produces precise and accurate TOR OC predictions of the test set samples by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, the nominal IMPROVE sample volume is 32.8 m3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also

  15. Algebraic invariants for reflection Mueller polarimetry via uncompensated double pass illumination-collection optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Vizet, Jérémy

    2016-07-01

    We report on the identification of the two algebraic invariants inherent to Mueller matrix polarimetry measurements performed through double pass illumination-collection optics (e.g., an optical fiber or an objective) of unknown polarimetric response. The practical use of the invariants, potentially applicable to the characterization of nonreciprocal media, is illustrated on experimental examples.

  16. Reflection-based fibre-optic refractive index sensor using surface plasmon resonance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlubina, P.; Kadulová, M.; Ciprian, D.; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, August 19 (2014), 14033:1-5 ISSN 1990-2573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * fibre-optic sensor * spectral interrogation technique * aqueous solutions of ethanol * refractive index Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.231, year: 2014

  17. All-optical microscope autofocus based on an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected IR laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathe-Peters, M; Annibale, P; Lohse, M J

    2018-02-05

    Microscopic imaging at high spatial-temporal resolution over long time scales (minutes to hours) requires rapid and precise stabilization of the microscope focus. Conventional and commercial autofocus systems are largely based on piezoelectric stages or mechanical objective actuators. Objective to sample distance is either measured by image analysis approaches or by hardware modules measuring the intensity of reflected infrared light. We propose here a truly all-optical microscope autofocus taking advantage of an electrically tunable lens and a totally internally reflected infrared probe beam. We implement a feedback-loop based on the lateral position of a totally internally reflected infrared laser on a quadrant photodetector, as an indicator of the relative defocus. We show here how to treat the combined contributions due to mechanical defocus and deformation of the tunable lens. As a result, the sample can be kept in focus without any mechanical movement, at rates up to hundreds of Hertz. The device requires only reflective optics and can be implemented at a fraction of the cost required for a comparable piezo-based actuator.

  18. Evaluation of the soft x-ray reflectivity of micropore optics using anisotropic wet etching of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Yamasaki, Noriko Y; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shirata, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2010-02-20

    The x-ray reflectivity of an ultralightweight and low-cost x-ray optic using anisotropic wet etching of Si (110) wafers is evaluated at two energies, C K(alpha)0.28 keV and Al K(alpha)1.49 keV. The obtained reflectivities at both energies are not represented by a simple planar mirror model considering surface roughness. Hence, an geometrical occultation effect due to step structures upon the etched mirror surface is taken into account. Then, the reflectivities are represented by the theoretical model. The estimated surface roughness at C K(alpha) (approximately 6 nm rms) is significantly larger than approximately 1 nm at Al K(alpha). This can be explained by different coherent lengths at two energies.

  19. Evaluation of the soft x-ray reflectivity of micropore optics using anisotropic wet etching of silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shirata, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2010-02-20

    The x-ray reflectivity of an ultralightweight and low-cost x-ray optic using anisotropic wet etching of Si (110) wafers is evaluated at two energies, C K{alpha}0.28 keV and Al K{alpha}1.49 keV. The obtained reflectivities at both energies are not represented by a simple planar mirror model considering surface roughness. Hence, an geometrical occultation effect due to step structures upon the etched mirror surface is taken into account. Then, the reflectivities are represented by the theoretical model. The estimated surface roughness at C K{alpha} ({approx}6 nm rms) is significantly larger than {approx}1 nm at Al K{alpha}. This can be explained by different coherent lengths at two energies.

  20. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  1. Test facility for astronomical x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Lewis, Robert A.; Bordas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has to appro......Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions; however, the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area while still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes, is described. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  2. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Self-reflection effect in semiconductors in a two-pulse regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Nad'kin, L. Yu

    2004-12-01

    Peculiarities of reflection at the end face of a semi-infinite semiconductor in a two-pulse regime are studied. The reflection functions behave in a complex and ambiguous manner governed by the amplitudes of the fields of incident pulses. The possibility of a complete bleaching of the medium for the field in the M-band is predicted.

  3. Influence of a carbon over-coat on the X-ray reflectance of XEUS mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumb, D.H.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.

    2007-01-01

    , with that for samples with an additional 10 nm thick carbon over-coating. We demonstrate a significant improvement in reflectance in the energy range similar to 1-4 keV, and at a grazing incidence angle of 10 mrad (0.57 degrees). We consider the resulting effective area that could be attained with an optimized design...... of the XEUS telescope. Typically an improvement of 10-60% in effective area, depending on photon energy, can be achieved using the carbon overcoat....

  4. Influence of multiple reflection and optical interference on the magneto-optical properties of Co-Pt alloy films investigated by using the characteristic matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Z. Q.; Lee, Y. P.; Kim, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) of a multilayered system was described by using the characteristic matrix method based on the electromagnetic wave theory. In addition to the multiple reflection and the optical interference, a contribution from the plasma resonance absorption of a metallic layer can be included in the formulation. As an example, we carried out a simulation of the MOKE for Co 0.25 Pt 0.75 alloy films with and without a Pt buffer layer. It was found that the Kerr rotation and the read-out figure of merit of a film directly deposited on a glass substrate were enhanced at a thickness below 40 nm owing to the multiple reflection and the optical interference. This enhancement was more remakable at long wavelengths when light was incident on the substrate side. However, the introduction of a Pt buffer layer was not beneficial in improving the Kerr rotation and the figure of merit, although it promoted the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the film, as reported. The simulated results for an alloy thickness beyond the penetration depth of light agreed well with the experimental data for a prepared 'thick' alloy film

  5. Using the combination refraction-reflection solid to design omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jionghui; Yao, Wenming; Wen, Linqiang

    2015-10-01

    Underwater wireless optical communication is a communication technology which uses laser as an information carrier and transmits data through water. Underwater wireless optical communication has some good features such as broader bandwidth, high transmission rate, better security, anti—interference performance. Therefore, it is promising to be widely used in the civil and military communication domains. It is also suitable for high-speed, short-range communication between underwater mobile vehicles. This paper presents a design approach of omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication, using TRACEPRO simulation tool to help design a combination solid composed of the lens, conical reflector and parabolic reflector, and using the modulated DPSS green laser in the transmitter module to output the laser beam in small divergence angles, after expanded by the combination refraction-reflection solid, the angle turns into a space divergence angle of 2π, achieving the omni-directional light source of hemisphere space, and test in the air and underwater, the result shows that the effect is fine. This paper analyzes the experimental test in the air and water, in order to make further improvement of the uniformity of light distribution, we optimize the reflector surface parameters of combination refraction-reflection solid and test in the air and water. The result shows that omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication optimized could achieve the uniformity of light distribution of underwater space divergence angle of 2π. Omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication designed in this paper has the characteristics of small size and uniformity of light distribution, it is suitable for application between UUVs, AUVs, Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and other underwater vehicle fleet, it realizes point-to-multipoint communications.

  6. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FT-IR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed: one developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a uniform distribution of Low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the Low EC calibration to Low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produce predictions for Low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, a

  7. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the low EC calibration to low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produces predictions for low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no

  8. Realistic reflectance spectrum of thin films covering a transparent optically thick substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi,” University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    A spectrophotometric strategy is presented and discussed for calculating realistically the reflectance spectrum of an absorbing film deposited over a thick transparent or semi-transparent substrate. The developed route exploits simple mathematics, has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions and thick-to-ultrathin films), rules out numerical and curve-fitting procedures as well as model-functions, inherently accounts for the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface as well as substrate backside, and describes the film reflectance spectrum as determined by the experimental situation (deposition approach and parameters). The reliability of the method is tested on films of a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing film thickness and structural quality through doping. Results are found consistent with usual information yielded by reflectance, its inherent relationship with scattering processes and contributions to the measured total reflectance.

  9. 1.06 μm reflectivity measurements of metal optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equipment and technique for the measurement of 1.06 μm reflectivity of diamond turned, diamond turned/polished, and polished metal mirrors is presented. From an analysis of repeatability and systematic errors it is concluded the precision of the measurements is 0.003 and the accuracy is 0.005. Diamond turned mirrors compete well with the best 1 μm reflectivity values reported and are superior to polished surfaces studied in this work. (U.S.)

  10. Modern reflective optics for material processing with high power CO/sub 2/-laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juptner, W.P.O.; Sepold, G.; Rothe, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art in diamond turning of parabolic mirrors allows to manufacture high quality surfaces at a reasonable low price. In this paper a report is given on mirror optics and systems which were developed with the following aims: Small losses of laser power in the system with a high efficiency of the laser beam processing system; Long lifetime of the mirrors under material processing conditions; High Standard of the optical quality; Flexibility for different applications. The requested qualities are guaranteed by the whole construction of the optics and the system. The theoretical works, the state of the art of the development and the future aspects of these laser working head systems are reported

  11. Spatiotemporal closure of fractional laser-ablated channels imaged by optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina A.; Wind, Bas S.; Mogensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offer high-resolution optical imaging of the skin, which may provide benefit in the context of laser-assisted drug delivery. We aimed to characterize postoperative healing of ablative fractional...... laser (AFXL)-induced channels and dynamics in their spatiotemporal closure using in vivo OCT and RCM techniques. Study design/Materials and Methods The inner forearm of healthy subjects (n = 6) was exposed to 10,600 nm fractional CO2 laser using 5 and 25% densities, 120 μm beam diameter, 5, 15, and 25 m......J/microbeam. Treatment sites were scanned with OCT to evaluate closure of AFXL-channels and RCM to evaluate subsequent re-epithelialization. Results OCT and RCM identified laser channels in epidermis and upper dermis as black, ablated tissue defects surrounded by characteristic hyper-and hyporeflective zones. OCT imaged...

  12. The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfers, F.; Bischoff, P.; Eggenstein, F.; Erko, A.; Gaupp, A.; Künstner, S.; Mast, M.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Senf, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Zeschke, Th.

    2016-01-01

    A technology center for the production of high-precision reflection gratings has been established. Within this project a new optics beamline and a versatile reflectometer for at-wavelength characterization of UV- and XUV-reflection gratings and other (nano-) optical elements has been set up at BESSY-II. The Plane Grating Monochromator beamline operated in collimated light (c-PGM) is equipped with an SX700 monochromator, of which the blazed gratings (600 and 1200 lines mm−1) have been recently exchanged for new ones of improved performance produced in-house. Over the operating range from 10 to 2000 eV this beamline has very high spectral purity achieved by (i) a four-mirror arrangement of different coatings which can be inserted into the beam at different angles and (ii) by absorber filters for high-order suppression. Stray light and scattered radiation is removed efficiently by double sets of in situ exchangeable apertures and slits. By use of in- and off-plane bending-magnet radiation the beamline can be adjusted to either linear or elliptical polarization. One of the main features of a novel 11-axes reflectometer is the possibility to incorporate real life-sized gratings. The samples are adjustable within six degrees of freedom by a newly developed UHV-tripod system carrying a load up to 4 kg, and the reflectivity can be measured between 0 and 90° incidence angle for both s- and p-polarization geometry. This novel powerful metrology facility has gone into operation recently and is now open for external users. First results on optical performance and measurements on multilayer gratings will be presented here. PMID:26698047

  13. Optical characterization of extremely small volumes of liquid in sub-micro-holes by simultaneous reflectivity, ellipsometry and spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, M; Casquel, R; Sánchez, B; Molpeceres, C; Morales, M; Ocaña, J L

    2007-10-01

    We have fabricated and characterized a lattice of submicron cone-shaped holes on a SiO(2)/Si wafer. Reflectivity profiles as a function of angle of incidence and polarization, phase shift and spectrometry are obtained for several fluids with different refractive indexes filling the holes. The optical setup allows measuring in the center of a single hole and collecting all data simultaneously, which can be applied for measuring extremely low volumes of fluid (in the order of 0.1 femtolitres) and label-free immunoassays, as it works as a refractive index sensor. A three layer film stack model is defined to perform theoretical calculations.

  14. Theoretical analysis of open aperture reflection Z-scan on materials with high-order optical nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, Adrian I.; Vlad, Valentin I.

    2010-03-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of open aperture reflection Z-scan in nonlinear media with third-, fifth-, and higher-order nonlinearities. A general analytical expression for the normalized reflectance when third-, fifth- and higher-order optical nonlinearities are excited is derived and its consequences on RZ-scan in media with high-order nonlinearities are discussed. We show that by performing RZ-scan experiments at different incident intensities it is possible to put in evidence the excitation of different order nonlinearities in the medium. Their contributions to the overall nonlinear response can be discriminated by using formulas derived by us. A RZ-scan numerical simulation using these formulas and data taken from literature, measured by another method for the third-, fifth-, and seventh-order nonlinear refractive indices of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass, is performed. (author)

  15. The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S.; De Luisa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity (θ-2θ and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2π solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition

  16. Optical Estimation of the 3D Shape of a Solar Illuminated, Reflecting Satellite Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolin, J.; Yu, Z.; Prasad, S.

    2016-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the polarized component of the power reflected by a macroscopically smooth but microscopically roughened curved surface under highly directional illumination, as characterized by an appropriate bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), carries information about the three-dimensional (3D) shape of the surface. This information can be exploited to recover the surface shape locally under rather general conditions whenever power reflectance data for at least two different illumination or observation directions can be obtained. We present here two different parametric approaches for surface reconstruction, amounting to the recovery of the surface parameters that are either the global parameters of the family to which the surface is known a priori to belong or the coefficients of a low-order polynomial that can be employed to characterize a smoothly varying surface locally over the observed patch.

  17. Design and development of the SIMBOL-X hard x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Attinà, P.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Buzzi, R.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Cusumano, G.; Dell'Orto, E.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Mattaini, E.; Mazzoleni, F.; Parodi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valtolina, R.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    The SIMBOL-X formation-flight X-ray mission will be operated by ASI and CNES in 2014, with a large participation of the French and Italian high energy astrophysics scientific community. Also German and US Institutions are contributing in the implementation of the scientific payload. Thanks to the formation-flight architecture, it will be possible to operate a long (20 m) focal length grazing incidence mirror module, formed by 100 confocal multilayer-coated Wolter I shells. This system will allow us to focus X-rays over a very broad energy band, from 0.5 keV up to 80 keV and beyond, with more than two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution (20 arcsec HEW) and sensitivity (0.5 µCrab on axis @30 keV) compared to non focusing detectors used so far. The X-ray mirrors will be realized by Ni electroforming replication, already successfully used for BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, and JET-X/SWIFT; the thickness trend will be about two times less than for XMM, in order to save mass. Multilayer reflecting coatings will be implemented, in order to improve the reflectivity beyond 10 keV and to increase the field of view 812 arcmin at 30 keV). In this paper, the SIMBOL-X optics design, technology and implementation challenges will be discussed; it will be also reported on recent results obtained in the context of the SIMBOL-X optics development activities.

  18. Optical Reflectance and Fluorescence for Detecting Nitrogen Needs in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrey, J. E.; Middleton, E. M.; Corp. L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Butcher, L. M.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) status in field grown corn (Zea mays L.) was assessed using spectral techniques. Passive reflectance remote sensing and, both passive and active fluorescence sensing methods were investigated. Reflectance and fluorescence methods are reported to detect changes in the primary plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b; carotenoids) in higher plant species. As a general rule, foliar chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b) usually exist in approx.3:l ratio. In plants under stress, Chl b content is affected before Chl a reductions occur. For reflectance, a version of the chlorophyll absorption in reflectance index (CARI) method was tested with narrow bands from the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (ASIA). CARI minimizes the effects of soil background on the signal from green canopies. A modified CARI (MCARI) was used to track total Chl a levels in the red dip of the spectrum from the corn canopy. A second MCARI was used to track the auxiliary plant pigments (Chl b and the carotenoids) in the yellow/orange/red edge part of the reflectance spectrum. The difference between these two MCARI indices detected variations in N levels across the field plot canopies using ASIA data. At the leaf level, ratios of fluorescence emissions in the blue, green, red and far-red wavelengths sensed responses that were associated with the plant pigments, and were indicative of energy transfer in the photosynthetic process. N stressed corn stands could be distinguish from those with optimally applied N with fluorescence emission spectra obtained from individual corn leaves. Both reflectance and fluorescence methods are sensitive in detecting corn N needs and may be especially powerful in monitoring crop conditions if both types of information can be combined.

  19. Characterization, optical properties and laser ablation behavior of epoxy resin coatings reinforced with high reflectivity ceramic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Kong, Jing; Wu, Taotao; Gao, Lihong; Ma, Zhuang; Liu, Yanbo; Wang, Fuchi; Wei, Chenghua; Wang, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    Thermal damage induced by high power energy, especially high power laser, significantly affects the lifetime and performance of equipment. High-reflectance coating/film has attracted considerable attention due to its good performance in the damage protection. Preparing a high-reflectance coating with high reaction endothermal enthalpy will effectively consume a large amount of incident energy and in turn protect the substrate from thermal damage. In this study, a low temperature process was used to prepare coatings onto substrate with complex shape and avoid thermal effect during molding. An advanced high reflection ceramic powder, La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ , was added in the epoxy adhesive matrix to improve the reflectivity of coating. The optical properties and laser ablation behaviors of coatings with different ceramic additive ratio of La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ and modified epoxy-La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ with ammonium polyphosphate coatings were investigated, respectively. We found that the reflectivity of coatings is extremely high due to mixed high-reflection La1‑xSrxTiO3+δ particles, up to 96% at 1070 nm, which can significantly improve the laser resistance. In addition, the ammonium polyphosphate modifies the residual carbon structure of epoxy resin from discontinuous fine particles structure to continuous and porous structure, which greatly enhances the thermal-insulation property of coating. Furthermore, the laser ablation threshold is improved obviously, which is from 800 W cm‑2 to 1000 W cm‑2.

  20. Fabrication of high-resolution reflective scale grating for an optical encoder using a patterned self-assembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Shanjin; Jiang, Weitao; Li, Xuan; Yu, Haoyu; Lei, Biao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Chen, Bangdao; Liu, Hongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Steel tape scale grating of a reflective incremental linear encoder has a key impact on the measurement accuracy of the optical encoder. However, it is difficult for conventional manufacturing processes to fabricate scale grating with high-resolution grating strips, due to process and material problems. In this paper, self-assembly technology was employed to fabricate high-resolution steel tape scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. Graphene oxide nanoparticles were adopted to form anti-reflective grating strips of steel tape scale grating. They were deposited in the tape, which had a hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern when the dispersion of the nanoparticles evaporated. A standard lift-off process was employed to fabricate the hydrophobic grating strips on the steel tape. Simultaneously, the steel tape itself presents a hydrophilic property. The hydrophobic and hydrophilic grating pattern was thus obtained. In this study, octafluorocyclobutane was used to prepare the hydrophobic grating strips, due to its hydrophobic property. High-resolution graphene oxide steel tape scale grating with a pitch of 20 μ m was obtained through the self-assembly process. The photoelectric signals of the optical encoder containing the graphene oxide scale grating and conventional scale grating were tested under the same conditions. Comparison test results showed that the graphene oxide scale grating has a better performance in its amplitude and harmonic components than that of the conventional steel tape scale. A comparison experiment of position errors was also conducted, demonstrating an improvement in the positioning error of the graphene oxide scale grating. The comparison results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed self-assembly process to fabricate high-resolution graphene oxide scale grating for a reflective incremental linear encoder. (paper)

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical soft tissue differentiation as remote feedback control for tissue-specific laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Zam, Azhar; Schmidt, Michael; Douplik, Alexandre; Nkenke, Emeka

    2010-04-01

    Laser surgery does not provide haptic feedback for operating layer-by-layer and thereby preserving vulnerable anatomical structures like nerve tissue or blood vessels. Diffuse reflectance spectra can facilitate remote optical tissue differentiation. It is the aim of the study to use this technique on soft tissue samples, to set a technological basis for a remote optical feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. Diffuse reflectance spectra (wavelength range: 350-650 nm) of ex vivo types of soft tissue (a total of 10,800 spectra) of the midfacial region of domestic pigs were remotely measured under reduced environmental light conditions and analyzed in order to differentiate between skin, mucosa, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and nerve tissue. We performed a principal components (PC) analysis (PCA) to reduce the number of variables. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was utilized for classification. For the tissue differentiation, we calculated the specificity and sensitivity by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Six PCs were found to be adequate for tissue differentiation with diffuse reflectance spectra using LDA. All of the types of soft tissue could be differentiated with high specificity and sensitivity. Only the tissue pairs nervous tissue/fatty tissue and nervous tissue/mucosa showed a decline of differentiation due to bio-structural similarity. However, both of these tissue pairs could still be differentiated with a specificity and sensitivity of more than 90%. Analyzing diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with PCA and LDA allows for remote differentiation of biological tissue. Considering the limitations of the ex vivo conditions, the obtained results are promising and set a basis for the further development of a feedback system for tissue-specific laser surgery. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Baek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  3. Nonlinear self-reflection of intense ultra-wideband femtosecond pulses in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, Leonid S.; Shpolyanskiy, Yuri A.

    2013-05-01

    We simulated propagation of few-cycle femtosecond pulses in fused silica fiber based on the set of first-order equations for forward and backward waves that generalizes widely used equation of unidirectional approximation. Appearance of a weak reflected field in conditions default to the unidirectional approach is observed numerically. It arises from nonmatched initial field distribution with the nonlinear medium response. Besides additional field propagating forward along with the input pulse is revealed. The analytical solution of a simplified set of equations valid over distances of a few wavelengths confirms generation of reflected and forward-propagating parts of the backward wave. It allowed us to find matched conditions when the reflected field is eliminated and estimate the amplitude of backward wave via medium properties. The amplitude has the order of the nonlinear contribution to the refractive index divided by the linear refractive index. It is small for the fused silica so the conclusions obtained in the unidirectional approach are valid. The backward wave should be proportionally higher in media with stronger nonlinear response. We did not observe in simulations additional self-reflection not related to non-matched boundary conditions.

  4. Time-dependent variation of fiber Bragg grating reflectivity in PMMA-based polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-Rodriguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2015-01-01

    the material photosensitivity. After the inscription, the strain was released, and the FBGs spectra were monitored. We initially observed a decrease of the reflection down to zero after which it began to increase. After that, strain tests were carried out to confirm the results, and finally the gratings were...

  5. 3D Reflection Map Modeling for Optical Emitter-receiver Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Vie

    2004-01-01

    A model for a model-based 3D-position determination system for a passive object is presented. Infrared emitter/receiver pairs are proposed as sensing part to acquire information on a ball shaped object's position. A 3D reflection map model is derived trough geometrical considerations. The model...

  6. CPV system based on NIR reflecting lamellae integrated into a greenhouse: Optimizing of Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet Sonneveld; Gert-Jan Swinkels

    2010-01-01

    In an previous research project a new type of greenhouse with an integrated concentrated photovoltaic system (CPV) was developed which has an integrated filter for reflecting the near infrared radiation (NIR) to the greenhouse and exploiting this radiation in a solar energy system. The performance

  7. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Youngchul Bae

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the stre...

  8. Immature visual neural system in children reflected by contrast sensitivity with adaptive optics correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Zhou, Jiawei; Zhao, Haoxin; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong; Tang, Yong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neural development status of the visual system of children (around 8 years old) using contrast sensitivity. We achieved this by eliminating the influence of higher order aberrations (HOAs) with adaptive optics correction. We measured HOAs, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) and contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of six children and five adults with both corrected and uncorrected HOAs. We found that when HOAs were corrected, children and adults both showed improvements in MTF and CSF. However, the CSF of children was still lower than the adult level, indicating the difference in contrast sensitivity between groups cannot be explained by differences in optical factors. Further study showed that the difference between the groups also could not be explained by differences in non-visual factors. With these results we concluded that the neural systems underlying vision in children of around 8 years old are still immature in contrast sensitivity. PMID:24732728

  9. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  10. Cascaded holographic polymer reflection grating filters for optical-code-division multiple-access applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K; Maeda, Wendi; Chen, Chia-Hung; Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2005-12-10

    We evaluate the use of edge-illuminated holographic Bragg filters formed in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for optical-code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) coding and decoding applications. Experimental cascaded Bragg filters are formed to select two different wavelengths with a fixed distance between the gratings and are directly coupled to a fiber-measurement system. The configuration and tolerances of the cascaded gratings are shown to be practical for time-wavelength OCDMA applications.

  11. Polarization sensitivity testing of off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randal L.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Laubis, Christian; Soltwisch, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Off-Plane reflection gratings were previously predicted to have different efficiencies when the incident light is polarized in the transverse-magnetic (TM) versus transverse-electric (TE) orientations with respect to the grating grooves. However, more recent theoretical calculations which rigorously account for finitely conducting, rather than perfectly conducting, grating materials no longer predict significant polarization sensitivity. We present the first empirical results for radially ruled, laminar groove profile gratings in the off-plane mount which demonstrate no difference in TM versus TE efficiency across our entire 300-1500 eV bandpass. These measurements together with the recent theoretical results confirm that grazing incidence off-plane reflection gratings using real, not perfectly conducting, materials are not polarization sensitive.

  12. Mounting and Alignment of Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Kester, Thomas; Ramsey, Brian; Smithers, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for astronomy. The optics are full-cylinder mirror shells fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished mandrels. For space-based applications where weight is at a premium, very-thin-walled, light-weight mirrors are required. Such shells have been fabricated at MSFC with greater than 15 arcsec resolution. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center to meet this challenge.

  13. Defect testing of large aperture optics based on high resolution CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaofeng; Xu Xu; Zhang Lin; He Qun; Yuan Xiaodong; Jiang Xiaodong; Zheng Wanguo

    2009-01-01

    A fast testing method on inspecting defects of large aperture optics was introduced. With uniform illumination by LED source at grazing incidence, the image of defects on the surface of and inside the large aperture optics could be enlarged due to scattering. The images of defects were got by high resolution CCD camera and microscope, and the approximate mathematical relation between viewing dimension and real dimension of defects was simulated. Thus the approximate real dimension and location of all defects could be calculated through the high resolution pictures. (authors)

  14. Optical Modeling of Spectral Backscattering and Remote Sensing Reflectance From Emiliania huxleyi Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Neukermans

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we develop an analytical model for spectral backscattering and ocean color remote sensing of blooms of the calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Blooms of this coccolithophore species are ubiquitous and particularly intense in temperate and subpolar ocean waters. We first present significant improvements to our previous analytical light backscattering model for E. huxleyi coccoliths and coccospheres by accounting for the elliptical shape of coccoliths and the multi-layered coccosphere architecture observed on detailed imagery of E. huxleyi liths and coccospheres. Our new model also includes a size distribution function that closely matches measured E. huxleyi size distributions. The model for spectral backscattering is then implemented in an analytical radiative transfer model to evaluate the variability of spectral remote sensing reflectance with respect to changes in the size distribution of the coccoliths and during a hypothetical E. huxleyi bloom decay event in which coccospheres shed their liths. Our modeled remote sensing reflectance spectra reproduced well the bright milky turquoise coloring of the open ocean typically associated with the final stages of E. huxleyi blooms, with peak reflectance at a wavelength of 0.49 μm. Our results also show that the magnitude of backscattering from coccoliths when attached to or freed from the coccosphere does not differ much, contrary to what is commonly assumed, and that the spectral shape of backscattering is mainly controlled by the size and morphology of the coccoliths, suggesting that they may be estimated from spectral backscattering.

  15. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO 2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  16. X-Ray Diffraction and Reflectivity Validation of the Depletion Attraction in the Competitive Adsorption of Lung Surfactant and Albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenger, Patric C.; Wu, Guohui; Miller, Chad E.

    2009-01-01

    as on a pristine interface, but with a more compact lattice corresponding to a small increase in the surface pressure. These results confirm that albumin adsorption creates a physical barrier that inhibits LS adsorption, and that PEG in the subphase generates a depletion attraction between the LS aggregates...... to subsequent LS adsorption that can be overcome by the depletion attraction induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in solution. A combination of grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), x-ray reflectivity (XR), and pressure-area isotherms provides molecular-resolution information on the location...

  17. Classification of reflected signals from cavitated tooth surfaces using an artificial intelligence technique incorporating a fiber optic displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Arof, Hamzah; Irawati, Ninik; Musirin, Ismail; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-05-01

    An enhanced dental cavity diameter measurement mechanism using an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) scanning and imaging system, fuzzy logic as well as a single-layer perceptron (SLP) neural network, is presented. The SLP network was employed for the classification of the reflected signals, which were obtained from the surfaces of teeth samples and captured using FODS. Two features were used for the classification of the reflected signals with one of them being the output of a fuzzy logic. The test results showed that the combined fuzzy logic and SLP network methodology contributed to a 100% classification accuracy of the network. The high-classification accuracy significantly demonstrates the suitability of the proposed features and classification using SLP networks for classifying the reflected signals from teeth surfaces, enabling the sensor to accurately measure small diameters of tooth cavity of up to 0.6 mm. The method remains simple enough to allow its easy integration in existing dental restoration support systems.

  18. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  19. Reflective optical system for time-resolved electron bunch measurements at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosbach, K; Baehr, J [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Roensch-Schulenburg, J [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2011-01-15

    The Photo-Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ), produces pulsed electron beams with low transverse emittance and is equipped with diagnostic devices for measuring various electron bunch properties, including the longitudinal and transverse electron phase space distributions. The longitudinal bunch structure is recorded using a streak camera located outside the accelerator tunnel, connected to the diagnostics in the beam-line stations by an optical system of about 30 m length. This system mainly consists of telescopes of achromatic lenses, which transport the light pulses and image them onto the entrance slit of the streak camera. Due to dispersion in the lenses, the temporal resolution degrades during transport. This article presents general considerations for time-resolving optical systems as well as simulations and measurements of specific candidate systems. It then describes the development of an imaging system based on mirror telescopes which will improve the temporal resolution, with an emphasis on off-axis parabolic mirror systems working at unit magnification. A hybrid system of lenses and mirrors will serve as a proof of principle. (orig.)

  20. Hyperspectral optical imaging of human iris in vivo: characteristics of reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Pereira, Luís M.; Correia, Hélder T.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2011-07-01

    We report a hyperspectral imaging system to measure the reflectance spectra of real human irises with high spatial resolution. A set of ocular prosthesis was used as the control condition. Reflectance data were decorrelated by the principal-component analysis. The main conclusion is that spectral complexity of the human iris is considerable: between 9 and 11 principal components are necessary to account for 99% of the cumulative variance in human irises. Correcting image misalignments associated with spontaneous ocular movements did not influence this result. The data also suggests a correlation between the first principal component and different levels of melanin present in the irises. It was also found that although the spectral characteristics of the first five principal components were not affected by the radial and angular position of the selected iridal areas, they affect the higher-order ones, suggesting a possible influence of the iris texture. The results show that hyperspectral imaging in the iris, together with adequate spectroscopic analyses provide more information than conventional colorimetric methods, making hyperspectral imaging suitable for the characterization of melanin and the noninvasive diagnosis of ocular diseases and iris color.

  1. Optical resonance analysis of reflected long period fiber gratings with metal film overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiju; Cao, Bing; Wang, Chinua; Zhao, Minfu

    2008-11-01

    We present the experimental results of a novel single-ended reflecting surface plasma resonance (SPR) based long period fiber grating (LPFG) sensor. A long period fiber grating sensing device is properly designed and fabricated with a pulsed CO2 laser writing system. Different nm-thick thin metal films are deposited on the fiber cladding and the fiber end facet for the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPWs) and the reflection of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with doubled interaction between metal-dielectric interfaces of the fiber to enhance the SPW of the all-fiber SPR-LPFG sensing system. Different thin metal films with different thicknesses are investigated. The effect of the excited SPW transmission along the fiber cladding-metal interface with silver and aluminum films is observed. It is found that different thicknesses of the metal overlay show different resonant behaviors in terms of resonance peak situation, bandwidth and energy loss. Within a certain range, thinner metal film shows narrower bandwidth and deeper peak loss.

  2. Magneto-optical transmission-reflection beam splitter for multi-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.E.; Goodman, P.; Sidorov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    An atomic de Broglie wave beam splitter is proposed. The interaction of multi-level atoms (J g = 1 - J e = 0) with a laser beam in the presence of a static magnetic field leads to the partial transmission and reflection of the atomic beam. The coherent splitting of the atomic beam occurs due to non-adiabatic transitions between different dressed states in the vicinity of avoided crossings. The transition probabilities and populations of split beams are dependent on the value of the magnetic field, laser detuning, and the ratio between different polarization components in the laser beam. For optimal conditions the population of each of the two transmitted and two reflected beams is 25 per cent. For cooled atoms it is possible to obtain splitting angles of 80 mrad. The effect of spontaneous emission during the atom-light interaction was estimated and for a reasonable detuning losses were reduced to less than 10 per cent. 14 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  3. Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Mimura, Hidekazu; Sano, Yasuhisa; Saito, Akira; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Souvorov, Alexei; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuzo

    2005-11-10

    The intensity flatness and wavefront shape in a coherent hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by flat mirrors that have surface bumps modeled by Gaussian functions were investigated by use of a wave-optical simulation code. Simulated results revealed the necessity for peak-to-valley height accuracy of better than 1 nm at a lateral resolution near 0.1 mm to remove high-contrast interference fringes and appreciable wavefront phase errors. Three mirrors that had different surface qualities were tested at the 1 km-long beam line at the SPring-8/Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute. Interference fringes faded when the surface figure was corrected below the subnanometer level to a spatial resolution close to 0.1 mm, as indicated by the simulated results.

  4. Frequency-modulated impulse response photothermal detection through optical reflectance. 2: Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J F; Mandelis, A

    1988-08-15

    A fast thermoreflectance impulse response photothermal imager was assembled and tested with several solid materials [quartz, stainless steel, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)I. The instrument was found to yield quantitative data in agreement with Green's function theoretical models of time domain heat conduction. The FM chirp laser intensity modulation technique used in these experiments gave wide bandwidth photothermal signals and was found to be only limited by the FFT instrumentation frequency response (100 kHz). Thermal diffusivities were calculated, while thermal lensing and thermoelastic effects were further observed. The imager was thus shown to be capable of replacing pulsed laser devices for truly nondestructive applications with materials with low damage threshold to optical pulses.

  5. Optical fiber tip interferometer gas pressure sensor based on anti-resonant reflecting guidance mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. B.; Wang, D. N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Z. K.

    2018-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a gas pressure sensor based on an anti-resonant reflecting guidance (ARRG) mechanism in quartz capillary tube with an open cavity. The device is simple in fabrication by only fusion splicing a segment of capillary tube with single mode fiber. It has compact size, robust structure, convenient mode of operation, and high sensitivity of 4.278 nm/MPa. Moreover, as two Faby-Perot cavities exist in the device, which create the interference spectrum with several distinct resonance dips, a simultaneous gas pressure and temperature detection can be readily achieved by tracing two dip wavelengths. The error in the measurement due to the choice of different resonant dips can be effectively reduced by using the Fourier band pass filtering method.

  6. Nanogranular Au films deposited on carbon covered Si substrates for enhanced optical reflectivity and Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvana, T; Kumar, G V Pavan; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2007-01-01

    Electroless deposition of gold has been carried out on Si(100) surfaces precoated with laser ablated carbon layers of different thicknesses, and the resulting substrates have been characterized by a host of techniques. We first established the porous nature of the amorphous carbon layer by Raman and profilometric measurements. The Au uptake from the plating solution was optimal at a carbon layer thickness of 90 nm, where we observed nanogranules of ∼60-70 nm, well separated from each other in the carbon matrix (mean interparticle spacing ∼7 nm). We believe that the observed nanostructure is a result of Au 3+ electroless reduction on the Si surface through porous channels present in the amorphous carbon matrix. Importantly, this nanostructured substrate exhibited high reflectivity in the near IR region besides being effective as a substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements with enhancement factors up to 10 7

  7. Fiber optic refractive index sensor using optofluidic anti-resonant reflecting guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ran; Lu, Danfeng; Cheng, Jin; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2017-10-01

    An optofluidic anti-resonant reflecting guidance has been proposed and experimental demonstrated for the measurement of liquid refractive index. Two micro-channels were fabricated for the delivery of the liquid sample in the hollow core photonic crystal fiber by using femtosecond laser micromachining, serving as an inlet and outlet. The refractive index can be detected by using the resonant condition of the Fabry-Perot resonator, which is interrogated through the wavelength shift and of the lossy dip in the transmission spectrum. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of up to 1328 nm/RIU is achieved for the refractive index in the range from 1.345 to 1.363 RIU, respectively. The proposed sensor appears to have potential applications of precise measurement in chemistry, medicine, and biology.

  8. Dermal reflectivity determined by optical coherence tomography is an indicator of epidermal hyperplasia and dermal edema within inflamed skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Levitz, David; Choudhury, Niloy; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven L.

    2011-04-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of inflammation in psoriasis remain unclear. We undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to noninvasively document cutaneous alterations in mouse skin treated topically with Imiquimod (IMQ), an established model of a psoriasis-like disease. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a two parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(x, y, z) = ρ(x, y)exp [ - μ(x, y)z]. Ensemble averaging over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed no significant changes in the average dermal attenuation rate, , however the average local dermal reflectivity , decreased significantly following 1, 3, and 6 days of IMQ treatment (p humans.

  9. Magnetic switching of optical reflectivity in nanomagnet/micromirror suspensions: colloid displays as a potential alternative to liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenhofer, S B; Athanassiou, E K; Grass, R N; Koehler, F M; Rossier, M; Stark, W J

    2009-12-02

    Two-particle colloids containing nanomagnets and microscale mirrors can be prepared from iron oxide nanoparticles, microscale metal flakes and high-density liquids stabilizing the mirror suspension against sedimentation by matching the constituent's density. The free Brownian rotation of the micromirrors can be magnetically controlled through an anisotropic change in impulse transport arising from impacts of the magnetic nanoparticles onto the anisotropic flakes. The resulting rapid mirror orientation allows large changes in light transmission and switchable optical reflectivity. The preparation of a passive display was conceptually demonstrated through colloid confinement in a planar cavity over an array of individually addressable solenoids and resulted in 4 x 4 digit displays with a reaction time of less than 100 ms.

  10. Optical second-harmonic and reflectance-anisotropy spectroscopy of molecular adsorption at Si(001) step-edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Robert; Kwon, Jinhee; Downer, Michael C. [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Reflectance-anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) and spectroscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) are used to probe a single-domain reconstructed stepped Si(001) surface offcut 6 toward[110] before and after dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2} at the D{sub B} step edges. Preliminary analysis with a simplified bond hyperpolarizability model supports the mutual consistency of RA and SHG spectra and suggests that hydrogen termination redistributes oscillator strength from the chemically active step dangling bond into the step back bonds. The data provide a benchmark for first-principles calculations of the optical response of stepped Si surfaces to step edge molecular adsorption. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Optical constants and scattering factors from reflectivity measurements: 50 eV to 5 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C.; Graessle, D.E.; Burbine, T.H.; Gullikson, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    An improved reflection technique has been introduced to permit more accurate measurements of material optical constants δ and β, the density ρ, and from these the atomic scattering factors f ' and f double-prime. Regions of normal and anomolous dispersion can be measured with resolving power 1000 or larger using a portable reflectometer that is moved to any of three beamlines at NSLS or two at CHESS. Herein the reflectometer and measurement techniques are described together with sample characteristics and preliminary results for the Ni LIII edge and the M edges of Au, Pt, and Ir. The primary accuracy limiting factors are density determination, accumulation of surface oxides or carbonaceous deposits, and synchrotron orbit stability. Each sample must be prepared for the specific energy range to be measured so that model fitting routines have the minimum possible number of free variables

  12. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires obtained by aerosol assisted CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ruelas, M.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Esquivel-Pereyra, O.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanorods and nanowires of CuO were successfully synthesized by AACVD technique. • The carrier gas velocity was a determinant factor for the growth of nanorods or nanowires. • The increase of deposition time generates the reduction in the evenness and distribution density. • The crystalline phase of nanorods and nanowires was monoclinic tenorite. - Abstract: Copper oxide is a particularly interesting material because it presents photovoltaic, electrochemical and catalytic properties. Its unique properties are very important in the area of nanotechnology and may be an advantage because these nanomaterials can be applied in the design and manufacture of nanosensors, photocatalysis area, nanolasers switches and transistors. Nowadays one-dimensional nanostructures as nanorods, nanowires, etc., have generated a great importance and have received considerable attention and study due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In this work we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires grown by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto a CuO, ZnO and TiO 2 thin film covered and bare borosilicate glass substrate. Concentration of the precursor solution and carrier gas flux were previously optimized and fixed at 0.1 mol dm −3 and 5 L min −1 , respectively. Other deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, as well the carrier gas velocity and deposition time were varied from 623 to 973 K, 0.88 to 1.77 m s −1 and 11 to 16 min, respectively. Their influence on the morphology, microstructure and optical properties of the nanorods and nanowires were analyzed. The crystalline structure of the materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction; results indicate the presence of the tenorite phase. Surface morphology and microstructure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical

  13. Quasi-optical reflective polarimeter for wide millimeter-wave band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Tsuboi, Masato; Kasuga, Takashi

    1998-11-01

    We constructed a new reflective-type polarimeter system at 35 - 250 GHz for the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO). Using the system, we can measure both linear polarization and circular polarization for our needs. The new system has two key points. First is that we can tune the center frequency of the polarimeter in the available frequency range, second is that insertion loss is low (0.15 plus or minus 0.03 dB at 86 GHz). These characteristics extended achievable scientific aims. In this paper, we present the design and the performance of the system. Using the system, we measured linear polarizations of some astronomical objects at 86 GHz, with SiO (nu) equals 0,1 and 2 at J equals 2 - 1 and 29SiO (nu) equals 0 J equals 2 - 1 simultaneously. As a result, the observation revealed SiO (nu) equals 0 J equals 2 - 1 of VY Canis Majoris is highly linearly polarized, the degree of linear polarization is up to 64%, in spite of SiO J equals 2 - 1 (nu) equals 1 is not highly linearly polarized. The highly linearly polarized feature is a strong evidence that 28SiO J equals 2 - 1 transition at the ground vibrational state originate through maser action. This is the first detection of the cosmic maser emission of SiO (nu) equals 0 J equals 2 - 1 transition.

  14. Effects of low earth orbit on the optical performance of multi-layer enhanced high reflectance mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Terence; Johnson, Linda; Klemm, Karl; Scheri, Rick; Bennett, Jean; Erickson, Jon; Dibrozolo, Filippo

    1995-01-01

    Two mirror designs developed for space applications were flown along with a standard mid-infrared design on the leading and trailing edges of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Preliminary observations of induced changes in optical performance of ZnS-coated mirrors and impact-related microstructural and microchemical effects are described in the proceedings of the First LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium. In this paper, effects of the induced environment and meteoroid/debris impacts on mirror performance are described in more detail. Also, an analysis of reflectance spectra using the results of Auger and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiling measurements are used to identify an optical-degradation mechanism for the ZnS-coated mirrors. Structural damage associated with a high-velocity impact on a (Si/Al2O3)-coated mirror was imaged optically and with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM). Scanning Auger and SIMS analysis provided chemical mapping of selected impact sites. The impact data suggest design and fabrication modifications for obtaining improved mechanical performance using a design variation identified in preflight laboratory simulations. Auger surface profile and SIMS imaging data verified the conclusion that secondary impacts are the source of contamination associated with the dendrites grown on the leading-edge ZnS-coated test samples. It was also found that dendrites can be grown in the laboratory by irradiating contaminated sites on a trailing-edge ZnS-coated sample with a rastered electron beam. These results suggest a mechanism for dendrite growth.

  15. Hybrid lightweight X-ray optics for half arcsecond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    This proposal is for the development of grazing incidence optics suitable to meet the 0.5 arcsec imaging and 2.3 square meter effective area requirements of the X-ray Surveyor mission concept, currently under study by NASA. Our approach is to combine two promising technologies, as yet individually unproven at the 0.5 arcsec level, into a hybrid mirror approach. The two technologies are thin piezoelectric film adjustable optics under development at SAO and PSU, and differential deposition under development at NASA MSFC. These technologies are complementary: adjustable optics are best suited to fixing low spatial frequency errors due to piezoelectric cell size limitations, and differential deposition is best suited for fixing mid-spatial frequency errors so as to limit the amount of material that must be deposited. Thus, the combination of the two techniques extends the bandwidth of figure errors that can be corrected beyond what it was for either individual technique. Both technologies will be applied to fabricate Wolter-I mirror segment from single thermally formed glass substrates. This work is directed at mirror segments only (not full shells), as we believe segments are the most appropriate for developing the 3 m diameter X-ray Surveyor high resolution mirror. In this program we will extend differential deposition to segment surfaces (from line profiles), investigate the most realistic error bandwidths for each technology, and determine the impacts of one technologys processing steps on the other to find if there is an optimal order to combining the technologies. In addition, we will also conduct a conical/cylindrical mirror metrology "round-robin," to cross-calibrate the different cylindrical metrology to one another as a means of minimizing systematic errors. Finally, we will examine the balancing and compensating of mirror stress due to the various thin films employed (piezoelectric layer, differential deposition, X-ray reflecting layer(s)) with an eye to

  16. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chu, Junhao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 500 Yu-tian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Liu, Aiyun [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Gui Lin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Shi, Yiwei [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  17. A customizable software for fast reduction and analysis of large X-ray scattering data sets: applications of the new DPDAK package to small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, Gunthard; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Li, Chenghao; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Flucke, Gero; Hoerth, Rebecca; Zizak, Ivo; Burghammer, Manfred; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Trebbin, Martin; Förster, Stephan; Paris, Oskar; Roth, Stephan V; Fratzl, Peter

    2014-10-01

    X-ray scattering experiments at synchrotron sources are characterized by large and constantly increasing amounts of data. The great number of files generated during a synchrotron experiment is often a limiting factor in the analysis of the data, since appropriate software is rarely available to perform fast and tailored data processing. Furthermore, it is often necessary to perform online data reduction and analysis during the experiment in order to interactively optimize experimental design. This article presents an open-source software package developed to process large amounts of data from synchrotron scattering experiments. These data reduction processes involve calibration and correction of raw data, one- or two-dimensional integration, as well as fitting and further analysis of the data, including the extraction of certain parameters. The software, DPDAK (directly programmable data analysis kit), is based on a plug-in structure and allows individual extension in accordance with the requirements of the user. The article demonstrates the use of DPDAK for on- and offline analysis of scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data on biological samples and microfluidic systems, as well as for a comprehensive analysis of grazing-incidence SAXS data. In addition to a comparison with existing software packages, the structure of DPDAK and the possibilities and limitations are discussed.

  18. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diziain, S.; Bijeon, J.-L.; Adam, P.-M.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.; Thomas, B.; Deturche, R.; Royer, P.

    2007-01-01

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy

  19. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: Application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diziain, S. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Bijeon, J.-L. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: bijeon@utt.fr; Adam, P.-M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, M. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Thomas, B. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Deturche, R. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Royer, P. [Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  20. X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, G J; Beijersbergen, M W; Fraser, G W; Bavdaz, M; Boutot, J P; Fairbend, R; Flyckt, S O; Peacock, A; Tomaselli, E

    2002-01-01

    Square-pore microchannel plate (MCP) X-ray optics of the 'lobster-eye' geometry have frequently been described in the literature. We have now investigated the use of a radial channel packing geometry which, in the context of an MCP pair slumped to the correct radii of curvature, can form a conic approximation to the Wolter Type I grazing incidence X-ray optic. Such an optic can provide a large effective area with very low mass and may be ideally suited for use in applications such as planetary imaging X-ray fluorescence. We present here the results of X-ray illumination of the first such optic, fabricated by Photonis SAS, France.

  1. A Test Facility For Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, R. A.; Bordas, J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1989-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earths atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source which is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions, however the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area whilst still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes is described below. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  2. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zocchi, Fabio E.

    2006-01-01

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double-reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications

  3. High-efficiency collector design for extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Fabio E

    2006-12-10

    A design of a two-reflection mirror for nested grazing-incidence optics is proposed in which maximum overall reflectivity is achieved by making the two grazing-incidence angles equal for each ray. The design is proposed mainly for application to nonimaging collector optics for extreme-ultraviolet microlithography where the radiation emitted from a hot plasma source needs to be collected and focused on the illuminator optics. For completeness, the design of a double- reflection mirror with equal reflection angles is also briefly outlined for the case of an object at infinity for possible use in x-ray applications.

  4. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30–70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed. (paper)

  5. Use of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and dual-ring architecture design to produce a stable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lu, Shao-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser source produced by utilizing a C-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with a dual-ring fiber cavity. Here, the laser cavity consists of an RSOA, a 1 × 2 optical coupler, a 2 × 2 optical coupler and a polarization controller. As a result, thirteen to eighteen wavelengths around the L band could be generated simultaneously when the bias current of the C-band RSOA was driven at 30-70 mA. In addition, the output stabilities of the power and wavelength are also discussed.

  6. Assessment of ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion from inner retinal reflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning DJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available David J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA Purpose: To determine the relationship between different spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT signs of retinal ischemia in acute central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and whether they predict anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV.Design: Retrospective, observational study.Subjects: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with acute CRVO and 12 months of follow-up.Methods: We graded baseline SD-OCTs for increased reflectivity of the inner retina, loss of definition of inner retinal layers, presence of a prominent middle-limiting membrane (p-MLM sign, and presence of paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM. Graders were masked with respect to all clinical information.Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs of grading–regrading by graders 1 and 2 were 0.8104, 95% confidence interval (CI (0.6686, 0.8956, and 0.7986, 95% CI (0.6475, 0.8892, respectively. The intragrader coefficients of repeatability (COR for graders 1 and 2 were 0.94 and 0.92, respectively. The ICC of graders 1 compared with 2 was 0.8039, 95% CI (0.6544, 0.8916. The intergrader COR was 0.80. SD-OCT grades of baseline ischemia were not associated with baseline visual acuity (VA, central subfield mean thickness (CSMT, or relative afferent pupillary defect; 12-month VA, CSMT, change in VA, change in CSMT, number of antivascular endothelial growth factor injections or corticosteroid injections, or proportion of eyes developing ASNV. SD-OCT grades of ischemia did not correlate with the proportion of eyes having the p-MLM sign or PAMM. PAMM and p-MLM are milder signs of ischemia than increased reflectivity of the inner retinal layers. Eyes with PAMM can evolve, losing PAMM and gaining the p-MLM sign.Conclusion: Grading of ischemia from SD-OCT in acute CRVO was repeatable within graders and reproducible across

  7. Magneto-optical effects of reflection on monocrystals of ferrite garnets, orthoferrites hexaferrites and hematite. [Yttrium oxides iron oxides; europium oxides; bismuth oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinchik, G S; Krylova, V A; Khrebtov, A P; Chepurova, E E

    1975-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the equatorial Kerr effect in visible and ultraviolet ranges of the spectrum are given for ferromagnetic dielectrics of different classes: ferrimagnetic ferrite garnets and hexaferrites, as well as weakly ferromagnetic orthoferrites and hematite. A method for the nondestructive magneto-optical data readout using reflected light is proposed and described.

  8. Influence of optical fiber location behind an apodized phase mask on Bragg grating reflection efficiencies at Bragg wavelength and its harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuch, Tomasz; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    An apodized fiber Bragg grating formation using a phase mask with variable duty cycle is numerically analyzed. In particular, an impact of position of an optical fiber behind the phase mask with Gaussian apodization profile on Bragg grating reflection efficiencies at Bragg wavelength and its harmonics is extensively studied. It is shown that reflection efficiency of each harmonic strongly depends on the optical fiber location with respect to the adjacent Talbot planes during the grating inscription. An analytical formula for calculation such periodical changes of reflection strength is proposed. It is also proved, that the smaller optical fiber diameter the higher fluctuations of reflectivity for particular harmonic occur. Results presented for such general case (i.e. phase mask with variable duty cycle with all non-zero diffraction orders) directly correspond to less complex structures, such as uniform phase masks and those with variable groove depth. They are also useful in optimization of Bragg wavelength and harmonic reflection efficiencies as well as in deep understanding of apodized FBG formation using aforementioned phase masks.

  9. Handheld optical coherence tomography-reflectance confocal microscopy probe for detection of basal cell carcinoma and delineation of margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor; Yélamos, Oriol; Chen, Chih-Shan J.; Maguluri, Gopi; Cordova, Miguel A.; Sahu, Aditi; Park, Jesung; Fox, William; Alessi-Fox, Christi; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-07-01

    We present a hand-held implementation and preliminary evaluation of a combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) probe for detecting and delineating the margins of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in human skin in vivo. A standard OCT approach (spectrometer-based) with a central wavelength of 1310 nm and 0.11 numerical aperture (NA) was combined with a standard RCM approach (830-nm wavelength and 0.9 NA) into a common path hand-held probe. Cross-sectional OCT images and enface RCM images are simultaneously displayed, allowing for three-dimensional microscopic assessment of tumor morphology in real time. Depending on the subtype and depth of the BCC tumor and surrounding skin conditions, OCT and RCM imaging are able to complement each other, the strengths of each helping overcome the limitations of the other. Four representative cases are summarized, out of the 15 investigated in a preliminary pilot study, demonstrating how OCT and RCM imaging may be synergistically combined to more accurately detect BCCs and more completely delineate margins. Our preliminary results highlight the potential benefits of combining the two technologies within a single probe to potentially guide diagnosis as well as treatment of BCCs.

  10. Reconstruction of hyperspectral reflectance for optically complex turbid inland lakes: test of a new scheme and implications for inversion algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Hu, Chuanmin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-06-01

    A new scheme has been proposed by Lee et al. (2014) to reconstruct hyperspectral (400 - 700 nm, 5 nm resolution) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ), sr-1) of representative global waters using measurements at 15 spectral bands. This study tested its applicability to optically complex turbid inland waters in China, where Rrs(λ) are typically much higher than those used in Lee et al. (2014). Strong interdependence of Rrs(λ) between neighboring bands (≤ 10 nm interval) was confirmed, with Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) mostly above 0.98. The scheme of Lee et al. (2014) for Rrs(λ) re-construction with its original global parameterization worked well with this data set, while new parameterization showed improvement in reducing uncertainties in the reconstructed Rrs(λ). Mean absolute error (MAERrs(λi)) in the reconstructed Rrs(λ) was mostly -1 between 400 and 700nm, and mean relative error (MRERrs(λi)) was rs(λ) spectra. When Rrs(λ) at the MODIS bands were used to reconstruct the hyperspectral Rrs(λ), MAERrs(λi) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) at the MERIS bands were used, MAERrs(λi) in the reconstructed hyperspectral Rrs(λ) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) data using spectral bands that may not exist on satellite sensors.

  11. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  12. Determination Of Refractive Index And Reflectivity Of Thin Layer With Optical Absorption Method; PENENTUAN INDEKS BIAS DAN REFLEKTIVITAS LAPISAN TIPIS DENGAN METODA SERAPAN OPTIK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariyanto, Sigit; Budianto, Anwar; Subarkah,; Atmono, Trimarji [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    . The refractive index and reflectivity of ASi:H and Si Ox thin layer have been observed by optical absorption methods. Measurement has been done after the preparation of optical system which consists of a halogen lamp light source, monochromator, sample and light detector. The Monochromator output showed that measured halogen lamp spectrum light is between 470 nm -750 nm. The maximum voltage of halogen lamp is 220 Volt, the output light increases in intensity while the wave length increases. The inclination of intensity decrease at the wave length of 725 nm. The result of the calculation of refractive index varies in accordance with the wave length. The average refractive index of ASi:H is nf a = 1.753. The total reflectivity of air-thin layer-substrate is Rt a = 0.315. The refractive index of Si Ox sample is nf b2.182 and the total reflectivity is Rt b=O,514.

  13. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  14. Graphite irradiated by swift heavy ions under grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is irradiated with various heavy projectiles (Ne, Ni, Zn, Xe and U) in the MeV to GeV energy range under different oblique angles of incidence. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the impact zones are imaged as hillocks protruding from the surface. The diameter of surface-grazing tracks varies between 3 nm (Ne) and 6 nm (U), which is about twice as large as under normal beam incidence. Exclusively for U and Xe projectiles, grazing tracks exhibit long comet-like tails consisting of successive little bumps indicating that the damage along the ion path is discontinuous even for highest electronic stopping powers.

  15. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    several materials as a function of angle of incidence, αi with X-rays of wavelength ..... are several advantages of using this formulation for the description of surface ..... print of the surface (as shown at the botton of Figure. 5). A Soller collimator ...

  16. LPI studies with grazing incidence irradiation at the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R.; Seely, J.

    2013-10-01

    Studies of laser plasma instabilities (LPI) at the Nike laser facility at NRL have previously concentrated on planar targets irradiated with their surface normal aligned to the central axis of the laser. Shots with planar targets rotated up 60° to the laser have shown changes in thresholds for the two-plasmon decay instability and stimulated Raman scattering near the quarter critical region. In the case of rotated low-Z targets, spectra were observed to shift to lower wavelength and were substantially stronger in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges. The low-Z target data show growth at an incident intensity slightly below (~30%) the threshold values observed at normal incidence. A rapid rise in signal level over the same laser intensities was also observed in the hard x-ray data which serve as an overall indicator of LPI activity. Shots with rotated planar high-Z targets showed that the visible and ultraviolet emissions dropped significantly when compared to low-Z targets in the same geometry. This presentation will include results from upcoming experiments to determine the LPI signal for low-Z, high-Z, and high-Z coated targets at lower laser intensities for several angles of target rotation. Shots with widely separated laser beams are also planned to explore cross beam energy transport at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  17. Ionization by ion impact at grazing incidence on insulator surface

    CERN Document Server

    Martiarena, M L

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the energy distribution of electrons produced by ionization of the ionic crystal electrons in grazing fast ion-insulator surface collision. The ionized electrons originate in the 2p F sup - orbital. We observe that the binary peak appears as a double change in the slope of the spectra, in the high energy region. The form of the peak is determined by the initial electron distribution and its position will be affected by the binding energy of the 2p F sup - electron in the crystal. This BEP in insulator surfaces will appear slightly shifted to the low energy side with respect the ion-atom one.

  18. Radiative transfer in shrub savanna sites in Niger: preliminary results from HAPEX-Sahel. 1. Modelling surface reflectance using a geometric-optical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.; Duncan, J.; Huete, A.R.; Leeuwen, W.J.D. van; Li, X.; Bégué, A.

    1994-01-01

    To use optical remote sensing to monitor land surface-climate interactions over large areas, algorithms must be developed to relate multispectral measurements to key variables controlling the exchange of matter (water, carbon dioxide) and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The proportion of the ground covered by vegetation and the interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by vegetation are examples of two variables related to evapotranspiration and primary production, respectively. An areal-proportion model of the multispectral reflectance of shrub savanna, composed of scattered shrubs with a grass, forb or soil understory, predicted the reflectance of two 0.5 km 2 sites as the area-weighted average of the shrub and understory or ‘background’ reflectances. Although the shaded crown and shaded background have darker reflectances, ignoring them in the area-weighted model is not serious when shrub cover is low and solar zenith angle is small. A submodel predicted the reflectance of the shrub crown as a function of the foliage reflectance and amount of plant material within the crown, and the background reflectance scattered or transmitted through canopy gaps (referred to as a soil—plant ‘spectral interaction’ term). One may be able to combine these two models to estimate both the fraction of vegetation cover and interception of PAR by green vegetation in a shrub savanna. (author)

  19. Measurement of the infrared optical constants for spectral modeling: n and k values for (NH4)2SO4 via single-angle reflectance and ellipsometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Myers, Tanya L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Tiwald, Thomas E.

    2017-05-05

    The optical constants n and k can be used to model infrared spectra, including refraction, absorption, reflectance, and emissivity, but obtaining reliable values for solid materials (pure or otherwise) presents a challenge: In the past, the best results for n and k have been obtained from bulk, homogeneous materials, free of defects. That is, materials where the Fresnel equations are operant since there is no light scattering. Since it is often not possible to obtain a pure macroscopic (crystalline) material, it may be possible to press the material into a (uniform, void-free) disk. We have recently been able to do this with ammonium sulfate powder and then measured the n & k values via two independent methods: 1) Ellipsometry - which measures the changes in amplitude and phase of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence, and 2) Single angle specular reflectance with an FT spectrometer using a specular reflectance device within an FT instrument which measures the change in amplitude of light reflected from the material of interest as a function of wavelength and angle of incidence over a wide wavelength range. The quality of the derived n & k values was tested by generating the reflectance spectra of the pellet and comparing to the calculated to measured reflectance spectra of the pure material which has been previously published. The comparison to literature values showed good accuracy and good agreement, indicating promise to measure other materials by such methods.

  20. Coupled thermo-elastic and optical performance analyses of a reflective baffle for the BepiColombo laser altimeter (BELA) receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesel, E.; Weigel, T.; Lochmatter, P.; Rugi Grond, E.

    2017-11-01

    For the BepiColombo mission, the extreme thermal environment around Mercury requires good heat shields for the instruments. The BepiColombo Laser altimeter (BELA) Receiver will be equipped with a specular reflective baffle in order to limit the solar power impact. The design uses a Stavroudis geometry with alternating elliptical and hyperbolic vanes to reflect radiation at angles >38° back into space. The thermal loads on the baffle lead to deformations, and the resulting changes in the optical performance can be modeled by ray-tracing. Conventional interfaces, such as Zernike surface fitting, fail to provide a proper import of the mechanical distortions into optical models. We have studied alternative models such as free form surface representations and compared them to a simple modeling approach with straight segments. The performance merit is presented in terms of the power rejection ratio and the absence of specular stray-light.

  1. 1.25 Gbit/s bidirectional link in an access network employing a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, P.J.; de Laat, M.M.; Klein, E.J.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Khoe, G.D.; de Waardt, H.; Marciniak, M.; Jaworski, M.; Zdabiwicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate symmetrical bidirectional transmission of 1.25 Gbit/s wavelength channels in an access network link employing centralized light generation, colourless optical network unit (ONU) and a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM). The architecture of ONU is based

  2. Image potential effect on the specular reflection coefficient of alkali ions scattered from a nickel surface at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemih, R.; Boudjema, M.; Benazeth, C.; Boudouma, Y.; Chami, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The resonant charge exchange in the incoming path of alkali ions scattered at low energy from a polycrystalline nickel surface is studied by using the image effect occurring at glancing incidence (2-10 deg. from the surface plane) and for specular reflection. The part of the experimental artefacts (geometrical factor, surface roughness ...) is extracted from the reflection coefficient of almost completely neutralised projectiles (He + or Ne + ) compared with the coefficient obtained from numerical simulations (TRIM and MARLOWE codes). The present model explains very well the lowering of the reflection coefficient measured at grazing incidence (below 4 deg.). Furthermore, the optimised values of the charge fraction in the incoming path and the image potential are in agreement with the theoretical calculations in the case of Na + /Ni at 4 keV

  3. Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Probe with a Pair of Highly Reflected Connectors and a Vessel of Water Absorption Material for Water Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Cho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  4. Novel fiber optic sensor probe with a pair of highly reflected connectors and a vessel of water absorption material for water leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Sik; Choi, Ki-Sun; Seo, Dae-Cheol; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS) located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  5. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  6. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngchul Bae

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF or laser displacement meter (LDM uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision.

  7. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-05-23

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision.

  8. X ray reflection masks: Manufacturing, characterization and first tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Stephen

    1992-09-01

    SXPL (Soft X-ray Projection Lithography) multilayer mirrors are characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors with a 2d in the region of 14 nm were characterized by Cu-k(alpha) grazing incidence as well as soft X-ray normal incidence reflectivity measurements. The multilayer mirrors were patterned by reactive ion etching with CF4 using a photoresist as etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested at the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 sq cm of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto a resist and structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  9. Survey of surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Colbert, J.; Church, E.L.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements of surface roughness were made on a large number of grazing incidence mirrors delivered for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The measurements were made with a WYKO optical profiler using a 2.5X and a 10X objective and analyzed with our PROFILE code to generate an average periodogram representation for each surface. The data is presented in the form of representative profiles with all of the periodogram curves arranged according to figure type. Analysis of the periodograms allows one to compute bandwidth-limited values for RMS roughness and slope, to provide valuable feedback information to manufacturers regarding compliance with specifications, and to predict the performance of the optic at x-ray wavelengths

  10. Comparison of Fiber Optic and Conduit Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Setup for In-Line Fermentation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Cosima; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-12-01

    The performance of a fiber optic and an optical conduit in-line attenuated total reflection mid-infrared (IR) probe during in situ monitoring of Penicillium chrysogenum fermentation were compared. The fiber optic probe was connected to a sealed, portable, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) process spectrometer via a plug-and-play interface. The optical conduit, on the other hand, was connected to a FT-IR process spectrometer via a knuckled probe with mirrors that had to be adjusted prior to each fermentation, which were purged with dry air. Penicillin V (PenV) and its precursor phenoxyacetic acid (POX) concentrations were determined by online high-performance liquid chromatography and the obtained concentrations were used as reference to build partial least squares regression models. Cross-validated root-mean-square errors of prediction were found to be 0.2 g L -1 (POX) and 0.19 g L -1 (PenV) for the fiber optic setup and 0.17 g L -1 (both POX and PenV) for the conduit setup. Higher noise-levels and spectrum-to-spectrum variations of the fiber optic setup lead to higher noise of estimated (i.e., unknown) POX and PenV concentrations than was found for the conduit setup. It seems that trade-off has to be made between ease of handling (fiber optic setup) and measurement accuracy (optical conduit setup) when choosing one of these systems for bioprocess monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Preliminary Studies on the Reflectance Characteristics of graphene/SiO2 under Different Applied Voltages for Optical Modulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, K. P.; Yam, F. K.; Abdalrheem, Raed; Ng, Y. Z.; Suhaimi, F. H. A.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    A preliminary study on the interband transition of graphene was done via reflectance spectra of graphene/SiO2 sample at various applied potential. Prior to that, Raman spectroscopy and four-point probe measurement was done on graphene/SiO2 sample. It was found that the sample consisted of monolayer graphene with sheet resistance around 402.32 Ω/□. Post-processing of the reflectance data lead to the plot of ratio of change in reflectance towards reflectance at 0 V (ΔR/R) against applied potential. From there, the ratio increases along with applied potential, indicative of higher absorption due to interband transition.

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  13. Design, fabrication, and characterization of silicon pore optics for ATHENA/IXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Günther, Ramses; Ackermann, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Silicon pore optics is a technology developed to enable future large area X-ray telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) or the Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA), an L-class candidate mission in the ESA Space Science Programme 'Cosmic Visions 2015-2025'...... integrated into petals, and mounted onto the spacecraft to form an X-ray optic. In this paper we will present the silicon pore optics mass manufacturing process and latest X-ray test results.......-2025'. ATHENA/IXO use nested mirrors in Wolter-I configuration to focus grazing incidence X-ray photons on a detector plane. The x-ray optics will have to meet stringent performance requirements including an effective area of a few m2 at 1.25 keV and angular resolution between 5(IXO) and 9(ATHENA) arc seconds...

  14. Correction of fluorescence for depth-specific optical and vascular properties using reflectance and differential path-length spectroscopy during PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zaane, F.; Middelburg, T. A.; de Bruijn, H. S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A.; de Haas, E. R. M.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Introduction: The rate of PpIX fluorescence photobleaching is routinely used as a dose metric for ALA-PDT. Diffuse reflection spectroscopy is often used to account for variations in tissue optical properties at the photosensitizer excitation and emission bands. It can be used to quantify changes in vascular parameters, such as blood volume fraction and saturation, and can aid understanding of tissue response to PDT. The volume and(/or) depth over which these signals are acquired are critical. The aim of this study is to use quantitative reflectance spectroscopy (DPS) to correct fluorescence for changes in tissue optical properties and monitor PDT. Materials & Methods: ALA was topically applied to hairless mice skin and the incubated spot was treated with PDT according to fractionated illumination schemes. DPS measurements of vascular parameters and optical properties were performed directly before and after illumination. Both the differential signal, delivery-and-collection-fiber signal and the collection fiber signal, which all probe different measurement volumes, are analyzed. Results & Conclusions: Analysis of DPS measurements shows that at the depth where most fluorescence originates, there is almost no blood present. During PDT vascular parameters at this depth stay constant. In more oxygenated layers of the tissue, the optical properties do change during PDT, suggesting that only a small part of PpIX fluorescence originates from the interesting depths where vascular response occurs. Correcting fluorescence emission spectra for optical changes at specific depths and not for the total of changes in a larger volume, as is usually done now, can improve PpIX photobleaching based treatment monitoring.

  15. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  16. Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra to determine electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Oh, Sukh Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). • The energy loss functions (ELF) are dominated by a plasmon peak at 23.6 eV for Fe and moves gradually to lower energies in Fe-Ni alloys towards the bulk plasmon energy of Ni at 20.5 eV. • Fe has a strong effect on the dielectric and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films even for an alloy with 72% Ni. Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) by ion beam sputter deposition were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). The analysis was carried out by using the QUASES-XS-REELS and QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS softwares to determine the energy loss function (ELF) and the dielectric functions and optical properties by analyzing the experimental spectra. For Ni, the ELF shows peaks around 3.6, 7.5, 11.7, 20.5, 27.5, 67 and 78 eV. The peak positions of the ELF for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2 are similar to those of Fe_5_1Ni_4_9, even though there is a small peak shift from 18.5 eV for Fe_5_1Ni_4_9 to 18.7 eV for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2. A plot of n, k, ε_1, and ε_2 shows that the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software for analysis of REELS spectra is useful for the study of optical properties of transition metal alloys. For Fe–Ni alloy with high Ni concentration (Fe_2_8Ni_7_2), ε_1, and ε_2 have strong similarities with those of Fe. This indicates that the presence of Fe in the Fe–Ni alloy thin films has a strong effect.

  17. Scale-up of Nano-Engineered Anti-Reflection Coating Process for Large Plastic Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a recently completed NASA SBIR program, Agiltron and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel nanoporous UV anti-reflection coating technology...

  18. Development of High-Reflectivity Optical Coatings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Verification on a Sounding Rocket Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We desire to develop new thin film coatings of fluorides to utilize the high intrinsic reflectivity of aluminum. Highly controllable thickness of fluorides can be...

  19. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: a.kaplan.1@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  20. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity and GID for real-time growth studies of pentacene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, S.; Gerlach, A.; Leitenberger, W.; Hu, J.; Witte, G.; Woell, C.; Pietsch, U.; Schreiber, F.

    2007-01-01

    We use energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) to follow the growth of the crystalline organic semiconductor pentacene on silicon oxide in-situ and in real-time. The technique allows for monitoring Bragg reflections and measuring X-ray growth oscillations with a time resolution of 1 min in a wide q-range in reciprocal space extending over 0.25-0.80 A -1 , i.e. sampling a large number of Fourier components simultaneously. A quantitative analysis of growth oscillations at several q-points yields the evolution of the surface roughness, showing a marked transition from layer-by-layer growth to strong roughening after four monolayers of pentacene have been deposited

  1. Nonlinear reflection of a spherically divergent N-wave from a plane surface: Optical interferometry measurements in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karzova, M.; Yuldashev, P.; Khokhlova, V.; Ollivier, S.; Blanc-Benon, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    Mach stem is a well-known structure typically observed in the process of strong (acoustic Mach numbers greater than 0.4) step-shock waves reflection from a rigid boundary. However, this phenomenon has been much less studied for weak shocks in nonlinear acoustic fields where Mach numbers are in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 and pressure waveforms have more complicated waveforms than step shocks. The goal of this work was to demonstrate experimentally how nonlinear reflection occurs in air for very weak spherically divergent acoustic spark-generated pulses resembling an N-wave. Measurements of reflection patterns were performed using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A thin laser beam with sub-millimeter cross-section was used to obtain the time resolution of 0.4 µs, which is 6 times higher than the time resolution of the condenser microphones. Pressure waveforms were reconstructed using the inverse Abel transform applied to the phase of the signal measured by the interferometer. The Mach stem formation was observed experimentally as a result of collision of the incident and reflected shock pulses. It was shown that irregular reflection of the pulse occurred in a dynamic way and the length of the Mach stem increased linearly while the pulse propagated along the surface. Since the front shock of the spark-generated pulse was steeper than the rear shock, irregular type of reflection was observed only for the front shock of the pulse while the rear shock reflection occurred in a regular regime

  2. Nonlinear reflection of a spherically divergent N-wave from a plane surface: Optical interferometry measurements in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karzova, M., E-mail: masha@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Yuldashev, P.; Khokhlova, V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ollivier, S.; Blanc-Benon, Ph. [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France)

    2015-10-28

    Mach stem is a well-known structure typically observed in the process of strong (acoustic Mach numbers greater than 0.4) step-shock waves reflection from a rigid boundary. However, this phenomenon has been much less studied for weak shocks in nonlinear acoustic fields where Mach numbers are in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 and pressure waveforms have more complicated waveforms than step shocks. The goal of this work was to demonstrate experimentally how nonlinear reflection occurs in air for very weak spherically divergent acoustic spark-generated pulses resembling an N-wave. Measurements of reflection patterns were performed using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A thin laser beam with sub-millimeter cross-section was used to obtain the time resolution of 0.4 µs, which is 6 times higher than the time resolution of the condenser microphones. Pressure waveforms were reconstructed using the inverse Abel transform applied to the phase of the signal measured by the interferometer. The Mach stem formation was observed experimentally as a result of collision of the incident and reflected shock pulses. It was shown that irregular reflection of the pulse occurred in a dynamic way and the length of the Mach stem increased linearly while the pulse propagated along the surface. Since the front shock of the spark-generated pulse was steeper than the rear shock, irregular type of reflection was observed only for the front shock of the pulse while the rear shock reflection occurred in a regular regime.

  3. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels. [using a reflectometer which separately evaluates spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces is described. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. A selective coating on aluminum potentially useful for flat plate solar collector applications is presented. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content. Fabrication costs are expected to be small due to the one stop fabrication process. A number of conclusions gathered from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are discussed.

  4. Simple and versatile long range swept source for optical coherence tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuer, Bastian; Lippok, Norman; Murdoch, Stuart G; Vanholsbeeck, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    We present a versatile long coherence length swept-source laser design for optical coherence tomography applications. This design consists of a polygonal spinning mirror and an optical gain chip in a modified Littman–Metcalf cavity. A narrowband intra-cavity filter is implemented through multiple passes off a diffraction grating set at grazing incidence. The key advantage of this design is that it can be readily adapted to any wavelength regions for which broadband gain chips are available. We demonstrate this by implementing sources at 1650 nm, 1550 nm, 1310 nm and 1050 nm. In particular, we present a 1310 nm swept source laser with 24 mm coherence length, 95 nm optical bandwidth, 2 kHz maximum sweep frequency and 7.5 mW average output power. These parameters make it a suitable source for the imaging of biological samples. (paper)

  5. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  6. Reflectance-difference spectroscopy as an optical probe for in situ determination of doping levels in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lara-Velazquez, I.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.; Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guel-Sandoval, S.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78000 (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on in situ Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy measurements carried out on GaAs(001). Measurements were performed at temperatures of 580 C and 430 C, in both n and p-type doped films and for both (2 x 4) and c(4 x 4) reconstructions. Samples employed were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy with doping levels in the range from 10{sup 16}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. We demonstrate the potential of Reflectance Difference Spectroscopy for impurity level determinations under growth conditions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. An Entertaining Method of Teaching Concepts of Linear Light Propagation, Reflection and Refraction Using a Simple Optical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, K.

    2009-01-01

    An activity has been designed for the purpose of teaching how light is dispersed in a straight line and about the interaction between matter and light as well as the related concepts of shadows, partial shadows, reflection, refraction, primary colours and complementary (secondary) colours, and differentiating the relationship between colours, all…

  8. Optical transmission through aerosol deposits on diffusely reflective filters: a method for measuring the absorbing component of aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, H.; Novakov, T.

    1983-01-01

    It is unclear why the backscattered radiation from nonabsorbing particles should not make a significant contribution to the optical attenuation measurement. This is especially true where the absorbing component represents only a very small fraction of the aerosol mass. In this Letter we present a simple theoretical model which accounts for all these observations and points out the critical role of the filter substrate as an almost perfect diffuse reflector in the technique

  9. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  10. Detection of premature browning in ground beef with an integrated optical-fibre based sensor using reflection spectroscopy and fibre Bragg grating technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Farrell, M; Sheridan, C; Lewis, E

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an optical fibre based sensor system to detect the occurrence of premature browning in ground beef. Premature browning (PMB) occurs when, at a temperature below the pasteurisation temperature of 71 deg. C, there are no traces of pink meat left in the patty. PMB is more frequent if poorer quality beef or beef that has been stored under imperfect conditions. The experimental work pertaining to this paper involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months and recording the reflected spectra and temperature at the core of the product, during the cooking process, in order to develop a classifier based on the spectral response and using a Self-Organising Map (SOM) to classify the patties into one of four categories, based on their colour. Further tests were also carried out on developing an all-optical fibre sensor for measuring both the temperature and colour in a single integrated probe. The integrated probe contains two different sensor concepts, one to monitor temperature, based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology and a second for meat quality, based on reflection spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range

  11. Experimental and Monte Carlo investigation of visible diffuse-reflectance imaging sensitivity to diffusing particle size changes in an optical model of a bladder wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyagina, N.; Loschenov, V.; Wolf, D.; Daul, C.; Blondel, W.; Savelieva, T.

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the influence of scatterer size changes on the laser light diffusion, induced by collimated monochromatic laser irradiation, in tissue-like optical phantoms using diffuse-reflectance imaging. For that purpose, three-layer optical phantoms were prepared, in which nano- and microsphere size varied in order to simulate the scattering properties of healthy and cancerous urinary bladder walls. The informative areas of the surface diffuse-reflected light distributions were about 15×18 pixels for the smallest scattering particles of 0.05 μm, about 21×25 pixels for the medium-size particles of 0.53 μm, and about 25×30 pixels for the largest particles of 5.09 μm. The computation of the laser spot areas provided useful information for the analysis of the light distribution with high measurement accuracy of up to 92%. The minimal stability of 78% accuracy was observed for superficial scattering signals on the phantoms with the largest particles. The experimental results showed a good agreement with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations. The presented method shows a good potential to be useful for a tissue-state diagnosis of the urinary bladder.

  12. New hybrid reflectance optical pulse oximetry sensor for lower oxygen saturation measurement and for broader clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ching, Chong Thong; Ida, Takeyuki; Itakura, Keiko; Takatani, Setsuo

    1997-06-01

    A new reflectance pulse oximeter sensor for lower arterial oxygen saturation (Sa)2) measurement has been designed and evaluated in animals prior to clinical trials. The new sensor incorporates ten light emitting diode chips for each wavelength of 730 and 880 nm mounted symmetrically and at the radial separation distance of 7 mm around a photodiode chip. The separation distance of 7 mm was chosen to maximize the ratio of the pulsatile to the average plethysmographic signal level at each wavelength. The 730 and 880 wavelength combination was determined to obtain a linear relationship between the reflectance ratio of the 730 and 880 nm wavelengths and Sa)2. In addition to these features of the sensor, the Fast Fourier Transform method was employed to compute the pulsatile and average signal level at each wavelength. The performance of the new reflectance pulse oximeter sensor was evaluated in dogs in comparison to the 665/910 nm sensor. As predicted by the theoretical simulation based on a 3D photon diffusion theory, the 730/880 nm sensor demonstrated an excellent linearity over the SaO2 range from 100 to 30 percent. For the SaO2 range between 100 and 70 percent, the 665/910 and 730/880 sensors showed the standard error of around 3.5 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively, in comparison to the blood samples. For the range between 70 and 30 percent, the standard error of the 730/880 nm sensor was only 2.7 percent, while that of the 665/910 nm sensor was 9.5 percent. The 730/880 sensor showed improved accuracy for a wide range of SaO2 particularly over the range between 70 and 30 percent. This new reflectance sensor can provide noninvasive measurement of SaO2 accurately over the wide saturation range from 100 to 30 percent.

  13. Design and fabrication of optical thin film layers with variable thickness profile for producing variable reflectivity mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R fallah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   The design method and fabrication of mirrors with variable reflectivity are presented. To fabricate such a mirror a fixed mask with a circular aperture is used. The circular aperture is considered as an extended source with cosx(θas its diffusion distribution function and is the parameter for the distribution function of the particles through the aperture. The thickness profile of deposited layer is a function of this distribution. In this work, the coating system is calibrated for the materials which are used and then the parameter of the diffusion distribution function of the particles through the circular aperture is defined by experiments. Using these results, a graph is presented which connects the parameter of the circular aperture to the parameters of the thickness profile. It is then possible to deposit any type of variable reflectivity mirror using this graph. Finally, the effect of the uncertainty in measuring layer thicknesses on the phase of reflected wave and transmitted wave is investigated.

  14. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  15. Reflective type objective based spectral-domain phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography for high-sensitive structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures through intact bone of an excised guinea pig cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Hrebesh M.; Wang, Ruikang K.; Chen, Fangyi; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2013-03-01

    Most of the optical coherence tomographic (OCT) systems for high resolution imaging of biological specimens are based on refractive type microscope objectives, which are optimized for specific wave length of the optical source. In this study, we present the feasibility of using commercially available reflective type objective for high sensitive and high resolution structural and functional imaging of cochlear microstructures of an excised guinea pig through intact temporal bone. Unlike conventional refractive type microscopic objective, reflective objective are free from chromatic aberrations due to their all-reflecting nature and can support a broadband of spectrum with very high light collection efficiency.

  16. A self-referenced reflectance sensor for the detection of lead and other heavy metal ions using optical fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemain, H; Rajarajan, M; Sun, T; Grattan, K T V

    2009-01-01

    A self-referenced optical fibre sensor for monitoring heavy metals, especially lead, has been developed and evaluated and the results obtained are discussed in detail in this paper. The sensor probe builds on concepts in prior work, creating a small, compact and portable device using an indicator immobilized at the fibre end. It functions in the visible part of the spectrum where the attenuation caused by fibre transmission is small and it offers a possible solution to the need for devices to be used in the field. This represents on-going research where the factors affecting the probe design and immobilization procedure used are considered and solutions offered

  17. Principal component analysis for the forensic discrimination of black inkjet inks based on the Vis-NIR fibre optics reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Lukáš; Oravec, Michal; Gemeiner, Pavol; Čeppan, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen black inkjet inks of six different brands were examined by fibre optics reflection spectroscopy in Visible and Near Infrared Region (Vis-NIR FORS) directly on paper with a view to achieving good resolution between them. These different inks were tested on nineteen different inkjet printers from three brands. Samples were obtained from prints by reflection probe. Processed reflection spectra in the range 500-1000 nm were used as samples in principal component analysis. Variability between spectra of the same ink obtained from different prints, as well as between spectra of square areas and lines was examined. For both spectra obtained from square areas and lines reference, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were created. According to these models, the inkjet inks were divided into clusters. PCA method is able to separate inks containing carbon black as main colorant from the other inks using other colorants. Some spectra were recorded from another piece of printer and used as validation samples. Spectra of validation samples were projected onto reference PCA models. According to position of validation samples in score plots it can be concluded that PCA based on Vis-NIR FORS can reliably differentiate inkjet inks which are included in the reference database. The presented method appears to be a suitable tool for forensic examination of questioned documents containing inkjet inks. Inkjet inks spectra were obtained without extraction or cutting sample with possibility to measure out of the laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Diffractive optical element-based glossmeter for the on-line measurement of normal reflectance on a printed porous coated paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksman, Antti; Kuivalainen, Kalle; Ta˚G, Carl-Mikael; Juuti, Mikko; Mattila, Rauno; Hietala, Eero; Gane, Patrick A. C.; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2011-04-01

    Gloss of a product, such as print gloss, is mainly inspected with conventional white light glossmeters both at laboratory or production facilities. However, problems occur in conventional gloss measurement when the inspected surface is vertically moved in the plane of incidence and reflection or when the measurement area is small or curved. For a partial solution to these problems, we have previously introduced diffractive optical element-based glossmeters (DOGs) for the gloss inspection in laboratories and off-line use. We present a new construction of DOG, termed μDOG 1D, for the one-dimensional on-line print gloss measurement, in the form of the reflectance determination normal to the surface. The function of the glossmeter is demonstrated by laboratory tests and on-line measurements at a heat-set web offset printing machine. It is shown that gloss (i.e., normal reflectance) and minute gloss variation of papers and prints can be measured at the printing line using the glossmeter. This glossmeter is expected to be useful in real-time monitoring of the gloss and surface-specific absorption not only in the printing industry but also in inspection of products in other industrial sectors, such as metal finishing, laminating, paper, and construction materials manufacturing.

  19. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  20. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.