Sample records for grazing natural range

  1. Nature conservation and grazing management. Free-ranging cattle as a driving force for cyclic vegetation seccession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.


    Key-words : biodiversity, herbivory, wilderness, non-linear dynamics, mosaic cycling, grassland, wood encroachment, forest, Bos taurus , Calluna vulgaris , Deschampsia flexuosa.This thesis examines the suitability of controlled and wilderness grazing as conservation management tool for open,

  2. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application. (United States)

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E


    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  3. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  4. The grazing index method of range condition assessment | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the difficulty of examining succession theory in the Karoo, it is suggested the ecological index method (EIM), be replaced by the grazing index method (GIM), through the introduction of grazing index values (GIV) for Karoo plant species. The GIM may provide more acceptable range condition scores and more ...

  5. The grazing pattern of Muturu cattle under range system | Nweze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty Muturu cattle were grazed on rangeland, twice daily for two years to determine their grazing pattern. Twenty bulls and cows each between two to four years and forty calves between one to three months were used. The field grazing time (FGT), active grazing time (GT) and grazing travel time (GTT) were monitored.

  6. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  7. Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves. (United States)

    Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O


    Twelve white Fulani × N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79 ± 1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P forage resources. Variations (P forage resources from the natural pasture by the calves was attained on supplementation with conserved forages and L. leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters.

  8. Range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.


    Domestic livestock grazing occurs in virtually all sagebrush habitats and is a prominent disturbance factor. By affecting habitat condition and trend, grazing influences the resources required by, and thus, the distribution and abundance of sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (for example, sage-grouse Centrocercus spp.). Yet, the risks that livestock grazing may pose to these species and their habitats are not always clear. Although livestock grazing intensity and associated habitat condition may be known in many places at the local level, we have not yet been able to answer questions about use, condition, and trend at the landscape scale or at the range-wide scale for wildlife species. A great deal of information about grazing use, management regimes, and ecological condition exists at the local level (for individual livestock management units) under the oversight of organizations such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). However, the extent, quality, and types of existing data are unknown, which hinders the compilation, mapping, or analysis of these data. Once compiled, these data may be helpful for drawing conclusions about rangeland status, and we may be able to identify relationships between those data and wildlife habitat at the landscape scale. The overall objective of our study was to perform a range-wide assessment of livestock grazing effects (and the relevant supporting data) in sagebrush ecosystems managed by the BLM. Our assessments and analyses focused primarily on local-level management and data collected at the scale of BLM grazing allotments (that is, individual livestock management units). Specific objectives included the following: 1. Identify and refine existing range-wide datasets to be used for analyses of livestock grazing effects on sagebrush ecosystems. 2. Assess the extent, quality, and types of livestock grazing-related natural resource data collected by BLM range-wide (i.e., across allotments, districts and regions). 3. Compile and

  9. Observations on natural regeneration in grazed Holm oak stands in the Ogliastra province (Sardinia, Italy

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    Sioni S


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of grazing pressure in two Holm oak (Quercus ilex stands in Ogliastra (central-eastern Sardinia, Italy, with particular reference to the interactions with the natural regeneration processes. There is a positive interaction (facilitation between shrubs and seedlings of tree species, as observed in other similar studies carried out by the same authors in other areas of Sardinia. Rubus ulmifolius proved to be the most efficient shrub for the protection and growth of saplings; the other shrub species play a less marked facilitating role. Although the density of shrubs hosting Holm oak seedlings is fairly high, their age and small size confirm that the current grazing pressure is incompatible with any chance of growth of the saplings and success of the natural regeneration. The conservation of these stands must therefore rely on the rationalisation of human activities through the exploitation of a whole range of resources.

  10. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome

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    Amanda Heemann Junges


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimental units managed under high (forage allowance of 5 ± 2 % live weight – LW, moderate (13 ± 5 % LW and low grazing intensity (19 ± 7 % LW. Regardless of intensity, the temporal profiles showed lower NDVI and EVI during winter, increased values in spring because of summer species regrowth, slightly decreased values in summer, especially in years when there is a water deficit, and increased values in the fall associated with the beginning of winter forage development. The average temporal profiles of moderate grazing intensity exhibited greater vegetation index values compared with low and high grazing intensities. The temporal profiles of less vegetation index were associated with lower green biomass accumulation caused by the negative impact of stocking rates on the leaf area index under high grazing intensity and a floristic composition with a predominance of tussocks under low grazing intensity. Vegetation indices can be used for distinguishing moderate grazing intensity from low and high intensities. The average EVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during any season, and the NDVI values can discriminate moderate grazing intensity during spring and winter.

  11. Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville D. Grace


    Full Text Available Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

  12. [Community structure and diversity of soil arthropods in naturally restored sandy grasslands after grazing]. (United States)

    Liu, Ren-tao; Zhao, Ha-lin; Zhao, Xue-yong


    Taking the Naiman Desertification Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as a base, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of soil arthropods in the naturally restored sandy grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance, with the effects of vegetation and soil on this community structure approached. In the non-grazing grassland, soil arthropods were rich in species and more in individuals, and had the highest diversity. In the restored grassland after light grazing, soil arthropods had the lowest evenness and diversity. In the restored grassland after moderate grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were lesser but the major groups were more, and the evenness and diversity were higher. In the restored grassland after heavy grazing, the individuals of soil arthropods were more but the major groups were lesser, and the diversity was higher. Plant individuals' number, vegetation height and coverage, and soil alkalinity were the main factors affecting the soil arthropod community in naturally restored grasslands after different intensity grazing disturbance. It was implied that after 12-year exclosure of grassland, soil arthropod community could be recovered to some degree, while grazing disturbance had long-term negative effects on the arthropod community.

  13. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome (United States)

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Pyke, D.A.


    The data contained in this series were compiled, modified, and analyzed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report "Range-Wide Assessment of Livestock Grazing Across the Sagebrush Biome." This report can be accessed through the USGS Publications Warehouse (online linkage: The dataset contains spatial and tabular data related to Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Allotments. We reviewed the BLM national grazing allotment spatial dataset available from the GeoCommunicator National Integrated Land System (NILS) website in 2007 ( We identified several limitations in those data and learned that some BLM State and/or field offices had updated their spatial data to rectify these limitations, but maintained the data outside of NILS. We contacted appropriate BLM offices (State or field, 25 in all) to obtain the most recent data, assessed the data, established a data development protocol, and compiled data into a topologically enforced dataset throughout the area of interest for this project (that is, the pre-settlement distribution of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Western United States). The final database includes three spatial datasets: Allotments (BLM Grazing Allotments), OUT_Polygons (nonallotment polygons used to ensure topology), and Duplicate_Polygon_Allotments. See Appendix 1 of the aforementioned report for complete methods. The tabular data presented here consists of information synthesized by the Land Health Standard (LHS) analysis (Appendix 2), and data obtained from the BLM Rangeland Administration System ( In 2008, available LHS data for all allotments in all regions were compiled by BLM in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request made by a private organization. The BLM provided us with a copy of these data. These data provided three major types of information that were of interest: (1) date(s) (if any) of the most recent LHS evaluation for each

  14. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe. (United States)

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K


    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system.

  15. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.


    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness, species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed longevity, rangeland management, Syria.   Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid Mediterranean land mass. It is a

  16. Temporal profiles of vegetation indices for characterizing grazing intensity on natural grasslands in Pampa biome


    Junges,Amanda Heemann; Bremm,Carolina; Fontana,Denise Cybis; Oliveira,Carlos Alberto Oliveira de; Schaparini,Laura Pigatto; Carvalho,Paulo César de Faccio


    ABSTRACT The Pampa biome is an important ecosystem in Brazil that is highly relevant to livestock production. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential use of vegetation indices to discriminate grazing intensities on natural grasslands in the Pampa biome. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images from Jan to Dec, 2000 to 2013 series, were analyzed for natural grassland experimen...

  17. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands (United States)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.


    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting

  18. Grazing and Burning Impacts on Deer Diets on Lousiana Pine-Bluestem Range (United States)

    Ronald E. Thill; Alton Martin; Hershel F. Morris; E. Donice McCune


    Diets of 3-5 tame white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on adjacent ungrazed and continuously grazed (35% herbage removal by late CM) forested pastures were compared for forage-class use, botanical similarities, foraging selectivity and efficiency, and diet quality. Both pastures were divided into 3 burning subunits and burned in late February on a 3-year...

  19. Beef heifers performance in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing in the autumn-winter

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    Émerson Mendes Soares


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of beef heifers in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design and conducted using the forage mass above eight cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks. The animals were Brangus beef heifers with initial body weight of 258kg. The variables evaluated were available forage mass (FMa, leaf blades mass of tussocks (LBMt, real forage allowance (FAr, sward height of the lower stratum (HLS, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, organic matter digestibility (OMD, total digestible nutrients (TDN, average daily gain (ADG, body condition score (BCS, reproductive tract score (RTS and stocking rate (SR. FMa, HLS, OMD and TDN decreased while FAr, CP and NDF were similar during the experimental period. The ADG was positive only at third experimental period while BCS, RTS and SR decreased over time. The natural grassland management under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period, using the forage mass above 8cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks, does not allow the adequate corporal development for breeding the beef heifers at 24 months old.

  20. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Jonker, R.M.; Van Donk, E.; Laanbroek, H.J.


    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green alga Scenedesmus

  1. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio Pires, L.M.; Jonker, R.R.; Donk, E.van; Laanbroek, H.J.


    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green

  2. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen


    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  3. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season. (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  4. Significance of anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody in first grazing season cattle naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. (United States)

    Merlin, Aurélie; Shaw, Richard; Chauvin, Alain; Bareille, Nathalie; Chartier, Christophe


    A carbohydrate larval surface antigen (CarLA) present on infective larvae of all trichostrongylid nematodes is a target antigen for host immunoglobulins (Ig). Levels of anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody (CarLA-IgA) have been shown to be correlated to the level of protective immunity to GIN in sheep and deer but no information is available in cattle. The first objective of this study was to assess the pattern of CarLA-IgA response in 7 groups (G1-G7) of first grazing season cattle (FGSC) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The second objective was to assess the phenotypic correlations between CarLA-IgA level, 3 parasitological indicators (faecal egg count-FEC, pepsinogen level, serum anti-O. ostertagi IgG antibody level-OstertagiaIgG), a clinical indicator (diarrhea score) and average daily weight gain (ADWG). Overall, CarLA-IgA response gradually increased over grazing season and showed large variations in speed and magnitude both between and within groups. Based on the mean group CarLA-IgA response pattern, the 7 groups could be allocated to 3 different classes: (i) 'Late High' class characterized by a high response at housing (G1 and G2); (ii) 'Low' class with a low response over time (G3, G4 and G5); and (iii) 'Early' class with an high initial then stable response (G6 and G7). This classification was consistent with the grazing management practices. In the 'Late High' class, the mean CarLA-IgA at housing was 6.05units/mL and negatively correlated with FEC while no correlation was seen with the other indicators nor ADWG. In the 'Low' class, CarLA response at housing was low (1.95units/mL) and mainly positively correlated with OstertagiaIgG. In the 'Early' class, mean CarLA-IgA ranged from 1.32 to 1.86units/mL during the grazing season and positive correlations were seen with parasitological and clinical indicators. These results suggest that, according to the intensity of larval challenge occurring during the first grazing season, Car

  5. Dinâmica vegetacional em pastagem natural submetida a tratamentos de queima e pastejo Vegetation dynamics of natural grassland under treatments of burning and grazing

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    Fernando Luiz Ferreira de Quadros


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados durante três anos os efeitos de tratamentos de fogo e pastejo sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma pastagem natural localizada em Santa Maria, na região da Depressão Central, Rio Grande do Sul. Foi considerada a hipótese de resiliência, resultado das espécies componentes da pastagem terem evoluído sob influência de tais distúrbios. O experimento foi composto por oito parcelas experimentais submetidas a combinações de níveis de pastejo (pastejado, excluído e de fogo (queimado, não-queimado, em duas posições de relevo (encosta, baixada. A análise multivariada dos dados de composição de espécies foi baseada em ordenação e testes de aleatorização. A vegetação sob efeito de pastejo, independente da queima, apresentou trajetórias direcionais, enquanto sob exclusão as trajetórias foram caóticas. O efeito do pastejo parece ser determinante da dinâmica vegetacional (P=0,077.The effect of fire and grazing treatments on vegetation dynamics was evaluated during three years on a natural grassland located in Santa Maria, in the region of "Depressão Central", Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A hypothesis of resilience resulting from the fact that the species of the grassland evolved under the influence of these disturbances was considered. The experimental setup was formed by eight plots subjected to combinations of grazing (grazed, ungrazed and fire (burned, unburned levels, on two relief positions (convex, concave slope. Multivariate analysis of compositional data used ordination and randomization testing. Vegetation under grazing tended to show directional trajectories of floristic composition change, while under grazing exclusion the trajectories could be considered chaotic, independently from the plots being burned or not. Grazing effect seems to be determinant of vegetacional dynamics (P=0.077.

  6. Condensed tannins reduce browsing and increase grazing time of free-ranging goats in semi-arid savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, NR


    Full Text Available their time spent grazing. Animals dosed with polyethylene glycol for-aged for longer than other treatment groups in the dry season, whereas the goats dosed with condensed tannins increased their foraging time in the wet season. Overall, all treatment groups...

  7. Plants of the Cerrado naturally selected by grazing sheep may have potential for inhibiting development of Haemonchus contortus larva. (United States)

    Morais-Costa, Franciellen; Soares, Ana Cláudia Maia; Bastos, Gabriela Almeida; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; Braga, Fernão Castro; Dos Santos Lima, Walter; Duarte, Eduardo Robson


    Plant species naturally selected by sheep grazing in the Cerrado region of Brazil were assessed in vitro for activity against Haemonchus contortus. One year of observations showed the plant families in the region exhibiting greatest richness to be Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Malpighiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Myrtaceae, and Annonaceae. Nine species commonly selected by grazing sheep showed variation in the selectivity index with respect to the dry and rainy seasons. Coproculture was conducted in five replicates of 11 treatments: ivermectin, distilled water, or dehydrated leaves of nine selected plant species administered at 333.3 mg g(-1) fecal culture. The dried powder of Piptadenia viridiflora and Ximenia americana leaves significantly reduced the number of infective larvae compared to the distilled water control. These species showed efficacy of over 85 % despite low concentrations of proanthocyanidin. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of extracts of these plants showed major peaks of UV spectra characteristic of flavonoids. Those naturally selected plant species with high antihelminthic efficacy show promise for use in diet as an alternative control of H. contortus in sheep.

  8. Effect of urea-molasses block supplementation on grazing weaner goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

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    R.M. Waruiru


    Full Text Available The influence of feeding urea-molasses blocks (UMB on growth and gastrointestinal (GI nematode parasitism of weaner goats grazing the same pasture was investigated on a farm in Nyandarua District, Kenya. Thirty female Small East African goat kids at an average age of 5 months were initially treated with albendazole orally (5 mg kg-1 body mass and randomly assigned into one of two groups: group I were fed UMB prepared using a cold process and group II kids (controls received no block supplementation (NBS. The UMB were given in the evening when the animals returned from grazing and were consumed during the night at a rate of 95.0 g head-1 day-1. Supplementation was undertaken for 3 consecutive months from July to September 2001 and January to March 2002. Body mass of the kids and faecal egg counts were measured monthly and larval cultures were performed on positive faecal samples of kids of each group. Five goats from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and total counts and identification of worms at the end of June 2002. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in cumulative mass gains of kids in group I from September compared with those in group II. On termination of the study kids in group I had gained an average of (+ SD 20.4 ± 1.4 kg while those in group II had gained 11.8 + 1.1 kg. From January 2002, faecal egg counts of the kids in the UMB group differed significantly (P < 0.05 from those of the NBS group and at slaughter, the mean (+ SD worm counts for the UMB group was 482 + 299 while that of the NBS group was 1 302 + 410. In all the goats, Haemonchus contortus was the predominant nematode recovered. These results indicate that UMB had significant effects in the control of GI nematode parasitism and enhanced growth of the young goats.

  9. Grass composition and rangeland condition of the major grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One area represented lightly grazed government ranches or parks which were used as benchmarks, another area represented the seasonal grazing areas with an intermediate grazing pressure and the remaining were the heavily grazed roadsides, lakeshores and other communal grazing lands. The range condition ...

  10. Metabolic cues for puberty onset in free grazing Holstein heifers naturally infected with nematodes. (United States)

    Díaz-Torga, G S; Mejia, M E; González-Iglesias, A; Formia, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M


    Leptin is a new plausible candidate for the molecular link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. In previous studies we described that continuous natural nematode infections in heifers retarded growth and delayed the onset of puberty, and that the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was involved. In the present study we monitored the leptin levels during development in heifers naturally parasitized versus those chronically treated with ivermectin and we investigated whether growth hormone (GH) accounted for the differences in IGF-I previously noted. Insulin levels were also measured. Prolactin hormone was recorded as an indicator of immune system activation. We found a direct correlation between leptin and body weight during development and a prepubertal surge of the hormone 2 weeks before the first progesterone peak that indicates the onset of puberty. This suggests that leptin may act as a signal for this event. Insulin did not vary during growth and prepuberty. On the other hand, GH as not responsible for diminished IGF-I levels in parasitized animals as levels were similar in both groups. The GH levels were high at birth and then diminished rapidly and remained constant during development and puberty. The last hormone studied, prolactin, followed seasonal changes of sunlight duration and presented sporadic bursts in infected animals. These were related to high nematode infection and are probably involved in the immune response of the host.

  11. Home ranges of raccoon dogs in managed and natural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Süld

    Full Text Available Knowledge of space use is central to understand animals' role in ecosystems. The raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides is considered as one of the most influential alien mesopredator species in Europe, having the potential to cause loss of local biodiversity and act as a vector for zoonotic diseases. We collared 12 animals to study their home range and habitat use in two areas with different management regimes in Estonia: in a protected natural area and in an intensively managed area. From May to October raccoon dogs inhabiting the natural area had considerably smaller home ranges compared to the managed area, 193.3ha±37.3SD and 391.9ha±292.9SD, respectively. This result contradicts somewhat earlier findings in other European raccoon dog populations, where the home range sizes in natural areas in summer and autumn period have usually been larger compared to managed areas. In both study areas raccoon dogs preferred watersides, where amphibians and other semi-aquatic prey are abundant, to other habitats available in their home ranges. We also studied movements of a raccoon dog pair in the managed study area in winter period. Due to mild weather conditions during the study period, raccoon dogs changed their resting sites quite often, covering a relatively large 599 ha area from November 2012 to January 2013, indicating the absence of usual winter lethargy during the mild winters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal trend of the Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the Potohar areas of northern Punjab, Pakistan from December 2004 to January 2006. Faecal samples collected from 968 sheep and 961 goats of different breeds were examined by the modified McMaster technique using saturated solution of sodium chloride. Results revealed that the infection was significantly (P<0.05 higher in sheep compared to goats. The peak infection level was recorded during rainy season (July-October. On the other hand, low infection level was noted from December upto May. In sheep, highest log faecal egg counts (LFECs were recorded in Islamabad, followed by Attock, Jhelum and Chakwal. However, in goats the LFECs trend was highest in Islamabad, followed by Jhelum, Attock and Chakwal districts. A significant (P<0.05 variability in LFECs was noted between sheep and goat breeds from site-site, while no significant difference was observed between breeds at the same site. Hairy (Jattal goats and Salt-Range (Latti sheep breeds exhibited significantly reduced LFECs level along with higher packed cell volume (PCV and haemoglobin (Hb levels compared to other breeds. Moreover, FAMACHA© chart scoring in relation with worm infection (FECs was more valid in sheep than goats. High prevalence of H. contortus in Potohar areas was due to favourable agro-climatic conditions that favour the development and survival of the free-living stages of H. contortus. The findings are discussed with regard to their relevance for strategic control of haemonchosis in small ruminants.

  13. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC


    Full Text Available Radar measurements of a radar calibration sphere test target suspended in sea surface multipath propagation conditions are reported. Wideband measurements together with high range resolution (HRR) processing were employed to resolve the direct...

  14. Efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo sobre a ressemeadura natural de azevém anual = Effect of grazing methods and intensities on annual ryegrass under natural reseedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Pacheco Barbosa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido na E.E.A da UFRGS/RS (30°05’S e 51°39’W com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de métodos e intensidades de pastejo na dinâmica populacional de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em ressemeadura natural. Conduziu-se a pastagem em dois métodos de pastejo (lotação contínua e rotacionada e duas intensidades de pastejo (moderada e baixa, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial com três repetições (2x2x3. No ano seguinte, após um ciclo de lavoura de soja no verão, foi contado o número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via essemeadura natural. Os resultados demonstraram não ter havido interação (p > 0,05 entre os métodos e as intensidades de pastejo, e seus efeitos foram analisados de forma independente. Enquanto os diferentes métodos de pastejo não afetaram a ressemeadura do azevém (p = 0,4636, asdiferentes intensidades de pastejo a influenciaram significativamente (p = 0,0003. O número de perfilhos de azevém estabelecidos via ressemeadura natural, na intensidade de pastejo baixa, foi maior (6.776 perfilhos m-2 do que na intensidade de pastejo moderada(211 perfilhos m-2. O controle da intensidade de pastejo é um fator determinante para a manutenção do azevém em sistemas de produção baseados na persistência dessa forrageira via ressemeadura natural.This work was conducted at EEA/UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil (30°05’S e 51°39’W, to evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities and methods on the population dynamics of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. under natural reseedling. Two grazing intensities (moderate and low were used, under continuous and rotational grazing. The experimental design included randomized blocks with 2x2x3 factorial arrangements (2 grazing intensities x 2 grazing methods x 3 replicates.The following year, the fields were desiccated with herbicides and a soybean plant crop cycle was established during the

  15. Effect of field pea-based creep feed on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and performance by nursing calves grazing native range in western North Dakota. (United States)

    Gelvin, A A; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Landblom, D G; Caton, J S


    Two experiments evaluated digestive and performance effects of field pea-based creep feed in nursing calf diets. In Exp.1, eight nursing steer calves (145 +/- 27 kg initial BW) with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of supplementation and advancing season on dietary composition, intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Treatments were unsupplemented control (CON) and field pea-based creep (SUP; 19.1% CP, DM basis) fed at 0.45% BW (DM basis) daily. Calves grazed native range with their dams from early July through early November. Periods were 24 d long and occurred in July (JUL), August (AUG), September (SEP), and October (OCT). Experiment 2 used 80 crossbred nursing calves, 48 calves in yr 1 and 32 calves in yr 2 (yr 1 = 144 +/- 24 kg; yr 2 = 121 +/- 20 kg initial BW), to evaluate effects of field pea-based creep on calf performance. Treatments included unsupplemented control (CON); field pea-based creep feeds containing either 8% (LS); or 16% (HS) salt; and soybean meal/field pea-based creep containing (as-fed basis) 16% salt (HIPRO). Masticate samples from SUP calves in Exp.1 had greater CP (P = 0.05) than those from CON calves. Forage CP and ADIN decreased linearly with advancing season (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). In vitro OM digestibility of diet masticate decreased from JUL to OCT (P feed to increase calf weight gain without negatively affecting ruminal fermentation and digestion.

  16. Patterns of plant selection by grazing cattle in two savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of plant selection by grazing cattle in two savanna grasslands: A plant's eye view. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... had been previously grazed generally had a greater influence on the amount a tuft was grazed during an individual grazing event than species identity, location or moribund material.

  17. Grazing and biodiversity: from selective foraging to wildlife habitats


    Wallis de Vries, M.F.


    Livestock grazing in low-intensity farming systems is a key aspect in the conservation of Europe's biodiversity, which reaches high levels of species richness in semi-natural grasslands. With the demise of traditional grazing systems, the design of viable low-intensity grazing systems for the future requires a good understanding of grazing impacts on biodiversity. Here, I review various scale-dependent aspects of selective grazing and how they may affect biodiversity. Insects such as butterfl...

  18. Detection of short range order in SiO{sub 2} thin-films by grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kohki, E-mail: [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan); School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashimita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Hirosawa, Ichiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suwa, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Akinobu; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)


    The effects of the fabrication process conditions on the microstructure of silicon dioxide thin films of <10 nm thickness are presented. The microstructure was investigated using grazing-incidence wide and small-angle X-ray scattering methods with synchrotron radiation. The combination of a high brilliance light source and grazing incident configuration enabled the observation of very weak diffuse X-ray scattering from SiO{sub 2} thin films. The results revealed different microstructures, which were dependent on oxidizing species or temperature. The micro-level properties differed from bulk properties reported in the previous literature. It was indicated that these differences originate from inner stress. The detailed structure in an amorphous thin film was not revealed owing to detection difficulties.

  19. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa. (United States)

    Hempson, Gareth P; Archibald, Sally; Bond, William J; Ellis, Roger P; Grant, Cornelia C; Kruger, Fred J; Kruger, Laurence M; Moxley, Courtney; Owen-Smith, Norman; Peel, Mike J S; Smit, Izak P J; Vickers, Karen J


    benefits that grazer populations derive from having access to grazing lawns. The effects of grazing lawns can extend well beyond their borders, due to their influence on grazer densities, behaviour and movements as well as fire spread, intensity and frequency. Variation in the area and proportion of a landscape that is grazing lawn can thus have a profound impact on system dynamics. We provide a conceptual model that summarises grazing lawn dynamics, and identify a rainfall range where we predict grazing lawns to be most prevalent. We also examine the biodiversity associated with grazing lawn systems, and consider their functional contribution to the conservation of this biodiversity. Finally, we assess the utility of grazing lawns as a resource in a rangeland context. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Impact of grazing management on hibernating caterpillars of the butterfly Melitaea cinxia in calcareous grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, C.G.E.; Flierman, D.E.; Remke, E.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Berg, M.P.


    Semi-natural grasslands are increasingly grazed by large herbivores for nature conservation purposes. For many insects such grazing is essential for the conservation of their habitat, but at the same time, populations decrease at high grazing intensity. We hypothesised that grazing management may

  1. Impact of grazing on hibernating caterpillars of the calcareous grassland butterfly Melitaea cinxia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noordwijk, C.G.E.; Flierman, D.E.; Remke, E.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Berg, M.P.


    Semi-natural grasslands are increasingly grazed by large herbivores for nature conservation purposes. For many insects such grazing is essential for the conservation of their habitat, but at the same time, populations decrease at high grazing intensity. We hypothesised that grazing management may

  2. Impact of Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and clearing on the grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our results indicate that Prosopis invasion (>13% mean canopy cover) can lower grazing capacity in Nama Karoo rangeland, whereas clearing Prosopis from such rangeland can, even under heavy grazing, substantially improve grazing capacity within 4–6 years. Keywords: exotic invasive plants, management, natural ...

  3. A review of experiments comparing systems of grazing management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments comparing different systems of grazing management on natural pastures in various parts of the world are reviewed. In experiments in which various rotational systems were tested against continuous grazing, fewer than half revealed pasture improvement relative to continuous grazing. In the majority of ...

  4. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  5. Grazing and biodiversity: from selective foraging to wildlife habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, M.F.


    Livestock grazing in low-intensity farming systems is a key aspect in the conservation of Europe's biodiversity, which reaches high levels of species richness in semi-natural grasslands. With the demise of traditional grazing systems, the design of viable low-intensity grazing systems for the future

  6. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management (United States)


    ... Control Number 1004-0019] Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... submitted an information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for a 3-year... INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Management (43 CFR 4120). OMB Number: 1004-0019. Forms: 4120-6 (Cooperative Range...

  7. The evaluation of pastures and grazing management in terms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of pastures and grazing management in terms of livestock production. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Abstract. Grazing research in South Africa has been largely pasture oriented and consequently there is still a need to fully evaluate many of our more important pasture types and grazing ...

  8. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  9. Grazing and grazing management terminology in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former group includes veld, fynbos, karoo, grassveld, bushveld, sourveld. sweetveld, pastures, leys, permanent pastures, cultivated pastures, introduced pastures, species selective grazing, area selective grazing, grazing capacity, current grazing capacity and potential grazing capacity. Some of these terms are well ...

  10. The effects of fire and grazing pressure on the vegetation cover and small mammal populations in the Masai Mara Nature Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvatori, V.; Egunyu, F.; Skidmore, A.K.; Leeuw, de J.; Gils, van H.A.M.


    An extensive study of vegetation changes as a consequence of fire and grazing pressure and their effect on small mammal populations inside the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, was carried out during May-June 1997. Comparison of vegetation maps from 1979 and 1998 suggested that vegetation in 46 f

  11. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.


    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  12. Grazing Impact Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, J.G.; Water, van de W.; Molenaar, J.


    An impact oscillator is a periodically driven system that hits a wall when its amplitude exceeds a critical value. We study impact oscillations where collisions with the wall are with near-zero velocity (grazing impacts). A characteristic feature of grazing impact dynamics is a geometrically

  13. Factors affecting intake by grazing ruminants and related quantification methods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilmant D.


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the factors affecting intake of grazing ruminants and its main quantification methods. Level of intake depends on many factors linked, for instance to the gut capacity, to the animal’s requirements covering, or to the forage quality. The post-ingestive feedback of the intake, the morphological characteristics of grazed plants and the environment such as climate, characteristics of feed resources, are also factors of interest to explain some intake variations. Intake is a multi-factorial phenomenon. There are few studies on the estimation of that parameter. Methods and techniques developed to measure intake are often laborious and expensive, sometimes unrepresentative of the true grazing conditions and often lacking of accuracy. Currently, the n-alkanes, natural markers presents in the plants, appear as one of the best way to predict at the same time intake and digestibility of ingested diet. However, the method remains hard to apply for long periods and in free ranging schemes. If sufficiently robust databases and calibrations are developed, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS appears as an interesting technique to predict rapidly intake and digestibility of grazed grass. Particularly, NIRS applied to faeces appears promising as related in recent studies. It could be considered as a good alternative for assessing the diet, in quantity and in quality, of grazing or ranging ruminants.

  14. Human-aided and natural dispersal drive gene flow across the range of an invasive mosquito. (United States)

    Medley, Kim A; Jenkins, David G; Hoffman, Eric A


    Human-aided transport is responsible for many contemporary species introductions, yet the contribution of human-aided transport to dispersal within non-native regions is less clear. Understanding dispersal dynamics for invasive species can streamline mitigation efforts by targeting routes that contribute disproportionally to spread. Because of its limited natural dispersal ability, rapid spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been attributed to human-aided transport, but until now, the relative roles of human-aided and natural movement have not been rigorously evaluated. Here, we use landscape genetics and information-theoretic model selection to evaluate 52 models representing 9240 pairwise dispersal paths among sites across the US range for Ae. albopictus and show that recent gene flow reflects a combination of natural and human-aided dispersal. Highways and water availability facilitate dispersal at a broad spatial scale, but gene flow is hindered by forests at the current distributional limit (range edge) and by agriculture among sites within the mosquito's native climatic niche (range core). Our results show that highways are important to genetic structure between range-edge and range-core pairs, suggesting a role for human-aided mosquito transport to the range edge. In contrast, natural dispersal is dominant at smaller spatial scales, reflecting a shifting dominance to natural movement two decades after introduction. These conclusions highlight the importance of (i) early intervention for species introductions, particularly those with readily dispersed dormant stages and short generation times, and (ii) strict monitoring of commercial shipments for transported immature stages of Ae. albopictus, particularly towards the northern edge of the US range. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species. (United States)

    Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Hartl, Daniel L; Sackton, Timothy B


    The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc). However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

  16. Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell B Corbett-Detig


    Full Text Available The neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the amount of neutral polymorphisms within a species will increase proportionally with the census population size (Nc. However, this prediction has not been borne out in practice: while the range of Nc spans many orders of magnitude, levels of genetic diversity within species fall in a comparatively narrow range. Although theoretical arguments have invoked the increased efficacy of natural selection in larger populations to explain this discrepancy, few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis have been conducted. In this work, we provide a direct test of this hypothesis using population genomic data from a wide range of taxonomically diverse species. To do this, we relied on the fact that the impact of natural selection on linked neutral diversity depends on the local recombinational environment. In regions of relatively low recombination, selected variants affect more neutral sites through linkage, and the resulting correlation between recombination and polymorphism allows a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the impact of selection on linked neutral diversity. By comparing whole genome polymorphism data and genetic maps using a coalescent modeling framework, we estimate the degree to which natural selection reduces linked neutral diversity for 40 species of obligately sexual eukaryotes. We then show that the magnitude of the impact of natural selection is positively correlated with Nc, based on body size and species range as proxies for census population size. These results demonstrate that natural selection removes more variation at linked neutral sites in species with large Nc than those with small Nc and provides direct empirical evidence that natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

  17. Residence time, native range size, and genome size predict naturalization among angiosperms introduced to Australia. (United States)

    Schmidt, John P; Drake, John M; Stephens, Patrick


    Although critical to progress in understanding (i) if, and (ii) at what rate, introduced plants will naturalize and potentially become invasive, establishing causal links between traits and invasion success is complicated by data gaps, phylogenetic nonindependence of species, the inability to control for differences between species in residence time and propagule pressure, and covariance among traits. Here, we focus on statistical relationships between genomic factors, life history traits, native range size, and naturalization status of angiosperms introduced to Australia. In a series of analyses, we alternately investigate the role of phylogeny, incorporate introduction history, and use graphical models to explore the network of conditional probabilities linking traits and introduction history to naturalization status. Applying this ensemble of methods to the largest publicly available data set on plant introductions and their fates, we found that, overall, residence time and native range size best predicted probability of naturalization. Yet, importantly, probability of naturalization consistently increased as genome size decreased, even when the effects of shared ancestry and residence time in Australia were accounted for, and that this pattern was stronger in species without a history of cultivation, but present across annual-biennials, and herbaceous and woody perennials. Thus, despite introduction biases and indirect effects of traits via introduction history, across analyses, reduced genome size was nevertheless consistently associated with a tendency to naturalize.

  18. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef


    The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant differences in vegetation structure, plant species composition, and soil chemical properties in relation to type of grazing animals, various levels of grazing intensity and grazing type, and if potential differences alter with ecosystem productivity (increase in more productive ecosystems). The study was conducted in three mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians with a predominance of alkaline substrates (the Bucegi Mts, the Little Retezat Mts and the Ceahlău Massif). Statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software environment. The effects of grazing animals (cattle, horses and sheep), grazing types (fence, regular, irregular) and grazing intensity (low, medium, high) on the community structure were tested using ordination methods. In the case of soil properties, General Linear Mixed Model was applied. Special statistical approach eliminated the differences between the examined mountains and sites. Type of grazing animal does not significantly influence species cover but it is related to specific species occurrence. According to our results, grazing horses had similar effects as cattle compared to sheep. Grazing in restricted areas (surrounded by fence) and regular unrestricted grazing were more similar if compared to irregular grazing. When comparing the intensity of grazing, high and medium intensity were more similar to each other than to the low intensity grazing. Cattle grazed sites had significantly higher lichens cover, while the sheep patches were covered with increased overall herb layer (forbs, graminoids and low shrubs together). Medium grazing intensity decreased the lichens cover, cover of overall herb layer, and total vegetation cover compared to high and low grazing intensity. Grazing type had important impact on the lichens cover and cover of overall herb layer. The lichens cover appeared to decrease while the cover of overall herb layer

  19. The ecological adaptability of cloned sheep to free-grazing in the Tengger Desert of Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin LI,Huijuan WANG,Guanghua SU,Zhuying WEI,Chunling BAI,Wuni-MENGHE,Yanhui HOU,Changqing YU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI


    Full Text Available Since the birth of the first cloned sheep, somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been successfully used to clone a variety of mammals. Cloned livestock have no apparent health risks, and the quality and safety of the cloned animal products are similar to non-cloned animals. The social behavior and environmental adaptability of postnatal cloned animals, especially when used for grassland farm production purposes, is unknown. In the present study, the cloned Dorper sheep equipped with GPS location devices were free-grazed in a harsh natural environment similar to conditions commonly experienced by Mongolian sheep. The main findings of this research were as follows. (1 Under free-grazing conditions, the cloned sheep showed excellent climatic and ecological adaptability. In extreme temperature conditions ranging from -30 to 40ºC, the cloned sheep maintained acceptable body condition and behaved as other sheep. (2 The cloned sheep quickly adapted from a herd feeding strategy to the harsh environment and quickly exhibited a grazing regimen as other free-grazing sheep. (3 The cloned sheep exhibited free-grazing patterns and social behavior as other sheep. (4 The cloned sheep in the harsh environment thrived and produced healthy lambs. Overall, the cloned Dorper sheep exhibited excellent ecological adaptation, which is an important consideration for breeding meat sheep by cloning. The Dorper sheep readily adapted to the free-grazing conditions on the Mongolian plateau grassland, which attests to their ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions.

  20. Expanding the range of 'druggable' targets with natural product-based libraries: an academic perspective. (United States)

    Bauer, Renato A; Wurst, Jacqueline M; Tan, Derek S


    Existing drugs address a relatively narrow range of biological targets. As a result, libraries of drug-like molecules have proven ineffective against a variety of challenging targets, such as protein-protein interactions, nucleic acid complexes, and antibacterial modalities. In contrast, natural products are known to be effective at modulating such targets, and new libraries are being developed based on underrepresented scaffolds and regions of chemical space associated with natural products. This has led to several recent successes in identifying new chemical probes that address these challenging targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice [Chapter 4 (United States)

    Stuart P. Hardegree; Thomas A. Jones; Bruce A. Roundy; Nancy L. Shaw; Thomas A. Monaco


    The Range Planting Conservation Practice Standard is used to inform development of Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) management recommendations for improving vegetation composition and productivity of grazed plant communities. Range planting recommendations are generally implemented within an integrated conservation management system in conjunction with...

  2. Prescribed grazing for management of invasive vegetation in a hardwood forest understory (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Songlin Fei; Jason Tower; Kenneth Andries; Michael. Neary


    Land managers considering prescribed grazing (PG) face a lack of information on animal stocking rates, timing of grazing, and duration of grazing to achieve desired conditions in natural ecosystems under invasion stress from a variety of nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species. In this study we tested PG treatments using goats for reducing NNIP brush species and...

  3. Factors Affecting Home Ranges of Red Foxes in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tserendorj Munkhzul


    Full Text Available Changes in red fox home range size in relation to environmental and intrinsic factors were studied using radio-telemetry during 2006–2008 in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, southeastern Mongolia. We captured a total of 12 red foxes (8 females and 4 males and fi tted them with VHF radio-collars. Marked animals were tracked up to fi ve times a week to estimate home ranges. We also trapped small mammal and insects in different biotopes for 3 years to estimate relative abundance of prey. Our results showed that mean individual home range sizes varied widely and differed among years. There was variation in home ranges between adults versus juveniles, but no signifi cant difference was found between males versus females. In addition, mean home range size did not differ seasonally for pooled years. Variation in home ranges was best explained by a model that included covariates of year and age. We suggest that spatiotemporal changes in resource availability across years infl uenced home range dynamics of red foxes in our study.

  4. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.


    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  5. Grazing Intensity Does Not Affect Plant Diversity in Shortgrass Steppe (United States)

    Responses of livestock gain and forage production to grazing intensity in shortgrass steppe are well-established, but effects on basal cover and plant diversity are less so. A long-term grazing intensity study was initiated on shortgrass steppe at the Central Plains Experimental Range (USDA-Agricult...

  6. Identification of key grass species under grazing in the Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative abundances of rangeland species have for many years been used to index trends in range condition following the impact of grazing. All species recorded in a botanical survey are usually classified according to their assumed reaction to grazing using the increaser and decreaser groups. We used a gradient ...

  7. Siberian Ibex ( Capra sibirica Home Ranges in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia: Preliminary Findings

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    Richard P. Reading


    Full Text Available Siberian ibex ( Capra sibirica remain poorly understood, as little is known about their ecology . W e began studying ibex in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Dornogobi Aimag, Mongolia to better understand the species’ ecological needs and threats. In this paper we report on home range and core range sizes. We captured 27 ibex and fi t them with radio telemetry collars using drive nets for adults and juveniles ( n = 22 and hand captures for neonatal kids ( n = 5 . W e collected 1,029 locations from September 2003 to February 2007. Throughout the study, 9 ibex with 40+ fi xe s used mean, annual home range sizes of 3,115.5 ± 504.2 ha using the Minimum Convex Polygon method. Home ranges calculated using the fi xe d kernel method were smaller: 475.9 ± 14.7 ha for 50% kernel and 1,808.0 ± 88.1 ha for 95% kernel. Ibex from different demographic groups (males vs. females and juveniles vs. adults used remarkably similar home and core ranges; we found no signifi ca nt differences among any demographic groups. Although not quantifi ed , ibex mostly restricted their activities to areas with steep cliffs and rocky outcrops and home ranges overlapped extensively.

  8. The quantification of grazing capacity from grazing — and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between rangeland condition and grazing capacity was determined along a degradation gradient. In studying agronomic values of forage species, the average production per tuft was combined with its grazing preferences, to link grazing values for species in the semi-arid grasslands of southern Africa.

  9. The Grazing Capacity and Stocking Rate of the Gongoshi Grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the grazing capacity and stocking rate of the Gongoshi grazing reserve in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Determination of the grazing capacity was carried out by assessing the forage yield, while forage yield was assessed by clipping of desirable herbage within a series of quadrants (1m2 in size) distributed ...

  10. Home range utilization by chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) troops on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve, South Africa. (United States)

    Slater, Kerry; Barrett, Alan; Brown, Leslie R


    Rapid urbanization coupled with decreasing areas of natural habitat are causing baboon populations to become scattered and isolated, often resulting in increased levels of human-baboon conflict. To implement baboon-human conflict management strategies, it is essential to formulate realistic conservation policies that deal with all stakeholder concerns and ensure the conservation of viable baboon populations. A study was initiated in response to complaints of perceived excessive baboon numbers and associated lack of food resources on Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve in South Africa. Data obtained from GPS tracking collars fitted to one baboon from each of 10 identified troops were analyzed to determine home range size and utilization. The spatial representation of home ranges generated from this study will allow reserve management to identify areas of potential high and low human-baboon conflict and will contribute to the development of a formal baboon management plan to reduce human-baboon conflict on and around the reserve. Home ranges were unevenly distributed and had a mean size of 26.72 km2 ± 13.91 SD in the cold/dry season and 26.54 km2 ± 12.76 SD in the warm/wet season. Troop home ranges overlapped to some degree and five troops utilized areas outside the reserve. Although no significant relationship between troop size and home range was found, there was a positive relationship between troop size and daily distance travelled. All troops had significantly longer mean daily distances during the warm/wet season than during the cold/dry season (P ≤ 0.02).

  11. Colour stability and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus and carcass characteristics in fallow deer (Dama dama grazed on natural pasture or fed barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund


    Full Text Available The effects of feeding regimen on carcass characteristics, meat colour and water-holding capacity of M. longissimus were studied in 24 female fallow deer (Dama dama. All animals were farm raised; twelve were grazed on pasture and twelve were fed barley and a small amount of hay prior to slaughter. The animals were slaughtered at two occasions (during the Southern Hemisphere spring; after 19 weeks of feeding (n=12; 6 grazing and 6 barley fed animals; group 1 and after 24 weeks of feeding (n=12; 6 grazing and 6 barley fed animals; group 2. The barley/hay-fed deer had significantly higher body condition scores and carcass weights than the pasture raised group. No difference in meat ultimate pH values between the treatment groups was recorded. The meat from the pasture raised deer had significantly longer colour display life after 2 and 3 weeks of refrigerated storage (+ 2.0 ºC in vacuum bags. There was no difference in drip loss between the two treatment groups. However, significantly lower drip losses were found in meat from the animals in group 2 compared with the ones in group 1 (P ≤ 0.001. It was concluded that the feeding regimen of the animals is an important factor that contributes to the variation in quality of fresh chilled deer meat (venison, mainly the colour stability and display life of vacuum packaged meat.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I denna undersökning ingick 24 dovhjortshindar (Dama dama för att studera effekterna av olika typer av foder (bete och korn på slaktkroppskvalitet samt färg och vattenhållande förmåga i köttet (M. longissimus. Alla djur var uppfödda på en hjortfarm, 12 betade gräs och 12 utfodrades med korn och en liten mängd hö före slakt. Djuren slaktades vid två olika tillfällen (under våren på det södra halvklotet; efter 19 veckors utfodring (n=12; 6 betesdjur och 6 kornfodrade djur; grupp 1 och efter 24 veckors utfodring (n=12; 6 betesdjur och 6 kornfodrade djur; grupp 2. De dovhjortar

  12. Using natural range of variation to set decision thresholds: a case study for great plains grasslands (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.


    Natural range of variation (NRV) may be used to establish decision thresholds or action assessment points when ecological thresholds are either unknown or do not exist for attributes of interest in a managed ecosystem. The process for estimating NRV involves identifying spatial and temporal scales that adequately capture the heterogeneity of the ecosystem; compiling data for the attributes of interest via study of historic records, analysis and interpretation of proxy records, modeling, space-for-time substitutions, or analysis of long-term monitoring data; and quantifying the NRV from those data. At least 19 National Park Service (NPS) units in North America’s Great Plains are monitoring plant species richness and evenness as indicators of vegetation integrity in native grasslands, but little information on natural, temporal variability of these indicators is available. In this case study, we use six long-term vegetation monitoring datasets to quantify the temporal variability of these attributes in reference conditions for a variety of Great Plains grassland types, and then illustrate the implications of using different NRVs based on these quantities for setting management decision thresholds. Temporal variability of richness (as measured by the coefficient of variation, CV) is fairly consistent across the wide variety of conditions occurring in Colorado shortgrass prairie to Minnesota tallgrass sand savanna (CV 0.20–0.45) and generally less than that of production at the same sites. Temporal variability of evenness spans a greater range of CV than richness, and it is greater than that of production in some sites but less in other sites. This natural temporal variability may mask undesirable changes in Great Plains grasslands vegetation. Consequently, we suggest that managers consider using a relatively narrow NRV (interquartile range of all richness or evenness values observed in reference conditions) for designating a surveillance threshold, at which


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Gondim


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho tratou-se da caracterização estacional de uma pastagem natural do cerrado. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um experimento em uma área de sete hectares na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT, no município de Santo Antônio de Leverger, MT, nos meses de fevereiro a abril e de julho a setembro em 2004. Submeteu-se a área ao pastejo, garantindo-se uma oferta de forragem superior a 6%. Realizou-se o levantamento florístico e da massa seca total, por meio do método do Rendimento Comparativo e do método do Peso Seco Ordenado, bem como se verificaram a porcentagem de cobertura do solo, a altura do pasto, a densidade de forragem, os teores de massa seca e de proteína bruta. A caracterização estacional da pastagem foi realizada por meio da técnica multivariada de análise de agrupamento. Os meses foram agrupados em função das variáveis, pelo método de Tocher. Encontraram-se 69 espécies pertencentes a 59 gêneros de 37 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram o maior número de componentes e potencial forrageiro foram Faboidea e Poaceae. Altura do pasto, cobertura de solo e densidade de forragem foram as variáveis de maior importância para caracterização da pastagem, seguidas pela massa seca total. A pastagem caracterizou-se em três épocas marcantes: águas, transição água-seca e seca.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Análise de agrupamento, composição bromatológica, composição florística, estrutura do pasto. The aim of this research was the seasonal characterization of a natural pasture in the savannah. The experiment was conducted in an area of seven hectares at the Experimental Farm of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in Santo Antônio do Leverger, from february to april and from july to september in 2004. The area was under grazing, assuring a forage allowance of more than 6%. It was realized the floristic survey, the total dry matter, using the Comparative Yield and the Dry Weight Rank methods, the percentage of

  14. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production (United States)

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.


    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  15. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  16. Natural selection on plant resistance to herbivores in the native and introduced range (United States)

    Valverde, Pedro L.; Arroyo, Juan; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Castillo, Guillermo; Calahorra, Adriana; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Tapia-López, Rosalinda


    When plants are introduced into new regions, the absence of their co-evolved natural enemies can result in lower levels of attack. As a consequence of this reduction in enemy pressure, plant performance may increase and selection for resistance to enemies may decrease. In the present study, we compared leaf damage, plant size and leaf trichome density, as well as the direction and magnitude of selection on resistance and plant size between non-native (Spain) and native (Mexico) populations of Datura stramonium. This species was introduced to Spain about five centuries ago and constitutes an ideal system to test four predictions of the enemy release hypothesis. Compared with native populations, we expected Spanish populations of D. stramonium to have (i) lower levels of foliar damage; (ii) larger plant size; (iii) lower leaf trichome density that is unrelated to foliar damage by herbivores; and (iv) weak or no selection on resistance to herbivores but strong selection on plant size. Our results showed that, on average, plants from non-native populations were significantly less damaged by herbivores, were less pubescent and were larger than those from native populations. We also detected different selection regimes on resistance and plant size between the non-native and native ranges. Positive selection on plant size was detected in both ranges (though it was higher in the non-native area), but consistent positive selection on relative resistance was detected only in the native range. Overall, we suggest that changes in selection pressure on resistance and plant size in D. stramonium in Spain are a consequence of ‘release from natural enemies’. PMID:26205526

  17. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark. (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig


    Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  18. Optimized selection of liquid chromatography conditions for wide range analysis of natural compounds. (United States)

    Periat, Aurélie; Guillarme, Davy; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Boccard, Julien; Moco, Sofia; Barron, Denis; Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud, Alexandre


    Plant secondary metabolites are an almost unlimited reservoir of potential bioactive compounds. In view of the wide chemical space covered by natural compounds, their comprehensive analysis requires multiple and complementary approaches. In this study, numerous chromatographic conditions were tested for the analysis of a set of 120 representative natural compounds covering a wide polarity range (18 log P units). The experiments were performed on 59 different conditions involving 29 RPLC and HILIC dedicated stationary phases, as well as more exotic mixed mode columns. The best RPLC and HILIC conditions were determined using Derringer's desirability functions, based on various criteria (i.e. retention, peak shape, distribution of compounds during the gradient…). After this first selection, only the most promising conditions were kept (19 in RPLC and 11 in HILIC). The selectivity complementarity among each chromatographic mode was assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). In RPLC, a pentabromobenzyl (PBrBz) stationary phase was identified as particularly versatile and could constitute an elegant first intention screening column. Two additional conditions allowed to extend the range of natural compounds space that can be analyzed, while offering better selectivity for basic analytes (hybrid silica graft with C8 moiety operated at pH 9 (Hyb C8)) and acidic compounds (positively charged hybrid silica graft with pentafluorophenyl moiety (Hyb+ PFPh). Although less generic in terms of amenable compounds, an ion exchange/RP mixed mode stationary phase (MM TriP1) offered notably enhanced retention of more polar analytes under RPLC conditions. With these four conditions, 89% of the natural substances were detected by LC-MS with acceptable retentions and peak shapes. In HILIC, four acceptable and complementary conditions were also highlighted. Both Syncro-Z (zwitterionic HILIC phase) and Diol columns were found to offer balanced

  19. Efeitos da queima seguida de pastejo ou diferimento sobre o resíduo, temperatura do solo e mesofauna de uma pastagem natural Effects of burning followed by grazing or deferring on residual dry matter, soil temperature and mesofauna of a natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Viegas Damé


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, com o objetivo de estimar os efeitos do fogo associado ao pastejo, com ou sem período de diferimento após a queima, sobre o resíduo e mesofauna edáfica de uma pastagem natural. Foi observada, também, o efeito do fogo sobre a variação da temperatura do solo. O experimento foi instalado no inverno de 1992 e os dados foram coletados no período de maio de 1993 a junho de 1994. Os tratamentos foram: queimado em 17/09/92 e Rastejado; queimado em 17/09/92, diferido, requeimado em 05/09/93 e pastejado; não queimado e pastejado em 1992, queimado em 22/06/93 e diferido. Foi constatado que o fogo diminui o resíduo da pastagem e essa redução é maior ainda quando há pastejo. Não foram observadas alterações significativas na temperatura do solo, devido à intensidade do fogo ter sido baixa. A queima e o pastejo não apresentaram efeitos significativos sobre a população de colêmbolos e ácaros do solo.This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of burning associated with grazing and burning with deferring periods, on residual dry matter, soil temperature and mesofauna composition of a natural pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Animal Science Departament, UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. The trial was initiated in the Winter of 1992 and data were collected from May, 1993 to June, 1994. Treatments consisted of: burned in 9/17/92 and grazed: burned in 9/17/92 and deferred, reburned in 9/5/93 and grazed; not burned in 1992 and grazed, burned in 6/22/93 and deferred. Burning reduced dry matter residue and the reduction was more pronounced when burning was followed by grazing. Soil temperature was not affected by burning mainly because its intensity was low. Soil mesofauna was not significantiy affected by the diffèrent treatments tested.

  20. Mixed grazing with heifers and pregnant sows


    Soegaard, Karen; Sehested, Jakob; Danielsen, Viggo


    In 1999, a mixed grazing system with heifers and pregnant soews was compared with grazing systems with heifers and sows alone. Normally, herbage quality used for sow grazing is not optimal for high herbage intake and it was therefore examined whether mixed grazing with heifers could improve the grazing system. Herbage quality and botanical composition of the sward was best where heifers grazed alone, followed by swards with mixed grazing and the poorest quality and composition were in swards ...

  1. Characterization of natural topaz for dosimetric applications in the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento


    The thermoluminescence (TL) and the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission of Brazilian natural topaz samples from Minas Gerais were analysed aiming the use of this mineral for dosimetric applications. Topaz is an aluminium fluorosilicate with a fairly constant chemical composition of Al 2 SiO 4 (F,OH) 2 . The major variation in the structure among different samples is related to the OH/F concentration ratio. In the present work, samples cut from rolled pebbles, powdered samples and composites were used. The composites (dosimeters) were prepared with powdered topaz embedded in powdered Teflon or glass. The dosimetric characterization of the composites showed that the dosimeters present a linear response in the range of therapeutic doses, slow isothermic fading and a strong TL dependence with radiation energy. The TL was also combined with the X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques to identify the charge carrier traps and those of the recombination centres, that are essential aspects to understand the processes of light emission in natural colourless topaz. It was observed that the main charge trapping centers in the topaz are due to various OH-related defects, and that the thermal treatments can change the concentration of the recombination centers. Implantations with chromium, aluminium and iron ions into colourless samples were performed, and they were efficient to produce TL modifications in topaz. (author)

  2. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G. [Paris-6 et 7 Univ. and IPGP, Lab. de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, UA CNRS 09, 75 (France)


    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature.

  3. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G.


    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature

  4. Hematite from Natural Iron Stones as Microwave Absorbing Material on X-Band Frequency Ranges (United States)

    Zainuri, Mochamad


    This study has been investigated the effect of hematite as microwave absorbing materials (RAM) on X-Band frequency ranges. Hematite was succesfully processed by coprecipitation method and calcined at 500 °C for 5 hour. It was synthesized from natural iron stones from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraxtion (XRD), conductivity measurement, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), and Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The result was shown that hematite has conductivity value on (2.5-3).10-7 S/cm and be included as dielectric materials. The hysterisis curve was shown that hematite was a super paramagnetic materials. The product was mixed on paint with procentage 10% of total weight and coated on steel grade AH36 with spray methods. Then, the maximum of reflection loss on x - band’s frequency range (8,2-12,4) GHz was -7 dB on frequency of 10.5 GHz. It mean that almost 50% electromagnetic energy was absorbed by hematite.

  5. Economic susceptibility of fire-prone landscapes in natural protected areas of the southern Andean Range. (United States)

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Moreno, Roberto; Castillo, Miguel; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco


    Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence. Landscape susceptibility concept has been motivated by the need to assist fire prevention programs and environmental management. There was a remarkable variation in annual economic value attributed to each protected area based on the CVM scenario, ranging from 40,189-46,887$/year ("Tolhuaca National Park") to 241,000-341,953$/year ("Conguillio National Park"). We added landscape susceptibility using depreciation rates or tourist arrival decrease which varied from 2.04% (low fire intensity in "Tolhuaca National Park") to 76.67% (high fire intensity in "Conguillio National Park"). The integration of this approach and future studies about vegetation resilience should seek management strategies to increase economic efficiency in the fire prevention activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural range expansion and local extirpation of an exotic psittacine--an unsuccessful colonization attempt (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.


    The Brown-throated Parakeet Aratinga pertinax is native to Panama, northern South America, and the islands off the northern coast of Venezuela. It is widely believed that the parakeet was introduced to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, from Curacao before the mid-19th century, although no records exist as to when and how this may have occurred. The parakeet was not recorded from Vieques or Culebra islands or mainland Puerto Rico before 1975. However, in that year A. pertinax underwent an apparent natural range expansion from St. Thomas into each of these sites. The 5 birds in the eastern Puerto Rico population made 5 breeding attempts and fledged 11 young since their discovery in April1975. That population grew to a maximum size of 10 birds in June 1979. However there was only 1 bird left by July 1980, and the population no longer existed at the beginning of what would have been the 1982 breeding season. The populations on Culebra and Vieques islands were apparently extirpated by 1976. Losses in the eastern Puerto Rico population were low during the first four years of colonization, when reproduction was adequate and the mortality was low. However, between 1978 and the time of population disappearance in 1982, the expected extirpation was 0.999. Habitat use, general behavior, breeding biology, competitors and predators of the colonizing population in eastern Puerto Rico are described. Biogeographic, evolutionary, and conservation implications of these observations are discussed.

  7. Reindeer grazing in subarctic boreal forest - influences on the soil carbon dynamics (United States)

    Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Köster, Egle; Pumpanen, Jukka


    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) are the most important large mammalian herbivores in the northern ecosystems , which have many effects on plant diversity, soil nutrient cycling and soil organic matter decomposition. Changes caused by reindeer in vegetation have indirect effects on physical features of the soil e.g. soil microclimate, root biomass and also on soil C dynamics. Earlier, the role of reindeer grazing in ground vegetation dynamics and in soil carbon (C) dynamics has been mostly investigated in open tundra heaths. The objectives of this study were to examine if and how the reindeer grazing (and the possible temperature changes in soil caused by heavy grazing) is affecting the soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux from the soil, C storage in soil, microbial biomass in the soil). In a field experiment in Finnish Lapland, in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (67° 46' N, 29° 35' E) we have assessed the changes occurring in above- and belowground biomasses, and soil C dynamics (CO2 efflux, soil C content, soil microbial biomass C) among areas grazed and ungrazed by reindeer. Our study areas are located in the northern boreal subarctic coniferous forest at the zone of the last intact forest landscapes in Fennoscandia, where large areas of relatively undisturbed subarctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests can still be found. The sample plots located in the Värriö Strict Nature Reserve (10 sample plots in total established in year 2013) are situated along the borderline between Finland and Russia, where the ungrazed area was excluded from the reindeer grazing already in 1918, to prevent the Finnish reindeer from going to the Russian side and there are not many reindeer on Russian side of the area. To characterize the stands we have established circular sample plots on areas with a radius of 11.28 m, where different tree characteristics were measured (diameter at 1.3 m, height, height of a tree, crown height, crown diameter, stand age, etc.). On every sample plot

  8. Long-range interactions and the sign of natural amplitudes in two-electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbertz, K.J.H.; Van Leeuwen, R.

    In singlet two-electron systems, the natural occupation numbers of the one-particle reduced density matrix are given as squares of the natural amplitudes which are defined as the expansion coefficients of the two-electron wave function in a natural orbital basis. In this work, we relate the sign of

  9. Essential oils of indigenous plants protect livestock from infestations of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and other tick species in herds grazing in natural pastures in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem


    The effects of formulated essential oils of Tagetes minuta and Tithonia diversifolia on Rhipicephalus appendiculatus infesting livestock were evaluated in semi-field experiments. Forty-five zebu cattle naturally infested with ticks were randomly selected from 15 herds, three animals from each. Of

  10. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Brussard, P.F.


    Although feral horses have inhabited western North America since the end of the 16th century, relatively little synecological research has been conducted to quantitatively characterize how they interact with ecosystem components. Because feral horses exhibit watering behavior markedly different from that of domestic cattle, it is particularly important to evaluate response of ecosystem elements near water sources to horse use. To assess this response, we performed live-trapping of small mammals and 2-tiered vegetative sampling in 2 mountain ranges in central Nevada in the interior Great Basin, USA. At low elevations, plots around horse-excluded springs exhibited notably greater plant species richness, percent cover, and abundance of grasses and shrubs, as well as more small mammal burrow entrances than plots at horse-grazed springs. At high elevations, meadows protected from grazing exhibited maximum vegetation heights 2.8 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses only and 4.5 times greater than vegetation grazed by horses and cattle. Species richness in quadrats was most different between the horse-and-cattle-grazed meadow and its ungrazed counterpart, suggesting the possibility of synergistic effects of horse and cattle grazing in the same location. This study, the first in the Great Basin to investigate quantitatively ecosystem consequences of feral horse use with exclosures, represents a preliminary step in identifying factors that determine the magnitude of horse grazing impacts. 

  11. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing. (United States)

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R


    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  12. Ammonia emissions of a rotational grazing system (United States)

    Voglmeier, Karl; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus; Ammann, Christof


    Intensive agricultural livestock production is the main source of air pollution by ammonia (NH3). Grazing is considered to reduce emissions significantly. However, ammonia emissions measurements on pastures are very rare and most emission models base their emissions factors for grazing on studies from the 1990s, which report a large emission range from 2.7% to 13.6% of the applied total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). We present first results of the Posieux pasture experiment in 2016 where NH3 concentration and fluxes were measured during the grazing season. The applied methods include an eddy covariance system with a two channel reactive nitrogen (Nr) converter measuring in parallel the sum of oxidized Nr species and the sum of the total Nr species. The difference of the two channels corresponds to the sum of reduced Nr species. Furthermore four MiniDOAS instruments for line integrated concentration measurements without an inlet system were used. The fluxes were estimated by applying a backward Lagrangian stochastic model (bLS) to the concentration difference of paired MiniDOAS up- and downwind of a sub-plot of the field. Monitoring of dung (visual survey) and urine patch locations (with soil electrical conductivity sensor) was carried out after each grazing rotation on selected sub-plots. It helped to compute statistics of the dung/urine patch distribution on the pasture. The experimental setup and the environmental conditions resulted in high temporal and spatial dynamics of NH3 concentrations and fluxes. The calculated fluxes were used to estimate the total net emission during the grazing period. Based on the average dung/urine patch distribution on the field an emission factor for the pasture was computed and compared to results from the literature. We discuss the applicability and limitations of the two measurement systems, reconsider the main emission drivers and explain differences in the results.

  13. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Campos, P.


    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  14. Grazing in juvenile stages of some estuarine calanoid copepods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.D. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park); Richman, S.; Heinle, D.R.; Huff, R.


    The grazing of juvenile Eurytemora affinis, Acartia tonsa and A. clausi from the Chesapeak Bay (USA) was investigated using natural particle distributions and freshly caught copepods, live-sorted into stages. Data were analyzed in greater than or equal to 110 size channels using an electronic particle counter, and filtering rates (FR) were estimated based on total particle removal (mean FR), and that for each size channel (giving maximum FR). Mean and maximum filtering rates increased from NVI (Nauplius Stage VI) through CVI (Copepodid Stage VI). Both rates plotted against weight satisfied a log fit best for A. tonsa, and a linear fit best for E. affinis. Results for A. tonsa were quite variable, apparently due to differences in temperature between experiments. Particle selection was investigated from the shape of the filtering rate curve over particle size. We define selective feeding by a FR curve which is higher in some size categories, and non-selective feeding by a flat FR curve. The general pattern was one of selective feeding in all copepodid stages of the three calanoid copepods investigated. E. affinis tended to ''track'' biomass peaks while Acartia spp.'s feeding was more variable, including feeding in size ranges of greater particle concentration, on larger particles, and in other size categories as well. Experiments with nauplii tended to yield flat FR curves, and it may be that selective grazing appears with, or is greatly accentuated by, metamorphosis from NVI to CI (Copepodid Stage I).

  15. Effects of post-grazing forage mass on a beef cattle grazing system on Tanzânia grass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Penati


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on herbage accumulation, animal performance, and total system yield on irrigated Tanzania grass pastures under rotational stocking. The experiment was conducted from October 1999 to January 2001, in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities, represented by the following quantities of green forage dry mass remaining after grazing: 1,000 (high intensity, 2,500 (intermediate intensity and 4,000 (low intensity kg ha−1. Grazing cycles were of 36 days (33 rest and 3 grazing. The values observed at the end of the experiment for post grazing forage mass were close to the proposed values. Forage yield was 25,278, 36,850, and 34,144 kg DM ha−1, whereas animal performance was 0.398, 0.541, and 0.564 kg BW day−1for high, intermediate and low intensities, respectively. Grazing intensity was positive related to the stocking rate (6.5, 5.2 and 4.1 AU ha−1 at high, intermediate and low intensities, respectively. Total system yield was not affected by treatments, ranging between 1,518 and 1,287 kg BW ha−1 year−1.

  16. Establishing the Range of Perceptually Natural Visual Walking Speeds for Virtual Walking-In-Place Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf


    Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques make it possible to facilitate relatively natural locomotion within immersive virtual environments that are larger than the physical interaction space. However, in order to facilitate natural walking experiences one needs to know how to map steps in place to virt...

  17. Quantifying the impact of livestock grazing on soil physical properties (United States)

    Fučík, Petr; Zajíček, Antonín; Holubík, Ondřej


    Livestock grazing is considered to have a noticeable influence on soil properties, when pedocompaction / soil pore reduction induced either by cattle or sheeps may curtail water residence time and accelerate the beginning and volume of overland flow. However, direct measurements of soil physical parameters and their changes under different pastoral management are seldom reported in central European conditions. Knowledge about these alterations are indispensable for setting the proper, soil and water conservative grazing management in the view of increasing areas of pastures, not only in the Czech Republic. Impact of cattle grazing on changes of soil properties was studied in three experimental upland catchments in the Czech Republic, differing in soil characteristics and grazing management. Values of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), assessed three times a year in-situ during 2012 - 2013 with pressure infiltrometers, were compared for grazed and ungrazed cambisols, pseudogleys and gleysols, for grazing intensity ranging from 0.5 to 2 Livestock units / ha. Soil bulk density (BD) and macroporosity (MP) were determined before and after grazing season every year with ring 100 cm3 steel cyllinders. These parameters were measured also on heavily treaded plots by cattle - hotspots - in each catchment. Ks values on grazed plots were significantly lower (on average by 39 - 66 %) than on ungrazed sites, BD values were reduced on average by 15 % and MP values were lower roughly about 22 % on grazed plots. Ks values on hotspots were lower by 50 - 90 %, BD values by 5 - 18 % and MP values by 8 - 28 % comparing to the rest of grazed areas. Decrease of soil infiltration capacity was influenced by grazing intensity and soil characteristics. The greatest reductions concerning infiltration capacity were manifested in soils being periodically waterlogged (either by surface or by groundwater). A profound influence on the infiltration process was revealed in pasture soils

  18. Effect of different grazing pressure by lambs grazing Lolium perenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the quality of herbage consumed by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring.

  19. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees having...

  20. Importance and Nature of Short-Range Excitonic Interactions in Light Harvesting Complexes and Organic Semiconductors. (United States)

    Fornari, Rocco P; Rowe, Patrick; Padula, Daniele; Troisi, Alessandro


    The singlet excitonic coupling between many pairs of chromophores is evaluated in three different light harvesting complexes (LHCs) and two organic semiconductors (amorphous and crystalline). This large database of structures is used to assess the relative importance of short-range (exchange, overlap, orbital) and long-range (Coulombic) excitonic coupling. We find that Mulliken atomic transition charges can introduce systematic errors in the Coulombic coupling and that the dipole-dipole interaction fails to capture the true Coulombic coupling even at intermolecular distances of up to 50 Å. The non-Coulombic short-range contribution to the excitonic coupling is found to represent up to ∼70% of the total value for molecules in close contact, while, as expected, it is found to be negligible for dimers not in close contact. For the face-to-face dimers considered here, the sign of the short-range interaction is found to correlate with the sign of the Coulombic coupling, i.e. reinforcing it when it is already strong. We conclude that for molecules in van der Waals contact the inclusion of short-range effects is essential for a quantitative description of the exciton dynamics.

  1. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands (United States)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David


    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  2. Home ranges and satellite tactics of male green swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) in nature. (United States)

    Franck, D; Klamroth, B; Taebel-Hellwig, A; Schartl, M


    Dominance relationships were studied between marked or otherwise individually recognizable male green swordtails in a creek at Lake Catemaco and in a tributary of the Rio Atoyac (Veracruz, Mexico). The Atoyac population is unique because of a high degree of polymorphism, including both macromelanophore spotting and a micromelanophore tailspot pattern. During the dry season males living in the same area maintained a linear social hierarchy for periods of many days. The subordinate males settled down either in the same home ranges or in home ranges largely overlapping with that of dominant males. Although dominant males untiringly chased the subordinate males away, they returned persistently and achieved the status of non-tolerated satellites. Females were less stationary and presumably passed through many male home ranges during their feeding activities. The data clearly demonstrate that green swordtails live in complex social systems in which male-male competition and probably also female mate choice are likely to be essential factors for individual reproductive success.

  3. Determination of optimal burning temperature ranges for production of natural hydraulic limes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Válek, Jan; van Halem, Eveline; Viani, Alberto; Pérez-Estébanez, Marta; Ševčík, Radek; Šašek, Petr


    Roč. 66, September (2014), s. 771-780 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV010 Keywords : natural hydraulic lime * mechanical properties * calcination * CaO * X-ray diffraction * lime reactivity Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.296, year: 2014

  4. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota. (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S


    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  5. The effect of different natural enemies on the performance of Cirsium arvense in its native range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abela-Hofbauerová, Inés; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, J.


    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2011), s. 394-403 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cirsium arvense * native range * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2011

  6. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan


    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  7. Habitat preference of geese is affected by livestock grazing : Seasonal variation in an experimental field evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Stahl, Julia; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    The number of staging geese in northwestern Europe has increased dramatically. Growing goose numbers put strong grazing pressure on agricultural pastures. Damage to agricultural land may be mitigated by managing nature reserves in order to optimally accommodate large numbers of grazing geese.

  8. Effect of abandoning highland grazing on nutrient balances and economic performance of Italian Alpine dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penati, C.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Tamburini, A.; Sandruci, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.


    In many European mountain areas, such as the Alps, highland grazing is declining. In addition to its effect on natural landscape and biodiversity, abandoning highland grazing may affect dairy-farm profitability and have environmental consequences in the lowland. The objective of this study was to

  9. Trends in grazing emission x-ray analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieken, R. van; Tsuji, K.; Injuk, J.


    In grazing-emission x-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) spectrometry, XRF is made surface-sensitive, not by grazing incidence of the exciting radiation as in total reflection XRF (TXRF), but by detecting only that part of fluorescence radiation that is emitted at grazing angles above a polished sample carrier or above a flat wafer. In case of GEXRF, and contrary to TXRF, wavelength-dispersive (WD) detection can be used. Applications are, in principle, similar to those of (variable angle) TXRF. At the laboratory scale, only prototype instruments are available, and the GEXRF unit can be an accessory to a commercial WD-XRF instrument. The detection limits of GEXRF are in the higher pg range, corresponding to a concentration of between 0.4-3 μg/l, if a sample volume of 100 μl is examined. Because of the WD detection, GEXRF also lends itself for the analysis of low-Z elements, from Z > 5; this is an advantage over conventional TXRF (but similar to TXRF using a thin-window energy-dispersive detector). Since the GEXRF prototype is a sequential rather than a simultaneous instrument, the analysis time is long when many elements have to be determined. Moreover, because the soft characteristic radiation is more strongly absorbed in its longer path through the matrix than in TXRF, the linear response for trace analysis using GEXRF is limited; this was proven by calculating the fluorescence intensities as a function of layer thickness and composition. The specimens are very limited in thickness. The sample preparation procedure for liquid or other samples to be analyzed with the GEXRF unit is thus very problematic. Results for water samples, bio-materials and pigment and aerosol samples have indeed shown that the quantitative nature of GEXRF for trace analysis is poor. The most promising features of GEXRF are in the field of surface and thin-layer analysis. Trace contaminations on silicon wafers can be determined and depth profiling can characterize stratified near-surface layers. But

  10. Free-range farming: a natural alternative to produce vitamin D-enriched eggs. (United States)

    Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I


    Food-based strategies need to be developed to improve the vitamin D status of individuals. Recent studies identified ultraviolet B irradiation as an efficient method to enrich mushrooms and eggs with vitamin D. The aim of this study was to determine whether free-range farming of hens could provide a valuable method to produce vitamin D-enriched eggs. Laying hens were randomly assigned to three groups of 33 to 34 animals each, and were kept either indoors (indoor group), outdoors (outdoor group), or with an indoor/outdoor option (indoor/outdoor group) over 4 wk. The study shows that the vitamin D3 content of egg yolk was three- to fourfold higher in the groups that were exposed to sunlight (outdoor and indoor/outdoor groups) compared with the indoor group (P Egg yolk from the outdoor group revealed the highest vitamin D3 content, which averaged 14.3 μg/100 g dry matter (DM), followed by that from the indoor/outdoor group (11.3 μg/100 g DM). Yolk from indoor eggs contained only 3.8 μg vitamin D/100 g DM. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D3) content of egg yolk was also influenced by sunlight exposure, although less pronounced than the vitamin D content (P free-range eggs randomly acquired from supermarkets had relatively low vitamin D contents. Free-range farming offers an efficient alternative to fortify eggs with vitamin D, provided that farming conditions are sufficiently attractive for hens to range outside. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Home Range Characteristics and Habitat Selection by Daurian Hedgehogs ( Mesechinus dauuricus in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Zapletal


    Full Text Available We examined home range characteristics and habitat selection of Daurian hedgehogs in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. Home ranges of hedgehogs varied from 113.15 ha to 2,171.97 ha, and were larger in early summer than late summer. Hedgehogs showed relative preference for rocky outcrops and low-density shrub habitats, and relative avoidance of high- density shrub areas. Habitat selection also changed between early and late summer, shifting to greater use of low-density shrub areas and decreased use of forb-dominated short grass. Our baseline data on home ranges and habitat selection expand understanding of hedgehog ecology and provide guidance for future management decisions in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve and elsewhere in Mongolia.

  12. Natural fatal Sarcocystis falcatula infections in free-ranging eagles in North America. (United States)

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A; Hall, Natalie; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Vaughn, Samuel B; Barr, Bradd C


    Three bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 1 golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) were admitted to rehabilitation facilities with emaciation, lethargy, and an inability to fly. Intravascular schizonts and merozoites were present in 2 bald eagles, mainly in the lung tissue, whereas the third bald eagle and the golden eagle had lymphohistiocytic encephalitis with intralesional schizonts and merozoites. In all eagles, protozoal tissue cysts were present in skeletal musculature or heart. The protozoal organisms were morphologically compatible with a Sarcocystis sp. By immunohistochemistry, the protozoal merozoites were positive for Sarcocystis falcatula antigen in all cases when using polyclonal antisera. Furthermore, the protozoa were confirmed to be most similar to S. falcatula by polymerase chain reaction in 3 of the 4 cases. To the authors' knowledge, this report presents the first cases of natural infection in eagles with S. falcatula as a cause of mortality.

  13. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.


    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 -1/ and 0.2-1.7 -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  14. Airborne heavy metals over Europe: emissions, long-range transport and deposition fluxes to natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik


    This paper presents a brief review of the processes by which airborne heavy metals are transported from the main emission areas in Europe and become subject to deposition and absorption into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with subsequent transport and transformation within the biotic and abiotic media that comprise these ecosystems. Results from numerical simulation models capable of simulating long-range transport of heavy metals over Europe together with measurement data of heavy metal concentrations in air and precipitation and the corresponding dry and wet deposition fluxes are reported. European wide inventories of anthropogenic heavy metal emissions based on location and capacity of their dominating source categories such as fossil fuel burning in power plants, industrial and residential combustion, waste incineration and road traffic are briefly described. Emission reduction scenarios with respect to introduction of lead free gasoline are outlined. The critical gaps of knowledge on heavy metals in the atmosphere are identified focusing on uncertainties associated with emission fluxes in Eastern Europe and the scarcity of measurement data in that area. Future research is needed to estimate the effects of emission reductions on deposition fluxes of heavy metals to sensitive ecosystems such as forested areas in Europe is recommended. Special emphasis is placed on mercury, lead and cadmium which have been defined within the European convention on long-range transboundary air pollution of the United Nations-Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE) to be the priority heavy metals of concern. (orig.)

  15. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff


    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  16. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark


    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig


    Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western ...

  17. An economic solution to the grazing management dilemma | PdV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypothetical data relating stocking rate to daily animal livemass gain on different types of pasture under continuous grazing or one of two forms of rotational grazing have been employed to determine the net return on investment over a range of stocking rates. By determining the stocking rate at which this function reaches its ...

  18. Dairy cattle on Norwegian alpine rangelands – grazing preferences and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.


    The results from the study ‘Effects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy products’ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging

  19. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Török

    Full Text Available Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek


    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  1. Transitions and coexistence along a grazing gradient in the Eurasian steppe (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedelm; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin


    Ecological resilience theory has often been applied to explain species coexistence and range condition assessment of various community states and to explicate the dynamics of ecosystems. Grazing is a primary disturbance that can alter rangeland resilience by causing hard-to-reverse transitions in grasslands. Yet, how grazing affects the coexistence of plant functional group (PFG) and transition remains unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, using seven grazing intensities (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e. a continuous annual grazing as in the traditional grazing system, and a mixed grazing system combining grazing and haymaking), to examine grazing effects on plant functional group shifts and species coexistence in the semi-arid grassland system. Our results indicate that the relative richness of dominant bunchgrasses and forbs had a compensatory coexistence at all grazing intensities, and the richness of rhizomatous grasses fluctuated but was persistent. The relative productivity of dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses had compensatory interactions with grazing intensity and grazing system. Dominant bunchgrasses and rhizomatous grasses resist grazing effects by using their dominant species functional traits: high specific leaf area and low leaf nitrogen content. Our results suggest that: 1. Stabilizing mechanisms beyond grazing management are more important in determining plant functional group coexistence and ecological resilience. 2. Plant functional group composition is more important in influencing ecosystem functioning than diversity. 3. Ecosystem resilience at a given level is related to the biomass of dominant PFG, which is determined by a balanced shift between dominant species biomass. The relatively even ecosystem resilience along the grazing gradient is attributed to the compensatory interactions of dominant species in their biomass variations

  2. Geophysical Characterization of Serpentinite Hosted Hydrogeology at the McLaughlin Natural Reserve, Coast Range Ophiolite (United States)

    Ortiz, Estefania; Tominaga, Masako; Cardace, Dawn; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Kubo, Michael D.; Rucker, Dale F.


    Geophysical remote sensing both on land and at sea has emerged as a powerful approach to characterize in situ water-rock interaction processes in time and space. We conducted 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys to investigate in situ hydrogeological architecture within the Jurassic age tectonic mélange portion of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) during wet and dry seasons, where water-rock interactive processes are thought to facilitate a subsurface biosphere. Integrating survey tracks traversing two previously drilled wells, QV1,1 and CSW1,1 at the CROMO site with wireline and core data, and the Serpentine Valley site, we successfully documented changes in hydrogeologic properties in the CROMO formation, i.e., lateral and vertical distribution of conductive zones and their temporal behavior that are dependent upon seasonal hydrology. Based on the core-log-ERT integration, we propose a hydrogeological architectural model, in which the formation is composed of three distinct aquifer systems: perched serpentinite aquifer without seasonal dependency (shallow system), well-cemented serpentine confining beds with seasonal dependency (intermediate system), serpentinite aquifer (deep system), and the ultramafic basement that acts as a quasi-aquiclude (below the deep system). The stunning contrast between the seasonality in the surface water availability and groundwater storativity in the formation allowed us to locate zones where serpentinite weathering and possibly deeper serpentinization processes might have taken place. We based our findings primarily on lithological composition and the distribution of the conductive formation, our work highlights the link between serpentinite weathering processes and possible sources of water in time and space.

  3. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K. Raghupathi


    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  4. Moderation is best: effects of grazing intensity on plant--flower visitor networks in Mediterranean communities. (United States)

    Lazaro, Amparo; Tscheulin, Thomas; Devalez, Jelle; Nakas, Georgios; Stefanaki, Anastasia; Hanlidou, Effie; Petanidou, Theodora


    The structure of pollination networks is an important indicator of ecosystem stability and functioning. Livestock grazing is a frequent land use practice that directly affects the abundance and diversity of flowers and pollinators and, therefore, may indirectly affect the structure of pollination networks. We studied how grazing intensity affected the structure of plant-flower visitor networks along a wide range of grazing intensities by sheep and goats, using data from 11 Mediterranean plant-flower visitor communities from Lesvos Island, Greece. We hypothesized that intermediate grazing might result in higher diversity as predicted by the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which could in turn confer more stability to the networks. Indeed, we found that networks at intermediate grazing intensities were larger, more generalized, more modular, and contained more diverse and even interactions. Despite general responses at the network level, the number of interactions and selectiveness of particular flower visitor and plant taxa in the networks responded differently to grazing intensity, presumably as a consequence of variation in the abundance of different taxa with grazing. Our results highlight the benefit of maintaining moderate levels of livestock grazing by sheep and goats to preserve the complexity and biodiversity of the rich Mediterranean communities, which have a long history of grazing by these domestic animals.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Bianchi


    Full Text Available In the uruguayan Basalt region, the reproductive performance of 300 Merino ewes and the effect of 3 post-weaning feeding managements (PWFM: I: 1.2 cm height of available forage and 16 ewes/ha; II: 2.03 cm height of available forage and 5 ewes/ha; III: 2.5cm height of available forage and 1 ewe/ha as well as 2 feeding levels before and during the breeding season (FLM: native pastures: green DM/ha: 883kg, CP: 114g/kg DM, NDF: 781g/kg DM and improved pastures: DM /ha: 1270kg, CP: 194g/kg DM, NDF: 598g/kg DM were studied with a factorial arrangement of treatments. The PWFM extended for 70 days, ewes were mated in the period from 13/4/96 to 13/5/96 and FLM were applied for 30 days, starting 15 days before beginning of breeding. There were not differences on the ovulation rate (P>0.05; however, the P values might indicate some effect of the treatments. The number of born lambs/ewe served increased with the ovulation rate because the higher number of ovulations balanced their less viability, individually considered. Actually, the number of born lambs/ewe served was higher with animals coming from PWFM III (1.18, 1.11 and 0.96, PWFM III, II and I, respectively; P = 0.02 and with the animals grazing on improved pastures at mating period (1.13 and 1.03, improved pastures and natural pastures, respectively; P = 0.10, were those which showed slight higher ovulation rate.Na região de solos de Basalto (Salto, Uruguai: 32.5º de latitude sul e 58º de longitude oeste, estudou-se, em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial, o efeito de 3 manejos alimentares pos-desmame (MAPD: I : 1,2cm de altura da forragem disponível e 16 ovelhas/ha; II: 2,03cm de altura da forragem disponível e 5 ovelhas/ha; III: 2,5cm de altura da forragem disponível e 1 ovelha/ha e 2 níveis de alimentacão no período de encarneiramento (NAE: campo natural: 883kg MS verde/ha, PB: 114g/kg MS e FDN: 781g/kg MS; pastagem artificial: 1270kg MS/ha, PB: 194g/kg MS e FDN

  6. 1000 years of sustainable grazing in Nordic conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    , in practice linking detailed contextualized accumulated knowledge on nature processes at landscape level with constant social conflict regulations at a local and regional level. Often it worked, but in some situations (e.g. with marked changes in social or economic conditions, or by changing climatic...... years this modern tradition has also been preferred by investigations to find solutions for non-sustainable types of land use in grazing systems. However, much sustainability-relevant wisdom has been accumulated in historical grazing-systems that should be included in the repertoire of knowledge...... conditions) it did not. Based on many years of studying the landscape and ecological and social conditions of the Faroese grazing system since the first Faeroese law  the Sheep Letter from 1298  I have tried to derive some lessons concerning possibilities and limitations in the use of historical knowledge...

  7. Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high (HGP), medium (MGP) and low (LGP), corresponding to 30, 50 and 75 g available DM/kg BW/day, respectively] on the performance of lambs grazing Lolium perenne and Dactylis glomerata pastures in spring. Feed intakes and average ...

  8. Diagnostic value of copper parameters to predict growth of suckling calves grazing native range in Argentina Valor diagnóstico dos parâmetros de cobre para prever o crescimento de bezerros lactantes em pastagem nativas na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Fazzio


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the predictive diagnostic value of different copper (Cu parameters as indicators of average daily gain (ADG in growing calves. The effects in calves of cow Cu supplementation in the last one-third gestation period were also evaluated. Five supplementation trials, with a total of 300 calves, were carried out. Two groups of 30 calves were randomly assigned to each trial, one group was parenterally supplemented (SG and the other was not supplemented (NSG. Trials began when calves were three-month-old and ended at weaning time. At each sampling calves were weighed and blood was taken to determine Cu concentrations in plasma, Whole Blood (WB, Red Cells (RC and Packed Cell Volume (PCV. Liver samples from six animals of each group were taken both at the beginning and at the end of the trial. In two trials the mothers of the SG received Cu supplementation at the last one- third gestation period. Four of the five trials exhibited low ADG in the NSGs. In these groups, plasma Cu concentration decreased rapidly before low ADG was detected, which occurred with values remaining below 25µg/dl. The decrease of RC Cu concentration was considerably slow. WB showed an intermediate position. PCV in the SGs was higher than in the NSGs in all trials. Cow supplementation was insufficient to generate a liver storage able to last after calves reached the 3 months of age. These data could be useful to predict the risk of low ADG in grazing calves.Foi realizado um estudo para predisser o valor diagnóstico de diferentes parâmetros de cobre (Cu como indicadores de ganho médio diário (ADG na criação de bezerros. Também foram avaliados os efeitos da suplementação com Cu nas vacas no último terço da gestação. Cinco ensaios de suplementação, com um total de 300 bezerros, foram realizados. Dois grupos de 30 bezerros foram atribuídos aleatoriamente em cada proba, um grupo foi parenteralmente suple mentado (SG e o outro não foi

  9. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  10. Monitoring grazing intensity: an experiment with canopy spectra applied to satellite remote sensing (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhao, Ying; Zheng, Jiajia; Luo, Juhua; Zhang, Xiaoqiang


    The quantification of grassland grazing intensity (GI) and its detailed spatial distribution are important for grassland management and ecological protection. Remote sensing has great potential in these areas, but its use is still limited. This study analyzed the impacts of grazing on biophysical properties of vegetation and suggested using biomass to quantify GI because of its stability and interpretability. In comparison to a single spectral index, such as the red edge index (REI), combining REI and a cellulose absorption ratio index calculated from hyperspectral data performs better for biomass estimation. Further, an auxiliary spectral index, called the grazing monitoring index (GMI), was developed based on differences in spectral reflectance in the infrared range. Experiments in a grazing area of the Inner Mongolia grassland indicated that GMI can identify GI, with three range intervals (GMI blocks in the experimental grazing area. Overall, our study provides inspiration and ideas for using satellite remote sensing for evaluating plant production, standing biomass, and livestock impacts.

  11. The influence of urine and dung deposition on patch grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine deposition may consequently be an important factor in patch initiation and patch development. Keywords: cattle; deposition; dung; grazing frequency; grazing intensity; grazing pattern; grazing patterns; herbage; patch grazing; sheep; sheep grazing; south africa; southern tall grassveld; ukulinga research station; urine

  12. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares (United States)

    Selim, Shaimaa; Elo, Kari; Jaakkola, Seija; Karikoski, Ninja; Boston, Ray; Reilas, Tiina; Särkijärvi, Susanna; Saastamoinen, Markku; Kokkonen, Tuomo


    Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05) and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM); P=0.02), and larger waist circumference (P=0.03) than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04), but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03) during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05) was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01). In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season. PMID:25938677

  13. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright


    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  14. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the purposes...

  15. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of each...

  16. Changes in vegetation and grazing capacity following honey mesquite control (United States)

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Brock, John H.; Haas, Robert H.


    Honey mesquite kill and suppression, vegetation response, and changes in grazing use and capacity were evaluated following brush control in north-central Texas. Tree grubbing was most effective for eliminating honey mesquite, but because of soil and plant damage the treatment did not increase grazing capacity or improve range condition compared to nontreated rangeland. Aerial application of 2,4,5-T + picloram was more effective in klllmg and defoliating honey mesquite than 2,4,5-T alone, but both treatments significantly increased forage production. The 2,4,5-T + picloram and 2,4,5-T sprays provided a 7 to 16% increase in grazing capacity over a 4-year period on light and heavy honey mesquite infested pastures, respectively.

  17. Enhancing soil and landscape quality in smallholder grazing systems (United States)

    Grasslands constitute the largest global land use and are an important part of agricultural and ecological systems on every continent, across a wide range of potential productivity. Ruminant livestock grazing on these lands constitutes an important form of agricultural production. It is estimated th...

  18. Incrimination of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus rangeli and An. (Nys. oswaldoi as natural vectors of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Quiñones


    Full Text Available Malaria transmission in the Southern Colombian state of Putumayo continues despite the absence of traditional vector species, except for the presence of Anopheles darlingi near the southeastern border with the state of Amazonas. In order to facilitate malaria vector incrimination in Putumayo, 2445 morphologically identified Anopheles females were tested for natural infection of Plasmodium vivax by ELISA. Specimens tested included An. apicimacula (n = 2, An. benarrochi B (n = 1617, An. darlingi (n = 29, An. mattogrossensis (n = 7, An. neomaculipalpus (n = 7, An. oswaldoi (n = 362, An. peryassui (n = 1, An. punctimacula (n = 1, An. rangeli (n = 413, and An. triannulatus (n = 6. Despite being overwhelmingly the most anthropophilic species in the region and comprising 66.1% of the mosquitoes tested, An. benarrochi B was not shown to be a vector. Thirty-five An. rangeli and one An. oswaldoi were naturally infected with P. vivax VK210. Sequence data were generated for the nuclear second internal transcriber space region of 31 of these 36 vivax positive mosquitoes (86.1% to confirm their morphological identification. An. oswaldoi is known to be a species complex in Latin America, but its internal taxonomy remains unresolved. Herein we show that the An. oswaldoi found in the state of Putumayo is genetically similar to specimens from the state of Amapá in Brazil and from the Ocama region in the state of Amazonas in Venezuela, and that this form harbors natural infections of P. vivax. That An. rangeli and this member of the An. oswaldoi complex are incriminated as malaria vectors in Putumayo, is a novel finding of significance for malaria control in Southern Colombia, and possibly in other areas of Latin America.

  19. Beginnings of range management: Albert F. Potter, first Chief of Grazing, U.S. Forest Service, and a photographic comparison of his 1902 Forest Reserve Survey in Utah with conditions 100 years later (United States)

    David A. Prevedel; Curtis M. Johnson


    The period from 1880 to 1900 is regarded as the period of "spoilation" of western rangelands. In Albert Potters own words, "Quick profits and fortunes lead to speculation and incredible numbers of stock were placed upon the range. Cowman was arrayed against sheep man, big owners against small, and might ruled more often than right." The Government...

  20. Grazing intensity differentially regulates ANPP response to precipitation in North American semiarid grasslands. (United States)

    Irisarri, J Gonzalo N; Derner, Justin D; Porensky, Lauren M; Augustine, David J; Reeves, Justin L; Mueller, Kevin E


    Grazing intensity elicits changes in the composition of plant functional groups in both shortgrass steppe (SGS) and northern mixed-grass prairie (NMP) in North America. How these grazing intensity-induced changes control aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responses to precipitation remains a central open question, especially in light of predicted climate changes. Here, we evaluated effects of four levels (none, light, moderate, and heavy) of long-term (>30 yr) grazing intensity in SGS and NMP on: (1) ANPP; (2) precipitation-use efficiency (PUE, ANPP : precipitation); and (3) precipitation marginal response (PMR; slope of a linear regression model between ANPP and precipitation). We advance prior work by examining: (1) the consequences of a range of grazing intensities (more grazed vs. ungrazed); and (2) how grazing-induced changes in ANPP and PUE are related both to shifts in functional group composition and physiological responses within each functional group. Spring (April-June) precipitation, the primary determinant of ANPP, was only 12% higher in NMP than in SGS, yet ANPP and PUE were 25% higher. Doubling grazing intensity in SGS and nearly doubling it in NMP reduced ANPP and PUE by only 24% and 33%, respectively. Increased grazing intensity reduced C 3 graminoid biomass and increased C 4 grass biomass in both grasslands. Functional group shifts affected PUE through biomass reductions, as PUE was positively associated with the relative abundance of C 3 species and negatively with C 4 species across both grasslands. At the community level, PMR was similar between grasslands and unaffected by grazing intensity. However, PMR of C 3 graminoids in SGS was eightfold higher in the ungrazed treatment than under any grazed level. In NMP, PMR of C 3 graminoids was only reduced under heavy grazing intensity. Knowing the ecological consequences of grazing intensity provides valuable information for mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to predicted

  1. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)


    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  2. The Effects of Grazing Systems on Plant Communities in Steppe Lands—A Case Study from Mongolia’s Pastoralists and Inner Mongolian Settlement Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintai Na


    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different grazing systems in two neighboring regions with similar biotic and abiotic factors, Nalan Soum in Mongolia and Naren Soum in Inner Mongolia, China. We employed the quadrat sampling method and remote sensing to set three perpendicular lines that dissect the boundary between the two countries, and seven lines parallel to the boundary to form a rectangular shape as a means to compare plant community response to different grazing systems under natural conditions. NDVI data is included in discussing the causes of Mongolian grassland degradation. The results of quadrat sampling and NDVI analysis show that rotational grazing has greater values for the quadrat’s average height, total coverage, total individual density, and total aboveground biomass (p < 0.05, but has lower species richness than continuous grazing (p > 0.05. The NVDI values of rotational grazing in 1989, 2005, 2011, and 2016 were higher those of continuous grazing, and significant difference was shown in 2011 and 2016; the NDVI value of continuous grazing in 1993 was higher than that of rotational grazing, but did not show a significant difference. This indicates that different grazing approaches affect steppe ecological systems in different ways, despite their similar biotic and abiotic factors, as well as grazing intensity. Nonetheless, we find rotational grazing to be better for ecosystem vitality than continuous grazing, to some degree.

  3. Scale-dependent effects of grazing and topographic heterogeneity on plant species richness in a Dutch salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruifrok, Jasper L.; Postma, Froukje; Olff, Han; Smit, Christian


    QuestionFor over three decades, low-intensity grazing has been used to maintain or increase plant species richness in European natural areas, but the effects are highly variable. Thus far, good predictors of whether grazing will have positive effects on plant species richness are limited. How does

  4. Changes in semi-arid plant species associations along a livestock grazing gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Saiz

    Full Text Available In semi-arid ecosystems, vegetation is heterogeneously distributed, with plant species often associating in patches. These associations between species are not constant, but depend on the particular response of each species to environmental factors. Here, we investigated how plant species associations change in response to livestock grazing in a semi-arid ecosystem, Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park in South East Spain. We established linear point-intercept transects at four sites with different grazing intensity, and recorded all species at each point. We investigated plant associations by comparing the number of times that each pair of species occurred at the same spatial point (co-occurrences, with the expected number of times based on species abundances. We also assessed associations for each shrub and grass species by considering all their pairs of associations and for the whole plant community by considering all pairs of associations on each site. At all sites, the plant community had a negative pattern of association, with fewer co-occurrences than expected. Negative association in the plant community increased at maximum grazing intensity. Most species associated as expected, particularly grass species, and positive associations were most important at intermediate grazing intensities. No species changed its type of association along the grazing gradient. We conclude that in the present plant community, grazing-resistant species compete among themselves and segregate in space. Some shrub species act as refuges for grazing-sensitive species that benefit from being spatially associated with shrub species, particularly at intermediate grazing intensities where positive associations were highest. At high grazing intensity, these shrubs can no longer persist and positive associations decrease due to the disappearance of refuges. Spatial associations between plant species and their response to grazing help identify the factors that organize

  5. Estimating the density of honeybee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses. (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Dietemann, Vincent; Allsopp, Mike H; Costa, Cecilia; Crewe, Robin M; Dall'olio, Raffaele; DE LA Rúa, Pilar; El-Niweiri, Mogbel A A; Fries, Ingemar; Kezic, Nikola; Meusel, Michael S; Paxton, Robert J; Shaibi, Taher; Stolle, Eckart; Moritz, Robin F A


    Although pollinator declines are a global biodiversity threat, the demography of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) has not been considered by conservationists because it is biased by the activity of beekeepers. To fill this gap in pollinator decline censuses and to provide a broad picture of the current status of honeybees across their natural range, we used microsatellite genetic markers to estimate colony densities and genetic diversity at different locations in Europe, Africa, and central Asia that had different patterns of land use. Genetic diversity and colony densities were highest in South Africa and lowest in Northern Europe and were correlated with mean annual temperature. Confounding factors not related to climate, however, are also likely to influence genetic diversity and colony densities in honeybee populations. Land use showed a significantly negative influence over genetic diversity and the density of honeybee colonies over all sampling locations. In Europe honeybees sampled in nature reserves had genetic diversity and colony densities similar to those sampled in agricultural landscapes, which suggests that the former are not wild but may have come from managed hives. Other results also support this idea: putative wild bees were rare in our European samples, and the mean estimated density of honeybee colonies on the continent closely resembled the reported mean number of managed hives. Current densities of European honeybee populations are in the same range as those found in the adverse climatic conditions of the Kalahari and Saharan deserts, which suggests that beekeeping activities do not compensate for the loss of wild colonies. Our findings highlight the importance of reconsidering the conservation status of honeybees in Europe and of regarding beekeeping not only as a profitable business for producing honey, but also as an essential component of biodiversity conservation.

  6. Natural selection in a postglacial range expansion: the case of the colour cline in the European barn owl. (United States)

    Antoniazza, Sylvain; Kanitz, Ricardo; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Burri, Reto; Gaigher, Arnaud; Roulin, Alexandre; Goudet, Jérôme


    Gradients of variation--or clines--have always intrigued biologists. Classically, they have been interpreted as the outcomes of antagonistic interactions between selection and gene flow. Alternatively, clines may also establish neutrally with isolation by distance (IBD) or secondary contact between previously isolated populations. The relative importance of natural selection and these two neutral processes in the establishment of clinal variation can be tested by comparing genetic differentiation at neutral genetic markers and at the studied trait. A third neutral process, surfing of a newly arisen mutation during the colonization of a new habitat, is more difficult to test. Here, we designed a spatially explicit approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) simulation framework to evaluate whether the strong cline in the genetically based reddish coloration observed in the European barn owl (Tyto alba) arose as a by-product of a range expansion or whether selection has to be invoked to explain this colour cline, for which we have previously ruled out the actions of IBD or secondary contact. Using ABC simulations and genetic data on 390 individuals from 20 locations genotyped at 22 microsatellites loci, we first determined how barn owls colonized Europe after the last glaciation. Using these results in new simulations on the evolution of the colour phenotype, and assuming various genetic architectures for the colour trait, we demonstrate that the observed colour cline cannot be due to the surfing of a neutral mutation. Taking advantage of spatially explicit ABC, which proved to be a powerful method to disentangle the respective roles of selection and drift in range expansions, we conclude that the formation of the colour cline observed in the barn owl must be due to natural selection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing


    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  8. Managed livestock grazing is compatible with the maintenance of plant diversity in semidesert grasslands. (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Firn, J


    Even when no baseline data are available, the impacts of 150 years of livestock grazing on natural grasslands can be assessed using a combined approach of grazing manipulation and regional-scale assessment of the flora. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this method across 18 sites in the semidesert Mitchell grasslands of northeastern Australia. Fifteen-year-old exclosures (ungrazed and macropod grazed) revealed that the dominant perennial grasses in the genus Astrebla do not respond negatively to grazing disturbance typical of commercial pastoralism. Neutral, positive, intermediate, and negative responses to grazing disturbance were recorded amongst plant species with no single life-form group associated with any response type. Only one exotic species, Cenchrus ciliaris, was recorded at low frequency. The strongest negative response was from a native annual grass, Chionachne hubbardiana, an example of a species that is highly sensitive to grazing disturbance. Herbarium records revealed only scant evidence that species with a negative response to grazing have declined through the period of commercial pastoralism. A regional analysis identified 14 from a total of 433 plant species in the regional flora that may be rare and potentially threatened by grazing disturbance. However, a targeted survey precluded grazing as a cause of decline for seven of these based on low palatability and positive responses to grazing and other disturbance. Our findings suggest that livestock grazing of semidesert grasslands with a short evolutionary history of ungulate grazing has altered plant composition, but has not caused declines in the dominant perennial grasses or in species richness as predicted by the preceding literature. The biggest impact of commercial pastoralism is the spread of woody leguminous trees that can transform grassland to thorny shrubland. The conservation of plant biodiversity is largely compatible with commercial pastoralism provided these woody weeds are

  9. Effect of Grazing Systems on Range Condition in Pabbi Hills Reserve Forest, Kharian, Punjab, Pakistan Efecto de los Sistemas de Pastoreo en la Condición del Pastizal en la Reserva Forestal Pabbi Hills, Kharian, Punjab, Pakistán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad Haider


    Full Text Available Grazing management of rangeland systems has not been well researched in Pakistan; grazing system the most sustainable is not known. In order to evaluate various grazing systems, a study was performed at Pabbi Hills Reserve Forest, Kharian, Punjab. Four simulated grazing treatments, viz. ungrazed control, continuous grazing, seasonal deferred grazing, and rotational deferred grazing, were tested in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Response variables included species composition, fresh herbage yield, dry herbage yield of grasses and forbs, basal cover, and ground cover. Of the three grazing systems, the six-month seasonal deferred grazing system resulted in a marked increase in basal cover, but had no changes in relative species composition. A significant increase in grass cover and herbage production were also observed in this grazing system, suggesting that the 6-mo seasonal deferred grazing system is the most sustainable rangeland system.El manejo del pastoreo de sistemas de praderas no ha sido bien estudiado en Pakistán y no se sabe cuál sistema de pastoreo es más sustentable. Con el fin de evaluar los diferentes sistemas de pastoreo se realizó un estudio en la Reserva Forestal Pabbi Hills, Kharian, Punjab. Se probaron cuatro tratamientos de pastoreo simulado: control sin pastoreo, pastoreo continuo, pastoreo estacional diferido, y rotación de pastoreo diferido, en un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables de respuesta fueron: la composición de especies vegetales, rendimiento de forraje fresco y de forraje seco de gramíneas y herbáceas, rendimiento de forraje basal y la cobertura del suelo. De los tres sistemas de pastoreo, el sistema de pastoreo estacional diferido 6 meses resultó en un marcado aumento en la cobertura basal, pero no cambios en la composición relativa de las especies. Un aumento significativo en la cobertura de pastos y la producción de forraje se

  10. Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions. (United States)

    Brinkløv, Signe; Elemans, Coen P H; Ratcliffe, John M


    Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2-8) of clicks at 2-3 ms intervals. The CBs have a bandwidth of 7-23 kHz at -6 dB from signal peak frequency. We report on two unique characteristics of this avian echolocation system. First, oilbirds reduce both the energy and number of clicks in their CBs under conditions of clear, moonlit skies, compared with dark, moonless nights. Second, we document a frequency mismatch between the reported best frequency of oilbird hearing (approx. 2 kHz) and the bandwidth of their echolocation CBs. This unusual signal-to-sensory system mismatch probably reflects avian constraints on high-frequency hearing but may still allow oilbirds fine-scale, close-range detail resolution at the upper extreme (approx. 10 kHz) of their presumed hearing range. Alternatively, oilbirds, by an as-yet unknown mechanism, are able to hear frequencies higher than currently appreciated.

  11. Particulate monitoring, modeling, and management: natural sources, long-range transport, and emission control options: a case study of Cyprus (United States)

    Kleanthous, Savvas; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Christofides, Ioannis; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Achilleos, Constantia; Akylas, Evangelos; Demetriadou, Chrystalla; Christodoulides, Pavlos; Douros, Ioannis; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Panayiotou, Charalambos; Gregoris, Charalambous; Fedra, Kurt; Kubat, Milan; Mihalopoulos, Nicolaos


    The LIFE+ Project PM3: Particulate Monitoring, Modeling, Management is coordinated by the Department of Labour Inspection in Cyprus and funded in part by LIFE+ Environment Policy & Governance. The project aims at the analysis of dust emissions, transport, and control options for Cyprus, as well as at the identification of "natural" contributions (Directive 2008/50/EC). The ultimate objective is to provide inputs for the design of a dust management plan to improve compliance to EC Directives and minimise impacts to human health and environment. This paper presents a short analysis of historical monitoring data and their patterns as well as a description of a dynamic dust entrainment model. The pyrogenic PM10 emissions combined with the wind driven emissions, are subject to a two phase non-linear multi-criteria emission control optimization procedure. The resulting emission scenarios with an hourly resolution provide input to the Comprehensive Air quality Model with extensions (CAMx) 3D fate and transport model, implemented for the 4,800 km master domain and embedded subdomains (270 km around the island of Cyprus and embedded smaller city domains of up to 30 km down to street canyon modeling). The models test the feasibility of candidate emission control solutions over a range of weather conditions. Model generated patterns of local emissions and long-range transport are discussed compared with the monitoring data, remote sensing (MODIS derived AOT), and the chemical analysis of dust samples.

  12. Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions (United States)

    Brinkløv, Signe; Elemans, Coen P. H.


    Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2–8) of clicks at 2–3 ms intervals. The CBs have a bandwidth of 7–23 kHz at −6 dB from signal peak frequency. We report on two unique characteristics of this avian echolocation system. First, oilbirds reduce both the energy and number of clicks in their CBs under conditions of clear, moonlit skies, compared with dark, moonless nights. Second, we document a frequency mismatch between the reported best frequency of oilbird hearing (approx. 2 kHz) and the bandwidth of their echolocation CBs. This unusual signal-to-sensory system mismatch probably reflects avian constraints on high-frequency hearing but may still allow oilbirds fine-scale, close-range detail resolution at the upper extreme (approx. 10 kHz) of their presumed hearing range. Alternatively, oilbirds, by an as-yet unknown mechanism, are able to hear frequencies higher than currently appreciated. PMID:28573036

  13. Grazing by adult Estuarine Calanoid Copepods of the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, S. (Lawrence Univ., Appleton, WI); Heinle, D.R.; Huff, R.


    Grazing by adult female Eurytemora affinis, Acartia tonsa and A. clausi on natural distributions of particles from the Chesapeake Bay has been investigated. During the course of a year's sampling, a wide variety of particle size-biomass distributions were observed as seasonal shifts in detritus, and over 150 algal species occurred. These distributions were grouped into 5 basic types in the analyses of feeding. All three species demonstrated similar capabilities for feeding over a broad range of particle size with selection (higher filtering rates) on larger particles and on biomass peaks. Feeding on multiple-peak distributions resulted in strong selection or ''tracking'' of each biomass peak with reduced filtering rates between peaks. Evidence is presented which suggests that the copepods first feed on large particles and then successively switch to biomass peaks of the smaller size categories. Comparisons of the feeding behavior of Eurytemora affinis and the Acartia species showing that the Acartia species have greater capabilities for taking large particles may be associated with modifications of their mouth parts for raptorial feeding. The results suggest considerable flexibility in copepod feeding behavior which cannot be explained solely by the mechanism of a fixed sieve.

  14. Methane emissions measured directly from grazing livestock in New Zealand (United States)

    Lassey, Keith R.; Ulyatt, Marcus J.; Martin, Ross J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; David Shelton, I.

    We report measurements of methane emissions from individual ruminant livestock-both sheep and dairy cows-grazing pasture typical of New Zealand lowlands in the temperate southwest Pacific. These are the first measurements reported from grazing sheep, and among the first from grazing cattle. The measurement technique, developed at Washington State University, enables emission rates to be determined from analyses of "breath" samples collected while grazing. More than 250 measurements of daily methane emission from 50 sheep (8 months old) were made, with flock-mean emission 18.9 ± 0.8 g hd -1 d -1. Although emissions were weakly correlated with feed intake, they represented a 4.6 ± 0.1 % average loss of gross dietary energy. The corresponding mean emission based on 40 measurements of daily emissions from 10 lactating dairy cows was 263 ± 10 g hd -1 d -1, approximately 6.2% of estimated gross energy intake. A notable feature was the large inter-sheep variability in daily methane emission (factor of 1.4 range) that could not be attributed to variable intake. This would appear to suggest an appreciable diversity of methanogenetic response to digestion, and may be significant in the search for strategies to control emissions of this greenhouse gas.

  15. A grazing clock for measurement of time spent grazing by cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, time spent grazing has been measured most successfully using an electronic grazing clock. Difficulties experienced with this clock however, were that temperature and stage in the life of the batteries affected the readings. Further, periods of grazing shorter than the units of time registered by the clock could not be ...

  16. The grazing capacity of sweetveld: 1 A technique to record grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is proposed for measuring the grazing capacity of sweet grassveld. The suggested procedure is to record the parameter on plots simulating individual camps in rotational grazing systems. This allows considerably smaller experimental areas to be used than in conventional stocking rate trials. Grazing capacity is ...

  17. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range. (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan


    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term stability of grazing lawns in a small protected area, the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novellie


    Conservation implications: The positive association between grazers and grazing-tolerant grass species evidently persisted for more than 20 years and there was no evidence of an increase in abundance of unpalatable plant species. Despite the small size of the park, which limited the extent of large herbivore movements, localised heavy grazing did not lead to range degradation.

  19. 75 FR 22617 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Domestic Sheep Grazing on the Dog... (United States)


    ... Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for Domestic Sheep Grazing on the Dog Creek and Green Creek... that will evaluate a range of alternatives for grazing domestic sheep on the Dog Creek and Green Creek... to the Bishop RMP, and would therefore require a plan amendment. The Dog Creek allotment consists of...

  20. A note on the effects of paddock size on the white clover content of swards grazed by sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.L.; Schulte, R.P.O.; Lantinga, E.A.


    The maintenance of a high white clover content in mixed swards under sheep grazing has been a challenge to date. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which the effect of the length of a grazing period on the botanical composition of a mixed sward was studied. Paddocks ranging in size

  1. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B. [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d`Heres. (France)


    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  2. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index. (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T


    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  3. The role of biochar, natural iron oxides, and nanomaterials as soil amendments for immobilizing metals in shooting range soil. (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ahmad, Mahtab; Vithanage, Meththika; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Chang, Jun Young; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik


    High concentration of toxic metals in military shooting range soils poses a significant environmental concern due to the potential release of metals, such as Pb, Cu, and Sb, and hence requires remediation. The current study examined the effectiveness of buffalo weed (Ambrosia trifida L.) biomass and its derived biochars at pyrolytic temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, natural iron oxides (NRE), gibbsite, and silver nanoparticles on metal immobilization together with soil quality after 1-year soil incubation. Destructive (e.g., chemical extractions) and non-destructive (e.g., molecular spectroscopy) methods were used to investigate the immobilization efficacy of each amendment on Pb, Cu, and Sb, and to explore the possible immobilization mechanisms. The highest immobilization efficacy was observed with biochar produced at 300 °C, showing the maximum decreases of bioavailability by 94 and 70% for Pb and Cu, respectively, which were attributed to the abundance of functional groups in the biochar. Biochar significantly increased the soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and P contents. Indeed, the scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic (EXAFS) studies revealed associations of Pb with P (i.e., the formation of stable chloropyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3Cl]) in the biomass- or biochar-amended soils. However, no amendment was effective on Sb immobilization.

  4. Effect of Grazing Behavior on Weight Regain Post-Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Pizato


    Full Text Available Grazing, a type of maladaptive eating behavior, has been associated with poor weight outcomes in bariatric patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the association between grazing behavior and weight regain post-bariatric surgery. Literature searches, study selection, design of the method, and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent authors. The search strategy was performed until October 2017 in Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Open Grey. Of a total of 3764 articles, five papers met the inclusion criteria (four original articles and one thesis, comprising 994 subjects, mostly women. The prevalence of grazing behavior ranged from 16.6 to 46.6%, and the highest prevalence of significant weight regain was 47%. The association between grazing and weight regain was observed in four of the five evaluated studies. Our findings support an association between grazing behavior and weight regain after bariatric surgery, regardless of surgery type and contextual concept of grazing. Further studies are needed to confirm the clarity of the real prevalence and interfering factors related to grazing behavior and weight outcomes.

  5. Performance and parasitosis in heifers grazing mixed with sows


    Sehested, Jakob; Monrad, J.; Søegaard, Karen; Danielsen, Viggo


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of mixed grazing with first season heifers and pregnant sows on animal performance, gastro-intestinal helminths, pasture quality and sward structure during three grazing seasons. This presentation will focus on results from 1999, primarily regarding performance and parasitosis in heifers. There have been no earlier reports on such mixed grazing systems. Three grazing systems were studied in replicate: 1) Heifers grazing alone; 2) sows grazing...

  6. Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with gliricidia sepium. ... The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals ...

  7. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.


    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.


  8. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka




    Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR) has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five ...

  9. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.


    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  10. Fast or slow-foods? Describing natural variations in oral processing characteristics across a wide range of Asian foods. (United States)

    Forde, C G; Leong, C; Chia-Ming, E; McCrickerd, K


    The structural properties of foods have a functional role to play in oral processing behaviours and sensory perception, and also impact on meal size and the experience of fullness. This study adopted a new approach by using behavioural coding analysis of eating behaviours to explore how a range of food textures manifest as the microstructural properties of eating and expectations of fullness. A selection of 47 Asian foods were served in fixed quantities to a panel of participants (N = 12) and their eating behaviours were captured via web-camera recordings. Behavioural coding analysis was completed on the recordings to extract total bites, chews and swallows and cumulative time of the food spent in the mouth. From these measurements a series of microstructural properties including average bite size (g), chews per bite, oro-sensory exposure time (seconds) and average eating rate (g min -1 ) were derived per food. The sensory and macronutrient properties of each food were correlated with the microstructure of eating to compare the differences in eating behaviour on a gram for gram basis. There were strong relationships between the perceived food textural properties and its eating behaviours and a food's total water content was the best predictor of its eating rate. Foods that were eaten at a slower eating rate, with smaller bites and more chews per bite were rated as higher in the expected fullness. These relationships are important as oral processing behaviours and beliefs about the potential satiating value of food influence portion decisions and moderate meal size. These data support the idea that naturally occurring differences in the food structure and texture could be used to design meals that slow the rate of eating and maximise fullness.

  11. Stream chemistry responses to four range management strategies in eastern Oregon. (United States)

    A.R. Tiedemann; D.A. Higgins; T.M. Quigley; H.R. Sanderson


    Responses of stream chemistry parameters, nitrate-N (NO3-N), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), sodium (Na), and hydrogen ion activity (pH) were measured on 13 wildland watersheds managed at four different grazing strategies. Range management strategies tested were (A) no grazing, (B) grazing without control of livestock distribution (8.2 ha/...

  12. Natural Radioactivity of Intrusive-Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks of the Balkan Mountain Range (Serbia, Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Masod Abdulqader


    Full Text Available Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° and 44° N and the longitudes from 22°16′ to 23°00′ E. Uranium exploration and radioactivity testing on Stara Planina began back in 1948. Uranium has also been mined in the zone of Kalna, within the Janja granite intrusive. The naturally radioactive geologic units of Stara Planina are presented in detail in this paper. The main sources of radioactivity on Stara Planina can be classified as: 1. Granitic endogenous—syngenetic–epigenetic deposits and occurrences; 2. Metamorphogenic—syngenetic; and 3. Sedimentary, including occurrences of uranium deposition and fluctuation caused by water in different types of sedimentary rocks formed in a continental setting, which could be classified under epigenetic types. The area of Stara Planina with increased radioactivity (higher than 200 cps, measured by airborne gamma spectrometry, is about 380 square kilometers. The highest values of measured radioactivity and uranium grade were obtained from a sample taken from the Mezdreja uranium mine tailing dump, where 226Ra measures 2600 ± 100 Bq/kg and the uranium grade is from 76.54 to 77.65 ppm U. The highest uranium (and lead concentration, among all samples, is measured in graphitic schist with high concentrations of organic (graphitic material from the Inovska Series—99.47 ppm U and 107.69 ppm Pb. Thorium related radioactivity is the highest in granite samples from the Janja granite in the vicinity of the Mezdreja granite mine and the Gabrovnica granite mine tailing dump, and it is the same—250 ± 10 Bq/kg for 232Th, while the thorium grade varies from 30.82 to 60.27 ppm Th. In gray siltstones with a small amount of organic material, the highest radioactivity is

  13. Range management affects native ungulate populations in Península Valdés, a World Natural Heritage. (United States)

    Nabte, Marcela J; Marino, Andrea I; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Monjeau, Adrián; Saba, Sergio L


    Sheep rearing is the main productive activity in Patagonian rangelands, where guanacos are the only native ungulate. Ranchers perceive a decrease in range carrying capacity as guanaco numbers increase, therefore guanaco conservation within private lands becomes a considerable challenge. This issue is particularly evident in the World Natural Heritage Península Valdés (PV), where there is a need to harmonize livestock production and biodiversity conservation. While sheep rearing prevails as the primary land use in the area, some ecotourism initiatives have been implemented to complement livestock production. In order to study how land use affected guanaco distribution, we characterized PV's ranches in terms of land subdivision, primary productivity, stocking-rate and management type, and assess how these variables affected guanaco encounter rates. Smaller ranches were composed of smaller paddocks (mean size 4.8 km(2)), which showed higher values of the remote-sensing derived Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) (mean 0.14) and held higher sheep densities (mean 108.0 sheep/km(2)), while larger management units (mean size 23.8 km(2)), showed lower EVI values (mean 0.12) and lower stocking-rates (mean 36.7 sheep/km(2)). This pattern suggests that primary productivity has been a decisive factor to determine the minimal paddock size set by ranchers in PV, apparently precluding excessive land-subdivision in less productive areas. Guanaco encounter rate, expressed as number of guanacos per travelled kilometre, was inversely related to EVI and stocking-rate. However, land subdivision was the better predictor of guanaco encounter-rate within only sheep ranches, finding more guanacos per kilometre as paddock size increased. In contrast, in ranches where ecotourism was implemented as a complementary activity, guanaco encounter-rates were greater, regardless of paddock size. Our results suggest that the implementation of an additional activity by which landowners derive benefits

  14. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V


    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  15. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig


    Background: Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important...... as well as in most other European countries, the amount of land covered by semi-natural grassland has decreased dramatically during the 20th century concurrent with the general intensification of the agricultural production. To reverse this trend, actions are being taken in many places to either maintain...... or re-establish this biotope, and in particular, the meadow community. Today's nature conservation is a return to the old extensive agricultural methods, and includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important...

  16. Interactions between ecological disturbances: burning and grazing and their effects on songbird communities in northern mixed-grass prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis N. Richardson


    Full Text Available Historically, North American prairies were strongly influenced by two natural disturbances, fire and grazing, and their interaction. However, the frequency and size of fires has been greatly altered over time, while native ungulates have been replaced by livestock; this may have had strong ecological influences on modern prairies. The feedback hypothesis proposes that grazing by ungulates will increase the duration of fire effects because ungulates will be attracted to burned patches. We conducted point-count surveys in burned-grazed, burned-ungrazed, unburned-grazed, and unburned-ungrazed sites over a 5-year period following fires that occurred naturally in 2006 in southern Saskatchewan, Canada, to test predictions related to avian community composition related to the feedback hypothesis. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze interactions among burning, grazing, and time since burning. Six of the nine avian species we studied responded positively or negatively to burning or grazing, although there were few statistically significant effects on the vegetation structure variables we measured. We found mixed evidence that grazing increased the duration of effects of burning, cumulatively providing little evidence for the feedback hypothesis. Nonetheless, effects of burning and grazing differed from and interacted with one another; for example, short-term effects of burning on Sprague's Pipits (Anthus spragueii and Baird's Sparrows (Ammodramus bairdii were greater than effects of grazing, and effects of grazing and burning in combination were frequently greater than effects of a single disturbance. Therefore, both should be integrated into management for the conservation of grassland songbirds.

  17. An experimental analysis of grasshopper community responses to fire and livestock grazing in a northern mixed-grass prairie. (United States)

    Branson, David H; Sword, Gregory A


    The outcomes of grasshopper responses to both vertebrate grazing and fire vary across grassland ecosystems, and are strongly influenced by local climactic factors. Thus, the possible application of grazing and fire as components of an ecologically based grasshopper management strategy must be investigated in regional studies. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing and fire on grasshopper population density and community composition in a northern Great Plains mixed-grass prairie. We employed a large-scale, replicated, and fully-factorial manipulative experimental design across 4 yr to examine the separate and interactive effects of three grazing systems in burned and unburned habitats. Grasshopper densities were low throughout the 4-yr study and 1 yr of pretreatment sampling. There was a significant fire by grazing interaction effect on cumulative density and community composition, resulting from burned season long grazing pastures having higher densities than unburned pastures. Shannon diversity and grasshopper species richness were significantly higher with twice-over rotational livestock grazing. The ability to draw strong conclusions regarding the nature of species composition shifts and population changes in the presence of fire and grazing is complicated by the large site differences and low grasshopper densities. The results reinforce the importance of long-term research to examine the effects of habitat manipulation on grasshopper population dynamics.

  18. Grazing management as it affects nutrition, animal production and economics of beef production. (United States)

    Parsons, S D; Allison, C D


    Until recently, the nutritional fate of the grazing animal has been largely ignored by both animal and range scientists despite the economic dependence of the extensive livestock industry on nutrition from grass. Of the three factors that can be manipulated to improve profit gross margin per animal, is one that is directly affected by nutrition and, hence, grazing management. The relationship between economics and grazing management may be summarized as: Gross margin = f(Animal Performance); Animal Performance = f(nutrition); Nutrition = f(grazing). Economical beef production must consider the needs of the animal and the forage plant at the same time. The health of the sward must be maintained while improving individual animal performance and simultaneously increasing stocking rate. Generally, plants that have been defoliated require a period of recovery before again being grazed. A sward is kept in a vigorous state by preventing repetitive defoliation at the one extreme, and avoiding excessive shading (mature growth) of photosynthetic material at the other. This state is best achieved where livestock grazing is controlled. For any individual paddock, periods of grazing are followed by periods that allow adequate physiologic recovery of the plants. A grazing regimen that keeps the plant in a healthy state is fortuitously also well suited to the nutritional requirements of the animal. Animals on overgrazed pastures are likely to suffer from inadequate feed intake because of deficiencies in feed quantity. Conversely, on over-rested pastures, intake deficiency results from paucity in feed quality. On most unmanaged ranges, overgrazed and over-rested plants are likely to be found side by side. By controlling duration of the rest period as well as duration of the grazing period through pasture subdivision, requirements of both the plant and the animal can be met. With artificially high economic demands placed on animal production, some form of supplementation is

  19. Productivity of grasslands under continuous and rotational grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, E.A.


    In the Netherlands, rotational grazing, with grazing periods of 2 to 5 days, is the most common grazing system at present. In contrast with other countries of North-western Europe, the continuous grazing system is used here only to a limited extent. However, the results of numerous

  20. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing advisory boards. 222... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a... statutory grazing advisory board in accordance with provisions of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act...

  1. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science: Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus


    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines…

  2. Discussion about the range of natural radiation exposure rate found in dwelling-houses in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.; Pensko, J.; Wicke, A.


    In this paper the range of natural radiation exposure rate found in dwelling-houses is discussed. The source of this exposure are natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and their decay products widely distributed in soil and in building materials. The resulting whole body dose equivalent rate of gamma radiation is compared to the effective dose equivalent rate of alpha radiation originating from 222 Rn diffusing out of building materials and decaying to alpha emitting short living daughters. (Author) [de

  3. Grazing and pasture management for biodiversity benefit


    Rook, Andrew; Tallowin, Jeremy


    International audience; The primary role of grazing animals in grassland biodiversity management is maintenance and enhancement of sward structural heterogeneity, and thus botanical and faunal diversity, by selective defoliation due to dietary choices, treading, nutrient cycling and propagule dispersal. Most research on dietary choices uses model systems that require considerable extrapolation to more complex communities. Grazing animals' diets are constrained by temporal and spatial changes ...

  4. Grazing behavior and intake of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania-grass pasture with different post-grazing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia H.M.R. Fernandes


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake and ingestive behavior of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia 1 pastures with 2 levels of post-grazing residue. The experimental area consisted of 1.2 ha of Tanzania pasture divided into 12 paddocks (24 areas, managed under 2 post-grazing residues: low green (leaf + stem herbage mass (GHM post-grazing (LR, approximately 1,500 kg/ha GHM; and high GHM post-grazing (HR, approximately 3,000 kg/ha GHM. Each paddock was grazed for 3 consecutive days (D1, D2, D3 followed by 33 days rest and evaluated from October 2005 to April 2006. Animal behavior (grazing time, bite rate and bite size/weight was evaluated on each grazing day. While goats spent more time grazing on LR than HR (P=0.02, bite rate did not differ between treatments or among days (P=0.31 and averaged 26.5 bites/min. In contrast, bite weight was greater in HR (0.15 g/bite than in LR (0.12 g/bite, and decreased from D1 to D3 (P<0.001. Absolute dry matter intake of goats was greater in the HR (2.19 kg/d than the LR (1.89 kg/d treatment; however, differences were not significant (P>0.05 when intake was determined on a body weight or metabolic weight basis. Our findings are consistent with the general assumption that bite weight is a trade-off between quantity and quality of the herbage mass and is the main determinant of animal performance. More studies are needed to determine animal performance on the various treatments and to determine management strategies to provide a desirable balance between animal weight gain and pasture stability.Keywords: Animal behavior, foraging, grazing systems, Megathyrsus maximus, plant - animal relations.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(491-100

  5. Herbivore grazing?or trampling? Trampling effects by a large ungulate in cold high?latitude ecosystems


    Heggenes, Jan; Odland, Arvid; Chevalier, Tomas; Ahlberg, J?rgen; Berg, Amanda; Larsson, H?kan; Bjerketvedt, Dag K.


    Mammalian herbivores have important top-down effects on ecological processes and landscapes by generating vegetation changes through grazing and trampling. For free-ranging herbivores on large landscapes, trampling is an important ecological factor. However, whereas grazing is widely studied, low-intensity trampling is rarely studied and quantified. The cold-adapted northern tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) is a wide-ranging keystone herbivore in large open alpine and Arctic ecosystems. Re...

  6. Multi-paddock grazing on rangelands: why the perceptual dichotomy between research results and rancher experience? (United States)

    Teague, Richard; Provenza, Fred; Kreuter, Urs; Steffens, Tim; Barnes, Matt


    Maintaining or enhancing the productive capacity and resilience of rangeland ecosystems is critical for the continued support of people who depend on them for their livelihoods, especially in the face of climatic change. This is also necessary for the continued delivery of ecosystem services derived from rangelands for the broader benefit of societies around the world. Multi-paddock grazing management has been recommended since the mid-20th century as an important tool to adaptively manage rangelands ecosystems to sustain productivity and improve animal management. Moreover, there is much anecdotal evidence from producers that, if applied appropriately, multi-paddock grazing can improve forage and livestock production. By contrast, recent reviews of published rangeland-based grazing systems studies have concluded that, in general, field trials show no superiority of vegetation or animal production in multi-paddock grazing relative to continuous yearlong stocking of single-paddock livestock production systems. Our goal is to provide a framework for rangeland management decisions that support the productivity and resiliency of rangelands and then to identify why different perceptions exist among rangeland managers who have effectively used multi-paddock grazing systems and research scientists who have studied them. First, we discuss the ecology of grazed ecosystems under free-ranging herbivores and under single-paddock fenced conditions. Second, we identify five principles underpinning the adaptive management actions used by successful grazing managers and the ecological, physiological, and behavioral framework they use to achieve desired conservation, production, and financial goals. Third, we examine adaptive management principles needed to successfully manage rangelands subjected to varying environmental conditions. Fourth, we describe the differences between the interpretation of results of grazing systems research reported in the scientific literature and the

  7. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.


    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  8. The Nature of Extension on the Western Edge of the Basin and Range: Evolution of the Surprise Valley Fault System (United States)

    Surpless, B.; Egger, A. E.


    The Warner Range is a major west-tilted fault block in northeastern California bound on its eastern side by the Surprise Valley normal fault system, which has accommodated a minimum of 3 km of uplift. The fault system separates the northeastern Basin and Range Province on the east, which has undergone 10-15% extension since the Miocene, from the Modoc Plateau to the west, a relatively unextended region with a thick sequence of flat-lying Pliocene and younger volcanic rocks. Although no major earthquakes have occurred along the fault system in historic times, significant Quaternary fault scarps, ~3 Ma U-Th/He ages, and trenching suggest that the system is still active, and recently published GPS data suggest ongoing extension and right- lateral deformation across the region. Thus, the Surprise Valley fault system is ideally located to gain insight into extensional processes at the edge of the Basin and Range province and to reveal potential seismic hazard. Dip-slip displacement along the Surprise Valley fault system decreases toward the system's north and south terminations. The northern termination is complicated by the Fandango Valley, a northwest-trending, graben- like structure that cuts across the Warner Range at an oblique angle. South of the Fandango Valley, Eocene to Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks in the range dip ~25 degrees to the west, and the east- dipping Surprise Valley fault system bounds the east side of the range. North of the valley, Miocene age volcanic rocks in the range dip gently to the east, and the dominant normal fault system is west-dipping and bounds the west side of the range. These two significant normal fault systems overlap at the latitude of the Fandango Valley, suggesting that the structure is an antithetic accommodation zone, but the Valley's northwest-trending orientation is orthogonal to that expected for an accommodation zone controlled exclusively by the propagation of oppositely-dipping normal faults. It is possible

  9. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging (United States)

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.


    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  10. Natural versus anthropogenic dispersion of metals to the environment in the Wulik River area, western Brooks Range, northern Alaska (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Hudson, T.


    Zinc-lead-silver mineral deposits in the Wulik River region, Alaska, contain an enormous accumulation of Zn. In addition to the giant deposits at Red Dog, at least nine other deposits are known. Natural weathering of these deposits has dispersed metals over a wide region over a long period of time (c. 10 000 years) through transport by stream and groundwater, stream sediments, formation of soils, and perhaps wind-blown atmospheric deposition from weathering of naturally enriched Pb-Zn surface deposits. Anthropogenic input also contributes metals to the environment. Mining of the Red Dog deposit, which began in 1989, produces fine-grained galena and sphalerite concentrates that are transported from the mine site by truck to a storage port facility. Wind-blown dispersion of concentrate dust along the road and around the port facility has been a source of local metal-rich surficial materials. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics provide a means of distinguishing the natural versus anthropogenic metal sources. Soils over deposits have patterns of increasing metal contents with depth and proximity to the metal-bearing source, whereas ore concentrate dust is localized at the surface. The acidity produced by weathering of the sulphide deposits creates an environment in which elements such as Se and Mo are stable whereas Ca is not. Consequently, high Mo (up to 29 ppm) and Se (up to 17 ppm) and low Ca (chemical weathering. In natural materials, secondary jarosite and anglesite are developed, and minor galena is etched and rounded due to a history of chemical and mechanical weathering. In contrast, dust-bearing samples have Pb/Zn ratios that are 0.4 or less, Ca contents are higher (0.2 to 3.6%), and Mo (Geological Society of London.

  11. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not... (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze... § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not covered by the permit? No. You will not receive an increase in grazing capacity in the permit if you graze...

  12. Changes in home range sizes and population densities of carnivore species along the natural to urban habitat gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Drahníková, L.; Tkadlec, Emil


    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carnivores * home range size * natural–urban gradient * population density * review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.116, year: 2015

  13. The reliability of grazing rate estimates from dilution experiments: Have we over-estimated rates of organic carbon consumption by microzooplankton?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Dolan,


    Full Text Available According to a recent global analysis, microzooplankton grazing is surprisingly invariant, ranging only between 59 and 74% of phytoplankton primary production across systems differing in seasonality, trophic status, latitude, or salinity. Thus an important biological process in the world ocean, the daily consumption of recently fixed carbon, appears nearly constant. We believe this conclusion is an artefact because dilution experiments are 1 prone to providing over-estimates of grazing rates and 2 unlikely to furnish evidence of low grazing rates. In our view the overall average rate of microzooplankton grazing probably does not exceed 50% of primary production and may be even lower in oligotrophic systems.

  14. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V


    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...

  15. Genetic diversity and differentiation of yellowwood [Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.Cours.) Rudd] growing in the wild and in planted populations outside the natural range (United States)

    Nicholas LaBonte; Jadelys Tonos; Colleen Hartel; Keith E. Woeste


    Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) grows in small, widely scattered populations in the wild, but is also a popular ornamental tree that thrives when planted in urban areas outside its natural range. Since the small native populations of yellowwood in several states are considered at risk of extirpation, the cultivated population could serve as an ex...

  16. Natural enemies and their impacts on emerald ash borer populations in its native range, with new records of parasitism by two species of beetles (United States)

    To investigate the natural enemies of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and their role in regulating the pest population dynamics, we conducted field surveys at multiple forest sites with variable host densities in the pest’s native range (north an...

  17. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.


    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  18. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science. Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus


    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines is characterized by controversy rather than unified textbook knowledge. There is common agreement among educators of the arts and humanities that controversies in the reference disciplines should be represented in education. To teach NOS means to adopt a reflexive perspective on science. Therefore, we suggest that controversies within and between the reference disciplines are relevant for NOS teaching and not only the NOS but about NOS should be taught, too. We address the objections that teaching about NOS is irrelevant for real life and too demanding for students. First, we argue that science-reflexive meta-discourses are relevant for students as future citizens because the discourses occur publicly in the context of sociopolitical disputes. Second, we argue that it is in fact necessary to reduce the complexity of the above-mentioned discourses and that this is indeed possible, as it has been done with other reflexive elements in science education. In analogy to the German construct Bewertungskompetenz (which means the competency to make informed ethical decisions in scientific contexts), we suggest epistemic competency as a goal for NOS teaching. In order to do so, science-reflexive controversies must be simplified and attitudes toward science must be considered. Discourse on the scientific status of potential pseudoscience may serve as an authentic and relevant context for teaching the controversial nature of reflexion on science.

  19. The grazing capacity of sweetveld: 2. A model to estimate grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relations between grazing capacity and three independent variables were investigated in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape. The variables were veld condition, rainfall and density of woody species. These relations were used to develop a preliminary model to assess grazing capacity in the veld type. Despite its ...

  20. Effects of Temperature, Salinity, pH, and Light on Filtering and Grazing Rates of a Calanoid Copepod (Schmackeria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changling Li


    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are key components of the marine food web and the food sources of many larval fishes and planktivores, and grazers of phytoplankton. Understanding the ranges of major environmental variables suitable for their growth is essential to maintain the balance between trophic links and resources protection. In this study, the effects of temperature, salinity, pH, and light intensity on the filtering and grazing rates of a herbivorous copepod (Schmackeria dubia were conducted in several control experiments. Our results indicated that experimental animals grazed normally at water temperatures between 15 and 35°C. The filtering and grazing rates increased by onefold at water temperatures from 15 to 25°C, with a peak at around 30°C. S. dubia fed normally at salinity ranging from 20 to 30 ppt, with significantly low filtering and grazing rates at salinity below 15 ppt and above 35 ppt. The filtering and grazing rates increased as pH increased, peaked at approximately 8.5, and then decreased substantially. Light intensity also displayed an important impact on the filtering and grazing rates. Filtering and grazing rates were high when light intensity was greater than 20 and less than 200 µmol m-2 s-1. S. dubia nearly stopped feeding at low light intensity (less than 20 µmol m-2 s-1.

  1. Performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli. (United States)

    Sharma, N; Hunt, P W; Hine, B C; Sharma, N K; Chung, A; Swick, R A; Ruhnke, I


    A study was conducted to determine the performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of laying hens exposed to ranges contaminated with Ascaridia galli. Sixteen-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 200) were divided into 4 treatments with 5 replicates containing 10 hens per pen. Hens of treatment 1 [negative control (NC)] ranged on a decontaminated area, and hens of treatments 2 (low infection) and 3 (medium infection) ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 250 and 1,000 embryonated A. galli eggs, respectively. The hens of treatment 4 [positive control (PC)] ranged on areas previously contaminated by hens artificially infected with 2,500 embryonated A. galli eggs, and in addition these hens were orally inoculated with 1,000 embryonated eggs. Results indicated that hens of the medium infection group had a higher number of intestinal A. galli worms and A. galli eggs in the coprodeum excreta (43.9 ± 4.0 and 3,437 ± 459 eggs/g) compared to hens of the low infection group (23.8 ± 4.0 and 1,820 ± 450 eggs/g) (P  0.05). Egg production, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Egg quality parameters (egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell weight, shell thickness, shell percentage, shell breaking strength, deformation, albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk score) were not affected by A. galli infection (P > 0.05). Highly infected hens had lower liver lipid content (2.72 ± 0.51 g) compared to uninfected hens (4.46 ± 0.58 g, P ranges contaminated with A. galli resulted in infection of the ranging hens, but this did not affect egg production or egg quality. Infection with A. galli lowered the liver lipid reserves of the host significantly, suggesting infected hens use more energy reserves for maintenance and production.

  2. Fundamental investigations of natural and laboratory generated SAR dose response curves for quartz OSL in the high dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    SAR-OSL investigations on quartz from Romanian loess resulted in non concordant fine and coarse-grain ages for equivalent doses higher than ~100 Gy. The laboratory dose response for both grain sizes is well represented by a sum of two saturating exponential functions, fine and coarse grains chara...... equivalent dose of 2000e2500 Gy were found to be below the saturation level of the laboratory dose response curve for both grain sizes; this also applied to the luminescence signals measured after >5000 Gy given on top of natural doses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Generation of an orthophoto from close range aerial images in the area of Sečovlje salina nature park


    Žorž, Dani


    In the last few years new technologies have allowed wider use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for spatial data acquisition. For the purpose of this thesis the UAV was used as a platform to photograph the area of Sečovlje salina nature park. From the acquired images an orthophoto mosaic of the area was produced. The client needs this orthophoto as a raster layer in GIS in order to make further analysis. This thesis describes and outlines the used UAV and the related computer program required...

  4. Improved Pulse Sequences for Measurement of Small Long-Range Couplings between Heteronuclei (29Si-13C) at Natural Abundance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blechta, Vratislav; Schraml, Jan


    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2009), s. 511-514 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720706; GA ČR GA203/06/0738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : long-range Si * 13 NMR * 29Si NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  5. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio


    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  6. Influence of domestic livestock grazing on American Pika (Ochotona princeps) forage and haypiling behavior in the Great Basin. Western North American Naturalist. (United States)

    Constance I. Millar


    In a pilot study, I observed a relationship between domestic livestock grazing and location of American pika (Ochotona princeps) haypiles in the eastern Sierra Nevada and several Great Basin mountain ranges. Where vegetation communities adjacent to talus bases (forefields) were grazed, mean distance from the talus borders to the closest fresh...

  7. Biological soil crusts across disturbance-recovery scenarios: effect of grazing regime on community dynamics (United States)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, L.; Huber-Sannwald, E.; Martínez, I.; Flores Flores, J. L.; Reyes-Agüero, J. A.; Escudero, A.; Belnap, Jayne


    Grazing represents one of the most common disturbances in drylands worldwide, affecting both ecosystem structure and functioning. Despite the efforts to understand the nature and magnitude of grazing effects on ecosystem components and processes, contrasting results continue to arise. This is particularly remarkable for the biological soil crust (BSC) communities (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichens, and bryophytes), which play an important role in soil dynamics. Here we evaluated simultaneously the effect of grazing impact on BSC communities (resistance) and recovery after livestock exclusion (resilience) in a semiarid grassland of Central Mexico. In particular, we examined BSC species distribution, species richness, taxonomical group cover (i.e., cyanobacteria, lichen, bryophyte), and composition along a disturbance gradient with different grazing regimes (low, medium, high impact) and along a recovery gradient with differently aged livestock exclosures (short-, medium-, long-term exclusion). Differences in grazing impact and time of recovery from grazing both resulted in slight changes in species richness; however, there were pronounced shifts in species composition and group cover. We found we could distinguish four highly diverse and dynamic BSC species groups: (1) species with high resistance and resilience to grazing, (2) species with high resistance but low resilience, (3) species with low resistance but high resilience, and (4) species with low resistance and resilience. While disturbance resulted in a novel diversity configuration, which may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning, we observed that 10 years of disturbance removal did not lead to the ecosystem structure found after 27 years of recovery. These findings are an important contribution to our understanding of BCS dynamics from a species and community perspective placed in a land use change context.

  8. Emergy analysis of cropping-grazing system in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.X.; Yang, Z.F.; Chen, G.Q.


    An ecological energetic evaluation is presented in this paper as a complement to economic account for the cropping-grazing system in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China in the year 2000. Based on Odum's well-known concept of emergy in terms of embodied solar energy as a unified measure for environmental resources, human or animal labors and industrial products, a systems diagram is developed for the crop and livestock productions with arms and sub-arms for free renewable natural resource input, purchased economic investment, yields of and interactive fluxes between the cropping and grazing sub-industries. In addition to conventional systems indices of the emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) introduced for congregated systems ecological assessment with essential implication for sustainability, new indicators of soil emergy cost (SEC), self-support intensity (SSI) and self-support orientation (SSO) are defined to characterize the desertification and internal recycling associated with the special agricultural system. Extensive emergy accounting is made for the cropping-grazing system as a whole as well as for the cropping and grazing subsystems. The overall cropping-grazing system is shown with outstanding production competence compared with agricultural systems in some other provinces and the national average in China, though confronted with severe desertification associated with soil loss. The production of crops has higher emergy density and yield rate per unit area as well as higher rate of soil loss than grazing system. The soil emergy cost defined as the soil loss emergy divided by the yield emergy is estimated to be of the same value for both of the subsystems, but the grazing activity is with less extraction intensity, leaving rangeland to rest and rehabilitate. Suggestions with regard to the local sustainability and national ecological security in

  9. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits. (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S


    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  10. Grazing studies on selected plutonium-contaminated areas in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.


    A grazing study in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was initiated in May of 1973 and is proceeding on schedule. The accomplishments to date in this study include the quarterly collection of ingesta samples from fistulated steers, the quarterly sacrifice and sampling of a goat, the semiannual sacrifice and sampling of selected adult and young cattle, and the quarterly determination of digestibility of range plants. Dietary habits were tabulated with favored plant species being: two grasses, Indian ricegrass and galleta; two shrubs, winter fat and four-winged saltbush; and one forb, Russian thistle. Other analytical data are not yet available. (auth)

  11. Review of grazing studies on plutonium-contaminated rangelands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.


    Literature is cited that has provided data on tissue actinide concentrations in grazing animals when the actinide dosages resulted from artificial administration or from periodic exposure. Only one long-term study is known where a reproducing beef herd was restricted to a plutonium-contaminated environment. Highlights of this study that are reviewed and discussed include: relationship of ingesta concentrations to food habits; tissue concentration related to length of exposure and level of exposure; and the concentration range in various tissues. Emphasis is given to the gonadal concentration which is approximately 25 times that of muscle and blood. Future study plans are also discussed

  12. Grazing supplementation and crop diversification on beef farm simulations in southern Brazil: a case study (United States)

    Economics and environmental footprints of beef cattle raised on natural pasture or combined with soybean in specific biomes are still not well evaluated. The objective of this research was to simulate and evaluate the economics of three common pastured beef grazing systems in southern Brazil along w...

  13. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.


    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  14. Natural Arsenic in the Miocene Hawthorn Group, Florida: Wide Ranging Implications for ASR, Phosphate Mining, Private Well (United States)

    Lazareva, O. V.; Pichler, T.


    organic material, clays, and iron oxides contain lower As concentrations contrasted to pyrite; (5) Pyrite occurs in framboidal and euhedral forms. Because phosphorous, arsenic and sulfur are chemically closely related, they often occur together in nature, thus posing a potential problem for the phosphate industry. There have been several occurrences of swine fatalities due to arsenic poisoning as a result of phosphate feed supplements. Information about the concentration, distribution and mineralogical association of naturally occurring As is important, because this is a first step to forecast its behavior during anthropogenic induced physico-chemical changes in the aquifer. Recently, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities in central Florida reported As concentrations in excess of 100 μ g/L in recovered water. The ASR storage zone is the Suwannee Limestone, which directly underlies the Hawthorn sediments. It is crucial to the future of ASR in this area to understand the source and distribution of arsenic in the overlying Hawthorn Group and the cycling of arsenic in the Florida platform.

  15. Campylobacter shared between free-ranging cattle and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (NE Spain). (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Ugarte-Ruiz, M; Porrero, M C; Zamora, L; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L


    Campylobacter infections are a public health concern and an increasingly common cause of food-borne zoonoses in the European Union. However, little is known about their spill-over from free-ranging livestock to sympatric wild ungulates, especially in regards to uncommon Campylobacter species. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of C. coli, C. jejuni and other C. spp. in game ungulates (wild boar Sus scrofa and Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica) and free-ranging sympatric cattle in a National Game Reserve in NE Spain. Furthermore, we explore the extent to which Campylobacter species are shared among these co-habiting hosts. Faecal samples from Iberian ibex (n = 181) were negative for C. spp. By direct plating, two wild boars out of 150 were positive for C. coli (1.3%, 95% CI 0.16-4.73), and one was positive for C. jejuni (0.67%, 95% CI 0.02-3.66). The latter was predominant in cattle: 5.45% (n = 55, 95% CI 1.14-5.12), while C. coli was not isolated from this host. C. lanienae was the most frequent species in wild boar at 10% (95% CI 5.7-15.96), and one cow cohabiting with positive wild boars in the same canyon also carried C. lanienae. Four enrichment protocols (using Bolton or Preston broth combined with either mCCDA or CFA) were added for 172 samples (57 from wild boars, 55 cattle and 60 Iberian ibexes) to increase the number of isolates obtained allowing the detection of statistically significant differences. The prevalence of C. lanienae was statistically significantly higher in wild boar than in cattle (P < 0.01), but the prevalence of C. jejuni was higher in the latter (P = 0.045). These results suggest that wild boar and cattle carry their own predominant Campylobacter species, while Iberian ibex do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter. However, there is a potential spill-over of C. spp., and thus, further research is needed to elucidate the factors determining inter-species transmission.

  16. Response of Polygonum viviparum species and community level to long-term livestock grazing in alpine shrub meadow in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Hong; Lundholm, Jeremy; Li, Yingnian; Wang, Xiaoan


    Grazing by domestic herbivores is generally recognized as a major ecological factor and an important evolutionary force in grasslands. Grazing has both extensive and profound effects on individual plants and communities. We investigated the response patterns of Polygonum viviparum species and the species diversity of an alpine shrub meadow in response to long-term livestock grazing by a field manipulative experiment controlling livestock numbers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Here, we hypothesize that within a range of grazing pressure, grazing can alter relative allocation to different plant parts without changing total biomass for some plant species if there is life history trade-offs between plant traits. The same type of communities exposed to different grazing pressures may only alter relative species' abundances or species composition and not vary species diversity because plant species differ in resistant capability to herbivory. The results show that plant height and biomass of different organs differed among grazing treatments but total biomass remained constant. Biomass allocation and absolute investments to both reproduction and growth decreased and to belowground storage increased with increased grazing pressure, indicating the increasing in storage function was attained at a cost of reducing reproduction of bulbils and represented an optimal allocation and an adaptive response of the species to long-term aboveground damage. Moreover, our results showed multiform response types for either species groups or single species along the gradient of grazing intensity. Heavy grazing caused a 13.2% increase in species richness. There was difference in species composition of about 18%-20% among grazing treatment. Shannon-Wiener (H') diversity index and species evenness (E) index did not differ among grazing treatments. These results support our hypothesis.

  17. Natural and manipulated populations of the treehole mosquito, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, at its northernmost range limit in southern Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; MacKay, Sarah E; Verdonschot, Ralf C M; Tacchino, Pierre J P


    Ochlerotatus triseriatus, the eastern treehole mosquito, reaches its northernmost range limit in the extreme southeast of Canada. As a known vector of West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses and a potential vector of eastern equine encephalitis, its population biology is of interest. In southern Ontario, high larval densities occur in urban woodlots within sugar maple and American beech treehole communities comprising rotifers, nematode worms, mites, other dipterans, and scirtid beetles. Treehole water was characterized by low dissolved oxygen levels and seasonally variable pH and temperature, with the latter being most influential on local populations. Densities were significantly higher (up to 503 larvae 100 ml(-1)) in tree holes close to the forest floor (holes seeded with autumn-shed maple leaves as opposed to leaves of black oak and beech. In this locality, weekly sampling showed Oc. triseriatus to be multivoltine, with mass egg hatching beginning under coldwater (hole, population losses of Oc. triseriatus due to washout during major rainfall events were negligible despite high flowthrough of water derived from stemflow.

  18. The In Vitro Activity of a Range of Natural Bioflavonoids Against Five Species of Pathogenic Fish Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Ha Yoon


    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activity of thirty two plant-derived compounds (26 crude herbal extraction and 6 pure citrus-based bioflavonoids were tested on five different species of aquatic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. sobria, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and E. tarda over a period of 72 hours at 22 oC. From the agar diffusion test, six pure citrus-based bioflavonoids (apigenin, catechin, hesperidin, morin, naringin and quercetin appeared to impact on growth when used at concentrations ranging from 10 ppm - 1000 ppm. To confirm their effect on the growth dynamics of each bacteria, a 1000 ppm dose of the appropriate bioflavonoid was added to a bacterial culture and daily changes in culture growth were measured. Quercetin was found to be bacteriocidal against all the bacterial strains. Morin was found to be bacteriocidal against only 4 out of 6 strains while hesperidin was found to affect the growth of all the tested bacterial strains, working both as a bacteriocidal and as a bacteriostatic agent. Apigenin performed poorly and had no effect on the growth of any bacterial strain while catechin and naringin were found to be generally bacteriostatic in action but had little impact on the growth of the Aeromonad strains. From the current in vitro work, it was concluded that certain plant extracts do have an impact on the growth dynamics of select bacteria and show potential as alternatives to the use of antimicrobials, but further research is required to assess their performance in vivo.

  19. Copepod grazing and their impact on phytoplankton standing stock and production in a tropical coastal water during the different seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagadeesan, L.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Parthasarathi, S.

    * for each prey type (pico, nano and Micro) was calculated according to the formula Where Wi was defined by the following equation E* values range from -1 to 1, 0 indicates neutral selection, positive values represent positive selectivity... or preference and the negative values represent negative selectivity or avoidance. 2.9. COPEPODS COMMUNITY INGESTION AND GRAZING PRESSURE (%) Copepod community ingestion was calculated by multiplying the individual copepod grazing rate by in-situ abundance...

  20. Nature of the Coastal Range Wedge Along the Rupture Area of the 2015, Illapel Chile Earthquake Mw 8.4 (United States)

    Farías, M.; Comte, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Brandon, M. T.


    Wedge theory is usually applied to the pro-side of active subduction margins, where fold-and-thrust belts related to frontal accretion develop, but rarely to the entire wedge, where the retro-side is also relevant. We present a new 3D body wave tomographic image that combines data from the Chile-Illapel Aftershock Experiment (CHILLAX) with previous temporary seismic networks, with the aim of illuminating the nature of the wedge of the continental margin above the seismogenic part of the subducting slab. The downdip extent of the coupled part, called the S-point in the wedge theory, corresponds to the place where upper plate completely decouples from the subducting slab. This point is characterized by a Vp/Vs contrast at about 60 km depth that extends upward-and-eastward in a west-dipping ramp-like geometry. This ramp emerges about 180 km from the trench, near the topographic break related to the front of the Andean retro-side. The Coastal wedge domain is characterized by a monotonous east-dipping homocline with the older rocks of this region along the coast. The offshore region, corresponding to the pro-side, exhibits normal faulting and a very small frontal accretionary complex. Normal faulting in this region is related to rapid uplift of marine terraces since ca. 2 Ma, suggesting strong basal accretion and thus high friction on the thrust. In fact, the epicentral region of the 2015 Illapel Earthquake coincides with the highest elevations along the coast, i.e., the region with the highest slope of the margin. In this region, the lack of a continental forearc basin suggests an overlapping between the Andean and Coastal wedges. The western edge of the Andean wedge is also part of the homocline about 10 km east of the topographic boundary between both wedges, suggesting that the Coastal wedge has been deforming a part of the retro-side of the Andean wedge during the Miocene. The east-ward tilting of the retro-side was acquired mainly before the late Miocene, since at

  1. Short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance – effects on symbiotic N2-fixation estimates in pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdensen, Lars; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen


    abundance in spring barley and N2-fixing pea was measured within the 0.15-4 m scale at flowering and at maturity. The short-range spatial variability of soil δ15N natural abundance and symbiotic nitrogen fixation were high at both growth stages. Along a 4-m row, the δ15N natural abundance in barley......-abundance are that estimates of symbiotic N2-fixation can be obtained from the natural abundance method if at least half a square meter of crop and reference plants is sampled for the isotopic analysis. In fields with small amounts of representative reference crops (weeds) it might be necessary to sow in reference crop...

  2. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao


    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  3. Solubility of C-O-H mixturesin natural melts: new experimental data and application range of recent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holtz


    Full Text Available The effect of pressure, temperature, and melt composition on CO2 and H2O solubilities in aluminosilicate melts, coexisting with CO2-H2O fluids, is discussed on the basis of previously published and new experimental data. The datasets have been chosen so that CO2 and H2O are the main fluid components and the conclusions are only valid for relatively oxidizing conditions. The most important parameters controlling the solubilities of H2O and CO2 are pressure and composition of melt and fluid. On the other hand, the effect of temperature on volatile solubilities is relatively small. At pressures up to 200 MPa, intermediate compositions such as dacite, in which both molecular CO2 and carbonate species can be dissolved, show higher volatile solubilities than rhyolite and basalt. At higher pressures (0.5 to 1 GPa, basaltic melts can incorporate higher amounts of carbon dioxide (by a factor of 2 to 3 than rhyolitic and dacitic melts. Henrian behavior is observed only for CO2 solubility in equilibrium with H2O-CO2 fluids at pressures <100 MPa, whereas at higher pressures CO2 solubility varies nonlinearly with CO2 fugacity. The positive deviation from linearity with almost constant CO2 solubility at low water activity indicates that dissolved water strongly enhances the solubility of CO2. Water always shows non-Henrian solubility behavior because of its complex dissolution mechanism (incorporation of OH-groups and H2O molecules in the melt. The model of Newman and Lowenstern (2002, in which ideal mixing between volatiles in both fluid and melt phases is assumed, reproduces adequately the experimental data for rhyolitic and basaltic compositions at pressures below 200 MPa but shows noticeable disagreement at higher pressures, especially for basalt. The empirical model of Liu et al. (2004 is applicable to rhyolitic melts in a wide range of pressure (0-500 MPa and temperature (700- 1200°C but cannot be used for other melt compositions. The

  4. Effects of grazing intensity and environmental factors on species composition and diversity in typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Schönbach, Philipp; Wan, Hongwei; Gierus, Martin; Taube, Friedhelm


    In the present study, we aim to analyze the effect of grazing, precipitation and temperature on plant species dynamics in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, P.R. China. By uncoupling biotic and abiotic factors, we provide essential information on the main drivers determining species composition and species diversity. Effects of grazing by sheep were studied in a controlled experiment along a gradient of seven grazing intensities (from ungrazed to very heavily grazed) during six consecutive years (2005-2010). The results show that plant species composition and diversity varied among years but were little affected by grazing intensity, since the experimental years were much dryer than the long term average, the abiotic constraints may have overridden any grazing effect. Among-year differences were predominantly determined by the abiotic factors of precipitation and temperature. Most of the variation in species dynamics and coexistence between C3 and C4 species was explained by seasonal weather conditions, i.e. precipitation and temperature regime during the early-season (March-June) were most important in determining vegetation dynamics. The dominant C3 species Stipa grandis was highly competitive in March-June, when the temperature levels were low and rainfall level was high. In contrast, the most common C4 species Cleistogenes squarrosa benefited from high early-season temperature levels and low early-season rainfall. However, biomass of Stipa grandis was positively correlated with temperature in March, when effective mean temperature ranges from 0 to 5°C and thus promotes vernalization and vegetative sprouting. Our results suggest that, over a six-year term, it is temporal variability in precipitation and temperature rather than grazing that determines vegetation dynamics and species co-existence of grazed steppe ecosystems. Furthermore, our data support that the variability in the biomass of dominant species, rather than diversity, determine ecosystem

  5. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren


    field was 33.9% (95% CI = 17.0-51.8%. Across the range of residual cover observed in this study, nests with above-average nest-site vegetation density had nesting success rates that exceeded the levels believed necessary to maintain duck populations. Our findings on complex and previously unreported relationships between grazing, nest density, and nesting success provide useful insights into the management and conservation of ground-nesting grassland birds.

  6. An analysis of the fundamentals of grazing management systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of the fundamentals of grazing management systems. Booysen PD. Abstract. The resting and grazing components of grazing management cycles as practiced in South Africa are evaluated from the points of view of objective and effect. While the desirability of resting for seeding and an increase in vigour is ...

  7. Grazing capacity estimates: why include biomass estimates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forage for ruminants in the dry season were assessed and matched with feed requirements in three villages in Zimbabwe, namely; Chiweshe, Makande and Mudzimu. Stocking rates were compared with grazing capacity to determine grazing intensities. Grazing capacities were estimated with and without crop residues to ...

  8. Livestock grazing behaviour along a degradation gradient in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six each of male cattle, sheep, goats and camels, with average masses of 200, 35, 30 and 220 kg, respectively, were used and randomly assigned for unrestricted grazing. Species selectivity, grazing time, grazing intensity and number of bites were recorded. Forage mass intake per animal per day was estimated through a ...

  9. Recent trends in grazing management philosophy in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast, considerably more evidence has emerged to support the general philosophy which has built up over the years on such issues as optimum stocking rates, periods of absence, stocking densities and the required number of camps in grazing layouts. Keywords: change; grazing intensity; grazing management; herd ...

  10. Response of lambs to continuous and rotational grazing at four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was grazed either continuously or rotationally at four grazing intensities by three successive sets of weaned lambs for the winter, spring and summer periods, respectively. The "put-and-take" system was applied. In the case of continuous grazing, amounts of available dry matter (DM) per hectare were varied, whereas with ...

  11. Impact of Livestock Grazing on Abundance and Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the impact of cattle grazing on macro invertebrate fauna of Ovia River was carried out between January and June 2004. Macro invertebrate and water samples were collected from three sampling locations; station I (new grazing area for cattle), station II (initial grazing area) and station III (control location). A total ...

  12. The economic cost of noxious weeds on Montana grazing lands (United States)

    We distributed a 16-question survey concerning noxious weed abundances, impacts and management to livestock producers grazing on privately-owned or leased grazing lands in Montana. The noxious weeds most commonly reported as being present on respondents’ grazing units were Canada thistle (64% of gra...

  13. How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior? (United States)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

  14. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consequences of these affect lives, properties and the environment. The country now has approximately 210 persons and 180 grazing animals per kilometer square of land and 15,000 persons and 12,500 grazing animals per kilometer square of water. With the population of both man and grazing animals increasing at ...

  15. 25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 Section 166... and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before we grant, modify, or approve a permit, in consultation with the Indian landowners, we will establish the total grazing capacity...

  16. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  17. Analysis of factors affecting milk yield of Ankole cows grazed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal rainfall (RF) and maximum temperature (Tm) variations on milk yield of Ankole cows grazed solely on range pastures were investigated. The resulting changes in herbage growth (HG), herbage yields (HY), herbage crude protein CPh) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), as well as body condition score ...

  18. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands. (United States)

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J


    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Forage patch use by grazing herbivores in a South African grazing ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R.


    Understanding how different herbivores make forage patch use choices explains how they maintain an adequate nutritional status, which is important for effective conservation management of grazing ecosystems. Using telemetry data, we investigated nonruminant zebra (Equus burchelli) and ruminant red

  20. Chapter 2: Livestock and Grazed Lands Emissions (United States)

    A total of 342 MMT CO2 eq. of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) were emitted from livestock, managed livestock waste, and grazed land in 2013. This represents about 66% of total emissions from the agricultural sector, which totaled 516 MMT CO2 eq. Compared to the base line year (1990), emissions from livesto...

  1. Dietary selection by steers grazing kikuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being grazeA for a period of 3,5 days in a four-week rotation, at ... Cattle improve the quality of their diet by actively seeking ... of stem in their diet. This would explain why the stem fraction mad~ no significant contribution to the equation predicting diet~ry selection. A:1unusual fact which emerged is that the animals selected.

  2. Grazing management that regenerates ecosystem function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a systems view and regenerative philosophy can indicate how to regenerate ecosystem function on commercial-scale agro-ecological landscapes. Adaptive multi-paddock grazing management is an example of an approach for grazinglands. Leading conservation farmers have achieved superior results in ...

  3. Estimating phosphorus intake by grazing sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating phosphorus intake in grazing sheep is ditficult since hand-picked ... Thus to establish the intake of phosphorus, a method other than forage .... between the mean (tSD) levels in the ribs of the sheep and the. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Veek. 19g3, l3(3) of phosphorus and feed they consumed. Determination. Specimen".

  4. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE..., reconstruction or relocation of only those livestock management improvements and structures which existed within...

  5. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hempson, GP


    Full Text Available rates of nitrogen cycling and of sodium levels to lawn maintenance. Grazer community composition and density has considerable significance to grazing lawn dynamics; not all grazers are adapted to foraging on short-grass swards, and differences in body...

  6. Optimal grazing management strategies: evaluating key concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rangeland management strategies must be based on robust ecological and economic concepts if they are to be effective and profitable. Thus, the aim of this paper was to examine concepts related to grazing and resting of grassland and associated effects on grassland productivity and energy flow to livestock. Our review ...

  7. The effects of zero grazing in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, De E.; Berg, van den M.M.; Tizale, C.Y.; Wondwosen, T.


    In the high lands of Ethiopia, almost every plot of farmland is allotted for crop husbandry, leaving no or only road sides and marginal lands for grazing. However, land is scarce in these areas and this limits the role of crop production in poverty alleviation and it also limits the availability of

  8. Grazing Orbits and Related Local Bifurcations of an Oscillator with Continuous and Piecewise-Linear Restoring Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Hu


    Full Text Available One critical case for the motion of a periodically excited oscillator with continuous and piecewise-linear restoring force is that the motion happens to graze a switching plane between two linear regions of the restoring force. This article presents a numerical scheme for locating the periodic grazing orbit first. Then, through a brief analysis, the article shows that the grazing phenomenon turns the stability trend of the periodic orbit so abruptly that it may be impossible to predict an incident local bifurcation with the variation of a control parameter from the concept of smooth dynamic systems. The numerical simulation in the article well supports the scheme and the analysis, and shows an abundance of grazing phenomena in an engineering range of the excitation frequency.

  9. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  10. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.


    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  11. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías


    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  12. Effect of Grazing Intensity on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics in Gardaneh Zanburi Rangeland of Arsanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab khademolhosseini


    Full Text Available Introduction:Changes caused by grazing on range ecosystem are generally assessed based on the soil conditions and vegetation. Livestock as one of the major elements in range land ecosystems has different effects on different parts of this ecosystem. One of these impacts is excessive livestock grazing capacity which can have different effects on soils and plants in various intensities. Materials and Methods:Gardaneh ZanbooriRangelandis located in Arsanjan in Fars province. This isanareaof mountains, hillsandplains with the maximum height of 2280 meters and minimum height of 1640 meters above sea level. Related areas were separated under three different management methods of enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing. These three areas are considered as symbolic areas of grazing intensity including the reference area where no grazing intensity was observed, the key area where medium to heavy grazing was applied and critical area where heavy grazing was used. These areas were similar in all characteristics such as topography, soil type and rainfall and differed only in their grazing intensity factor. Then, soil samples were collected. Random systematic soil sampling was conducted at two horizons of 0 -15 and 15 -30 cm. Therefore, five profiles in each area (enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing, a total of 15 soil profiles, were excavated and two samples were taken in each profile (one sample from each horizon. Finally, the thirty soil samples were transported to the laboratory. Samples were dried in the air laboratory and passed a two millimeter sieve after smashing. Factors such as N, P, K, OM, EC and PH were measured in each sample In the laboratory, the percentage of P was determined by the Olsen method while the percentage of K was determined using the flamephotometry method. Moreover, N was measured using the Kjeldhal method. C was measured by the Walkley and Black method. The percentage of OM was found by carbon multiplying

  13. Governing Grazing and Mobility in the Samburu Lowlands, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek Pas


    Full Text Available Pastoral mobility is seen as the most effective strategy to make use of constantly shifting resources. However, mobile pastoralism as a highly-valued strategy to manage grazing areas and exploit resource variability is becoming more complex, due to recurrent droughts, loss of forage, government-led settlement schemes, and enclosure of land for community conservation, among other reasons. Yet knowledge of how Samburu pastoralists perceive these changes, and govern and innovate in their mobility patterns and resource use, has received limited attention. This paper seeks to understand how Samburu pastoralists in the drylands of northern Kenya use and govern natural resources, how livestock grazing and mobility is planned for, and how boundaries and territory are constructed and performed both within and beyond the context of (nongovernmental projects. Fieldwork for this paper was conducted in Sesia, Samburu East, and consisted of interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory observation. Findings show that livestock mobility involves longer periods and more complex distances due to a shrinking resource base and new rules of access. Although access was previously generated based on the value of reciprocity, the creation of new forms of resource management results in conditional processes of inclusion and exclusion. Policy and project implementation has historically been driven by the imperative to secure land tenure and improve pasture in bounded areas. Opportunities to support institutions that promote mobility have been given insufficient attention.

  14. Interação comportamento de pastejo´dinâmica de tipos funcionais em pastagem natural na depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Interaction between grazing behavior and functional type dynamics in native grassland in the central depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Raquel Cunha dos Santos


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os comportamentos alimentar e espacial de bovinos em pastejo em função da dinâmica de tipos funcionais (TF em pastagem natural, definidos por meio da descrição de atributos morfológicos. Foram utilizadas novilhas em pastejo rotacionado, com oferta média de forragem de 12% (12 kg de MS/100 kg PV. O ritmo de atividade dos animais foi acompanhado durante o período de 12/02 a 27/02/2003 utilizando-se registradores automáticos Ethosys. Para a medição dos atributos, foram marcadas 30 unidades amostrais permanentes, compostas de cinco quadros contíguos de 0,20 x 0,20 m. Os resultados da descrição da comunidade indicaram um subconjunto ótimo de dois atributos (biomassa superior e biomassa lenhosa, os quais definiram oito TF, indicando congruência de 0,43 com a variável ambiental graus-dia. A evolução dos tempos de pastejo comprovou que, à medida que diminuem os TF preferidos, ocorre aumento nos tempos de pastejo. A caracterização da vegetação com base na definição de atributos, em comparação àquela realizada somente pela identificação das espécies presentes na área, facilitou a compreensão da resposta interativa vegetação ´ animal. Simultaneamente, à medida que a vegetação se alterou, os animais modularam seu comportamento ajustando seus ritmos de atividade, no tempo e no espaço, provocando continuamente impactos diferenciais na vegetação, que evolui com o tempo.This study aimed to describe the feeding and spatial behavior of beef heifers under rotational stocking, in response to the dynamics of the morphological functional types (TFs in natural grassland. Stocking rate was adjusted to keep an average of 12% (12 kg DM/100 kg BW of forage allowance. Animal activity was registered from 12 to 27 February 2003 using the Ethosys automatic device. Thirty permanent field sampling units comprised by five adjacent 0.20 x 0.20 m squares were used to determine pasture

  15. Impact of Climate Trends and Drought Events on the Growth of Oaks (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. within and beyond Their Natural Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Perkins


    Full Text Available Due to predicted climate change, it is important to know to what extent trees and forests will be impacted by chronic and episodic drought stress. As oaks play an important role in European forestry, this study focuses on the growth response of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. and pedunculate oak (Quercus robur (L. under contrasting climatic conditions. Analyses cover both site conditions of their natural occurrence (Southern Germany and Northeast Italy and site conditions beyond their natural range (South Africa. The sites beyond their natural range represent possible future climate conditions. Tree-ring series from three different sites were compared and analysed using dendrochronological methods. The long-term growth development of oak trees appears to be similar across the sites, yet the growth level over time is higher in the drier and warmer climate than in the temperate zone. When compared with previous growth periods, growth models reveal that oak trees grew more than expected during the last decades. A recent setback in growth can be observed, although growth is still higher than the model predicts. By focusing on the short-term reactions of the trees, distinct drought events and periods were discovered. In each climatic region, similar growth reactions developed after drought periods. A decline in growth rate occurred in the second or third year after the drought event. Oaks in South Africa are currently exposed to a warmer climate with more frequent drought events. This climatic condition is a future prediction also for Europe. In view of this climate change, we discuss the consequences of the long- and short- term growth behaviour of oaks grown in the climate of South Africa for a tree species selection that naturally occurs in Europe.

  16. The effect of gastrointestinal nematode infection level on grazing distance from dung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi Lua Sarti Seó

    Full Text Available Avoiding grazing near feces is an efficient strategy to prevent parasitic infection and contamination; therefore, in the evolution of herbivorous species, this behavior may have developed as a mechanism to protect the host against infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. The aim of this study was to assess whether grazing distance from dung is related to the level of parasitic infection in cattle. Based on Fecal Egg Count (FEC means, 18 castrated male steers, aged 18 months, were divided into three groups: High (FEC ≥ 315; Medium (FEC = 130-160; and Low (FEC = 40-70. To analyze the response to a new natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes and to standardize infection levels, all animals received anthelmintic treatment at twenty days prior to field observation. Three observers simultaneously collected data on grazing behavior for 2.5 hours/week for 12 weeks. Observers recorded the distance when grazing occurred at less than one meter from dung. Every two weeks, fecal samples were collected for FEC, as well as serum samples to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG levels against larvae and adult antigens of the parasitic species Haemonchus placei. All groups grazed farther from the dung on days of greater insolation (r = 0.62; P = 0.03. Animals with high levels of parasitism grazed farther from the dung (P < 0.05 but had lower levels (P < 0.0001 of IgG serum levels compared to those with medium and low levels of infection. FEC values varied over the experiment, remaining below 200 for the low and medium group and reaching 1000 (P < 0.01 for the animals with the highest rates of parasitism. Our results indicate that cattle showing high levels of parasitism are more likely to avoid contaminated areas than animals with lower infection levels, and the immune system seems to be involved in such behavior.

  17. Zooplankton Grazing Effects on Particle Size Spectra under Different Seasonal Conditions (United States)

    Stamieszkin, K.; Poulton, N.; Pershing, A. J.


    Oceanic particle size spectra can be used to explain and predict variability in carbon export efficiency, since larger particles are more likely to sink to depth than small particles. The distribution of biogenic particle size in the surface ocean is the result of many variables and processes, including nutrient availability, primary productivity, aggregation, remineralization, and grazing. We conducted a series of grazing experiments to test the hypothesis that mesozooplankton shift particle size spectra toward larger particles, via grazing and egestion of relatively large fecal pellets. These experiments were carried out over several months, and used natural communities of mesozooplankton and their microbial prey, collected offshore of the Damariscotta River in the Gulf of Maine. We analyzed the samples using Fluid Imaging Technologies' FlowCam®, a particle imaging system. With this equipment, we processed live samples, decreasing the likelihood of losing or damaging fragile particles, and thereby lessening sources of error in commonly used preservation and enumeration protocols. Our results show how the plankton size spectrum changes as the Gulf of Maine progresses through a seasonal cycle. We explore the relationship of grazing community size structure to its effect on the overall biogenic particle size spectrum. At some times of year, mesozooplankton grazing does not alter the particle size spectrum, while at others it significantly does, affecting the potential for biogenic flux. We also examine prey selectivity, and find that chain diatoms are the only prey group preferentially consumed. Otherwise, we find that complete mesozooplankton communities are "evolved" to fit their prey such that most prey groups are grazed evenly. We discuss a metabolic numerical model which could be used to universalize the relationships between whole gazer and whole microbial communities, with respect to effects on particle size spectra.

  18. Quantification of uncertainties in global grazing systems assessment (United States)

    Fetzel, T.; Havlik, P.; Herrero, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kastner, T.; Kroisleitner, C.; Rolinski, S.; Searchinger, T.; Van Bodegom, P. M.; Wirsenius, S.; Erb, K.-H.


    Livestock systems play a key role in global sustainability challenges like food security and climate change, yet many unknowns and large uncertainties prevail. We present a systematic, spatially explicit assessment of uncertainties related to grazing intensity (GI), a key metric for assessing ecological impacts of grazing, by combining existing data sets on (a) grazing feed intake, (b) the spatial distribution of livestock, (c) the extent of grazing land, and (d) its net primary productivity (NPP). An analysis of the resulting 96 maps implies that on average 15% of the grazing land NPP is consumed by livestock. GI is low in most of the world's grazing lands, but hotspots of very high GI prevail in 1% of the total grazing area. The agreement between GI maps is good on one fifth of the world's grazing area, while on the remainder, it is low to very low. Largest uncertainties are found in global drylands and where grazing land bears trees (e.g., the Amazon basin or the Taiga belt). In some regions like India or Western Europe, massive uncertainties even result in GI > 100% estimates. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that the input data for NPP, animal distribution, and grazing area contribute about equally to the total variability in GI maps, while grazing feed intake is a less critical variable. We argue that a general improvement in quality of the available global level data sets is a precondition for improving the understanding of the role of livestock systems in the context of global environmental change or food security.

  19. Birds bias offspring sex ratio in response to livestock grazing. (United States)

    Prior, Gina L; Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen; Thirgood, Simon J; Monaghan, Pat


    Livestock grazing, which has a large influence on habitat structure, is associated with the widespread decline of various bird species across the world, yet there are few experimental studies that investigate how grazing pressure influences avian reproduction. We manipulated grazing pressure using a replicated field experiment, and found that the offspring sex ratio of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, varied significantly between grazing treatments. The proportion of sons was lowest in the ungrazed and intensively grazed treatments and highest in treatments grazed at low intensity (by sheep, or a mixture of sheep and cattle). This response was not related to maternal body condition. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of avian reproductive biology to variation in local conditions, and support growing evidence that too much grazing, or the complete removal of livestock from upland areas, is detrimental for common breeding birds.

  20. Model-based analysis of the environmental impacts of grazing management on Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems in Jordan. (United States)

    Schaldach, Rüdiger; Wimmer, Florian; Koch, Jennifer; Volland, Jan; Geissler, Katja; Köchy, Martin


    Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems are prone to desertification when under grazing pressure. Therefore, management of grazing intensity plays a crucial role to avoid or to diminish land degradation and to sustain both livelihoods and ecosystem functioning. The dynamic land-use model LandSHIFT was applied to a case study on the country level for Jordan. The impacts of different stocking densities on the environment were assessed through a set of simulation experiments for various combinations of climate input and assumptions about the development of livestock numbers. Indicators used for the analysis include a set of landscape metrics to account for habitat fragmentation and the "Human Appropriation of Net Primary Production" (HANPP), i.e., the difference between the amount of net primary production (NPP) that would be available in a natural ecosystem and the amount of NPP that remains under human management. Additionally, the potential of the economic valuation of ecosystem services, including landscape and grazing services, as an analysis concept was explored. We found that lower management intensities had a positive effect on HANPP but at the same time resulted in a strong increase of grazing area. This effect was even more pronounced under climate change due to a predominantly negative effect on the biomass productivity of grazing land. Also Landscape metrics tend to indicate decreasing habitat fragmentation as a consequence of lower grazing pressure. The valuation of ecosystem services revealed that low grazing intensity can lead to a comparatively higher economic value on the country level average. The results from our study underline the importance of considering grazing management as an important factor to manage dry-land ecosystems in a sustainable manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.


    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  2. A review on the use of sensors to monitor cattle jaw movements and behavior when grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriamandroso, ALH.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF is spreading rapidly in intensive cattle farms. It is based on the monitoring of individuals using different kinds of sensors. Applied to grazing animals, PLF is mainly based on the recording of three parameters: the location, the posture and the movements of the animal. Until now, several techniques have been used to discriminate grazing and ruminating behaviors with accuracies over 90% on average, when compared to observations, providing valuable tools to improve the management of pasture and grazing animals. However, bites and jaw movements are still overlooked, even though they are of utmost importance to assess the animal grazing strategies for various pasture types and develop future techniques allowing better estimation of their intake. Literature. The goal of this review is to explore the possibility of monitoring the individual jaw movements and the differentiation of bites in grazing animals. For this purpose, (1 the mechanisms of forage intake in cattle are explained briefly in order to understand the movements performed by the cow, especially during grazing, (2 the various sensors that have been proposed to monitor jaw movements of ruminants such as mechanical sensors (pressure sensors, acoustic sensors (microphone and electromyography sensors are compared and (3 finally the relationship between jaw movements, biting behavior and forage intake is discussed. Conclusions. The review clearly demonstrated the abilities of mechanical, acoustic and electromyography sensors to classify the difference types of jaw movements. However, it also indicated a wide range of accuracies and different observation windows required to reach these accuracies when compared to the observed movement. This classification purpose could lead to a better detection of more specific behavior, e.g. bite detection, and their exact location on pasture.

  3. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Carotenuto


    Full Text Available Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3–9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a, showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37–0.99 d−1 and increased from ca. 2–3 to 6–12 μg l−1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l−1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l−1, peaking on day 13–15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12–43% of the standing stock d−1 only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20–65% of the standing stock per day.

  4. Soil and vegetation under Bison bonasus grazing in the Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve (Central European Russia) (United States)

    Khanina, Larisa; Bobrovsky, Maxim; Shashkov, Maxim; Ivanova, Natalia; Ivashchenko, Kristina


    Plant diversity and soil characteristics including soil macrofauna and microbial biomass were studied in two areas of the Reserve affected by grazing of semi-free-ranging European bison population during the decade. The study areas are surrounded by broad-leaved forest co-dominated by Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata, Ulmus glabra, Acer platanoides and A. campestre. Aiming to assess impacts of the bison population on soil and vegetation, we studied two series of conjugated biotopes: (1) a meadow with feeder, (2) a transition zone: the forest edge with damaged tree trunks, trampled soil and fragmented ground vegetation and (3) a forest without visible signs of bison activities. One biotope series was located on loamy soils and other one on sandy-loams. The following samplings of soil and vegetation were conducted in each biotope in two areas: (1) plant species list with their coverage in three vegetation layers in 5 square plots of 100 m2 was compiled; (2) earthworms were sampled in 8 monoliths of 25x25x35 cm and handy sorted to estimate earthworm diversity, number and biomass; (3) soil was also sampled from 0 to 10 cm soil depths with 4 replications to estimate soil physico-chemical characteristics and soil microbial biomass. Preliminary results showed relatively high ecological difference of the areas on loams and sandy-loams: soil on loams was richer in the main chemical elements, such as C, N, Ca and K. At that, in both areas, meadow soils were richer than forest soils in C, N, Ca, P and K. The highest values of C and N were observed in the transition zones and they were closed to values observed in the meadow soils. Total amount of exchangeable cations and Ca most strongly decreased from meadow to forest soils with the intermediate values in the transition zones. Despite the ecological differences of the areas, paired biotopes were similar to each other in structure of vegetation communities. For 10 years of grazing, forest vegetation was

  5. Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Young; Han, Shin; Ko, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Suk-Ho; Song, Yong-Min; Kim, Jung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Wook


    Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow (Gardenia jasminoides) and cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye (gardenia or cochineal) or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0.48%, which was enhanced compared to single-dye adsorption. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.

  6. Population Dynamics and Transcriptomic Responses of Chorthippus albonemus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to Herbivore Grazing Intensity


    Xinghu Qin; Xinghu Qin; Xinghu Qin; Jingchuan Ma; Jingchuan Ma; Xunbing Huang; Xunbing Huang; Robert L. Kallenbach; T. Ryan Lock; Md. Panna Ali; Zehua Zhang; Zehua Zhang


    Livestock grazing can trigger outbreaks of insect pests in steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia in China. However, the physiological responses of the grasshopper Chorthippus albonemus to grazing are not well-understood. Here we investigated the effects of sheep grazing on the population dynamics and transcriptomic response of C. albonemus. We collected the insects three times (about 20 days apart) in 1.33-ha plots in which there were no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing, heavy grazing, ...

  7. Phosphorus supplementation to natural pasture grazing for beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown 43. Phosphorus ... Reproductive performance was not influenced by P supplementation. ... supplementation became a general practice and had a marked effect on the reproduction and growth of cattle in some areas.

  8. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.


    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  9. Neutron Reflectivity and Grazing Angle Diffraction


    Ankner, J. F.; Majkrzak, C. F.; Satija, S. K.


    Over the last 10 years, neutron reflectivity has emerged as a powerful technique for the investigation of surface and interfacial phenomena in many different fields. In this paper, a short review of some of the work on neutron reflectivity and grazing-angle diffraction as well as a description of the current and planned neutron rcflectometers at NIST is presented. Specific examples of the characterization of magnetic, superconducting, and polymeric surfaces and interfaces are included.

  10. Neutron Reflectivity and Grazing Angle Diffraction. (United States)

    Ankner, J F; Majkrzak, C F; Satija, S K


    Over the last 10 years, neutron reflectivity has emerged as a powerful technique for the investigation of surface and interfacial phenomena in many different fields. In this paper, a short review of some of the work on neutron reflectivity and grazing-angle diffraction as well as a description of the current and planned neutron rcflectometers at NIST is presented. Specific examples of the characterization of magnetic, superconducting, and polymeric surfaces and interfaces are included.

  11. Adélie penguins coping with environmental change: Results from a natural experiment at the edge of their breeding range (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.; Lyber, Phil O'B.; Schine, Casey


    We investigated life history responses to extreme variation in physical environmental conditions during a long-term demographic study of Adélie penguins at 3 colonies representing 9% of the world population and the full range of breeding colony sizes. Five years into the 14-year study (1997–2010) two very large icebergs (spanning 1.5 latitude degrees in length) grounded in waters adjacent to breeding colonies, dramatically altering environmental conditions during 2001–2005. This natural experiment allowed us to evaluate the relative impacts of expected long-term, but also extreme, short-term climate perturbations on important natural history parameters that can regulate populations. The icebergs presented physical barriers, not just to the penguins but to polynya formation, which profoundly increased foraging effort and movement rates, while reducing breeding propensity and productivity, especially at the smallest colony. We evaluated the effect of a variety of environmental parameters during breeding, molt, migration and wintering periods during years with and without icebergs on penguin breeding productivity, chick mass, and nesting chronology. The icebergs had far more influence on the natural history parameters of penguins than any of the other environmental variables measured, resulting in population level changes to metrics of reproductive performance, including delays in nesting chronology, depressed breeding productivity, and lower chick mass. These effects were strongest at the smallest, southern-most colony, which was most affected by alteration of the Ross Sea Polynya during years the iceberg was present. Additionally, chick mass was negatively correlated with colony size, supporting previous findings indicating density-dependent energetic constraints at the largest colony. Understanding the negative effects of the icebergs on the short-term natural history of Adélie penguins, as well as their response to long-term environmental variation, are

  12. Composition of late summer diet by semi-domesticated reindeer in different grazing conditions in northernmost Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bezard


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the diet composition of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in late summer in different kinds of grazing conditions in northernmost Finland. The composition of diet by reindeer was determined on the grounds of microhistological analysis of feces samples collected in early August in different seasonal grazing areas (winter or summer/year-round grazing areas in three reindeer management districts. Although the proportion of different plant groups varied between the studied districts, the quantified group of ground lichens (which also contained small amounts of mushrooms was the most abundant, varying from 33.0 to 46.4% in the analyzed samples. In general, there were significant differences in the proportions of lichen between districts, but not between grazing areas. The proportion of lichen in samples increased significantly when the amount of lichen pasture around a sample site increased. The proportion of dwarf shrubs and leaves in samples varied from 24.9 to 37.9% and differed significantly between districts, but not between grazing areas. In the same way, the proportion of graminoids varied between 20.9 and 36.2% and differed significantly between districts and also between grazing areas. Higher amounts of graminoids in feces were observed in summer/year-round grazing areas than in winter grazing areas. Finally, the proportion of bryophytes varied between 2.9 and 6.5% and was significantly different between districts, but not between grazing areas. An increase in old and mature coniferous forest around a sample site significantly increased the amounts of bryophytes in samples. The results indicate that reindeer adapt their summer diet composition according to the availability of food plants. The results also show that when reindeer are allowed to select their summer ranges freely, reindeer tend to use lichen pastures intensively also during summer, which causes a considerable reduction in

  13. Vegetation changes over 12 years in ungrazed and grazed Conservation Reserve Program Grasslands in the central and southern plains (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.; Vandever, Mark W.; Allen, Arthur W.; Terrell, James W.


    diminished structural diversity of vegetation (Peet and others, 1975; Rice and Parenti, 1978; Butler and Briske, 1988; Campa and Winterstein, 1992). Recommendations for the timing of disturbance to increase grass and forb species diversity range from 3 to 8 years following establishment of seeded grasslands in the northern Great Plains and Midwest (Duebbert and others, 1981; Higgens, 1987; Millenbah and others, 1996). The management interval, however, is affected by climatic conditions, soils, grass species, and management history of the individual stand. We quantified changes in vegetation structure and species composition across the typical 10-year contract period in undisturbed southern and central Great Plains CRP fields (fig. 2) planted to introduced and native grasses. In addition, we compared changes in vegetation in fields grazed during the emergency release of 1996 by comparing conditions prior to grazing and two and four years post grazing relative to changes in similar fields that were not grazed. Documentation of long-term changes in vegetation structure and composition for fields planted to common grass seed mixtures across a wide range of environmental conditions provides information to improve long-term wildlife habitat potential, guide program administration, and define management practices that yield economic benefits to operators while still meeting wildlife and conservation objectives. Emergency grazing provisions of the CRP are controversial. Although grazing can alter vegetative characteristics and reduce habitat quality in the short-term (Temple and others, 1999), periodic disturbance may be necessary to maintain habitat quality, and more information is needed assessing long-term effects of emergency grazing on vegetative structure and species composition. 

  14. Continuous feral horse grazing and grazing exclusion in mountain pampean grasslands in Argentina (United States)

    de Villalobos, A. E.; Zalba, S. M.


    This paper evaluates changes in the composition and structure of plant communities and plant functional groups associated with the continuous presence of feral horses in mountain pampean grasslands in Argentina in order to explore the potential effects of horse removal on vegetation restoration. Specific and functional richness, diversity, evenness, spatial heterogeneity and above-ground biomass were compared between areas subjected to ten years of intensive grazing by horses and exclosures of the same age. Forbs, shrubs and rosettes were more abundant after ten years of grazing, while the spatial heterogeneity of perennial grasses was higher in long-term grazed areas. Nevertheless, grasslands showed good recovery after horse removal, with greater species diversity and evenness, higher abundance of perennial grasses, greater above-ground biomass and lower percentages of exotic species. An understanding of the effect of feral animals on plant communities will lead to the design of a strategy of adaptive management and monitoring tools for measuring the condition of grasslands.

  15. The important role of scattered trees on the herbaceous diversity of a grazed Mediterranean dehesa (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; San Miguel, Alfonso; López-Carrasco, Celia; Huntsinger, Lynn; Roig, Sonia


    Scattered trees are considered keystone structures and play an important role in Mediterranean sylvopastoral systems. Such systems are associated with high biodiversity and provide important natural resources and ecosystem services. In this study, we measured the contribution of scattered trees and different grazing management (cattle, sheep and wildlife only) to the diversity of the grassland sward in a dehesa (open holm oak woodland) located in Central Spain. We analyzed alpha and beta diversity through measurement of species richness, Shannon-Wiener, and Whittaker indices, respectively; and the floristic composition of the herb layer using subplots within two adjacent plots (trees present vs. trees absent) under three different grazing management regimes, including wildlife only, during a year. We found a 20-30% increment in the alpha diversity of wooded plots, compared to those without trees, regardless of grazing management. All beta indices calculated showed more than 60% species turnover. Wooded plots were occupied by different herbaceous species in different heterogeneous microsites (under the canopy, in the ecotone or on open land) created by the trees. Livestock grazing modified species composition (e.g. more nitrophilous species) compared to wildlife only plots. In addition to all their other benefits, trees are important to maintaining grassland diversity in Mediterranean dehesas.

  16. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.


    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  17. Effect of Restricted Grazing Time on the Foraging Behavior and Movement of Tan Sheep Grazed on Desert Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen


    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of restricted grazing time on behavior of Tan sheep on desert steppe, forty 4-months old male Tan sheep with an original body weight (BW of 15.62±0.33 kg were randomly allocated to 4 grazing groups which corresponded to 4 different restricted grazing time treatments of 2 h/d (G2, 4 h/d (G4, 8 h/d (G8 and 12 h/d (G12 access to pasture. The restricted grazing times had a significant impact on intake time, resting time, ruminating time, bite rate and movement. As the grazing time decreased, the proportion of time spent on intake, bite rate and grazing velocity significantly (p<0.05 increased, but resting and ruminating time clearly (p<0.05 decreased. The grazing months mainly depicted effect on intake time and grazing velocity. In conclusion, by varying their foraging behavior, Tan sheep could improve grazing efficiency to adapt well to the time-limited grazing circumstance.

  18. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    to a zero-grazing herd having automatic milking system. In traditional milking system, mortality was reduced to 75% in grazing compared to zero-grazing herds. Within the grazing herds, the risk of mortality decreased with increasing number of hours on pasture during the season. Free access between barn...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The researches performed in the Caransebeş hill area made evident the opportunities of the temporary pasture crops consisted of intensive red clover and perennial graminaceous associations. Each type of the associations studied produced the biggest DM yields under conditions of direct grazing with animals, at an animal load of 2 UVM/ha. The most balanced proportion between legume and graminaceous species (52 : 48% was obtained in the second year of production, in the variant grazed with 2 UVM/ha.

  20. SNP-array reveals genome-wide patterns of geographical and potential adaptive divergence across the natural range of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). (United States)

    Bourret, Vincent; Kent, Matthew P; Primmer, Craig R; Vasemägi, Anti; Karlsson, Sten; Hindar, Kjetil; McGinnity, Philip; Verspoor, Eric; Bernatchez, Louis; Lien, Sigbjørn


    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is one of the most extensively studied fish species in the world due to its significance in aquaculture, fisheries and ongoing conservation efforts to protect declining populations. Yet, limited genomic resources have hampered our understanding of genetic architecture in the species and the genetic basis of adaptation to the wide range of natural and artificial environments it occupies. In this study, we describe the development of a medium-density Atlantic salmon single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and genomic sequencing. The array was used in the most extensive assessment of population genetic structure performed to date in this species. A total of 6176 informative SNPs were successfully genotyped in 38 anadromous and freshwater wild populations distributed across the species natural range. Principal component analysis clearly differentiated European and North American populations, and within Europe, three major regional genetic groups were identified for the first time in a single analysis. We assessed the potential for the array to disentangle neutral and putative adaptive divergence of SNP allele frequencies across populations and among regional groups. In Europe, secondary contact zones were identified between major clusters where endogenous and exogenous barriers could be associated, rendering the interpretation of environmental influence on potentially adaptive divergence equivocal. A small number of markers highly divergent in allele frequencies (outliers) were observed between (multiple) freshwater and anadromous populations, between northern and southern latitudes, and when comparing Baltic populations to all others. We also discuss the potential future applications of the SNP array for conservation, management and aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Grazing of Raphanus sativus. L (Japanese radish). | N.F.G. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of young woolled sheep was markedly better when grazing Japanese radish early in winter, when more leaf was available. Continuous grazing resulted in better performance than rotational or zero grazing. Keywords: continuous grazing; grazing; japanese radish; leaves; nooitgedacht research station; ...

  2. Dynamics of grazing lawn formation: An experimental test of the role of scale-dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromsigt, J.P.G.M.; Olff, H.


    Grazing lawns are characteristic for African savanna grasslands, standing out as intensely grazed patches of stoloniferous grazing-tolerant grass species. Grazing lawn development has been associated with grazing and increased nutrient input by large migratory herds. However, we argue that in

  3. Dynamics of grazing lawn formation : an experimental test of the role of scale-dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.; Olff, Han; Setälä, Heikki


    Grazing lawns are characteristic for African savanna grasslands, standing out as intensely grazed patches of stoloniferous grazing-tolerant grass species. Grazing lawn development has been associated with grazing and increased nutrient input by large migratory herds. However, we argue that in

  4. Mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease across the range of the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise: associations with thermal regime and natural antibodies. (United States)

    Sandmeier, Franziska C; Tracy, C Richard; Hagerty, Bridgette E; DuPré, Sally; Mohammadpour, Hamid; Hunter, Kenneth


    Most research of upper respiratory tract disease (mycoplasmal URTD) in the threatened Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has worked under the hypothesis that the pathogen, Mycoplasma agassizii, has a relatively consistent and predictable effect on tortoise populations across their natural range. In contrast, we hypothesized that multiple factors influence the prevalence of disease and analyzed biological and environmental variables that vary significantly across the Mojave Desert. We used multiple regression models to analyze associations between mycoplasmal URTD and the genetic structure of 24 tortoise populations, levels of natural antibody (NAb) to M. agassizii in tortoises (one component of the innate immune system), precipitation, and colder thermal regimes. We detected a significant, positive association between mean levels of NAb and seroprevalence to M. agassizii. We hypothesized that NAbs may provide tolerance to mycoplasmal infections and that more tolerant populations may act as host reservoirs of disease. We also detected significant associations between colder winters and mycoplasmal URTD, suggesting that colder winters may depress tortoise immune resistance against M. agassizii or enhance conditions for the growth of M. agassizii.

  5. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.


    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  6. The Extreme-ultraviolet Emission from Sun-grazing Comets (United States)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, William D.


    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed two Sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses.We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are then photodissociated by the solar radiation field to create atomic species. Subsequent ionization of these atoms produces a higher abundance of ions than normally present in the corona and results in EUV emission in the wavelength ranges of the AIA telescope passbands.

  7. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems


    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den, A.; Shalloo, L.


    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a host of reasons, includingintake and milk production potential, substitution, grass allowance, quality, etc., which often means that grass utilisation and quality are compromised. Adaptation of grazing manage...

  8. Grazing intensity influences the strength of an associational refuge on temperate reefs. (United States)

    Levenbach, Stuart


    Recent studies have emphasized the role of positive interactions in ecological communities, but few have addressed how positive interactions are mediated by abiotic stress and biotic interactions. Here, I investigate the effect of a facilitator species on the abundance of macroalgae over a gradient of herbivory. Grazing by sea urchins can be intense on temperate reefs along the California coast, with benthic macroalgae growing exclusively in physical refuges and interspersed within colonies of the strawberry anemone, Corynactis californica. Field experiments indicated that the net effect of C. californica on turf algae was strongly nonlinear over a gradient in density of sea urchins. At low intensities of urchin grazing, the anemone and macroalgae competed for space, with algae capable of overgrowing C. californica. At intermediate grazing intensities, C. californica provided a refuge for turf algae but not for juvenile kelp. Neither turf algae nor kelp benefited from the presence of C. californica at the highest levels of grazing intensity, as sea urchins consumed nearly all macroalgae. The hump-shaped effect observed for C. californica contrasts with the prevailing view in ecological theory that positive interactions are more common in harsh environmental conditions. The results reported here qualify this view and underscore the need to evaluate positive interactions over a range of abiotic stress and consumer pressure.

  9. Multifunctional Rangeland in Southern Africa: Managing for Production, Conservation, and Resilience with Fire and Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Allen McGranahan


    Full Text Available Residents of Southern Africa depend on rangeland for food, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Sustainable management of rangeland ecosystems requires attention to interactive effects of fire and grazing in a changing climate. It is essential to compare rangeland responses to fire and grazing across space and through time to understand the effects of rangeland management practices on biodiversity and ecosystem services in an era of global climate change. We propose a paradigm of ecologically-analogous rangeland management within the context of multifunctional landscapes to guide design and application of ecosystem-based rangeland research in Southern Africa. We synthesize range science from the North American Great Plains and Southern African savannas into a proposal for fire and grazing research on rangeland in Southern Africa. We discuss how management for the fire-grazing interaction might advance multiple goals including agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and resilience to increased variability under global change. Finally, we discuss several ecological and social issues important to the effective development of sustainable rangeland practices especially within the context of global climate change. The associated literature review serves as a comprehensive bibliography for sustainable rangeland management and development across the savanna biomes of Southern Africa.

  10. Divergence of host range and biological properties between natural isolate and full-length infectious cDNA clone of the Beet mild yellowing virus 2ITB. (United States)

    Klein, Elodie; Brault, Véronique; Klein, Delphine; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Gilmer, David


    Plant infection by poleroviruses is restricted to phloem tissues, preventing any classical leaf rub inoculation with viral RNA or virions. Efficient virus inoculation to plants is achieved by viruliferous aphids that acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants. The use of promoter-driven infectious cDNA is an alternative means to infect plants and allows reverse genetic studies to be performed. Using Beet mild yellowing virus isolate 2ITB (BMYV-2ITB), we produced a full-length infectious cDNA clone of the virus (named BMYV-EK) placed under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase and the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters. Infectivity of the engineered BMYV-EK virus was assayed in different plant species and compared with that of the original virus. We showed that in vitro- or in planta-derived transcripts were infectious in protoplasts and in whole plants. Importantly, the natural aphid vector Myzus persicae efficiently transmitted the viral progeny produced in infected plants. By comparing agroinoculation and aphid infection in a host range assay, we showed that the engineered BMYV-EK virus displayed a similar host range to BMYV-2ITB, except for Nicotiana benthamiana, which proved to be resistant to systemic infection with BMYV-EK. Finally, both the BMYV-EK P0 and the full-length clone were able to strongly interfere with post-transcriptional gene silencing. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Ecological Effects of Grazing in the Northern Tianshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Huang


    Full Text Available Identifying the effects of grazing is critical for the conservation, protection and sustainable use of arid grassland ecosystems. However, research regarding the ecological effects of grazing along mountainous elevation gradients is limited in arid areas, particularly at the regional scale. Using the Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on grassland net primary productivity (NPP, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE from 1979 to 2012 along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains. The NPP, ET and WUE values were generally lower under the grazing scenario than under the ungrazed scenario; the differences between the grazing and ungrazed scenarios showed increasing trends over time; and distinct spatial heterogeneity in these differences was observed. Distinct decreases in NPP and WUE under the grazing scenario mainly occurred in regions with high livestock consumption. The decrease in ET was greater in mountainous areas with high grazing intensity due to decreased transpiration and increased surface runoff. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological effects of grazing along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains and provides data to support the scientific management of grassland ecosystems.

  12. Estimation of the carrying capacity of grazing land in the buffer zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed that the Dry matter yield (DMY) from natural pastures was 3.54 tones ha-1yr-1 and the Potential Dry Matter (PDM) production from crop residues was 33.130 tons ha-1 yr-1, the total area under grazing was 49,197ha, the total feed resource potentially available for livestock = 205,320 tons yr-1 and the ...

  13. Grazing intensity affects the environmental impact of dairy systems. (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Larson, R


    a net energy producing system and highlighting the potential of AD to improve the sustainability of confined systems. For scenarios that combined confinement and grazing, GHG emissions ranged from 0.84 to 0.92 kg of CO 2 equivalents, NEI ranged from 1.42 to 1.59 MJ, and land use ranged from 1.19 to 1.26 m 2 /kg of FPCM. All environmental impacts were minimized in scenarios that supplemented enough feed to increase milk yield but maintained dry matter intake from pasture at a level high enough to reduce material and energy use. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  14. Growth rates, grazing, sinking, and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, F.P.; Buck, K.R.; Coale, K.H.; Martin, J.H.; DiTullio, G.R.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Barber, R.T.; Jacobson, A.C.


    Concentrations of phytoplankton and NO 3 are consistently low and high in surface waters of the oceanic eastern and central equatorial Pacific, and phytoplankton populations are dominated by small solitary phytoplankton. Growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations, needed to assess the relative importance of many of the processes considered in the equatorial Pacific, were estimated by several methods. The growth rates of natural phytoplankton populations were found to be ∼0.7 d -1 or 1 biomass doubling d -1 and were similar for all methods. To keep this system in its observed balance requires that loss rates approximate observed growth rates. Grazing rates, measured with a dilution grazing experiment, were high, accounting for a large fraction of the daily production. Additions of various forms of Fe to 5-7-d incubations utilizing ultraclean techniques resulted in significant shifts in autotrophic and heterotrophic assemblages between initial samples, controls, and Fe enrichments, which were presumably due to Fe, grazing by both protistan and metazoan components, and incubation artifacts. Estimated growth rates of small pennate diatoms showed increases in Fe enrichments with respect to controls. The growth rates of the pennate diatoms were similar to those estimated for the larger size fraction of the natural populations

  15. Aspects of the Nutritional Compositions Natural Pastures at Mubi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing management is the manipulation of grazing land to achieve desired results in improving range productivity and efficient use of forage resources. ... Given the reputation of ruminants' production in this region, range management programmers should aim at preserving plant communities that are highly diversified in ...

  16. Dietary selection of sheep grazing the semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China at different grazing intensities. (United States)

    Schiborra, A; Gierus, M; Wan, H W; Glindemann, T; Wang, C J; Susenbeth, A; Taube, F


    The objective of this study was to investigate dietary selection of sheep grazing semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, using the difference in organic matter digestibility (OMD) of herbage ingested and herbage on offer as indicator for selection. Faecal N was used as digestibility index for herbage ingested (FOMD), while OMD of herbage on offer (GOMD) was estimated from gas production obtained by the Hohenheim gas test. It was hypothesized that the difference between FOMD and GOMD is high, when grazing animals select against low quality herbage provided that herbage is abundant. In a grazing experiment, six grazing intensities (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 9.0 sheep/ha), representing light to very heavy grazing intensity for the semi-arid grassland, were compared. The amount of herbage on offer decreased with increasing grazing intensity. Independent statistical analysis of FOMD and GOMD showed that the differences between grazing intensities for both OMD determinations (FOMD: 54.0-57.3%, GOMD: 55.2-57.5%) were not significant (p > 0.05). The difference between FOMD and GOMD was not significant for grazing intensities, but varied between sampling periods from -4 to 1 percentage units. In conclusion, the lack of significance for the difference between FOMD and GOMD suggests that for the semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia, China, sheep did not select their feed due to a homogeneous nutritional composition of herbage on offer in 2005, regardless of grazing intensity.

  17. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.


    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the fodder stocks for the Przewalski horse Equus ferus przewalskii on the «Pre-Ural steppe» plot of the Orenburg State Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana L. Zharkikh


    Full Text Available In 2015 the Federal Government Funded Institution «Orenburg Reserves» started the Programme of Establishing of a Semi-Free Population of the Przewalski Horse at the Orenburg Reserve on the territory of the steppe area «Pre-Ural Steppe». In 2014–2015 a pilot research was carried out to select the location for construction of the Centre of the re-introduction of the Przewalski horse. To evaluate the fodder stocks in the selected area we developed criteria for evaluating the vegetation condition under the influence of grazing. The results have shown that within the boundaries of the «Pre-Ural Steppe» plot it is most rational to place the Centre of the re-introduction of the Przewalski horse at the natural landmark Kursay. In 2015, the fodder stocks here ranged from 14 dt/ha (decitonne per hectare in April to 30 dt/ha in September. Moreover, the grass cover vegetation here mostly consisted of species, well-grazed by Przewalski horse, particularly grasses, a significant number of legumes and well-grazed forbs. In the future, this area requires constant monitoring of the vegetation condition under the influence of the Przewalski horse grazing, with the following evaluation criteria: 1 the overall productivity of the plant mass; 2 the combination of well-grazed and ungrazed plant species in dynamics.

  19. Influence of rainfall and grazing on the compositional change of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Communal grazing; Grazing intensity; Mortality; Relative biomass; Sites; Sward structure changes; Treatments; Tuft size changes; Tuft sizes; cattle; digitaria eriantha; forbs; grazing; tuft size; herbaceous layer; composition; recruitment; herbaceous composition; sandveld; gazankulu; abundance; pogonarthria ...

  20. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junye; Cardenas, Laura M.; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Cuttle, Steve; Thorman, Rachel E.; Li Changsheng


    Grazed grassland systems are an important component of the global carbon cycle and also influence global climate change through their emissions of nitrous oxide and methane. However, there are huge uncertainties and challenges in the development and parameterisation of process-based models for grazed grassland systems because of the wide diversity of vegetation and impacts of grazing animals. A process-based biogeochemistry model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), has been modified to describe N 2 O emissions for the UK from regional conditions. This paper reports a new development of UK-DNDC in which the animal grazing practices were modified to track their contributions to the soil nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. The new version of UK-DNDC was tested against datasets of N 2 O fluxes measured at three contrasting field sites. The results showed that the responses of the model to changes in grazing parameters were generally in agreement with observations, showing that N 2 O emissions increased as the grazing intensity increased. - Highlights: ► Parameterisation of grazing system using grazing intensity. ► Modification of UK D NDC for the UK soil and weather conditions. ► Validation of the UK D NDC against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites. ► Estimating influence of animal grazing practises on N 2 O emissions. - Grazing system was parameterised using grazing intensity and UK-DNDC model was modified and validated against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activities on Regional Air Quality in the Colorado Northern Front Range using WRF-Chem (United States)

    Abdioskouei, M.; Carmichael, G. R.


    Recent increases in the Natural Gas (NG) production through hydraulic fracturing have questioned the climate benefit of switching from coal-fired to natural gas-fired power plants. Higher than expected levels of methane, VOCs, and NOx have been observed in areas close to oil and NG (OnG) operation facilities. High uncertainty in the OnG emission inventories and methane budget challenge the assessment of OnG impact on air quality and climate and consequently development of effective mitigation policies and control regulations. In this work, we focus on reducing the uncertainties around the OnG emissions by using high resolution (4x4 km2) WRF-Chem simulations coupled with detailed observation from the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ 2014) field campaign. First, we identified the optimal WRF-Chem configurations in the NFR area. We compared the performance of local and non-local Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes in predicting the PBL height and vertical mixing in the domain. We evaluated the impact of different meteorological and chemical initial and boundary conditions on the model performance. Next, simulations based on optimal configurations were used to assess the performance of the emission inventory (NEI-2011v2). To evaluate the impact of OnG emission on regional air quality and performance of NEI-2011 we tested the sensitivity of the model to the OnG emission. Comparison between simulated values and ground-based and airborne measurements shows a low bias of OnG emission in NEI-2011. Finally, inverse modeling techniques based on emission sensitivity simulations are being used to optimal scaling the OnG emission from the NEI-2011.

  2. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran


    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.



    Cividini, Angela; Simčič, Mojca


    The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR) and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude) supplemented with the second harvest (L) as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude), M2 (1600-1700 m altitude), M3 (1800 m altitude), M4 (1900 m altitude), M5 (2200 m altitude) were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-li...

  4. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétillon, J.


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterize spider (Araneae and ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae communities in managed (cutting and sheep grazing and non-managed salt marshes and to assess the efficiency of management regimes in these particular ecosystems. The two groups were studied during 2002 in salt marshes of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (NW France using pitfall traps. By opening soil and vegetation structures cutting and grazing enhanced the abundances of some halophilic species of spiders and ground beetles. Nevertheless, grazing appeared to be too intensive as spider species richness decreased. We discuss the implications of management practices in terms of nature conservation and their application in the particular area of intertidal salt marshes.

  5. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  6. The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The selenium status of grazing herbivores in different regions of Southern Africa. J. B. J. van Ryssen. Dept of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa. Although a substantial amount of information is available on the selenium status of grazing animals ...

  7. Influence of grazing management on the production of an irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of an irrigated grass/legume pasture was determined using Merino ewes on rotational and continuous grazing systems. The clover content of the pasture declined, while the grass content increased under both systems. The lucerne content of the rotationally-grazed pastures did not change, but lucerne failed ...

  8. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  9. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.


    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  10. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems. (United States)

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John


    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as ... of the latter by the animals. In most areas strict rules exist to check this practice. .... grazing reserve also encourages the uniform deployment of the cattle. It is in view of ...

  12. Veld composition in relation to grazing capacity. | Barnes | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Present methods of evaluating veld composition in relation to grazing capacity can be criticised on grounds of subjectivity, especially with regard to the assignment of relative values to the constituent species. Data relating to botanical composition and estimated grazing capacity, derived from long-term animal production ...

  13. A theoretical analysis of foraging efficiency of grazing animals | RI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model of the change in quantity of forage during grazing is constructed, assuming (1) that forage requirement by grazing animals is constant, and (2) that intake is equal to requirement when forage is in free supply but (3) that below a certain supply level intake becomes restricted and is proportional to supply ...

  14. Day and night grazing by cattle in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.


    The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four

  15. Mixed farming in a grazing reserve in Northern Nigeria | Babalobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's main pastoral development strategy is the settlement of pastoralists in grazing reserves. The goal of the strategy is to turn such nomadic pastoralists into mixed farmers who will take up crop farming to supplement livestock farming. Using the Bobi Grazing Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria as case study, the attainment ...

  16. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den A.; Shalloo, L.


    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a host of

  17. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cellulase dry matter disappearance (CDMD) and herbage nitrogen (N) of Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) were evaluated for pastures grown under subtropical conditions for two years, under five combinations of grazing frequency and intensity, each applied in a rotational grazing system. These quality factors were ...

  18. Influence of sward characteristics on grazing behaviour and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of intensifying grazing studies in the tropics, particularly in Nigeria, to examine the behaviour of ruminants in highly heterogeneous pastures has the potential to provide integrated (sward, animal, management) strategies for sustainable livestock production in Nigeria. Key Words: Sward characteristics; Grazing ...

  19. Hydrologic properties of grazed perennial swards in semiarid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of plant resources that persist under grazing pressure, support desirable levels of production and at the same time protect the grazing environment is central to sustainable livestock production. This study assessed the infiltration capacity and soil loss associated with perennial swards subjected to different ...

  20. Resilience of soils and vegetation subjected to different grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilience of rangeland soils and vegetation to different levels of grazing is still poorly understood. A study was conducted to determine the recovery of a rangeland grazed at different intensities and allowed a two-year rest period. The following treatments were applied to 0.5 hectare plots: 0, 4, 8 and 16 heifers per ...

  1. Estimation of grazing by herbivores from analysis of dung | Mabinya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two acids can also be recovered from the dung of various herbivores and their presence can be used as evidence of grazing by animals such as cattle, hippopotamus and warthogs. The reduced presence of these compounds in the dung of goats supports the fact that goats both graze and browse. Analysis of the dung ...

  2. Grazing behaviour and diet selection of Barotse cattle on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing behaviour and diet selection of cattle were studied on a communally grazed floodplain and its adjacent wooded uplands in western Zambia to identify the interaction between basic herd management practices, foraging behaviour and body condition of cattle. On average, the cattle spent nine hours and 29 minutes ...

  3. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The invasive Leymus racemosus species is mainly established by ramets (or clonal seedling). A field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence ...

  4. Review: Behavior and daily grazing patterns of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorini, P.; Tamminga, S.; Gunther, S.A.


    Grazing ruminants consume their food in discrete grazing events. The frequency and distribution of these events depend on the current physiological state of the animal and its environment. Within a small spatio-temporal scale, foraging decisions such as when to begin, which frequency, and how to

  5. Vegetation patterns and nutrients in relation to grazing pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major challenge confronting managers of extensive grazing systems is uneven use of erbaceous forage plants by livestock. The concentration of grazing in preferred areas or around foci points (e.g. water points) eventually results in adverse impacts in soil nutrients, vegetation structure, production and composition.

  6. Transformation of a savanna grassland by drought and grazing | O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of drought and heavy grazing on the floristic composition, population size and and structure, and basal cover of an African savanna grassland were differentiated by comparing changes over eight years over eight years, which included a severe drought year, across a gradient of grazing history. Drought ...

  7. Ecological status of species on grazing gradients on the shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses on the shallow soils of the western grassland biome of South Africa were classified on their ecological status on the basis of their reaction to grazing. Vegetation data were gathered in such a way that those of different successional stages could be identified. An ordination technique was used to define the grazing ...

  8. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  9. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  10. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 21, 2011 ... experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in.

  11. Grazing depletes forb species diversity in the mesic grasslands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forbs constitute over 80% of the species richness of mesic grassland but their response to grazing is largely unknown. The influence of grazing on the forb composition, richness and diversity of two species-rich grasslands in the coastal hinterland and midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa was examined in plots subject ...

  12. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar' adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of {sup nat}Ti(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the {sup nat}Ti(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the {sup 51,49,48}Cr, {sup 48}V, {sup 43}K, and {sup 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48}Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  13. Bacteria colonising Penstemon digitalis show volatile and tissue-specific responses to a natural concentration range of the floral volatile linalool. (United States)

    Burdon, Rosalie C F; Junker, Robert R; Scofield, Douglas G; Parachnowitsch, Amy L


    Bacteria on floral tissue can have negative effects by consuming resources and affecting nectar quality, which subsequently could reduce pollinator visitation and plant fitness. Plants however can employ chemical defences to reduce bacteria density. In North American, bee-pollinated Penstemon digitalis , the nectar volatile S -(+)-linalool can influence plant fitness, and terpenes such as linalool are known for their antimicrobial properties suggesting that it may also play a role in plant-microbe interactions. Therefore, we hypothesized linalool could affect bacterial growth on P. digitalis plants/flowers. Because P. digitalis emits linalool from nectar and nectary tissue but not petals, we hypothesised that the effects of linalool could depend on tissue of origin due to varying exposure. We isolated bacteria from nectary tissue, petals and leaves, and compared their growth relative to control using two volatile concentrations representing the natural emission range of linalool. To assess whether effects were specific to linalool, we compared results with the co-occurring nectar volatile, methyl nicotinate. We show that response to floral volatiles can be substance and tissue-origin specific. Because linalool could slow growth rate of bacteria across the P. digitalis phyllosphere, floral emission of linalool could play a role in mediating plant-bacteria interactions in this system.

  14. Northernmost record of the pantropical portunid crab Cronius ruber in the eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands: natural range extension or human-mediated introduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. González


    Full Text Available The pantropical crab Cronius ruber (Lamarck, 1818 (Brachyura: Portunidae is recorded for the first time from the Canary Islands. Previously known from off Cape Verde Islands and Senegal, this is the northernmost record of the species in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Crabs have been caught by means of a collecting small trap for sampling in shallow waters, and then identified by both morphological characters and DNA barcoding (16S. Cytochrome c oxidase I partial sequence has been obtained for this species for the first time. This relatively large and very aggressive crab species seems to be rapidly occupying both hard substrates (sublittoral caves and soft substrates (sand with seagrass meadow adjacent to shallow rocky bottoms, at depths between 2 and 10 m, in the warm southern waters of Gran Canaria Island. The reasons for this species’ occurrence are discussed herein. Among them, natural range extension may be a consequence of tropicalization in the eastern Atlantic. Also, a human-mediated introduction could be based on the heavy traffic of ships (ballast waters or oil platforms arriving at the Canary Islands from African countries and from Brazil in the last decade.

  15. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; Brink, Nico van den; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven


    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. - Highlights: ► Vegetation selection, social behavior, and seasonal variation determine exposure. ► Soft rush consumption highly increased daily Cd intake during winter. ► Most Cd and Pb levels in vegetation exceeded the maximum tolerable feed levels. - This study reveals that spatial heterogeneity and foraging behavior play a more important role in the metal exposure pattern of large grazers than generally is presumed.

  16. Does EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. L.; Miehe, S.; Ceccato, Pietro


    vegetation index (NDVI) data a greening of the Sahel since the 1980s has been identified. However, it is poorly understood how commonly applied remote sensing techniques reflect the influence of extensive grazing (and changes in grazing pressure) on natural rangeland vegetation. This paper analyses the time...... series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI metrics by comparing it with data from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. Field data include grazing intensity, end of season standing biomass (ESSB) and species composition from sizeable areas suitable for comparison...... exclosures as compared to grazed areas, substantially exceeding the amount of biomass expected to be ingested by livestock for this area. The seasonal integrated NDVI (NDVI small integral; capturing only the signal inherent to the growing season recurrent vegetation), derived using absolute thresholds...

  17. The influence of grazing and browsing on soil and runoff in revegetated erosion-areas (United States)

    Markart, G.; Kohl, B.; Starnberger, R.; Gallmetzer, W.


    Intensive land use by grazing over centuries led to severe erosion at the steep slopes of the Tanaser Berg, in the community of Eyrs (South Tyrol - Italy). At the end of the 1970ies grazing was abandoned in the clearly eroded parts of the catchment above the actual timberline and an intensive program for revegetation of the slopes was started by the Department of Hydraulic Engineering, from the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, and the area covered by greening measures divided form the surrounding pastures by a solid fence. In 1999 partial opening for agricultural use by cattle for short term grazing (14 days a year) was planned in the interest of the land owners. Consequentially impact by cattle on the greened areas and alpine lawns still under long term grazing was investigated by use of a transportable spray irrigation for large plots (50 m² size) supplemented by additional investigations (documentation of soil physical properties, characterization of vegetation, changes in plant biomass, etc.). Each plot was irrigated twice: One time before opening the fenced site for short time grazing by cattle again at the End of June and the beginning of July 1999 and a second time five years later, after restart of short time grazing at the beginning of August 2004. In total seven plots were irrigated. 5 plots within the revegetated area, four of them greened, the fifth a carex sempervirens stand, formerly not eroded. 2 of the greened plots were fenced and kept free from grazing over the next five years. In addition 2 carex sempervirens stands with calluna outside which had been grazed at leat for several decades, one of them partially eroded, were investigated as reference plots. The four revegetated plots did not show significant changes in surface runoff development. High content of skeleton (stones and blocs) reduced runoff and erosion potential. In addition high slope-inclination made these plots unloved by cattle. On the contrary the natural carex sempervirens

  18. Grazing Exclusion to Recover Degraded Alpine Pastures Needs Scientific Assessments across the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Yu


    Full Text Available The northern Tibetan Plateau is the most traditional and important semi-nomadic region in Tibet. The alpine vegetation is sensitive and vulnerable to climate change and human activities, and is also important as an ecological security in protecting the headwaters of major rivers in Asia. Therefore, the Tibetan alpine grasslands have fundamental significance to both Mainland China and South Asia. The pasture degradation, however, likely threatens the livelihood of residents and the habitats of wildlife on this plateau. Since 2004, the government has launched a series of ecological restoration projects and economic compensatory payment polices. Many fences were additionally built on degraded pastures to prevent new degradation, to promote functionality recovery, and to balance the stocking rate with forage productivity. The grazed vs. fenced paired pastures across different zonal grassland communities along evident environmental gradients provide us with a natural comparative experiment platform to test the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study critically reviews the background, significance of and debates on short-term grazing exclusion with fences in this region. We also aim to figure out scientific and standardized workflows for assessing the effectiveness of grazing exclusion and compensatory payments in the future.

  19. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.


    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  20. Impact of grazing intensity during drought in an Arizona grassland. (United States)

    Loeser, Matthew R R; Sisk, Thomas D; Crews, Timothy E


    The ecological benefits of changing cattle grazing practices in the western United States remain controversial, due in part to a lack of experimentation. In 1997 we initiated an experimental study of two rangeland alternatives, cattle removal and high-impact grazing, and compared grassland community responses with those with more conventional, moderate grazing practices. The study was conducted in a high-elevation, semiarid grassland near Flagstaff, Arizona (U.S.A.). We conducted annual plant surveys of modified Whittaker plots for 8 years and examined plant composition shifts among treatments and years. High-impact grazing had strong directional effects that led to a decline in perennial forb cover and an increase in annual plants, particularly the exotic cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.). A twofold increase in plant cover by exotic species followed a severe drought in the sixth year of the study, and this increase was greatest in the high-impact grazing plots, where native cover declined by one-half. Cattle removal resulted in little increase in native plant cover and reduced plant species richness relative to the moderate grazing control. Our results suggest that some intermediate level of cattle grazing may maintain greater levels of native plant diversity than the alternatives of cattle removal or high-density, short-duration grazing practices. Furthermore, episodic drought interacts with cattle grazing, leading to infrequent, but biologically important shifts in plant communities. Our results demonstrate the importance of climatic variation in determining ecological effects of grazing practices, and we recommend improving conservation efforts in arid rangelands by developing management plans that anticipate this variation.

  1. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.


    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  2. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977 (United States)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.


    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  3. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard


    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  4. A narrower gap of grazing intensity. Reply to Fetzel et al. 2017. Seasonality constrains to livestock grazing intensity (United States)

    Fetzel et al. (2017) globally mapped the gap between observed and potential grazing intensity (GI): the ratio between consumption by livestock and ANPP. Fetzel et al. (2017) estimated grazing land, forage production and livestock demand at a half-degree resolution. They mapped GI below 15% for most ...

  5. Grazing rate of zebra mussel in a shallow eutrophicated bay of the Baltic Sea. (United States)

    Oganjan, Katarina; Lauringson, Velda


    Benthic suspension feeding is an important process in coastal ecosystems. Among all the World's oceans, coastal ecosystems are the most modified by human impact and changing at accelerating pace. It is complicated to understand, how various environmental factors affect feeding rates of suspension feeders in their natural habitats. Thus, shapes of such relationships are poorly described for several intersections of environmental gradients. In this study, relationships between grazing rates of an invasive bivalve Dreissena polymorpha and ambient environmental factors were investigated in a turbid eutrophic bay of the central Baltic Sea using a novel modelling method of Boosted Regression Trees (BRT), a statistical tool able to handle non-normal distributions, complex relationships, and interactive effects. Feeding rates of mussels were derived from field populations by measuring the content of algal pigments in specimens collected from their natural habitat. The content of pigments was converted to feeding rate separately each time using field experiments measuring simultaneously the content of pigments and biodeposition of mussels. The results suggest that feeding rates of D. polymorpha are related to several environmental factors which gradients outreach the optimal range for the local mussel population. All the observed effects were non-linear with complex shapes. Variability along the resource gradient was the most important predictor of mussel feeding, followed by salinity and disturbance caused by wind. The most important interaction occurred between disturbance and resource gradient, while feeding function showed more plasticity along the latter. Mapping of environmental tipping points with the aid of machine learning methods may enable to concentrate the most relevant information about ecological functions worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga (United States)

    Collins, William B.; Dale, Bruce W.; Adams, Layne G.; McElwain, Darien E.; Joly, Kyle


    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ≥60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis‐idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range.

  7. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.


    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  8. Role of SH3b binding domain in a natural deletion mutant of Kayvirus endolysin LysF1 with a broad range of lytic activity. (United States)

    Benešík, Martin; Nováček, Jiří; Janda, Lubomír; Dopitová, Radka; Pernisová, Markéta; Melková, Kateřina; Tišáková, Lenka; Doškař, Jiří; Žídek, Lukáš; Hejátko, Jan; Pantůček, Roman


    The spontaneous host-range mutants 812F1 and K1/420 are derived from polyvalent phage 812 that is almost identical to phage K, belonging to family Myoviridae and genus Kayvirus. Phage K1/420 is used for the phage therapy of staphylococcal infections. Endolysin of these mutants designated LysF1, consisting of an N-terminal cysteine-histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall-binding domain, has deleted middle amidase domain compared to wild-type endolysin. In this work, LysF1 and both its domains were prepared as recombinant proteins and their function was analyzed. LysF1 had an antimicrobial effect on 31 Staphylococcus species of the 43 tested. SH3b domain influenced antimicrobial activity of LysF1, since the lytic activity of the truncated variant containing the CHAP domain alone was decreased. The results of a co-sedimentation assay of SH3b domain showed that it was able to bind to three types of purified staphylococcal peptidoglycan 11.2, 11.3, and 11.8 that differ in their peptide bridge, but also to the peptidoglycan type 11.5 of Streptococcus uberis, and this capability was verified in vivo using the fusion protein with GFP and fluorescence microscopy. Using several different approaches, including NMR, we have not confirmed the previously proposed interaction of the SH3b domain with the pentaglycine bridge in the bacterial cell wall. The new naturally raised deletion mutant endolysin LysF1 is smaller than LysK, has a broad lytic spectrum, and therefore is an appropriate enzyme for practical use. The binding spectrum of SH3b domain covering all known staphylococcal peptidoglycan types is a promising feature for creating new chimeolysins by combining it with more effective catalytic domains.

  9. Multi-component ensembles of future meteorological and natural snow conditions for 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range, Northern French Alps (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Déqué, Michel; Eckert, Nicolas; Lejeune, Yves; Morin, Samuel


    This article investigates the climatic response of a series of indicators for characterizing annual snow conditions and corresponding meteorological drivers at 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range in the Northern French Alps. Past and future changes were computed based on reanalysis and observations from 1958 to 2016, and using CMIP5-EURO-CORDEX GCM-RCM pairs spanning historical (1950-2005) and RCP2.6 (4), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (13 each) future scenarios (2006-2100). The adjusted climate model runs were used to drive the multiphysics ensemble configuration of the detailed snowpack model Crocus. Uncertainty arising from physical modeling of snow accounts for 20 % typically, although the multiphysics is likely to have a much smaller impact on trends. Ensembles of climate projections are rather similar until the middle of the 21st century, and all show a continuation of the ongoing reduction in average snow conditions, and sustained interannual variability. The impact of the RCPs becomes significant for the second half of the 21st century, with overall stable conditions with RCP2.6, and continued degradation of snow conditions for RCP4.5 and 8.5, the latter leading to more frequent ephemeral snow conditions. Changes in local meteorological and snow conditions show significant correlation with global temperature changes. Global temperature levels 1.5 and 2 °C above preindustrial levels correspond to a 25 and 32 % reduction, respectively, of winter mean snow depth with respect to the reference period 1986-2005. Larger reduction rates are expected for global temperature levels exceeding 2 °C. The method can address other geographical areas and sectorial indicators, in the field of water resources, mountain tourism or natural hazards.

  10. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.


    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.


    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  12. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management. (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M; Weixelman, Dave A; Lile, David F; Tate, Kenneth W; Snell, Laura K; Roche, Leslie M


    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  13. Assessment of spruce (Picea obovata) abundance by spectral unmixing algorithm for sustainable forest management in highland Natural Reserve (case study of Zigalga Range, South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia). (United States)

    Mikheeva, Anna; Moiseev, Pavel


    In mountain territories climate change affects forest productivity and growth, which results in the tree line advancing and increasing of the forest density. These changes pose new challenges for forest managers whose responsibilities include forest resources inventory, monitoring and protection of ecosystems, and assessment of forest vulnerability. These activities require a range of sources of information, including exact squares of forested areas, forest densities and species abundances. Picea obovata, dominant tree species in South-Ural State Natural Reserve, Russia has regenerated, propagated and increased its relative cover during the recent 70 years. A remarkable shift of the upper limit of Picea obovata up to 60-80 m upslope was registered by repeating photography, especially on gentle slopes. The stands of Picea obovata are monitored by Reserve inspectors on the test plots to ensure that forests maintain or improve their productivity, these studies also include projective cover measurements. However, it is impossible to cover the entire territory of the Reserve by detailed field observations. Remote sensing data from Terra ASTER imagery provides valuable information for large territories (scene covers an area of 60 x 60 km) and can be used for quantitative mapping of forest and non-forest vegetation at regional scale (spatial resolution is 15-30 m for visible and infrared bands). A case study of estimating Picea obovata abundance was conducted for forest and forest-tundra sites of Zigalga Range, using 9-band ASTER multispectral imagery of 23.08.2007, field data and spectral unmixing algorithm. This type of algorithms intends to derive object and its abundance from a mixed pixel of multispectral imagery which can be further converted to object's projective cover. Atmospheric correction was applied to the imagery prior to spectral unmixing, and then pure spectra of Picea obovata were extracted from the image in 10 points and averaged. These points located in

  14. The influence of step frequency on the range of perceptually natural visual walking speeds during walking-in-place and treadmill locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf


    Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques make relatively natural walking experiences within immersive virtual environments possible when the physical interaction space is limited in size. In order to facilitate such experiences it is necessary to establish a natural connection between steps in place and...

  15. Management and Yield Prediction of Kunugi (Quercus acutissima) Grazing Forests


    Mitsuo, Matsumoto; Kenjirou, Honda; Juuro, Kurogi; Forest Management Division, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Formerly Kyushu Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute; Formerly Kyushu Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute


    This study deals with grazing in kunugi (Quercus acutissima) forests in the Aso district of Kyushu Island in southwest Japan. These forests are managed for production of bed-logs for shiitake mushrooms and cow-calf farming. One of their characteristics is short-term rotation such as 10-15 years for bed-logs and a year for calf production. A forest grazing experiment was begun in Minamioguni to look at forest growth, vegetation change and grazing intensity. Stem densities dropped in a few year...

  16. [A Concept Design of Flat-Field Spectrograph for Wide Wavelength Range]. (United States)

    Li, Shi-yuan; Zhang, Guang-cai; Teng, Ai-ping


    The radiation spectrum from the plasmas contains a large amount of information of plasmas. Thus, one of the most effective methods to detecting the plasma parameters is measure the plasma radiation spectrum. Until now, since the restriction of the Toshiba mechanically ruled aberration-corrected concave gratings, the measurable wavelength range of the incidence flat-field grazing spectrometer in the soft X-ray range are only from 5 to 40 nm. In order to extend the wavelength rang of grazing incidence flat-field spectrometer, first, a grazing incidence concave reflection grating ray-trace code is written using optical path equation. Second, under the same conditions with reference 6, we compare our numerical results with Harada's results. The results show that our results agree very well with the results of Harada. The results of comparison show that our ray-trace code is believable. Finally, the variety of the flat-field curves are detailedly investigated using the ray-trace code with the different grazing incidence conditions. The results show that the measurable wavelength range of the incidence flat-field grazing spectrometer are extended to 5~80 nm from the soft X-ray wavelength range of 5~40 nm. This result theoretically demonstrates the possibility of expanded the traditional band flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer from soft X-ray band to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV), and also bring a new design ideas for improving the use of grazing incidence flat field concave grating.

  17. Economic modelling of grazing management against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Meensel, Van J.; Lauwers, L.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Evers, A.G.; Huylenbroeck, Van G.; Charlier, J.


    Grazing management (GM) interventions, such as reducing the grazing time or mowing pasture before grazing, have been proposed to limit the exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections in grazed livestock. However, the farm-level economic effects of these interventions have not yet been

  18. The effect of continuous and rotational grazing of sourveld on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was thus concluded that cattle continued to graze selectively regardless of the grazing method or the stocking intensity. Keywords: cattle grazing; crude protein; digestibility; dry matter digestibility; grasses; grazing; herbage; kokstad agricultural research station; leaf fraction; leaves; oesophageal fistulas; protein; rotational ...

  19. Impact of processing on in vitro digestion of milk from grazing organic and confined conventional herds (United States)

    Debate on differences between milk from grazing and non-grazing cows has not addressed the effects that standard processing may have on milk digestibility. In this study, raw milk from grazing organic (ORG) and non-grazing conventional (CONV) herds was adjusted to 0 and 3.25% fat and processed as fo...

  20. Compensatory growth of Festuca rubra after grazing : can migratory herbivores increase their own harvest during staging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Graaf, AJ; Stahl, J; Bakker, JP


    1. The grazing optimization hypothesis predicts increased production and quality of plants grazed at intermediate grazing pressures. Following this hypothesis, herbivores will be able to increase their own harvest by repeated grazing. We tested the predictions of this hypothesis for Barnacle Geese,

  1. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile). (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin


    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Edge Effects along a Seagrass Margin Result in an Increased Grazing Risk on Posidonia australis Transplants. (United States)

    Statton, John; Gustin-Craig, Samuel; Dixon, Kingsley W; Kendrick, Gary A


    A key issue in habitat restoration are the changes in ecological processes that occur when fragments of habitat are lost, resulting in the persistence of habitat-degraded margins. Margins often create or enhance opportunities for negative plant-herbivore interactions, preventing natural or assisted re-establishment of native vegetation into the degraded area. However, at some distance from the habitat margin these negative interactions may relax. Here, we posit that the intensity of species interactions in a fragmented Posidonia australis seagrass meadow may be spatially dependent on proximity to the seagrass habitat edge, whereby the risk of grazing is high and the probability of survival of seagrass transplants is low. To test this, transplants were planted 2 m within the meadow, on the meadow edge at 0m, and at 2m, 10m, 30m, 50m and 100m distance from the edge of the seagrass meadow into the unvegetated sand sheet. There was an enhanced grazing risk 0-10m from the edge, but decreased sharply with increasing distances (>30m). Yet, the risk of grazing was minimal inside the seagrass meadow, indicating that grazers may use the seagrass meadow for refuge but are not actively grazing within it. The relationship between short-term herbivory risk and long-term survival was not straightforward, suggesting that other environmental filters are also affecting survival of P. australis transplants within the study area. We found that daily probability of herbivory was predictable and operating over a small spatial scale at the edge of a large, intact seagrass meadow. These findings highlight the risk from herbivory can be high, and a potential contributing factor to seagrass establishment in restoration programs.

  3. S-shaped bifurcation curves for logistic growth and weak Allee effect growth models with grazing on an interior patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagny Butler


    Full Text Available We study the positive solutions to the steady state reaction diffusion equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions of the form $$displaylines{ -u''= cases{ lambda[u - frac{1}{K}u^2 - c frac{u^2}{1+u^2}], & $x in (L,1-L$,cr lambda[u - frac{1}{K}u^2], & $x in (0,Lcup(1-L,1$, } cr u(0=0, quad u(1=0 }$$ and displaylines{ -u''= cases{ lambda[u(u+1(b-u - c frac{u^2}{1+u^2}], & $x in (L,1-L$, cr lambda[u(u+1(b-u], & $x in (0,Lcup(1-L,1$, } cr u(0=0,quad u(1=0. }$$ Here, $lambda, b, c, K, L$ are positive constants with 0grazing, and the second model describes weak Allee effect with grazing. In both cases, u is the population density, $1/lambda$ is the diffusion coefficient, and c is the maximum grazing rate. These models correspond to the case of symmetric grazing on an interior region. Our goal is to study the existence of positive solutions. Previous studies when the grazing was throughout the domain resulted in S-shaped bifurcation curves for certain parameter ranges. Here, we show that such S-shaped bifurcations occur even if the grazing is confined to the interior. We discuss the results via a modified quadrature method and Mathematica computations.

  4. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 1. The effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grazing Dorper ewes, with (+ P) and without (- P) phosphorus (P) supplementation, was investigated over 4,5 years at Armoedsvlakte (notorious for its P-deficient soils) to establish whether sheep are as susceptible to a P deficiency as cattle.

  5. Which grazing management practices are most appropriate for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    continuous, conventional, or high-intensity grazing by sheep, cattle, or sheep plus cattle) on grassland biodiversity integrity. Selected indicators covered landscape composition, structure and functioning. High-intensity systems and continuous ...

  6. Fertility of Zero-Grazed Dairy Cattle following Hormone Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time Artificial Insemination. ... delayed onset of puberty are some of the limiting factors to attainment of optimum reproductive efficiency in zero-grazed herds. ... Treated animals had timed artificial insemination (AI) 8-24 hours after the last injection.

  7. Effect of alternate and simultaneous grazing on endoparasite infection in sheep and cattle


    Brito, Daiana Lima; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Louvandini, Helder; Santos, Viviane Rodrigues Verdolin dos; Torres, Sonia Emília Figueirêdo de Araújo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do; Melo, Cristiano Barros de; McManus, Concepta Margaret


    This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to exam...

  8. Methodologies for evaluation of ingestive behavior of heifers supplemented in grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida de Santana Junior


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to compare different methodologies for evaluation of ingestive behavior of heifers supplemented in grazing. The experiment was conducted at Princesa do Mateiro farm, Ribeirao do Largo, Bahia. Were used 30 heifers with blood level 5/8 Guzera milk lineage and 3/8 Holstein, with an average of 18 months of age and body weight of 187 ± 13.1 kg. The treatments were: Duration of avaliation (24, 12 and eight hours of observation intervals (10, 20 and 30 minutes; repetitions for observation (three, two and one shifts of observation (two and one. The behavior evaluation was performed on day 25th, 26th, 27th and 28th of each period, then a total of four ratings. The percentage of grazing activity on the duration of 8h and 12h evaluation differed from the standard evaluation period of 24 hours (P0.05. For grazing time, rumination, feeding at the trough, other activities, total feeding and total chewing have not been verified statistical differences between the ranges of observations 20 and 30 minutes compared with 10 minutes (P<0.05. The duration of evaluation of 24 hours is recommended for evaluation of ingestive behavior in terms of nutritional and metabolic parameters, as other promote distortion of the data as a function of the intensity of activities throughout the day.

  9. Grazing incidence EUV study of the Alcator tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.


    The use of impurity radiation to examine plasma conditions is a well known technique. To gain access, however, to the hot, central portion of the plasma created in the present confinement machines it is necessary to be able to observe radiation from medium and heavy elements such as molybdenum and iron. These impurities radiate primarily in the extreme ultra violet region of the spectrum and can play a role in the power balance of the tokamak. Radiation from highly ionized molybdenum was examined on the Alcator A and C tokamaks using a photometrically calibrated one meter grazing incidence monochromator. On Alcator A, a pseudo-continuum of Mo emissions in the 60 to 100 A ranges were seen to comprise 17% of the radiative losses from the plasma. This value closely matched measurements by a broad band bolometer array. Following these preliminary measurements, the monochromator was transferred to Alcator C for a more thorough examination of EUV emissions. Deviations from predicted scaling laws for energy confinement time vs density were observed on this machine


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso


    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  11. Development of metrology instruments for grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.; Qian, Shi-nan; Liu, Wuming


    The effective utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) from high-brightness sources requires the use of optical components with very smooth surfaces and extremely precise shapes. Most manufacturers are not capable of measuring the figure and finish quality of the aspheric optics required for use in grazing incidence beam lines. Over the past several years we have developed measurement techniques and metrology instrumentation that have allowed us to measure the surface profile and roughness of large cylinder optics, up to one meter in length. Based on our measurements and feedback, manufacturers have been able to advance the state-of-the-art in mirror fabrication and are now able to produce acceptable components. Our analysis techniques enable designers to write meaningful specifications and predict the performance of real surfaces in their particular beamline configurations. Commercial instruments are now available for measuring surface microroughness with spatial periods smaller than about one millimeter. No commercial instruments are available for measuring the surface figure on cylindrical aspheres over long spatial periods, from one millimeter up to one meter. For that reason we developed a Long Trace Profiler (LTP) that measures surface profile over the long period range in a non-contact manner to extremely high accuracy. Examples of measured surfaces and data analysis techniques will be discussed, and limitations on the quality of optical surfaces related to intrinsic material properties will also be discussed. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Carbon sink activity is stronger under grazing than under mowing: results from a paired eddy flux towers experiment (United States)

    Pintér, Krisztina; Balogh, János; Koncz, Péter; Hidy, Dóra; Cserhalmi, Dóra; Papp, Marianna; Fóti, Szilvia; Nagy, Zoltán


    Effect of grazing vs. mowing on carbon balance of a grassland was investigated by a paired eddy towers (one of them measuring the grazed, the another the mowed treatment) experiment at the Bugacpuszta sandy grassland site (HU-Bug, 46.69° N, 19.6° E, 114m asl, 10.4 ° C annual mean temperature, 562 mm annual precipitation sum) located in the Hungarian Plain. Eddy covariance measurements started in July, 2002. The area of the mowed treatment is 1 ha, it is located within the grazed treatment (500 ha). Electric fence was set up around the selected area in spring of 2011. Study years include 2011, 2012 and 2013. The pasture is managed extensively (average grazing pressure of 0.5 cattle per hectare), the cattle herd regularly took several kilometres during a grazing day. Annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the grassland is strongly limited by precipitation, there were 2 source years within the 11 years (2003-2013) of measurements, during which the average annual balance was -109 gCm-2year-1 with standard deviation of 106 gCm-2year-1. Carbon sink activity of the grassland was stronger in the grazed treatment than in the mowed treatment during the three year study period (paired t-test, P=0.058). In the grazed treatment the average sink strength was -142.8 ±40 gCm-2year-1, while in the mowed treatment the average sink strength was -61.5 ±46.5 gCm-2year-1. Differences of carbon balances between the treatments were positively correlated to the annual sum of evapotranspiration (ET), while ETs of the treatments were almost identical (differences within a 10mm year-1 range) in each study year. Water use efficiency in the mowed treatment was 44% of that in the grazed treatment (P=0.045) as a result of the differences in sink capacity. The higher sensitivity to drought by the mowed treatment manifested in decreased sink capacity during summer and in decreased regeneration capacity during autumn rains as shown by the cumulative NEE in the different years. Minor but

  13. Use of Artemisia annua as a natural coccidiostat in free-range broilers and its effects on infection dynamics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan


    combination. The paddocks were cultivated with a mix of grass and clover. A separate group of broilers was naturally infected with Eimeria spp. oocysts and five animals nominated as “seeders” were introduced to the above mentioned 12 groups, 10 days after its formation, with each group consisting of 35...

  14. The role of wildfire in the establishment and range expansion of nonnative plant species into natural areas: A review of current literature (United States)

    Mara Johnson; Lisa J. Rew; Bruce D. Maxwell; Steve Sutherland


    Nonnative invasive plants are one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems worldwide (Vitousek et al. 1996). In fact, their spread has been described as "a raging biological wildfire" (Dewey et al. 1995). Disturbances tend to create conditions that are favorable for germination and establishment of plant species. Nonnative plant species are often...

  15. Positive effects of millennial grazing on soils in the western French Pyrenees (United States)

    Leigh, David; Gragson, Ted; Coughlan, Michael


    Many hillslopes of the western French Pyrenees have been grazed for thousands of years following the introduction of sheep about 7500 years ago, yet little is known about the long-term effects of pastoral activities on soil properties and pedogenic processes in this humid-temperate mountain range. In the 13 square kilometer Basque commune of Larrau we compare the status of soils under old pastures to those under old-growth forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1600 masl. Four separate tracts of side-by-side pairs of pasture and old-growth forest were sampled to discriminate differences in physical and chemical soil properties. Five paired soil profile samples were taken from each vegetation type on each tract so that all factors of soil formation, except vegetation type, were similar for each pair. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. We also developed radiocarbon chronologies of sedimentation rates from colluvial deposits at four other pasture sites to evaluate possible differences in the magnitude of soil erosion and sedimentation before and after conversion to pastures during the Holocene. Results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, have significantly lower soil bulk densities, and much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils. Thus, very significant pedogenic reorganization occurred in the pastures that can be viewed as improvements in soil quality. Inorganic nutrients in the pastured soils have significantly lower concentrations than in forested soils, except that amorphous silica is more abundant within pastured soils presumably due to greater phytolith production. The amount of nutrient depletion does not appear to be a limiting factor for grass growth and biomass production. Sedimentation chronologies indicate that erosion and sedimentation rates slightly increased following the earliest

  16. Grazing weakens temporal stabilizing effects of diversity in the Eurasian steppe. (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Taube, Friedhelm; Stein, Claudia; Zhang, Yingjun; Bai, Yongfei; Hu, Shuijin


    Many biodiversity experiments have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity in experimental grasslands. However, less is known about how diversity-stability relationships are mediated by grazing. Grazing is known for causing species losses, but its effects on plant functional groups (PFGs) composition and species asynchrony, which are closely correlated with ecosystem stability, remain unclear. We conducted a six-year grazing experiment in a semi-arid steppe, using seven levels of grazing intensity (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 sheep per hectare) and two grazing systems (i.e., a traditional, continuous grazing system during the growing period (TGS), and a mixed one rotating grazing and mowing annually (MGS)), to examine the effects of grazing system and grazing intensity on the abundance and composition of PFGs and diversity-stability relationships. Ecosystem stability was similar between mixed and continuous grazing treatments. However, within the two grazing systems, stability was maintained through different pathways, that is, along with grazing intensity, persistence biomass variations in MGS, and compensatory interactions of PFGs in their biomass variations in TGS. Ecosystem temporal stability was not decreased by species loss but rather remain unchanged by the strong compensatory effects between PFGs, or a higher grazing-induced decrease in species asynchrony at higher diversity, and a higher grazing-induced increase in the temporal variation of productivity in diverse communities. Ecosystem stability of aboveground net primary production was not related to species richness in both grazing systems. High grazing intensity weakened the temporal stabilizing effects of diversity in this semi-arid grassland. Our results demonstrate that the productivity of dominant PFGs is more important than species richness for maximizing stability in this system. This study distinguishes grazing intensity and grazing system from diversity effects on

  17. Adjusting homestead feeding to requirements and nutrient intake of grazing goats on semi-arid, subtropical highland pastures. (United States)

    Dickhoefer, U; Mahgoub, O; Schlecht, E


    Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cividini


    Full Text Available The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude supplemented with the second harvest (L as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude, M2 (1600-1700 m altitude, M3 (1800 m altitude, M4 (1900 m altitude, M5 (2200 m altitude were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA, arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA increased significantly (P<0.001 with the diet. In the milk from M5 grazing the percentage of ALA was 2.5 times higher than in milk from L and 2.6 times higher than in milk from TMR. The percentage of ARA and DHA in milk was the highest when ewes were grazing on the M5 pasture (0.21±0.02 wt. %; 0.22±0.02 wt. % respectively. Total n-3PUFA and n-6PUFA increased significantly (P<0.001 by the diet. Therefore, the n-6/n-3PUFA ratio was the best (1.2 in milk produced in the highest mountain pasture (M5, in terms of nutritional requirements.

  19. Grazing of heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Mcartney) Kofoid on Gymnodinium catenatum Graham. (United States)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Rosalba; Ochoa, José Luis; Uribe Alcocer, Manuel


    A dinoflagellate bloom ("red tide" event) dominated by the toxic Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae; 99.7%) and the noxious Noctiluca scintillans (Mcartney) Kofoid (Noctilucaceae, Dinophyceae; 0.3%) was observed in Bahia de Mazatlán Bay, México, on 24-26 January 2000. Photographic and microscopic analysis of samples during such an event, allowed us to collect evidence of a marked The particularity of grazing of G. catrenatum by by N. scintillans cells, suggesting a mechanism of "biocontrol" between these species that may contribute to attenuate a potentially toxic phenomenon under natural conditions.

  20. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.


    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  1. Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool : Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Howison, Ruth A.; Esselink, Peter; Ubels, Richard; Smit, Christian


    Grazing is commonly used in conservation to promote biodiversity, but the search for a grazing management regime that optimises biodiversity is still ongoing. Rotation grazing, where grazing is followed by a relatively long period of non-grazing, is a relative new tool in conservation management,

  2. The Influence of Community Management Agreements on Household Economic Strategies : Cattle Grazing and Fishing Agreements on the Lower Amazon Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. McGrath


    Full Text Available While the organizational dynamics of collective management systems have received much attention, relatively little work has focused on how households adapt their economic strategies in response to collective management regulations that impose constraints on the range of options available to households. In this paper we investigate the evolving interaction between household management strategies and collective management regulations for one or both of two ecologically interdependent floodplain resources, lake fisheries and seasonally inundated grasslands. Smallholder management strategies involve varying combinations of three main activities each associated with one of three main floodplain habitats: annual cropping on river levees, cattle ranching on natural grasslands and fishing in lakes. These three activities play complementary roles in the household economy. Annual cropping is both subsistence and market oriented, with cash from crop sales often invested in purchase of cattle. Fishing, in addition to providing animal protein, generates income for household purchases while crops are growing. Cattle ranching is the main savings strategy for smalholders, providing funds for family emergencies and capital investments. Despite the fertility of soils and the higher productivity per hectare of fishing, cattle ranching has expanded steadily on the floodplain at the expense of farming and fishing. Over the last two decades, communities throughout the Amazon floodplain have developed and implemented collective agreements to regulate access to and use of local lake fisheries. Depending on the measures included, the impact of these agreements on household management strategies can range from negligible to highly significant, requiring major adjustments to compensate for reduced fishing income. Expansion of smallholder cattle ranching has taken advantage of unregulated access to community grasslands. Unregulated access to community grasslands has been a

  3. Grazing management in an integrated crop-livestock system: soybean development and grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Robinson Kunrath

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrazing livestock in integrated crop-livestock systems can cause impacts in the subsequent crop cycle. Aiming to investigate how grazing could affect soybean, the 9th crop cycle of a pasture/soybean rotation was assessed. Treatments were grazing intensities (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm of sward height applied since 2001 in a mixed of oat and annual ryegrass; and an additional no grazing area as control. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Grazing affected soybean population and the mass of individual nodules (P0.05. Soybean yield showed differences among treatments, but no difference was found between grazed and non-grazed areas. Grazing intensities impact the coverage and frequency of weeds (P>0.05. In conclusion, grazing intensity impacts different parameters of soybean yield and development, but only the grazing intensity of 10 cm can jeopardize the succeeding soybean crop.

  4. Alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) management in alfalfa by spring grazing with cattle. (United States)

    Buntin, G D; Bouton, J H


    The effect of continuous, intensive grazing by cattle in the 1st alfalfa growth cycle on larval densities of the alfalfa weevil, Hyera postica (Gyllenhal), was evaluated in "Alfagraze' and "Apollo' alfalfa, which are tolerant and not tolerant to grazing, respectively. In small-cage exclusion trials, grazing reduced larval numbers in 1991 by 65% in Alfagraze and by 32% in Apollo. Larval numbers in 1992 were low (alfalfa weevil larvae caused moderate leaf injury in 1993 and severe injury in 1994 before grazing reduced larval numbers. Use of permethrin at 0.11 kg (AI)/ha or carbofuran or chlorpyrifos at 0.28 kg (AI)/ha effectively reduced larval numbers and prevented leaf injury before grazing began. Therefore, a combination of an early application of an insecticide treatment with a short grazing restriction followed by continuous grazing will control alfalfa weevil larvae while allowing cattle to graze and directly use forage of grazing-tolerant alfalfa.

  5. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity in the gamma range by means of a manual dosimeter in the interior and external of housing in Cusco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthon, J.; Olarte, A.; Valencia, J.


    The natural radioactivity is present in our environment and at any time the humans are exposed to this radiation type. In the 90 in Cusco city (Peru) were carried out measurements of environmental radioactivity for Umeres F. and L. Sajo, the information obtained by these investigators is valuable about the natural radioactivity in diverse places of the Cusco city; the current investigation consists on the measurement of the natural radioactivity inside and outside of the buildings in Cusco city. For 2013 and 2014 the radioactivity study has been programmed in the interior and exterior of constructions, the measures began in January 2013, to date has a considerable database. Each measures group consists of 100 tests in the interior and another similar quantity in the exterior of housing in the Cusco city; the measurement process was carried out with a manual dosimeter Geiger Muller-Zahlrohre, the average value obtained to the date is of 2.1 mSv/year which approaches to the average world value that is 2.4 mSv/year. (Author)

  6. Grazing-induced BVOC fluxes from a managed grassland (United States)

    Mozaffar, Ahsan; Schoon, Niels; Bachy, Aurelie; Digrado, Anthony; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc; Fauconnier, Marie-laure; Delaplace, Pierre; Dujardin, Patrick; Amelynck, Crist


    Grassland ecosystems cover one fourth of the Earth's land surface and are both sources and sinks of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) which play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. The use of grassland for cattle breeding is a common practice in many parts of the world. As it has been widely demonstrated that plants emit large bursts of BVOCs when they are mechanically damaged, grass tearing and trampling during grazing are expected to induce large BVOC emissions as well. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, no study has been performed on BVOC fluxes from grazed grassland yet. Therefore investigations were performed using automated dynamic chambers in a managed grassland in Belgium over the 2015 and 2016 growing season. BVOC fluxes, together with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes from grazed and undisturbed grassland were followed simultaneously using PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry) and a LI-840 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. In addition, air in the chamber was sampled occasionally for GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) analysis to assist compound identification. Significant differences between grazed and undisturbed grassland patches were observed in terms of BVOC, CO2 and H2O vapor fluxes. Grazing by cows was found to result in enhanced emissions of several BVOCs such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, acetic acid and Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs), and induced BVOC emissions generally lasted for around 5 days following a grazing event. Quantitative data on the impact of grazing on BVOC, CO2 and H2O exchange between grassland and the atmosphere will be presented, and correlations between BVOC fluxes and environmental conditions will be discussed.

  7. Functional diversity increases ecological stability in a grazed grassland. (United States)

    Hallett, Lauren M; Stein, Claudia; Suding, Katharine N


    Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity. We experimentally manipulated grazing in a California grassland to create land-use legacies of low and moderate grazing, across which we implemented rainout shelters and irrigation to create dry and wet conditions over 3 years. We found that the stability of the vegetation cover was greatly elevated and the stability of the biomass was slightly elevated across rainfall conditions in areas with histories of moderate grazing. Initial functional diversity-both in the seed bank and aboveground-was also greater in areas that had been moderately grazed. Rainfall conditions in conjunction with this grazing legacy led to different functional diversity patterns over time. Wet conditions led to rapid declines in functional diversity and a convergence on resource-acquisitive traits. In contrast, consecutively dry conditions maintained but did not increase functional diversity over time. As a result, grazing practices and environmental conditions that decrease functional diversity may be associated with lasting effects on the response of ecosystem functions to drought. Our results demonstrate that theorized relationships between diversity and stability are applicable and important in the context of working grazed landscapes.

  8. Population Dynamics and Transcriptomic Responses of Chorthippus albonemus (Orthoptera: Acrididae to Herbivore Grazing Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Qin


    Full Text Available Livestock grazing can trigger outbreaks of insect pests in steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia in China. However, the physiological responses of the grasshopper Chorthippus albonemus to grazing are not well-understood. Here we investigated the effects of sheep grazing on the population dynamics and transcriptomic response of C. albonemus. We collected the insects three times (about 20 days apart in 1.33-ha plots in which there were no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing, heavy grazing, or overgrazing. Our results showed that continuous grazing significantly decreased plant biomass and influenced plant succession. Total insect species diversity significantly declined along the grazing intensity gradient and over time. Results of the first two collections of C. albonemus indicated that moderate grazing significantly increased the abundance of C. albonemus. However, abundance was significantly decreased in plots that were overgrazed, possibly because of food stress and environmental pressures. Under moderate grazing, betA and CHDH genes were significantly upregulated in C. albonemus. In response to higher grazing intensity, upregulated genes included those involved in serine-type peptidase activity, anatomical structure development, and sensory organ development; downregulated genes included those involved in the structural constituents of the ribosome and ribosome processes. Genes strongly upregulated in response to heavy grazing pressure included adaptive genes such as those encoding ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein and HSP. These findings improve our understanding of the role of the transcriptome in C. albonemus population response to livestock grazing and may provide useful targets for grasshopper control.

  9. Microzooplankton grazing on the picophytoplankton and bacteria in the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Yang, E. J.


    In the summer of 2012, we measured microzooplankton grazing rate on picophytoplankton and bacterioplankton in the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea using the icebreaker R/V Araon as part of the Korean Arctic Research Program. A variety of environmental conditions and trophic condition were encountered, from low chlorophyll-a (diatom bloom (maximum 17.1 ug L-1) in the northern part of the East Siberian Sea which is characterized by high phytoplankton biomass driven by the influx of more productive waters from the river. Of the microzooplankton, naked ciliates dominated in low chlorophyll-a concentration area and small-HDF dominated in high chlorophyll-a concentration sites. Picophytoplankton biomass accounted for 11 to 83% of total phytoplankton and for a greater percentage in the Chukchi borderland (average 70%). Microzooplankton grazing rate varied by the assemblage composition of picoplankton and microzooplankton. Microzooplankton exerted higher grazing pressure on picophytoplankton compared to bacterioplankton. Picophytoplankton growth rate and mortality rate ranged from undetectable (i.e. not significant) to 2.0 d-1 and undetectable to 2.4 d-1, respectively. Microzooplankton removed >100% daily picophytoplankton production, and grazing rate was highest in the Chukchi borderland. Bacterioplankton growth rate and mortality rate ranged from undetectable (i.e. not significant) to 1.74 d-1 and undetectable to 1.07 d-1, respectively. Microzooplankton often removed average 89% of daily bacterioplankton production. Our study suggests the importance of microbial loop in the planktonic ecosytstems of the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, microzooplankton were the major consumers of picoplankton production, and that their grazing is one of the most important losses affecting the piocophytoplankton and bacterioplankton biomass during summer in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Nellis Air Force Base, Creech Air Force Base, and the Nevada Test And Training Range, NV (United States)


    in the Groom Range (Beatley, 1976), with single-leaf pinyon and limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) . One issue on NTTR is the location and extent of a...and facilitating seed germination , seedling establishment, mixing of soils , and enhancement of nutrient cycling. Wild Horses Throughout the past

  11. Development of a portable system of grazing exit X-Ray fluorescence applied to environmental and biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ramon S.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assis, Joaquim T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politécnico


    In this study was developed a portable system of grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (geometric 90° - 0°) that will be applied in environmental studies (aerosol samples) and biological studies. GE-XRF portable system is formed by a mini X-ray tube of low power (anode of Au, maximum voltage and current of 50 kV and 200 μA, respectively) and a SiPIN detector (model XR-100CR of the Amptek). The reflectors used as sample support (sampler carrier) were quartz discs with 25.4 mm diameter and 3.0 mm thickness. The grazing exit angle was experimentally determined by measuring a cooper solution (10 μg.g{sup -1}). The system of GE-XRF proved to be quite stable and reproducible. It was calculated the sensibility curve of the system using multielement solutions. The accuracy of the system was checked using multielement reference solution as standard reference material. The relative errors between measured and certified values are in the range of 4 to 19%. The first results showed a background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. This paper shows that it is possible to produce a portable system of grazing exit X-ray fluorescence compact, efficient, low-cost and easy-to-handle instrumentation using a low-power X-ray tube and a SiPIN compact detector. (author)

  12. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment. (United States)

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B


    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km 2 , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. The effects of timing of grazing on plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands. (United States)

    Davis, Stacy C; Burkle, Laura A; Cross, Wyatt F; Cutting, Kyle A


    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season.

  14. ‘It Takes Two Hands to Clap’: How Gaddi Shepherds in the Indian Himalayas Negotiate Access to Grazing


    Axelby, Richard


    This article examines the effects of state intervention on the workings of informal institutions that coordinate the communal use and management of natural resources. Specifically it focuses on the case of the nomadic Gaddi\\ud shepherds and official attempts to regulate their access to grazing pastures in the Indian Himalayas. It is often predicted that the increased presence of the modern state critically undermines locally appropriate and community-based resource management arrangements. Dr...

  15. Serving capacity of crossbred yearling beef bulls. II. Summer grazing activity and body temperature patterns during average and heavy mating loads at pasture. (United States)

    Boyd, G W; Lunstra, D D; Corah, L R; Cochran, R C; Hahn, G L


    Ten low (LSC) and 10 high (HSC) serving capacity yearling bulls were exposed individually to 25 naturally cyclic (N) cows for 3 d (average mating load) and subsequently to 9 estrus-synchronized (S) cows for 1 d (heavy mating load) in a randomized complete block design consisting of 10, 4-d blocks. Bulls were fitted with vibracorders and temperature acquisition modules to record grazing activity and body temperature (BT), respectively. During the N cow treatment, LSC bulls had fewer (P less than .05) services per cow and a higher mount to service ratio than HSC bulls, and LSC bulls tended (P = .12) to graze less total time than HSC bulls (7.8 vs 9.0 h/d, respectively). However, both groups of bulls exhibited similar diurnal grazing patterns with two major daily grazing periods; the first (0400 to 1300) peaked early in the morning (0600) and the second (1700 to 2200) occurred in late afternoon and evening. During the S cow treatment, LSC and HSC bulls did not differ (P = .60) in grazing time or pattern, but similar mating activity was exhibited by both SC groups while exposed to S cows. Bulls grazed little during the hottest part of the day (1300 to 1700), and LSC and HSC bulls spent only 2.2 and 2.4 h, respectively, grazing during dark, cooler periods near midnight. Body temperature did not differ between SC groups and averaged 39.3 degrees C during N cow treatment and 39.4 degrees C during S cow treatment. Body temperature had a distinct, monophasic diurnal pattern in bulls exposed to an average mating load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Daily intake of lactating crossbred cows grazing elephant grass rotationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroeira Luiz Januário Magalhães


    Full Text Available The goal of this trial was to estimate the total dry matter (TDMI and daily pasture dry matter intakes (PDMI by lactating crossbred Holstein - Zebu cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. paddocks submitted to different rest periods. Three groups of 24 cows were used during two years. The paddocks were grazed during three days at the stocking rate of 4.5 cows/ha. Treatments consisted of resting periods of 30 days without concentrate and resting periods of 30, 37.5 and 45 days with 2 kg/cow/day of 20.6% crude protein concentrate. From July to October, pasture was supplemented with chopped sugarcane plus 1% urea. Total daily dry matter intake was estimated using the extrusa in vitro dry matter digestibility and the fecal output with chromium oxide. Regardless of the treatment the estimated average TDMI was 2.7, 2.9 and 2.9±0.03% and the mean PDMI was 1.9, 2.1 and 2.1±0.03% of body weight in the first, second and third grazing day, respectively (P<0.05. Only during the summer pasture quality was the same whichever the grazing day. Sugarcane effectively replaced grazing pasture, mainly in the first day when pasture dry matter intake was lowest.

  17. Why multicamp layouts? | BR | African Journal of Range and Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it has become standard practice in Southern Africa to recommend grazing systems based on a maximum of five camps, there are indications that the use of multicamp layouts, employing a greater number of camps per herd, may increase the efficiency of animal production from natural veld. The basic advantage of ...

  18. Ice-based altitude distribution of natural radiation annual exposure rate in the Antarctica zone over the latitude range 69 degrees S-77 degrees S using a pair-filter thermoluminescence method. (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Kamiyama, T; Fujii, Y; Motoyama, H; Esumi, S


    Both ice-based altitude distributions of natural ionizing radiation exposure and the quasi-effective energy of natural radiation over Antartica over the latitude range 69 degrees S - 77 degrees S during approx. 500 days were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results shows that dependence on altitude above sea level of the exposure rate increases by almost three-fold with each increase of 2000 m of altitude, thus deviating from the general rule stating that the exposure rate should double with each 2000 m. Although the exposure rate shows a dependence on altitude, altitude dependence of the quasi-effective energy of natural radiation over Antartica is not observed. In the present study it is observed that natural radiation occurring over the ice base of Antartica consists mainly of cosmic rays.

  19. SPRED: a multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Yelle, R.V.


    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100 to 1100 A or 160 to 1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 ms, but up to 7 individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1 ms time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable to that of a conventional grazing incidence monochromator

  20. Comportamento ingestivo diurno de vacas primíparas em pastagem nativa dominada por capim-annoni-2 com suplementação proteica e mineral em diversas estações climáticas Diurnal ingestive behaviour of pregnant heifers grazing on natural grasslands invaded by Eragrostis plana Ness as affected by protein and mineral supplements in the different climatic seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvane Barcelos Carlotto


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da suplementação proteica e mineral sobre o comportamento ingestivo de vacas primíparas em pastagem nativa dominada por capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness recebendo suplementação com sal comum; sal mineral; sal proteinado; ou sal para reprodução e sal proteinado (1:1. Testou-se a hipótese de que suplementos minerais e proteinados pudessem promover alterações no comportamento ingestivo dos animais em pastejo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área de 37 ha de pastagem nativa invadida por capim-annoni-2, dividida em oito potreiros (unidades experimentais. Os animais foram avaliados no período diurno, por dois dias consecutivos, em cada uma das estações climáticas, de abril de 2006 a março de 2007. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições. Os tempos de pastejo, de ruminação, de ócio e de outras atividades não diferiram entre suplementos, e os valores médios diários para essas atividades foram 505, 108, 70 e 11 minutos, respectivamente. Os tempos de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e a taxa de bocados diferiram significativamente entre as estações climáticas. A suplementação proteica e mineral não promove alterações significativas no comportamento ingestivo dos animais. O comportamento ingestivo, no entanto, é influenciado pelas estações climáticas.The influence was assessed of protein and mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of pregnant heifers on a native grassland dominated by capim-annoni-2 (Eragrostis plana Ness supplementation with common salt, mineral salt, protein salt and protein salt and reproduction salt (1:1. The hypothesis was tested that different mineral and protein salt supplements could promote alterations in the animal grazing ingestive behavior. The study was carried out in a 37 ha area of native pasture invaded by capim-annoni-2, divided into 8 paddocks (experimental units. The animals were evaluated during the daylight

  1. Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels – The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van Roel; Nolte, Stefanie; Mandema, Freek S.; Lagendijk, D.D.G.; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Bakker, Jan P.; Esselink, Peter; Smit, Christian


    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass

  2. Effects of grazing management on biodiversity across trophic levels-The importance of livestock species and stocking density in salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, Roel; Nolte, Stefanie; Mandema, Freek; Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; WallisDeVries, Michiel F.; Bakker, Jan P.; Esselink, Peter; Smit, Christian


    European coastal salt marshes are important for the conservation of numerous species of specialist plants, invertebrates, breeding and migratory birds. When these marshes are managed for nature conservation purposes, livestock grazing is often used to counter the dominance of the tall grass

  3. With or without you: Effects of the concurrent range expansion of an herbivore and its natural enemy on native species interactions. (United States)

    Carrasco, David; Desurmont, Gaylord A; Laplanche, Diane; Proffit, Magali; Gols, Rieta; Becher, Paul G; Larsson, Mattias C; Turlings, Ted C J; Anderson, Peter


    Global climatic changes may lead to the arrival of multiple range-expanding species from different trophic levels into new habitats, either simultaneously or in quick succession, potentially causing the introduction of manifold novel interactions into native food webs. Unraveling the complex biotic interactions between native and range-expanding species is critical to understand the impact of climate change on community ecology, but experimental evidence is lacking. In a series of laboratory experiments that simulated direct and indirect species interactions, we investigated the effects of the concurrent arrival of a range-expanding insect herbivore in Europe, Spodoptera littoralis, and its associated parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris, on the native herbivore Mamestra brassicae, and its associated parasitoid Microplitis mediator, when co-occurring on a native plant, Brassica rapa. Overall, direct interactions between the herbivores were beneficial for the exotic herbivore (higher pupal weight than the native herbivore), and negative for the native herbivore (higher mortality than the exotic herbivore). At the third trophic level, both parasitoids were unable to parasitize the herbivore they did not coexist with, but the presence of the exotic parasitoid still negatively affected the native herbivore (increased mortality) and the native parasitoid (decreased parasitism rate), through failed parasitism attempts and interference effects. Our results suggest different interaction scenarios depending on whether S. littoralis and its parasitoid arrive to the native tritrophic system separately or concurrently, as the negative effects associated with the presence of the parasitoid were dependent on the presence of the exotic herbivore. These findings illustrate the complexity and interconnectedness of multitrophic changes resulting from concurrent species arrival to new environments, and the need for integrating the ecological effects of such arrivals into the general

  4. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  5. Heterotrophic nanoflagellate grazing facilitates subarctic Atlantic bloom development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Maria Lund; Riisgaard, Karen; St. John, Michael


    and was substantially higher than the growth of the larger microzooplankton (MZP), i.e. ciliates and dinoflagellates. During the first experiment, small phytoplankton dominated and overall protist grazing (HNF + MZP) was low. In the later experiments, MZP grazing on HNF became evident; however, MZP were not able......-down control of small-sized phytoplankton, thus paving the way for a diatomdominated spring bloom. To assess the trophic role of protist grazers during the winter to spring transition, 3 experiments were performed using size-fractionated surface water from the Iceland Basin (March−April 2012......). These experiments demonstrated heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) grazing of picophytoplankton to be a key pathway, even though these are rarely considered as important phytoplankton grazers in high-latitude systems. The growth rate of HNF was significantly correlated to the biomass of picophytoplankton...

  6. Atypical myopathy in grazing horses: a first exploratory data analysis. (United States)

    Votion, Dominique-M; Linden, Annick; Delguste, Catherine; Amory, Hélène; Thiry, Etienne; Engels, Patrick; van Galen, Gaby; Navet, Rachel; Sluse, Francis; Serteyn, Didier; Saegerman, Claude


    Over the last decade, atypical myopathy (AM) in grazing horses has emerged in several European countries. An exploratory analysis was conducted to determine horse- and pasture-level indicators or factors associated with AM in Belgium. Belgian cases of AM confirmed by histology (n=57) were compared to their healthy co-grazing horses (n=77) and to pastured horses not involved with AM as controls (n=386). The pastures where confirmed cases were grazing (42 pastures; 38 sites; 44 incidences of AM) were compared with those of the controls (216 pastures; 96 sites; no incidence of AM). Statistically significant (Phorses (young age, inactivity, body condition poor to normal), management practices (permanent pasturing, spreading of manure) and pasture characteristics (humid, sloping pastures, accumulated dead leaves, presence of waterway) may increase the risk of AM. Specific interventions based on these factors might help to reduce the incidence of AM.

  7. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.


    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... that the number of predator-prey contacts increased with bacterial swimming speed, but ingestion rates dropped at speeds of >25 mum s(-1) as a result of handling problems with highly motile cells. Comparative studies of a moderately motile strain (45 mum s-1) further revealed changes in the bacterial swimming...... speed distribution due to speed-selective flagellate grazing. Better long-term survival of the highly motile strain was indicated by fourfold-higher bacterial numbers in the presence of grazing compared to the moderately motile strain. Putative constraints of maintaining high swimming speeds were tested...

  8. Corticosterone metabolite concentrations in greater sage-grouse are positively associated with the presence of cattle grazing (United States)

    Jankowski, M.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Dusek, Robert J.; Hines, M.K.; Gregg, M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.


    The sagebrush biome in the western United States is home to the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and encompasses rangelands used for cattle production. Cattle grazing activities have been implicated in the range-wide decline of the sage-grouse, but no studies have investigated the relationship between the physiological condition of sage-grouse and the presence of grazing cattle. We sampled 329 sage-grouse across four sites (two grazed and two ungrazed) encompassing 13 600 km2 during the spring and late summer–early autumn of 2005 to evaluate whether demographic factors, breeding status, plasma protein levels, and residence in a cattle-grazed habitat were associated with the stress hormone corticosterone. Corticosterone was measured in feces as immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM). Males captured during the lekking season exhibited higher ICM levels than all others. Prenesting female sage-grouse captured in a grazed site had higher ICM levels than those in ungrazed sites and prenesting female plasma protein levels were negatively correlated with ICM concentrations. With the use of a small-scale spatial model, we identified a positive correlation between cattle pat count and sage-grouse ICM levels. Our model indicated that ICM levels increased by 2.60 ng · g-1 dry feces for every increase in the number of cow pats found in the vicinity. Management practices will benefit from future research regarding the consistency and mechanism(s) responsible for this association and, importantly, how ICM levels and demographic rates are related in this species of conservation concern.

  9. Raman, dielectric and variable range hopping nature of Gd2O3-doped K0.5N0.5NbO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Peddigari


    Full Text Available (K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN + x wt% Gd2O3 (x = 0 -1.5 ceramics have been prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. The effect of Gd2O3 on the structural, microstructural and dielectric properties of KNN ceramics were studied systematically. The effect of Gd2O3 on phase transformation from orthorhombic to psuedocubic structure is explained interms of changes in the internal vibration modes of NbO6 octahedra. The Raman intensity of the stretching mode v1 enhanced and shifted toward higher wavenumber with Gd2O3 concentration, which is attributed to the increase in polarizability and change in the O-Nb-O bond angles. Microstructural analysis revealed that the grain size of the KNN ceramics decreases from 2.26 ± 1.07 μm to 0.35 ± 0.13 μm and becomes homogenous with an increase in Gd2O3 concentration. The frequency dependent dielectric spectra are analyzed by using Havriliak-Negami function. The fitted symmetry parameter and relaxation time (τ are found to be 0.914 and 8.78 × 10−10 ± 5.5 × 10−11 s, respectively for the sample doped with x = 1.0. The addition of Gd2O3 to the KNN shifted the polymorphic phase transition orthorhombic to tetragonal transition temperature (TO-T from 199oC to 85oC with enhanced dielectric permittivity (ε′ = 1139 at 1 MHz. The sample with x = 1.0, shown a high dielectric permittivity (ε′ = 879 and low dielectric loss (<5% in the broad temperature range (-140oC – 150oC with the Curie temperature 307 oC can have the potential for high temperature piezoelectric and tunable RF circuit applications. The temperature dependent AC-conductivity follows the variable range hopping conduction mechanism by obtaining the slope -0.25 from the ln[ln(ρac] versus ln(T graph in the temperature range of 133 K-308 K. The effect of Gd2O3 on the Mott’s parameters such as density of states (N(EF, hopping length (RH, and hopping energy (WH have been discussed.

  10. Fungi: A major source of radiocesium contamination of grazing ruminants in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, K.; Pedersen, O.; Garmo, T.H.; Hansen, H.S.; Staaland, H.


    Transfer of radiocesium from vegetation to milk was studied in dairy goats grazing heavily contaminated mountain pasture in southern Norway in the years following the Chernobyl accident. Radiocesium activity in milk and green vegetation remained stable throughout 1986 and 1987. In 1988, a sudden three- to fivefold increase in milk radioactivity occurred during the second half of the summer. Whole-body content of radioactivity in sheep and reindeer also increased rapidly. This coincided with an abundant growth of fungal fruit bodies with radiocesium levels up to 100 times higher than green vegetation. Fungal radiocesium was found to be highly available in a digestibility study with goats. Milk radioactivity levels in the field could be accounted for by consumption of as little as 20-100 g d-1 of fungal dry matter (DM). The importance of fungal fruit bodies in transferring radiocesium to ruminants was further substantiated by comparing meat activities in grazing ruminants in 1988 and 1989. Fungal fruit bodies were present in minor quantities in 1989, and radioactivity levels in sheep and reindeer in August-September were only 28-35% of those in 1988. This ability of fungi to mobilize radiocesium from natural soils and transfer the isotopes into the human food chain greatly enhances the vulnerability of food production in natural ecosystems to radiocesium pollution

  11. Estimating half-saturation constants of microzooplankton grazing in the sea (United States)

    Chen, B.; Laws, E. A.


    To obtain the grazing half-saturation constant (K) of natural microzooplankton assemblages, we used three nonlinear grazing models (rectilinear, Holling type II, and Holling type III) to fit the detailed data (phytoplankton net specific growth rate vs. dilution factor) of individual dilution experiments that show significant concave curves. In the dataset consisting of 528 experiments, 96 experiments show significant concave curves, and the associated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations are significantly higher than those of experiments showing linear or convex curves. Experiments showing concave curves likely reflect that these microzooplankton assemblages were under top-down control. The three models perform equally well in fitting the data. The K values estimated from these 96 experiments vary over three orders of magnitude and are log-log linearly related with ambient Chl a concentrations, but not correlated with temperatures. Estimates of K of natural microzooplankton assemblages tend to be smaller than estimates from laboratory cultures. For the experiments not showing concave curves, it is hard to obtain a robust estimate of K.

  12. Optical model neutron cross sections calculations for Cu63, Cu65 and natural Cu in the energy range 1-15 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, N.


    The theory of optical model and cross sections is developing. The neutron reactions considered in the high energy rate (0,1-15 MeV) were: total, elastic, elastic angular distributions, nonelastic, inelastic for resolved levels. This region was subdivided in two parts: in the first one, ranging from 0,1 to 1 MeV, the evaluation was mainly based on empirical fits of the experimental data, whereas in the second part the fits were carried out with theoretical models: optical and statistical. The potential parameters were obtained fitting the total, elastic, inelastic cross sections and elastic angular distributions. Using Hauser-Feshbach theory, angular distribution and cross sections for compound elastic scattering and inelastic scattering are calculated

  13. Responses of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to a natural form of social separation. I. Parallels with mother-infant separation in captivity. (United States)

    Berman, C M; Rasmussen, K L; Suomi, S J


    Observations of 23 free-ranging rhesus monkey infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, indicated that mothers' first postpartum estrous periods were marked by large increases in the amount of time infants were separated from their mothers, by disturbances in mother-infant relationships, and by increases in infant distress behavior. When their mothers resumed mating, most infants showed signs of agitation; a few briefly showed indications of depression. Male infants responded to their mothers' resumption of mating by playing more, whereas females engaged in less play and more allogrooming. The results suggest (a) that basic parallels exist between the behavioral responses of rhesus infants to their mothers' resumption of mating in the field and to forcible separation from their mothers in captivity and (b) that early separation experiences may play a role in the normal development or manifestation of sex differences in behavior.

  14. Distribution of lithium in agricultural and grazing land soils at European continental scale (GEMAS project) (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Reimann, Clemens; Ladenberger, Anna; Birke, Manfred


    The environmental chemistry of Li has received attention because Li has been shown to have numerous and important implications for human health and agriculture and the stable isotope composition of lithium is a powerful geochemical tool that provides quantitative information about Earth processes such as sediment recycling, global chemical weathering and its role in the carbon cycle, hydrothermal alteration, and groundwater evolution. However, the role of bedrock sources, weathering and climate changes in the repartition of Li at the continental scale has been scarcely investigated. Agricultural soil (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) and grazing land soil (Gr-horizon, 0-10 cm) samples were collected from a large part of Europe (33 countries, 5.6 million km2) as a part of the GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil) soil mapping project. GEMAS soil data have been used to provide a general view of element mobility and source rocks at the continental scale, either by reference to average crustal abundances or to normalized patterns of element mobility during weathering processes. The survey area includes a diverse group of soil parent materials with varying geological history, a wide range of climate zones and landscapes. The concentrations of Li in European soil were determined by ICP-MS after a hot aqua regia extraction, and their spatial distribution patterns generated by means of a GIS software. Due to the partial nature of the aqua regia extraction, the mean concentration of Li in the European agricultural soil (ca 11.4 mg/kg in Ap and Gr soils) is about four times lower than in the Earth's upper continental crust (UCC = 41 mg/kg). The combined plot histogram - density trace one- dimensional scattergram - boxplot of the aqua regia data displays the univariate data distribution of Li. The one-dimensional scattergram and boxplot highlight the existence of many outliers at the lower end of the Li distribution and very few at the upper end. Though the

  15. Nearly-grazing optimal trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer (United States)

    Miele, A.; Mease, K. D.; Basapur, V. K.


    In the present treatment of optimal control problems arising in the study of coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer, the hybrid combination of propulsive parameters in space and aerodynamic maneuvers employing lift modulation in the sensible atmosphere indicates that the optimal energy-viewpoint solution is the grazing trajectory; this trajectory is characterized by favorable values of the peak heating rate and the peak dynamic pressure. Numerical solutions are obtained by means of the sequential gradient restoration algorithm for optimal control problems. It is found that nearly-grazing trajectories yielding the least-square value of the path inclination have desirable characteristics from the standpoints of energy, heating rate, and dynamic pressure.

  16. Preliminary results from a shallow water benthic grazing study (United States)

    Jones, N.L.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, Janet K.


    The nutrient-rich, shallow waters of San Francisco Bay support high rates of primary production, limited not by nutrients but by light availability and benthic grazing (Alpine and others 1992; Cloern 1982). Phytoplankton blooms are an important food source for upper trophic levels. Consequently animal populations, such as fish, may suffer under conditions of high benthic bivalve grazing. It has been hypothesized that several species of fish are suffering as a result of severe decreases in available phytoplankton since the introduction of Potamocorbula amurensis into San Francisco Bay (Feyrer 2003).

  17. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  18. Impact of grazing abandonment on floristic diversity in the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods (United States)

    Vrahnakis, Michael; Kazoglou, Yannis; Fotiadis, George; Kakouros, Petros; Nasiakou, Stamatia; Soutsas, Konstantinos


    The habitat type *9562 Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) includes Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) forests and they are found mainly in the western sector of the Prespa National Park, NW Greece. Greek juniper forests are considered extremely rare for EU-28, recommending a priority habitat type in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC. In addition, their ecological importance is great given its high plant taxa richness; they harbor most of the 900 plant taxa found in the western sector of the Park, many of them being important for EU or global scale. The accelerated invasion of deciduous hardwoods is the most significant risk for the habitat, since its rich flora is well-adapted to open light conditions produced by the open spaced Greek junipers. Also, the dense vegetated conditions deprive the regeneration of the photophilous Greek juniper. The invasion results from the lack of its natural controller, i.e. the grazing livestock. It is estimated that the total area of juniper forests for the Devas area decreased to 89% of the area of 1945 in favor of invasive hardwoods. The paper presents the analysis of the floristic diversity of the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods (Juniperetum excelsae) (GJWs). Four (4) types of juniper forest ranges (GJWs) were distinguished in terms of canopy cover: (a) pure GJWs, (b) mixed open GJWs, (c) open GJWs, and (d) mixed dense GJWs. A total of 171 plant taxa were recorded, and distributed within 43 botanical families; the largest one being Leguminosae (26 taxa). The statistically estimated plant taxa richness for pure GJWs was 116.4, for mixed open 152.6, for open 57.9, and for mixed dense 90.2 taxa. The analysis of α-diversity indices did not reveal any specific trend of diversity for the four GJWs. The behavior of the variability of diversity among the four range types of GJWs was depending on the emphasis the used indices place on properties such as taxa richness or abundance. This fact was

  19. Effects of housing conditions and season on the activity rhythm of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept under natural conditions within their distributional range in Central Mexico. (United States)

    Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Sánchez-Ferrer, José Carlos; Pérez-Galicia, Sergio; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Erkert, Hans G


    The timing and pattern of mammalian behavioral activities are regulated by an evolutionary optimized interplay of the genetically based biological (circadian) clock located in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei and direct responses to environmental factors that superimpose and thus mask the clock-mediated effects, the most important of which is the photically induced phase-setting (synchronization) of the circadian rhythmicity to the 24-hour solar day. In wild and captive animals living under the natural conditions prevailing in their habitat, to date, only a few attempts have been made to analyze the role of these two regulatory mechanisms in the species' adaptation to the time structure prevailing in their habitat. We studied the impact of housing conditions and season on the daily timing and pattern of activity in Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). To this end, we carried out long-term activity recordings with Actiwatch® AW4 accelerometer/data-logger devices in 11 adult Ateles living under identical natural lighting and climatic conditions in either a large wire netting cage or a 0.25 ha forest enclosure in the primatological field station of Veracruz State University near Catemaco, Mexico. In a gravid female in the forest enclosure, we obtained first-hand information on the effect of late pregnancy and parturition on the monkey's activity rhythm. The Ateles behaved strictly diurnal and undertook about 90% of daily total activity during this activity time. Due to a higher second activity peak in late afternoon, the bimodal activity pattern was more pronounced in monkeys living in the forest enclosure. Although the spider monkeys kept there had an earlier activity onset and morning activity peak than their conspecifics in the cage, no consistent differences were found in the parameters characterizing the phase-setting of the circadian system to the environmental 24-h periodicity, either by comparison or correlation with the external time markers of

  20. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production


    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.


    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  1. Natural hazards in the Great Caucasus range on the background of climate change - risk maps for the Kazbegi and Mleta areas (Georgia) (United States)

    Keller, Tatjana; Gaprindashvili, George; Gobejishvili, Ramin; Keggenhoff, Ina; Elizbarashvili, Mariam; Kalandadze, Besik; Lomidze, Nino; King, Lorenz


    features of the subsurface materials, and possibly by lowering the movement persistence up to a critical level in the aeration zone. Kazbegi and Mleta belong to an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia according to its geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. Since the year 2000, the activation of these processes results in increased damage for population, farm lands and engineering facilities that can be observed almost every year. The occurrence intervals are becoming significantly shorter. As a result, more populated areas, engineering facilities and industrial objects have to be included in the risk zones.

  2. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.


    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  3. 13 years of 137Cs monitoring in meat and milk during the outdoor grazing period in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Amundsen, I.; Bergan, T.D.


    After the Chernobyl accident, it was soon realised that the consequence of the radioactive fallout in Norway was more severe for animals grazing unimproved pastures than for other farm animals. High radiocaesium levels were registered in mutton, goat's milk and cow's milk. Due to this fact, monitoring of 137 Cs in meat and milk during the outdoor grazing period (June-September) was initiated for selected livestock. The research programme started in 1988 and is still ongoing. It includes monitoring of live sheep and lambs, and milk from goats and cows in regions moderately to heavily affected by the Chernobyl fallout. In years abundant in fungi, like 1988, 1991, 1997 and 2000, the 137 CS levels in the autumn have been markedly higher for sheep and milk than expected from natural decay. Some of the time series from the summer monitoring is presented here. (au)

  4. Social dilemmas and public range management in Nevada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Thomsen, P.; Hobby, T.; Eagle, A.J.


    Increasing tension in the Nevada ranch community may have had a negative impact on social capital. Social capital is important because it facilitates cooperation in resolving social dilemmas related to public range management. In this paper, we use a survey of public grazing permit holders in Nevada

  5. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice (United States)

    Stuart P. Hardegree; Bruce A. Roundy; Nancy L. Shaw; Corey A. Moffet; Thomas A. Monaco; Thomas A. Jones; Edward F. Redente


    NRCS range-planting Conservation Practice standards are used to develop management recommendations for improving vegetation composition an productivity of grazed plant communities. Individual Conservation Practice recommendations are implemented within a Conservation-Management-System in areas where the existing plant-community attributes are insufficient to meet...

  6. Effect of grazing cycle on milk production of cows on kikuyu pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different rotational grazing cycle lengths on milk production, body weight, herbage intake, digestibility and grazing time was investigated. Pastures were stocked at two Friesian cows per ha and grazed for l, 2 or 4-day periods of 15, 30 or 60 days rotation cycles, respectively. Data were recorded during the ...

  7. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production (United States)

    Poffenbarger, Hanna


    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  8. Herbage availability €rs a stress factor on grazed Coastcross II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LWG/ha by optimum dravermoe relatief klein. Keywords: Herbage availability, stocking rate, weight gain, con- tinuous grazing, rotational grazing, Coastcross II. Introduction. Stocking rate is known to be one of the most important fac- tors affecting live weight gain (LWG) of animals grazing pastures (Jones & Sandland, 1974).

  9. [Microbial community structure of the alpine meadow under different grazing styles in Naqu prefecture of Tibet]. (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Liu, Ying-hui; Li, Yue; Ouyang, Sheng-nan


    To clarify the effects of grazing styles on the soil microbial community in the alpine meadow, we explored the changes of soil microbial community structure in the alpine meadow located in Naqu district of Tibet Autonomous Region by analyzing the soil chemical properties and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The results showed that the contents of soil total organic carbon, total phosphate and nitrate nitrogen under the different grazing styles followed the trend of 7-year rest grazing > free grazing > grazing prohibition. Except for the ratio of fungal PLFAs/bacterial PLFAs, total PLFAs, the bacterial PLFAs, the fungal PLFAs, the gram negative bacterial and the gram positive bacterial PLFAs over the different grazing types were in the order of 7-year rest grazing > 5-year grazing prohibition > 7-year and 9-year grazing prohibition. The principal component analysis (PCA) presented that the first principal component (PC1 = 74.6%) was mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids, and the second principal component (PC2 = 13.2%) was mainly composed of saturated fatty acids and some monounsaturated fatty acids. Total PLFAs content was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon content. Compared with grazing prohibition, fallow grazing was best for the alpine meadow in Naqu district, and free grazing with light intensity was good for the alpine meadow.

  10. Seasonal changes in the quality of diet selected by cattle grazing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that protein supplementation of animals grazing veld be initiated in February in the area. Keywords: cattle; cattle grazing; consumption; crude protein; diet; digestibility; dundee research station; grazing; in vitro digestibility; leaves; natal sour sandveld; plant parts; protein; quality; seasonal changes; south ...

  11. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In those States with Department of Agriculture certified mediation programs, any holder of a term grazing permit...

  12. 25 CFR 166.306 - Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? 166.306 Section 166.306 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.306 Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? Yes. In consultation...

  13. Heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of C and N in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost West Atlantic range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. P. Tognella

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove communities were selected in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. Communities included three true mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern Acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass Spartina densiflora. The sites included communities in the lower Río Tavares near Florianopolis city, Sonho beach near Palhoça city, and the Santo Antonio lagoon. These sites included a full range of mangroves under humid climate where winter temperatures, instead of salinity, may be the main factor regulating their productive capacity and species composition. Soil salinity was determined by the concentration of soluble Na, and soil C and N were linearly correlated indicating their association in organic matter. Tavares site showed higher specific conductivity, and concentrations of Na and Mg in the soil layer below 40 cm depth, indicating larger influence of marine water. Isotopic signature of C increased with soil depth suggesting that microorganisms decomposing organic matter are releasing 13C depleted CO2. Nitrogen isotopic signature decreased with soil depth, indicating enrichment in 15N possibly as a result of denitrification in the upper soil layers. Mineral elements in leaf tissues showed A. schaueriana with higher concentrations of N, P, Na, K, Cu, Zn, and Na/Ca ratio. Spartina densiflora was characterized by the lowest N and K concentrations, and the highest concentrations of Al and Fe. Rhizophora mangle and L. racemosa had the highest Ca concentrations. Carbon isotopic signatures identified S. densiflora as a C4 plant, and A. schaueriana as the mangrove species occupying comparatively more water stressed microsites than the rest. Leaf nitrogen isotopic signatures were positive, in correspondence with the soil values. The results support the hypothesis that

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes infections and anthelmintic resistance in grazing sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia in China. (United States)

    Han, Tianlong; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guanghe; Han, Dongsheng; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhe


    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a crucial restraint to grazing sheep production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the infections and anthelmintic resistance (AR) of GIN in pasture-based sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia, China. GIN eggs were tested from 600 grazing sheep feces of 10 farms using saturated saline flotation method and McMaster's method. The egg hatch test (EHT) and the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used to evaluate resistance of GIN to anthelmintics. We found that the average infection rate was 79.2% (range: 45%-100%). The grand mean faecal egg count (FEC) was 1813.2 eggs per gram (EPG) (range: 0-32400 EPG). There were significant differences in GIN infection among different breeds of sheep. The sequence of infection intensity and infection rate were Small fat tail > Ujimqin > Ju Ud (pgrazing sheep were very common. AR, especially in Haemonchus, was a serious problem in these sheep flocks. Thus, actions are urgently required to taken to mitigate the worsening situation.

  15. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  16. The evolution of institutions and rules governing communal grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that occurred during the colonial period, and was ...

  17. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Romanov, L.M.


    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131 I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  18. Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carter


    Full Text Available Over 3 billion hectares of lands worldwide are grazed by livestock, with a majority suffering degradation in ecological condition. Losses in plant productivity, biodiversity of plant and animal communities, and carbon storage are occurring as a result of livestock grazing. Holistic management (HM has been proposed as a means of restoring degraded deserts and grasslands and reversing climate change. The fundamental approach of this system is based on frequently rotating livestock herds to mimic native ungulates reacting to predators in order to break up biological soil crusts and trample plants and soils to promote restoration. This review could find no peer-reviewed studies that show that this management approach is superior to conventional grazing systems in outcomes. Any claims of success due to HM are likely due to the management aspects of goal setting, monitoring, and adapting to meet goals, not the ecological principles embodied in HM. Ecologically, the application of HM principles of trampling and intensive foraging are as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as are conventional grazing systems. Contrary to claims made that HM will reverse climate change, the scientific evidence is that global greenhouse gas emissions are vastly larger than the capacity of worldwide grasslands and deserts to store the carbon emitted each year.

  19. Livestock grazing affects the egg size of an insectivorous passerine. (United States)

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Dennis, Peter


    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change, and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species worldwide. In Britain, there is particular concern that severe grazing pressure is deleteriously affecting vegetation and birds in upland regions. However, the mechanism by which grazing affects birds is unclear. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that sheep grazing pressure affects the egg size of a common upland passerine: the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis. We manipulated sheep stocking densities in a replicated field experiment, and found that plots with the highest stocking density contained nests with the smallest eggs, and that plots with low stocking density contained nests with the largest eggs. However, eggs laid in ungrazed plots were also small, suggesting that either too many sheep or their removal from upland areas might have a detrimental effect on pipit egg size. We found no significant effect on fledging success but the reduced post-fledging survival of young from smaller eggs, as seen in other studies, could partly explain declines in upland birds.

  20. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 4. Blood and faecal grab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood plasma and faecal grab samples were evaluated as indicators of P status of cattle grazing at two experimental sites (Glen and Armoedsvlakte). Plasma Pj levels clearly identified the - P cattle at Armoedsvlakte as being P deficient whilst at Glen the - P group tended towards lower levels than the supplemented cattle ...

  1. Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Diffraction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tion. In thia article, various aspects of surface X- ray diffraction and scattering are discussed with illustrations of some typical applications of these techniques. 1. ..... ray reflectivity. Here, X-rays are incident on the sample at very small grazing angles to the surface and below the critical angle, αc. As explained earlier, this ...

  2. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  3. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  4. Contrasting effects of large herbivore grazing on smaller herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E. S.; Olff, H.; Gleichman, J. M.


    Assemblages of large herbivores may compete For food or facilitate one another. However, small vertebrate herbivore species co-occurring with large herbivores may be affected by large herbivore grazing through changes in plant species composition, nutrient content and vegetation structure. These

  5. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  6. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  7. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems (United States)

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implement...

  8. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  9. Bite frequency measured by head pitch movements in grazing experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W.; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm


    sensors placed on the head of the cows, bite frequency was registered manually by noting the rip off sound during a specified time bout. Sward registrations comprised grass length measurement by rising plate meter , grass quality by laboratory analysis of hand harvested grass simulating the cows grazing...

  10. Effect of continuous grazing in the Dohne Sourveld on species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the intensity of defoliation increases, decrease in grass cover is associated with an increase of forbs, such as Senecio retrorsus. Keywords: andropogon appendiculatus; basal cover; botanical composition; continuous grazing; defoliation; disturbance history; dohne sourveld; elionurus muticus; grass cover; grasses; ...

  11. Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.


    The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.

    Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by

  12. Mixed livestock grazing in diverse temperate and semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and continuity and for animal welfare will increasingly drive production processes. In this paper, the potential of mixed grazing for higher output of quality animal products, within these constraints, is assessed under both temperate and semi-arid conditions. Complementary behavioural patterns between domestic livestock ...

  13. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton


    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  14. (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in communally grazed and protected savanna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 18, 1995 ... pared with a lightly grazed area and a mowed airstrip, in adjacent protected land, in the Mpumalanga lowveld,. South Africa. Plant species ... and frost was rare. The areas were underlain by Basement. Complex strata of the Bandelierkop Complex, typified by potassic granites and grandiorite. Sampling was ...

  15. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.


    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    build in agroforestry system of agriculture to suit each ecological zone. This is with a view to solving socio-economic problems of ... Free grazing has a number of ecological effects which may be either positive or negative. .... because it reduces water and air movement into and through the soil, and therefore reduces water.

  17. Stability, resilience and animal production in continuously grazed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jones-Sandland model, popularly used in southern Africa, may be criticised because it ignores firstly the long-term effects of grazing intensity on the acceptability and productivity of pasture or veld, and secondly possible discontinuities in the animal performance - stocking rate relationship. A mathematical model is ...

  18. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo


    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  19. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E. Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1, especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1, suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  20. Performance assessment and grazing pattern of semi-intensively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance assessment and grazing pattern of semi-intensively managed Maradi goats supplemented with Palm Kernel Cake and Poultry Dropping ... Animals that were supplemented with T1 had highest significant (P<0.05) water consumption compared with animals supplemented with T2, T3 and T4 which had similar ...

  1. Long-term livestock grazing increases the recruitment success of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These effects are proportional to density. ... However, these changes did not alter landscape-scale mound basal area or volume. ... We suggest that livestock grazing provides additional forage resources for termites through litter breakup and dung production, leading to greater mound recruitment and thus densities, whilst ...

  2. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at investigating the animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units. A questionnaire was used to assess the veterinary practices including the administration of antibiotics and other veterinary inputs to promote growth, prevent and treat diseases. Sixty-five (65) respondents were involved in ...

  3. Determining grazing capacity in Namibia with the aid of remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Namibian rangelands consist of a mixture of herbaceous and woody components. The main source of income is from farming systems with grass production the predominant source of forage. For rangeland managers to utilise this source sustainably, the accurate determination of grazing capacity is vital since it allows ...

  4. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.


    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  5. Prevalence of cryptosporidium oocyst in calves grazing along river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the point prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts infection in calves grazing along the bank of Rima River Sokoto in October 2011. The river bank is a converging zone for domestic animals reared in different quarters of the town and the surrounding settlements. A total number ...

  6. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  7. Creation and preservation of vegetation patterns by grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, A. Maarten; Apol, M. Emile F.; Heil, Gerrit W.; van Diggelen, Rudy


    Structural patterns of tall stands ("tussock") and short stands ("lawn") are observed in grazed vegetation throughout the world. Such structural vegetation diversity influences plant and animal diversity. A possible mechanism for the creation and preservation of such patterns is a positive feedback

  8. Grazing trials with sheep on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing capacity was proportional to the yield of foggage. Although the percentage leaf in the foggage in the different treatments varied from 72 to 89, only some 50% of the total herbage was utilized. The estimates of quality indicated that a higher level of utilization would have resulted in poorer sheep performance.

  9. Soil and vegetation changes across a Succulent Karoo grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over-grazed areas close to the watering point had shallow soils with a greater potential for crusting and therefore poorer water capacity. Mainly short-lived succulents (Mesembryanthemaceae) were recorded here, while under-utilised veld far from the watering point was identified by plant groupings dominated by Antimima ...

  10. Occurrence of Clinical Dermatophilosis in Zero-grazed Dairy Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatophilosis was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis in three cows in a herd of seven zero-grazed dairy cattle. The lesions observed were matting together of hair into small tufts (greasy crusts) and discrete circumscribed lesions covered with creamy greasy crusts. The matting ...

  11. Quantifying vegetation response to grazing intensity and precipitation on Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland using remote sensing and GIS (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed H.

    High spatial resolution satellite imagery is a promising data source for studying vegetation dynamics. The overall goal for this study was to use QuickBird high spatial resolution satellite imagery to develop methods for vegetation analysis and tracking livestock distribution. I hypothesized that using these technologies would create appropriate new management tool that provides spatial, temporal, and current information for extensive rangeland pastures. This research was conducted on four large scale pastures at the Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center (CDRRC) in south central New Mexico. Two QuickBird ortho-ready standard satellite images (DigitalGlobe Inc., Longmont, Colorado, USA) were acquired for the study area in May of 2006 and 2009. The image covered an area of 4381 ha and had a 60 cm panchromatic resolution and 2.4 m multispectral resolution. A 4-band pan-sharpened image with spatial resolution of 60 cm was produced for each QuickBird image. Per-pixel spectral based classification algorithms were used to classify the two images and map the primary vegetation types in the study area. Post-classification change detection was conducted between the May 2006 image and the May 2009 image. GPS collars were used to track 2 cows in each pasture for 10 weeks during the winter of 2010. Forage production for the primary perennial grasses was estimated from 40 permanent vegetation plots across the study area in May 2009. Spectral-based classification techniques were very effective in classifying QuickBird satellite imagery. Overall accuracy of the classified map ranged from 89 to 95 %. Increasing honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) canopy cover corresponded to lower perennial grass forage production. Improvement in range condition in terms of declining shrub cover and bare ground and increased grass-mix vegetation was noted in conservatively grazed (35% utilization) pastures. However, only slight changes were observed in lightly grazed pastures. Grazing

  12. Optimization of Grazing Incidence Optics for Wide-Field X-Ray Survey Imaging (United States)

    Roming, P. W. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Roush, W. B.


    Optimization of wide-field X-ray optics could greatly enhance X-ray surveys. Discussions of optimizing wide-field X-ray optics, with field-of-views less-than 1.1 degree-squared, have been made previously in the literature. However, very little has been published about the optimizing of wide-field X-ray optics with larger fields-of-view. We have been working on the design of a wide-field (3.1 degree-squared field-of-view), short focal length (190.5 cm), grazing incidence mirror shell set, with a desired rms image spot size of 15 arcsec. The baseline design incorporates Wolter I type mirror shells with polynomial perturbations applied to the grazing incidence surface. By optimizing the polynomial, the rms image spot size can be minimized for a large range of grazing angles. The overall minimization technique is to efficiently optimize the polynomial coefficients that directly influence the angular resolution, without stepping through the entire multidimensional coefficient space. The multidimensional minimization techniques that have been investigated include: the downhill simplex method; the coupling of genetic algorithms with full and fractional, including Plackett-Burman, factorial designs; and the coupling of genetic algorithms with Box-Behnken and central composite response surface designs. We have also examined the use of neural networks, coupled with genetic algorithms, as a method of multidimensional minimization. Investigations of backpropagation, probabilistic (PNN), general regression (GRNN), and group method of data handling (GMDH) neural networks have been made. We report our findings to date. This research is funded by NASA grant #NAG5-5093.

  13. Grazing by Zooplankton on Diazotrophs in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic (United States)

    Conroy, B.; Steinberg, D. K.; Song, B.; Foster, R.


    Organisms capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2), known as diazotrophs, are important primary producers and a potentially significant source for new nitrogen entering the planktonic food web. However, limited evidence exists for zooplankton grazing on diazotrophs compared to other primary producers. In the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean (WTNA), the Amazon River plume creates a niche for symbiotic diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) which can form large blooms. In adjacent non-plume-influenced waters, the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is abundant. In order to reveal zooplankton-diazotroph grazing interactions and determine the fate of newly fixed nitrogen, gut contents of zooplankton captured in these two regions were compared based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of nitrogenase genes (nifH), and their microbiomes compared using next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. We sampled individual copepods from discrete depth intervals (0-25m and 25-50m) and in two size classes (0.5-1mm and 1-2mm) for analysis. A modified DNA extraction protocol was developed and 54 extracts were used as templates in nifH qPCR assays for the larger size fraction diazotrophs (>10µm): Trichodesmium, and Hemiaulus or Rhizosolenia (diatoms)-Richelia (diazotroph) associations. Copepod gut content nifH copies ranged from 1.6 to 13.6 copies individual-1 for the assay targeting the Hemiaulus-Richelia DDA and from 1.1 to 3.0 copies individual-1 for Trichodesmium. 16S NGS conducted on 35 extracts with an Ion Torrent PGM and mothur revealed that cyanobacteria sequences accounted for up to 20% of sequences per extract. Our results show that both DDAs and Trichodesmium are prey for zooplankton, and that new nitrogen moves through the food web via these grazing interactions. These interactions should be considered in future explorations of the global ocean nitrogen cycle.

  14. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki


    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  15. Simulating grazing practices in a complete livestock system model: estimating soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions in grazed versus un-grazed agroecosystems using the Manure-DNDC model (United States)

    Campbell, E. E.; Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Varner, R. K.


    In livestock agroecosystems, the combined contributions of enteric fermentation, manure management, and livestock grazing and/or feed production play an important role in agroecosystem carbon (C) storage and GHG losses, with complete livestock system models acting as important tools to evaluate the full impacts of these complex systems. The Manure-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is one such example, simulating impacts on C and nitrogen cycling, estimating methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ammonium dynamics in fields, manure storage, and enteric emissions. This allows the evaluation of differences in GHG and soil C impacts between conventional and organic dairy production systems, which differ in their use of grazed pasture versus confined feeding operations. However, Manure-DNDC has received limited testing in representing variations in grazed pasture management (i.e. intensive rotational grazing versus standard grazing practices). Using a set of forage biomass, soil C, and GHG emissions data collected at four sites across New England, we parameterized and validated Manure-DNDC estimations of GHG emissions and soil C in grazed versus un-grazed systems. Soil observations from these sites showed little effect from grazing practices, but larger soil carbon differences between farms. This may be due to spatial variation in SOC, making it difficult to measure and model, or due to controls of edaphic properties that make management moot. However, to further address these questions, model development will be needed to improve Manure-DNDC simulation of rotational grazing, as high stocking density grazing over short periods resulted in forage not re-growing sufficiently within the model. Furthermore, model simulations did not account for variation in interactions between livestock and soil given variability in field microclimates, perhaps requiring simulations that divide a single field into multiple paddocks to move towards more accurate evaluation of

  16. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay. (United States)

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura


    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in composition and structure of a tropical dry forest following intermittent Cattle grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stern


    Full Text Available In northwestern Costa Rica, cattle are being used as a "management tool" to reduce the amount of combustible material, mainly dominated by Hyparrhenia rufa, an African grass. This project is being developed within Parque Nacional Palo Verde and Reserva Biológica Lomas Barbudal, both of which fonn part of the only remaining tropical dry forests in Mesoamerica. To determine the short-term effects of cattle grazing on the natural vegetation, we compared the floristic composition within Palo Verde in an area under intermittent cattle grazing with an area that has not been grazed. There were significantly fewer plant species in the area with intermittent cattle grazing compared to the area with no grazing. Floristic composition of these two habitats was different as reflected by both Fisher's alpha values and the Shannon index of diversity, both of which were significantly higher in the ungrazed site. The ungrazed area contained more plant species and was more similar to mature forest. The structure of the vegetation was significantly different between the intermittently grazed and ungrazed sites with more small stems (1-5 cm dbh and fewer large stems (>5 cm dbh in the intermittently grazed habitat. These results indicate that cattle grazing has an impact on the dry forest by reducing the relative abundance and density of larger tree species and by changing the species composition and structure of the community. The current management plan implemented in Palo Verde and Lomas Barbudal is not appropriate because of the impact that cattle have on the structure of the natural vegetation and should not be considered a viable alternative in other protected areas of dry forest in the Neotropics. We suggest that alternative fire prevention measures be evaluated including hand-cutting H. rufa, the creation of more frequent and larger fire breaks, and the development of green breaks.En el noroeste de Costa Rica se utiliza ganado como una "herramienta de

  18. Technical note: utilization of sainfoin by grazing steers and a method for predicting daily gain from small-plot grazing data. (United States)

    Mowrey, D P; Matches, A G; Preston, R L


    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.) is adapted to the calcareous soils of the southern Great Plains and can provide early season forage that does not induce bloating; however, little is known about performance by ruminants grazing sainfoin. Our objective was to determine the effect of plant growth stage and grazing pressures on potential animal production from sainfoin as predicted from energy intake as a multiple of maintenance. Nitrogen-fertilized (100 kg of N/ha) Renumex sainfoin was grown under irrigation on a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torretic Paleustoll) near Lubbock, TX. Light (L), medium (M), and heavy (H) grazing pressures were applied with steers grazing sainfoin that was at the bud (B), flower (F), and seed shatter (S) stages of growth. The L, M, and H pressures were grazed to remove 50, 75, and 90% of the standing plant height. Across growth stages, L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged 52, 69, and 87% removal of pregrazed herbage mass. Dry matter intake as a percentage of BW of steers averaged 3.9, 2.8, and 1.7 for L, M, and H grazing pressures. Across growth stages, predicted live weight gain for L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged .86, .67, and .03 kg/d. Our findings indicate that the multiple of maintenance method may be useful for evaluating treatments from small-plot grazing experiments.

  19. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows. (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P


    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  20. Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Neutron Imaging and Scattering (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Khaykovich, B.; Liu, D.; Ramsey, B. D.; Zavlin, V. E.; Kilaru, K.; Romaine, S.; Rosati, R. E.; Bruni, R.; Moncton, D. E.


    Because of their wave nature, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing incidence angles, be reflected by multilayer coatings or be refracted at boundaries of different materials. The optical properties of materials are characterized by their refractive indices which are slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes in the case of cold and thermal neutrons as well as for x-rays. The motivation for the optics use for neutrons as well as for x-rays is to increase the signal rate and, by virtue of the optic's angular resolution, to improve the signal-to-noise level by reducing the background so the efficiency of the existing neutron sources use can be significantly enhanced. Both refractive and reflective optical techniques developed for x-ray applications can be applied to focus neutron beams. Typically neutron sources have lower brilliance compared to conventional x-ray sources so in order to increase the beam throughput the neutron optics has to be capable of capturing large solid angles. Because of this, the replicated optics techniques developed for x-ray astronomy applications would be a perfect match for neutron applications, so the electroformed nickel optics under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) can be applied to focus neutron beams. In this technique, nickel mirror shells are electroformed onto a figured and superpolished nickel-plated aluminum cylindrical mandrel from which they are later released by differential thermal contraction. Cylindrical mirrors with different diameters, but the same focal length, can be nested together to increase the system throughput. The throughput can be increased further with the use of the multilayer coatings deposited on the reflectivr surface of the mirror shells. While the electroformed nickel replication technique needs to be adopted for neutron focusing, the technology to coat the inside of cylindrical mirrors with neutron multilayers has to be

  1. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Casazza, Michael L.


    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  2. Plant compensation to grazing and soil carbon dynamics in a tropical grassland. (United States)

    Ritchie, Mark E


    The effects of grazing on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics, particularly in the tropics, are still poorly understood. Plant compensation to grazing, whereby plants maintain leaf area (C input capacity) despite consumption (C removal) by grazers, has been demonstrated in tropical grasslands but its influence on SOC is largely unexplored. Here, the effect of grazing on plant leaf area index (LAI) was measured in a field experiment in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. LAI changed little for grazing intensities up to 70%. The response curve of LAI versus grazing intensity was used in a mass balance model, called SNAP, of SOC dynamics based on previous data from the Serengeti. The model predicted SOC to increase at intermediate grazing intensity, but then to decline rapidly at the highest grazing intensities. The SNAP model predictions were compared with observed SOC stocks in the 24 grazed plots of a 10-year grazing exclosure experiment at eight sites across the park that varied in mean annual rainfall, soil texture, grazing intensity and plant lignin and cellulose. The model predicted current SOC stocks very well (R (2) > 0.75), and suggests that compensatory plant responses to grazing are an important means of how herbivores might maintain or increase SOC in tropical grasslands.

  3. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan


    Full Text Available Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6–8 years grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  4. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales. (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L


    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Positive short-term effects of sheep grazing on the alpine avifauna. (United States)

    Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle; Stien, Audun; Steen, Harald; Evans, Darren M; Austrheim, Gunnar


    Grazing by large herbivores may negatively affect bird populations. This is of great conservation concern in areas with intensive sheep grazing. Sheep management varies substantially between regions, but no study has been performed in less intensively grazed systems. In a fully replicated, landscape scale experiment with three levels of sheep grazing, we tested whether the abundance and diversity of an assemblage of mountain birds were negatively affected by grazing or if grazing facilitated the bird assemblage. Density of birds was higher at high sheep density compared with low sheep density or no sheep by the fourth grazing season, while there was no clear effect on bird diversity. Thus, agricultural traditions and land use politics determining sheep density may change the density of avifauna in either positive or negative directions.

  6. Poor Returns from Ozark Woodland Grazing (United States)

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Dean A. Murphy; Hewlette S. Crawford


    Sixty-tree percent of the area in Missouri's National Forests produces forage at the rate of about 50 pounds per acre per year. Forage production on the other 37 percent ranges from a low near 75 pounds per acre in the pine stands to a high of about 200 pounds in the redcedar stands.

  7. Grazing effects on plant community succession of early- and mid-seral seeded grassland compared to shortgrass steppe (United States)

    Milchunas, Daniel G.; Vandever, Mark W.


    Questions: Grazing may speed or slow secondary succession, and the direction may depend on seral stage and relative tolerance of native perennial grasses compared with annual invasive species. How does grazing affect succession where undisturbed communities have a long evolutionary history of grazing by native herbivores and are tolerant to livestock grazing?

  8. Pastoralists in a changing environment: The competition for grazing land in and around the W Biosphere Reserve, Benin Republic. (United States)

    Tamou, Charles; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; de Boer, Imke J M; Oosting, Simon J


    Pastoralists face increasing competition for land with crop farmers and nature in and around the W Biosphere Reserve (WBR) in Benin. Our aim was to describe and analyse land use changes in order to understand their drivers, and to describe and analyse the viewpoints of relevant stakeholders in order to understand the competition for land. To this end, remote sensing data, regional statistics, and survey data were collected. We found that crop land expansion around the WBR was the direct driver of decrease of the grazing land area. Population growth and rising demand for food crops, and government support to the cotton sector were indirect drivers of grazing land reduction. Furthermore, competing claims on land among users arose from the complex interaction of crop expansion, presence of WBR and the way it is governed, the lack of support to pastoralists, and the increasing shift of pastoralists' lifestyle into one of settled crop farmers. Pastoralism is under threat and its survival depends on the successful implementation of policies to support pastoralists and protect grazing lands.

  9. Testing the limits of resistance: a 19-year study of Mediterranean grassland response to grazing regimes. (United States)

    Sternberg, Marcelo; Golodets, Carly; Gutman, Mario; Perevolotsky, Avi; Ungar, Eugene D; Kigel, Jaime; Henkin, Zalmen


    A synthesis of a long-term (19 years) study assessing the effects of cattle grazing on the structure and composition of a Mediterranean grassland in north-eastern Israel is presented, with new insights into the response of the vegetation to grazing management and rainfall. We hypothesized that the plant community studied would be resistant to high grazing intensities and rainfall variability considering the combined long history of land-use and unpredictable climatic conditions where this community evolved. Treatments included manipulations of stocking densities (moderate, heavy, and very heavy) and of grazing regimes (continuous vs. seasonal), in a factorial design. The effect of interannual rainfall variation on the expression of grazing impacts on the plant community was minor. The main effects of grazing on relative cover of plant functional groups were related to early vs. late seasonal grazing. Species diversity and equitability were remarkably stable across all grazing treatments. A reduction in tall grass cover at higher stocking densities was correlated with increased cover of less palatable groups such as annual and perennial thistles, as well as shorter and prostrate groups such as short annual grasses. This long-term study shows that interannual fluctuations in plant functional group composition could be partly accounted for by grazing pressure and timing, but not by the measured rainfall variables. Grazing affected the dominance of tall annual grasses. However, the persistence of tall grasses and more palatable species over time, despite large differences in grazing pressure and timing, supports the idea that Mediterranean grasslands are highly resistant to prolonged grazing. Indeed, even under the most extreme grazing conditions applied, there were no signs of deterioration or collapse of the ecosystem. This high resistance to grazing intensity and interannual fluctuation in climatic conditions should favor the persistence of the plant community under

  10. Effects of different grazing intensities on grassland production in China: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zhou, Guangsheng; Zhang, Feng


    Grazing is one of the main grassland disturbances in China, and it is essential to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities on grassland production for grassland carbon budget and sustainable use. A meta-analysis was conducted to reveal general response patterns of grassland production to grazing in China. We used weighted log response ratio to assess the effect size, and 95% confidence intervals to give a sense of the precision of the estimate. Grazing effects were estimated as a percentage change relative to control (%). A total of 48 studies, including 251 data sets, were included in the meta-analysis. Grazing significantly decreased total biomass by 58.34% (95% CI: -72.04%∼-37.94%, CI: Confidence Interval), increased root/shoot ratio by 30.58% and decreased litter by 51.41% (95% CI: -63.31%∼-35.64%). Aboveground biomass and belowground biomass decreased significantly by 42.77% (95% CI: -48.88%∼-35.93%) and 23.13% (95% CI: -39.61%∼-2.17%), respectively. However, biomass responses were dependent on grazing intensity and environmental conditions. Percentage changes in aboveground biomass to grazing showed a quadratic relationship with precipitation in light grazing intensity treatment and a linear relationship in moderate and heavy grazing intensity treatment, but did not change with temperature. Grazing effects on belowground biomass did not change with precipitation or temperature. Compared to the global average value, grazing had greater negative effects on grassland production in China. Grazing has negative effects on grassland biomass and the grazing effects change with environmental conditions and grazing intensity, therefore flexible rangeland management tactics that suit local circumstances are necessary to take into consideration for balancing the demand of grassland utilization and conservation.

  11. Effects of different grazing intensities on grassland production in China: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    Full Text Available Grazing is one of the main grassland disturbances in China, and it is essential to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities on grassland production for grassland carbon budget and sustainable use.A meta-analysis was conducted to reveal general response patterns of grassland production to grazing in China. We used weighted log response ratio to assess the effect size, and 95% confidence intervals to give a sense of the precision of the estimate. Grazing effects were estimated as a percentage change relative to control (%.A total of 48 studies, including 251 data sets, were included in the meta-analysis. Grazing significantly decreased total biomass by 58.34% (95% CI: -72.04%∼-37.94%, CI: Confidence Interval, increased root/shoot ratio by 30.58% and decreased litter by 51.41% (95% CI: -63.31%∼-35.64%. Aboveground biomass and belowground biomass decreased significantly by 42.77% (95% CI: -48.88%∼-35.93% and 23.13% (95% CI: -39.61%∼-2.17%, respectively. However, biomass responses were dependent on grazing intensity and environmental conditions. Percentage changes in aboveground biomass to grazing showed a quadratic relationship with precipitation in light grazing intensity treatment and a linear relationship in moderate and heavy grazing intensity treatment, but did not change with temperature. Grazing effects on belowground biomass did not change with precipitation or temperature. Compared to the global average value, grazing had greater negative effects on grassland production in China.Grazing has negative effects on grassland biomass and the grazing effects change with environmental conditions and grazing intensity, therefore flexible rangeland management tactics that suit local circumstances are necessary to take into consideration for balancing the demand of grassland utilization and conservation.

  12. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers. (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G


    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  13. Qatar Exoplanet Survey: Qatar-6b—A Grazing Transiting Hot Jupiter (United States)

    Alsubai, Khalid; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Mislis, Dimitris; Pyrzas, Stylianos; Foxell, Emma; McCormac, James; Baranec, Christoph; Vilchez, Nicolas P. E.; West, Richard; Esamdin, Ali; Dang, Zhenwei; Dalee, Hani M.; Al-Rajihi, Amani A.; Al-Harbi, Abeer Kh.


    We report the discovery of Qatar-6b, a new transiting planet identified by the Qatar Exoplanet Survey (QES). The planet orbits a relatively bright (V = 11.44), early-K main-sequence star at an orbital period of P ∼ 3.506 days. An SED fit to available multi-band photometry, ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR, yields a distance of d = 101 ± 6 pc to the system. From a global fit to follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, we calculate the mass and radius of the planet to be M P = 0.67 ± 0.07 M J and R P = 1.06 ± 0.07 R J, respectively. We use multi-color photometric light curves to show that the transit is grazing, making Qatar-6b one of the few exoplanets known in a grazing transit configuration. It adds to the short list of targets that offer the best opportunity to look for additional bodies in the host planetary system through variations in the transit impact factor and duration.

  14. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J


    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome on....... These results demonstrate a general invariability of the ruminal bacterial community structure in these grazing dairy cattle....... offer a ‘snapshot’ in time. We monitored the diversity of rumen bacteria in four New Zealand dairy cows, grazing a rye-grass and clover pasture over five consecutive seasons, using high throughput pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We chose to focus on the digesta-adherent bacterial community...... to learn more about the stability of this community over time. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed a high level of bacterial diversity, totalling 1539 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, grouped at 96% sequence similarity) across all samples, and ranging from 653 to 926 OTUs per individual sample. The nutritive...

  15. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  16. Ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers on Tanzania guineagrass subjected to rotational stocking managements


    Difante,Gelson dos Santos; Euclides,Valéria Pacheco Batista; Nascimento Júnior,Domicio do; Silva,Sila Carneiro da; Torres Júnior,Roberto Augusto de Almeida; Sarmento,Daniel Oliveira de Lucena


    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers grazing on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania subjected to different rotational stocking intensities. Treatments corresponded to two post-grazing conditions (residues of 25 and 50 cm) associated with a pre-grazing condition of 95% sward canopy light interception during regrowth (LI). The grazing time increased linearly with the duration of the occupation period...

  17. An improved grazed class method to estimate species selection and dry matter intake by cows at pasture


    Bruno Martin; Giampiero Lombardi; Philippe Pradel; Anne Farruggia; Mauro Coppa


    Research has recently focused on pasture species intake by ruminants due to their influence on animal product quality. A field-applicable method which investigates species intake and selection, was tested on two dairy cow grazing systems: continuous grazing on a highly-biodiverse pasture (C) and rotational grazing on a moderately-diverse sward (R). In addition to the grazed class method, which evaluates the percentage of grazed dry matter (DM) per species according to the residual height of t...

  18. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R


    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.


    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  20. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.


    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.